Article

Social Entrepreneurs as Institutionally Embedded Entrepreneurs: Toward a New Model of Social Entrepreneurship Education

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Abstract

Building upon recent developments in entrepreneurship education, we propose a novel framework for social entrepreneurship education founded upon a conception of social entrepreneurs as entrepreneurs embedded in competing institutional logics. Our model, in addition to teaching students "about" social entrepreneurship to allow them to acquire the knowledge and expertise required to successfully engage in social entrepreneurial activities, proposes to educate students "for" social entrepreneurship, by allowing them to acquire the skill of bridging three distinct and sometimes competing institutional logics: the social-welfare logic, the commercial logic, and the public-sector logic. To achieve this goal, we propose that social entrepreneurship education needs to make students aware of these different logics, to allow them to enact these competing logics and to enable them to combine logics when necessary to create innovative hybrid strategies. We explore how this overall strategy can be achieved by highlighting how various pedagogical tools can be adapted to contribute to each step.

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... Although traditional approaches to EET have much to contribute, the rapid emergence of social entrepreneurship has received only scant coverage in the entrepreneurship education literature (Tracey and Phillips 2007;Pache and Chowdhury 2012;Fellnhofer 2019;Ratten and Usmanij 2020), despite social entrepreneurship introduced as a variant of entrepreneurship (Dees 1998). Growth of social entrepreneurs and social entrepreneurship academic programs is appropriate for developing courses and alternative pedagogical approaches. ...
... One of the latest trends in entrepreneurship education and start-up creation is the shift toward the creation of social enterprises, which is called social entrepreneurship education. Since then, interest in entrepreneurship education and social entrepreneurship have experienced remarkable growth (Aparicio, Iturralde, and Maseda 2019;Brock and Kim 2011;Gupta et al. 2020;Nabi et al. 2017;Pache and Chowdhury 2012;Tracey and Phillips 2007). Gregory J. Dees, who introduced the concept of social entrepreneurship in 1988, is often referred to as the "father of social entrepreneurship education." ...
... Therefore, there is more to be done in terms of supporting and growing the field of SEE. However, to date, SEE suffers from a lack of clear theorizing (Pache and Chowdhury 2012). ...
Article
Social entrepreneurship education (SEE) has recently emerged as an active area of research owing to its practical significance and role in promoting social problem solving, increasing social welfare, and developing a sustainable national economy. The study on SEE is overwhelming; a review of current research on SEE shows a lack of studies classifying existing SEE research on many topics. To bridge this gap, we review SEE articles published in scientific journals covering the period 2000 up to March 2020. The “Nvivo” software was used to perform a content analysis, significantly filter themes, and provide future research pathways. This study is the first to perform an exhaustive review of SEE research. The classification of recent SEE research into research themes can provide a theoretical background, outline the breadth of research on a particular topic of interest, and provide answers to practical questions.
... This cluster is primarily composed of terms concerning the educational context, as evidenced in Figure 2 and Table 2. Terms within this cluster include "(higher) education (system)," "college (student)," "university," "student," "learning," "course," "teacher," "(business) school," and "entrepreneurship education." In general, research within this cluster aims to align future business education toward more sustainable orientation, including the UN Principles for Responsible Management Education (PRME), which promotes the UN Sustainable Development Goals (Akrivou & Bradbury-Huang, 2015;Araç & Madran, 2014;Baden & Parkes, 2013;Haertle et al., 2017;Pache & Chowdhury, 2012). For example, Pache and Chowdhury (2012) recommended that educators deliver the premises of three distinct and sometimes conflicting institutional logic: social-welfare, commercial, and public-sector logics. ...
... In general, research within this cluster aims to align future business education toward more sustainable orientation, including the UN Principles for Responsible Management Education (PRME), which promotes the UN Sustainable Development Goals (Akrivou & Bradbury-Huang, 2015;Araç & Madran, 2014;Baden & Parkes, 2013;Haertle et al., 2017;Pache & Chowdhury, 2012). For example, Pache and Chowdhury (2012) recommended that educators deliver the premises of three distinct and sometimes conflicting institutional logic: social-welfare, commercial, and public-sector logics. ...
... At the meso-level, the precursor/context of SE is largely associated with the blue and lilac clusters, depicting communities, health and wellbeing, educational agents, and curriculum. At this level, for example, educational curricula require adaptation to efficiently deliver SE courses (Pache & Chowdhury, 2012;Tracey & Phillips, 2007). ...
Article
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This article maps existing research from 5,874 scholarly publications on social entrepreneurship (SE) utilizing scientometrics. The mapping indicates a taxonomy of five clusters: (a) the nature of SE, (b) policy implications and employment in relation to SE, (c) SE in communities and health, (d) SE personality traits, and (e) SE education. We complement the scientometric analysis with a systematic literature review of publications on SE in the Financial Times 50 list (FT50) and Business & Society and propose a multistage, multilevel framework that highlights the clusters of existing research on SE based on their stage and level of analysis. This review study also helps outline a set of future research directions, including studies examining (a) the process stage at the micro-level and macro-level, (b) linkages across levels and stages, (c) linkages across stages over time or longitudinal studies, (d) SE in resource-constrained environments, (e) technological advancement and its impact on SE, (f) the types of social enterprises and their outcomes, and (g) various emerging topics in SE.
... [35] -Addressing social needs or problems in ways that make a positive contribution to the community; -Opportunity recognition; -Innovation; -Scaling a social venture; -Resource acquisition to accomplish the mission of the organization; -Creating a sustainable business model; -Measuring outcomes. [36] -Educating "about": ...
... [43] Many traditional techniques (i.e., Readings, lectures, and cases) can be tailored in educating SE, but incorporating group social entrepreneurship projects into their course curricula is the most effective mechanism for helping students builds identity through active engagement. [36] -Course discussions; -Guest speakers; -Internships; -Introducing students to the social sector through social work; -Exposure to different social workers; -Knowledge about different types of social institutions; -Taking public policy and social courses. [44] -Learning-by-doing [45] -Service-learning [39] -Guest speakers/Networking; -Group comparative analysis of real social enterprise cases; -Teamwork on real social projects/presentations. ...
... The first objective makes extensive use of theoretical content. It is a teacher-centered teaching approach that teaches students "about" entrepreneurship and social entrepreneurship, intending to raise students' understanding of entrepreneurship and social entrepreneurship as a career option [36] . The second and the third objectives, educating "for" and "in" entrepreneurship, target graduate business people and facilitating individuals to become more innovative in their existing place of work. ...
Article
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Social entrepreneurship education is one of the fastest-growing subject areas in the world. Despite these developments, scholars and practitioners are far from reaching a consensus about "what" and "how" to educate social entrepreneurship. This study presents a systematic review of 30 articles published in Scopus and web of science databases between 2007 to January 2020. It offers an overview of the most popular SE courses and teaching methods on social entrepreneurship education programs. Based on identified research gaps, we provide future research directions that will help more researchers and practitioners conceptualize social entrepreneurship education.
... Previous research has often identified several dominant institutional logics [34,37,39,42,43,47,48]: namely, the state logic from the public sector, the market logic from private sector, the sustainability logic, the experimental logic, and the service logic (see Table 1). First, the main priorities in the state logic are the interests of a country and its citizens [49], ensured through fairness and accountability across various society levels [50]. The key stakeholders in the state logic are national and local government entities, as well as multilateral funding agencies. ...
... [60]. Experimentation is related to modernity and sustainable development, since it is perceived as being capable of addressing environmental problems [50]. The experimental logic is also orientated towards encouraging socio-technical and design innovations, encouraging social and political learnings, and dealing with uncertainty [60]. ...
... The experimental logic is also orientated towards encouraging socio-technical and design innovations, encouraging social and political learnings, and dealing with uncertainty [60]. Both private and public stakeholders collaboratively engage in innovation by testing and learning to find new solutions and to produce new knowledge [50]. Iterative processes provide opportunities to discover what works for each stakeholder and seek, eventually, to collectively achieve satisfying solutions. ...
Article
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The last decade has brought the transport sector to the forefront of discussions on sustainability and digital innovations: practitioners, researchers, and regulators alike have witnessed the emergence of a wide diversity of shared mobility services. Based on a longitudinal case study of a regional Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) ecosystem in Sweden, constituted of a document analysis and 24 semi-structured interviews with 18 representatives from regional authorities, mobility service providers, and other stakeholders from the public and private sectors, this study examines the co-existing and competing institutional logics at play, identified as State logic, Market logic, Sustainability logic, Experimental logic, and Service logic. The analysis reveals that these institutional logics pertain to tensions in the collaboration within the ecosystem’s stakeholders in terms of: (1) finding a common vision and scope for MaaS, (2) establishing a sustainable business model, (3) triggering a behavioral change regarding car travel, (4) being able to find one’s role within the project and to consequently collaborate with other stakeholders, and (5) managing uncertainty through testing and experimenting innovative solutions, which ultimately yielded key learnings about MaaS and the shared mobility ecosystem and its stakeholders. These case study findings, based on an institutional logics framework, provide a novel perspective on emerging ecosystems, from which implications for MaaS developers and further research on shared mobility are drawn.
... Their mixed embeddedness perspective views individual enterprises as organisational structures embedded in both social relations and an institutional environment. As this model has become a prominent conceptual device in the study of ethnic or immigrant entrepreneurship, it is applicable to businesses at large (Kloosterman 2010), including social enterprises (McKeever, Anderson, and Jack 2015;Pache and Chowdhury 2012;Peredo and Chrisman 2006). ...
... For the purpose of this paper, the mixed nature of embeddedness is highly relevant as the organisations under study distinguish themselves by their use of financial, human and social capital and the way they are positioned in the opportunity spaces of a shared but changing institutional environment. Literature suggests that NPOs and SEOs are highly resonant of the existing social context in which they are embedded (Andr e and Pache 2016; Han and Shah 2020;Pache and Chowdhury 2012;Peredo and Chrisman 2006;Smith and Stevens 2010). It is from this context that their social mission derives its meaning and relevance. ...
... This NPO engages with issues that can be considered the result of a failing capitalist system. The receding Dutch welfare state creates 'opportunity spaces' (Mair and Mart ı 2009) for organisations such as the SB to compensate for market failures and resolve social issues within the current system in accordance with their core values and goals -or institutional logic as Pache and Chowdhury (2012) would argue. In so doing, the SB operate as a CSE (Newey 2018). ...
Article
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This article addresses ways in which the scaling strategies of two Dutch non-profit organisations (NPOs) impact their pathways to social enterprise development. The NPOs under investigation seek to address the intertwined issues of hunger, food waste and environmental protection. Comparing and contrasting the two cases, the article discusses the strategies conducive to social enterprise development and the obstacles encountered. Underlying this analysis is a mixed embeddedness perspective which revolves around organisational structure in tandem with institutional pressures affecting the outcome of scaling strategies. So doing, this article makes a contribution to the burgeoning literature on impact scaling, in particular the significance of scaling strategies in the transition of NPOs to social enterprise.
... Therefore, understanding and influencing an individual's S-ENT intention (see Kadiyil, Forrier, & Arthur, 2020;Solomon & Matlay, 2008) especially through the intervention of SEE (ADB Report, 2012) can go a long way in the process of developing new social entrepreneurs. Arguably, the mobilization of S-ENT as a part of the curriculum will propel the development and replication of interesting approaches of social innovations in general (Pache & Chowdhury, 2012;Sarıkaya & Coşkun, 2015;Thomsen, Muurlink, & Best, 2018). ...
... Meanwhile, SEE is catching momentum in the scholarly world as well (e.g., Kirby and Ibrahim, 2010;Pache & Chowdhury, 2012;Salamzadeh et al., 2013;Waghid & Oliver, 2017). Nevertheless, despite some recent attempts to conceptualize SEE (Brock & Steiner, 2009;Kickul, Gundry, Mitra, & Berçot, 2018;Mitra, Kickul, Gundry, & Orr, 2019;Tracey & Phillips, 2007), the literature of SEE is anecdotal and fragmented with no clear systematic framework developed so far. ...
... The framework Table 1 was synthesized with the realization of the fact that there has been a significant consensus that the EE is fundamentally process driven (Ndou, Secundo, Schiuma, & Passiante, 2018;Pache & Chowdhury, 2012;Ratinho, Harms, & Walsh, 2015). Although the S-ENT centers do not explicitly refer to a process-based approach in their design and delivery of EE, they organize their activities in accordance with a progression path (see S-ENT program at Tata Institute of Social Sciences, India; Kummitha & Majumdar, 2015). ...
Article
Sciencedirect Elsevier link for complimentary download https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1dIeT5EuEpSuTt The paper presents a process-based progression framework of entrepreneurship. education focusing specifically on social entrepreneurship (S-ENT). The framework will. assist in the design of relevant and targeted S-ENT education courses aimed at creating a S-ENT mindset for learners. A systematic literature review following PRISMA guidelines was used to evaluate the existing evidence from the literature. The paper consolidates the views into a comprehensive framework integrating the different elements of S-ENT education. The framework describes the three main components 1). Inputs-which characterize the personal profiles, knowledge, skills, and abilities of the students/learners 2) Process-which constitutes mainly the pedagogical approach specific to S-ENT 3) Output-which specifies the desired changes in social entrepreneurial knowledge, skills and competencies as well as outlines the assessment of S-ENT learning. The framework represents a flexible approach to accommodate the participant (students, social entrepreneurs, managers, and academicians) needs and the demands of the particular S-ENT sector.
... Estudo sobre questões contemporâneas e contexto histórico-social (Amundam, (Amundam, 2019;Greene & Cooper, 2016;Kummitha & Majumdar, 2015;Smith & Woodworth, 2012) Conceitos de gestão (Amundam, 2019;Greene & Cooper, 2016;Halberstadt, et al., 2019;Kim et al., 2020;Pache & Chowdhury, 2012;Ramani & Solomon, 2019;Wu, Kuo & Shein, 2013) Ética e questões sociais (Amundam, 2019) Biografia de empreendedores sociais (Amundam, 2019;Smith & Woodworth, 2012) Avaliação de impacto social (Amundam, 2019) Metodologias de ensino e aprendizagem Estudo de casos (Amundam, 2019;Bilbao & Vélez, 2015;Hockerts, 2018;Kedmenec, Rebernik & Tominc, 2016;Kickul, Griffiths & Bacq, 2010;Kummitha & Majumdar, 2015;Miller, Wesley & Williams, 2012;Pache & Chowdhury, 2012;Ramani & Solomon, 2019;Smith & Woodworth, 2012;Wu, Kuo & Shein, 2013) Desenvolvimento de plano de negócios (Amundam, 2019;Bilbao & Vélez, 2015;Hockerts, 2018;Kim et al., 2020;Kummitha & Majumdar, 2015;Pache & Chowdhury, 2012;Ramani & Solomon, 2019;Thomsen, Muurlink & Best, 2019) Entrevistas e/ou mentorias com empreendedores sociais (Amundam, 2019;Greene & Cooper, 2016;Howorth, Smith & Parkinson, 2012;Kim et al., 2020; Palestras com empreendedores sociais (Amundam, 2019;Kedmenec, Rebernik & Tominc, 2016;Kickul, Griffiths & Bacq, 2010;Pache & Chowdhury, 2012;Smith & Woodworth, 2012) Estágio, consultoria e/ou voluntariado (Ashour, 2016;Hockerts, 2018;Pache & Chowdhury, 2012;Ramani & Solomon, 2019;Thomsen, Muurlink & Best, 2019;Wu, Kuo & Shein, 2013) Desenvolvimento de iniciativas e/ou projetos sociais (Bilbao & Vélez, 2015;Du, Han & Huang, 2020;Greene & Cooper, 2016;Hockerts, 2018;Jensen, 2014;Kickul, Griffiths & Bacq, 2010;Kim et al., 2020;Kummitha & Majumdar, 2015;Miller, Wesley & Williams, 2012;Rahman, Ismail & Sahid, 2019;Ramani & Solomon, 2019;Smith & Woodworth, 2012) Workshop (Howorth, Smith & Parkinson, 2012;Kim et al, 2020;Wu, Kuo & Shein, 2013) Figura 3: Conteúdos e metodologias adotados no processo de aprendizagem de empreendedorismo social Fonte: as autoras Ao observar a Figura 3, é possível identificar a prevalência de metodologias ativas de ensino e aprendizagem, onde o aluno encontra-se ao centro do processo, na postura de um sujeito ativo de sua aprendizagem, colocando em prática os conhecimentos desenvolvidos. Nesse sentido, o termo amplamente empregado nos artigos é "aprendizagem experiencial", que diz respeito a aprendizagem baseada na prática e em relação ao contexto, onde o aluno aprende fazendo, vivenciando os problemas do mundo real (Halberstadt et al., 2019;Miller, Wesley & Williams, 2012;Rahman, Ismail & Sahid, 2019;Ramani & Solomon, 2019;Wu, Kho & Shein, 2013). ...
... Estudo sobre questões contemporâneas e contexto histórico-social (Amundam, (Amundam, 2019;Greene & Cooper, 2016;Kummitha & Majumdar, 2015;Smith & Woodworth, 2012) Conceitos de gestão (Amundam, 2019;Greene & Cooper, 2016;Halberstadt, et al., 2019;Kim et al., 2020;Pache & Chowdhury, 2012;Ramani & Solomon, 2019;Wu, Kuo & Shein, 2013) Ética e questões sociais (Amundam, 2019) Biografia de empreendedores sociais (Amundam, 2019;Smith & Woodworth, 2012) Avaliação de impacto social (Amundam, 2019) Metodologias de ensino e aprendizagem Estudo de casos (Amundam, 2019;Bilbao & Vélez, 2015;Hockerts, 2018;Kedmenec, Rebernik & Tominc, 2016;Kickul, Griffiths & Bacq, 2010;Kummitha & Majumdar, 2015;Miller, Wesley & Williams, 2012;Pache & Chowdhury, 2012;Ramani & Solomon, 2019;Smith & Woodworth, 2012;Wu, Kuo & Shein, 2013) Desenvolvimento de plano de negócios (Amundam, 2019;Bilbao & Vélez, 2015;Hockerts, 2018;Kim et al., 2020;Kummitha & Majumdar, 2015;Pache & Chowdhury, 2012;Ramani & Solomon, 2019;Thomsen, Muurlink & Best, 2019) Entrevistas e/ou mentorias com empreendedores sociais (Amundam, 2019;Greene & Cooper, 2016;Howorth, Smith & Parkinson, 2012;Kim et al., 2020; Palestras com empreendedores sociais (Amundam, 2019;Kedmenec, Rebernik & Tominc, 2016;Kickul, Griffiths & Bacq, 2010;Pache & Chowdhury, 2012;Smith & Woodworth, 2012) Estágio, consultoria e/ou voluntariado (Ashour, 2016;Hockerts, 2018;Pache & Chowdhury, 2012;Ramani & Solomon, 2019;Thomsen, Muurlink & Best, 2019;Wu, Kuo & Shein, 2013) Desenvolvimento de iniciativas e/ou projetos sociais (Bilbao & Vélez, 2015;Du, Han & Huang, 2020;Greene & Cooper, 2016;Hockerts, 2018;Jensen, 2014;Kickul, Griffiths & Bacq, 2010;Kim et al., 2020;Kummitha & Majumdar, 2015;Miller, Wesley & Williams, 2012;Rahman, Ismail & Sahid, 2019;Ramani & Solomon, 2019;Smith & Woodworth, 2012) Workshop (Howorth, Smith & Parkinson, 2012;Kim et al, 2020;Wu, Kuo & Shein, 2013) Figura 3: Conteúdos e metodologias adotados no processo de aprendizagem de empreendedorismo social Fonte: as autoras Ao observar a Figura 3, é possível identificar a prevalência de metodologias ativas de ensino e aprendizagem, onde o aluno encontra-se ao centro do processo, na postura de um sujeito ativo de sua aprendizagem, colocando em prática os conhecimentos desenvolvidos. Nesse sentido, o termo amplamente empregado nos artigos é "aprendizagem experiencial", que diz respeito a aprendizagem baseada na prática e em relação ao contexto, onde o aluno aprende fazendo, vivenciando os problemas do mundo real (Halberstadt et al., 2019;Miller, Wesley & Williams, 2012;Rahman, Ismail & Sahid, 2019;Ramani & Solomon, 2019;Wu, Kho & Shein, 2013). ...
... Estudo sobre questões contemporâneas e contexto histórico-social (Amundam, (Amundam, 2019;Greene & Cooper, 2016;Kummitha & Majumdar, 2015;Smith & Woodworth, 2012) Conceitos de gestão (Amundam, 2019;Greene & Cooper, 2016;Halberstadt, et al., 2019;Kim et al., 2020;Pache & Chowdhury, 2012;Ramani & Solomon, 2019;Wu, Kuo & Shein, 2013) Ética e questões sociais (Amundam, 2019) Biografia de empreendedores sociais (Amundam, 2019;Smith & Woodworth, 2012) Avaliação de impacto social (Amundam, 2019) Metodologias de ensino e aprendizagem Estudo de casos (Amundam, 2019;Bilbao & Vélez, 2015;Hockerts, 2018;Kedmenec, Rebernik & Tominc, 2016;Kickul, Griffiths & Bacq, 2010;Kummitha & Majumdar, 2015;Miller, Wesley & Williams, 2012;Pache & Chowdhury, 2012;Ramani & Solomon, 2019;Smith & Woodworth, 2012;Wu, Kuo & Shein, 2013) Desenvolvimento de plano de negócios (Amundam, 2019;Bilbao & Vélez, 2015;Hockerts, 2018;Kim et al., 2020;Kummitha & Majumdar, 2015;Pache & Chowdhury, 2012;Ramani & Solomon, 2019;Thomsen, Muurlink & Best, 2019) Entrevistas e/ou mentorias com empreendedores sociais (Amundam, 2019;Greene & Cooper, 2016;Howorth, Smith & Parkinson, 2012;Kim et al., 2020; Palestras com empreendedores sociais (Amundam, 2019;Kedmenec, Rebernik & Tominc, 2016;Kickul, Griffiths & Bacq, 2010;Pache & Chowdhury, 2012;Smith & Woodworth, 2012) Estágio, consultoria e/ou voluntariado (Ashour, 2016;Hockerts, 2018;Pache & Chowdhury, 2012;Ramani & Solomon, 2019;Thomsen, Muurlink & Best, 2019;Wu, Kuo & Shein, 2013) Desenvolvimento de iniciativas e/ou projetos sociais (Bilbao & Vélez, 2015;Du, Han & Huang, 2020;Greene & Cooper, 2016;Hockerts, 2018;Jensen, 2014;Kickul, Griffiths & Bacq, 2010;Kim et al., 2020;Kummitha & Majumdar, 2015;Miller, Wesley & Williams, 2012;Rahman, Ismail & Sahid, 2019;Ramani & Solomon, 2019;Smith & Woodworth, 2012) Workshop (Howorth, Smith & Parkinson, 2012;Kim et al, 2020;Wu, Kuo & Shein, 2013) Figura 3: Conteúdos e metodologias adotados no processo de aprendizagem de empreendedorismo social Fonte: as autoras Ao observar a Figura 3, é possível identificar a prevalência de metodologias ativas de ensino e aprendizagem, onde o aluno encontra-se ao centro do processo, na postura de um sujeito ativo de sua aprendizagem, colocando em prática os conhecimentos desenvolvidos. Nesse sentido, o termo amplamente empregado nos artigos é "aprendizagem experiencial", que diz respeito a aprendizagem baseada na prática e em relação ao contexto, onde o aluno aprende fazendo, vivenciando os problemas do mundo real (Halberstadt et al., 2019;Miller, Wesley & Williams, 2012;Rahman, Ismail & Sahid, 2019;Ramani & Solomon, 2019;Wu, Kho & Shein, 2013). ...
Conference Paper
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Resumo A presente pesquisa tem como objetivo analisar artigos sobre educação empreendedora social (EES), e apresentar um esquema teórico que compreenda o processo de aprendizagem e os impactos de uma educação para o empreendedorismo social. Foi realizada uma revisão integrativa sobre EES, e para tanto foram analisados 20 artigos, disponíveis na base Scopus. A análise abordou as categorias: i) contexto, ii) metodologias e processo de aprendizagem e iii) impacto da EES. Identifica-se a importância do empreendedorismo social e da formação de indivíduos capazes de desenvolver soluções inovadoras para os problemas sociais. Para tanto, é necessário discutir um processo de aprendizagem que possibilite a experiência baseada na prática, proporcionando o envolvimento com iniciativas empreendedoras sociais, que irá favorecer o desenvolvimento de competências, bem como intenções de empreender futuramente. Assim, este trabalho pretende contribuir com o entendimento da relação do processo de aprendizagem com os impactos advindos de práticas pedagógicas que visam uma formação orientada para o empreendedorismo social, bem como a geração de transformações sociais. Conclui-se que é necessário ampliar essa discussão para além das escolas de negócios, de modo a compreender diferentes níveis de educação, estimulando, assim, a formação de novos agentes de transformação e o fomento do empreendedorismo social.
... Gartner (1985) presented a conceptual framework that was depicting the phenomenon of new venture design which has joint four tactics in entrepreneurial activities: It comprises the characteristics of an individual who is going to start a new venture. It may include age [69], Education [70], motivation and need for achievement [71,72]. The type of social organization is going to formulate [73]. ...
... Social enterprises follow the twofold mission of accomplishing both financial sustainability and social purpose and, therefore, not fit properly into the conventional classification of private, public or non-profit organizations. From an analysis of scholarly literature, we discover that SEs are a leading example of a hybrid organizational form [70], by bridging the boundaries of the private, public and non-profit sectors, they create links between institutional fields [113] and face contradictory institutional logics [114]. Individuals who choose social entrepreneurship mostly have business and social backgrounds. ...
... Businesses and other organizations must be ready to mitigate social and environmental problems (Voronkova et al., 2019). Therefore, training programs should focus on students' awareness of social welfare while developing business-and-public sector logic to implement problem-solving actions (Pache and Chowdhury, 2012). Although studies investigate university best practices in social-entrepreneurial training (Amundam, 2019;Halberstadt et al., 2019;Pache and Chowdhury, 2012), more studies are still needed (Alakaleek, 2019). ...
... Therefore, training programs should focus on students' awareness of social welfare while developing business-and-public sector logic to implement problem-solving actions (Pache and Chowdhury, 2012). Although studies investigate university best practices in social-entrepreneurial training (Amundam, 2019;Halberstadt et al., 2019;Pache and Chowdhury, 2012), more studies are still needed (Alakaleek, 2019). ...
Article
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Purpose This study aims to contribute to the body of scientific knowledge about teaching and promoting social entrepreneurship in higher education institutions (HEIs) based on a measurement before and after concluding an educational experience. Design/methodology/approach It tests hypotheses to draw conclusions from analyzing the pre- and post-test results of three study cases with different training experiences, to know the characteristics of the 304 participants. Findings The study indicated that incorporating transversal social entrepreneurship projects in various courses resulted in students feeling more capable regarding their social entrepreneurship potential. Originality/value The study presents the analysis of social entrepreneur training in three different curricular study cases. The information obtained adds value to social entrepreneurship education research that takes social entrepreneurship beyond business schools.
... The capitalist business logics, as argued above, would be highly institutionalized in the business system, thus configuring the dominant business regime by becoming the "natural" form of understanding and organizing the whole process of production, distribution, and consumption (Gibson-Graham, 2006;Marttila, 2013). Within the business system, the social entrepreneurship niche would be the space where actors deviate from dominant business logic and attempt to institutionalize a new set of beliefs, values, and practices, aside from those which are prevailing in the business system (Battillana and Dorado, 2010;Dorado, 2013;Pache and Chowdhury, 2012;Tracey et al., 2011). From a perspective of agency as distributed (Pel et al., 2020), in the social entrepreneurship niche, SEs (together with a constellation of other actors such as financiers, incubators, accelerators, and educators, for instance), would perform processes of experimentation, learning, construction of social networks and promotion of positive expectations, building momentum for institutional change (Kemp et al., 1998). ...
... Expectations are also related to counterfactual thinking because, as Batel et al., (2016) suggest, the probability of agents to act increases if they believe their actions will have desirable consequences. Previous research on entrepreneurial mindset, i.e., 'the ability to sense, act, and mobilize under certain conditions" (Haynie et al. 2010: 217), posits that different cognitive capabilities influence entrepreneurial processes and outcomes (McGrath and MacMillan, 2000;Mitchell et al., 2013;Shane, 2000), including the way in which social entrepreneurs deals with divergent institutional logics (Pache and Chowdhury, 2012;Żur and Naumann, 2018). Thus, attributes conforming to the entrepreneurial mindset, such as metacognition, cognitive adaptability, heuristic-based decision logic, or goal orientation (Żur and Naumann, 2018), determines the capacity of social entrepreneurs to act as institutional entrepreneurs in their search to handle competing business logics, to resist, or to reconfigure the dominant business logic in the regime. ...
Article
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Despite the growing interest of sustainability transition studies on the role of business actors in shaping transitions, the institutionalized logic of the capitalist enterprise underlying such agency has been overlooked. However, such logic might be understood as a dominant regime that leads to unsustainable systems. We intend to contribute to transitions research by focusing on the agency of social enterprises as non-dominant actors searching for challenging and transforming the institutionalized logics in the business system. Therefore, we disentangle the institutional mechanisms driven by social enterprises by proposing a theoretical model built upon a literature review of sustainability transitions from institutional perspectives, offering a set of explanatory propositions to allow empirical examination. Those mechanisms and propositions operate at three levels: inside the individual, inside the niche, and at the interplay between the niche and the business regime. Finally, we include a real-world example of a social enterprise to illustrate the model.
... Phillips, 2017 andPhillips, 2010). Recent events in the UK, including the Coronavirus pandemic and Brexit, show that uncertainty is at this point ingrained in the modern world, however, as shown earlier, academics in the field do not believe that EE is adapting to the modern world (Carolis and Litzky, 2019;Kariv et al., 2019) and that this is having a knock-on effect onto the quality of SEE (Pache and Chowdhury, 2012;Certo and Miller, 2008). More widely, many believe that the current state of EE is not satisfactory however, suggesting students are not being sufficiently prepared for EE (Fayolle and Gailly, 2015) with Carolis and Litzky (2019) suggesting EE is too narrowly focused on the 'traditional image' of an entrepreneur, which has since evolved, and recent innovations are rarely reflected (Kariv et al., 2019). ...
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Despite rising interest amongst students and the general public in social enterprise, it is often taught as an add-on along with sustainability in more general entrepreneurship courses. This has led to under-equipping students with the skills and knowledge they need to start a business in this area. We spoke to both academics and students, using semi-structured interviews, about their views of current social enterprise inclusion and what could be improved. The research found that entrepreneurship academics included social issues in their courses as part of entrepreneurial education, however, this was at introductory level and students were frustrated there was little opportunity to follow up on this interest, especially those in their final year, with no clear path for those interested. Focus varied between institutions and it was suggested that the institutional focus on employability statistics could be harmful for social entrepreneurship education. We suggest that more institutions have social enterprise modules which are able to be accessed university wide to allow multidisciplinarity, and separated out from general entrepreneurship at a higher level to fully focus on these issues to fully prepare those who are interested in starting or joining a social enterprise.
... The knowledge that coexists with the practice is largely missing for academic programs on social entrepreneurship to learn from and to impart to aspirants in the discipline. As social enterprises have the potential to generate blended value creation (Nicholls, 2008) and pursue the dual goals of social purpose and financial sustainability (Dees and Elias, 1998), they are often expected to compete with for-profit commercial businesses and demonstrate performance and efficiency (Maâlaoui et al., 2012). Though theoretically structural inequalities and dual goal differences exists between commercial and social enterprises, they do not apply in funding practices as both require initial financial assistance or support to operate. ...
Article
Purpose Social entrepreneurship is gaining increased attention from academia and practitioners worldwide. Owing to its financing challenges, academic pedagogies are seeking methods to strengthen the social financing dimension of this emerging discipline. This paper bridges the gap in social entrepreneurship education by portraying diverse perspectives on this topic from multiple actors in two cross-cultural contexts. Design/methodology/approach A qualitative case analysis was conducted to explore financing aspects of social entrepreneurship in France and the United States. The authors interviewed academicians and practitioners to learn about their current experiments and thoughts on integrating finance into the curriculum for social entrepreneurship. Findings The authors found multiple facets of the social entrepreneurship finance construct, focused not only on specific financial skills but also on a general approach to venture designs. Multidisciplinary knowledge is sought not just on the topic of finance but also in other disciplines that can broaden its scope of financing to a larger investor domain. While in France, this came out as a need for integrating the financial communication skills to personify the social value creation process; in the US, it was pointed out as the need for having a contractual knowledge to differentiate investment opportunities and comprehend their risks levels. Originality/value By bringing perspectives from multiple actors who have had experience in social entrepreneurship financing in regions with the fastest development, this paper is seminal in bridging the financing skill gaps that exist in social entrepreneurship discipline. The main theoretical contribution of this article concerns the skills, financial and otherwise that are useful in social finance.
... Urban (2008) argues that entrepreneurship education may influence one's intention and behavior to become an entrepreneur in the future. To become a social entrepreneur, a person must be equipped with some competency and skills through social entrepreneurship education, due to the unique characteristics of social entrepreneurship's activities (Howorth et al., 2012;Pache & Chowdhury, 2012). Furthermore, Urban (2008) reported that various managerial and entrepreneurial competences/ skills were essential to build a successful social entrepreneurship venture. ...
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Introduction/Main Objectives: This study evaluates the role of a large university in developing the social entrepreneurship capabilities of its students and fresh graduates through its business incubator; and investigates why tenants choose to be or not to be social entrepreneurs after their incubation process. Background Problems: There are many discussions about university-based incubators for developing entrepreneurship, but the actual mechanism of how these incubators develop social entrepreneurs is still unknown. Novelty: This research explores the development of social entrepreneurship through the university-based incubator program. Hence, it can be used to provide best practices for the program, especially for developing the tenants’ capacity. Research Methods: This study applies a case study approach and adopts Amartya Sen’s capability approach as an evaluative framework. The C-Hub UGM was chosen as a case since it was selected as a good example of a social entrepreneurship incubator by the British Council. This research used three sources of evidence: documents, interviews, and focus group discussions to collect information from 14 of the incubator’s tenants. Finding/Results: The results reveal that the incubator serves as a hub for the resources that enhance the tenants’ personal conversion factors and their performance as agents for change. Subsequently, the incubator improves the tenants’ social entrepreneurship capabilities set; however, it is up to the tenants to choose whether they want to continue as social entrepreneurs or work in other roles as their functioning. Conclusion: This study illuminates the linkages among the concepts of the capability approach, the university-based incubator and social entrepreneurship. It reveals that the university-based incubator serves as a hub for the resources that enhance the tenants’ personal conversion factors; thereby they can be effective social entrepreneurs.
... There is also a significant correlation between the interest and frequency with which some young people talk with their families and friends about the problems of their municipality and the involvement of those young people with volunteer work to solve or alleviate the problems. This result confirms the proposal of authors such as Pache and Chowdhury (2012) about the interest that educational centers promote among their students in reflecting on the problems that affect their territories and in searching for potential solutions. ...
Article
Depopulation is one of the main problems in declining rural territories, whose inhabitants have the perception of being immersed in a spiral of socio-economic deterioration where each setback experienced in the region push a greater number of young people towards the decision to emigrate. This process was described by the economist G. Myrdal through his theory of circular and cumulative causation (CCC), which explains both the territorial processes of decline and economic and demographic improvement found in other regions. Applying the CCC approach to investigate the causes that for decades have led young people to emigrate from a region of so-called Empty Spain, the Altiplano de Granada, this article describes its linkage with three closely interrelated factors of territorial development: human capital, social capital, and capacity for innovation. The results of the binary logistic regression analysis based on a survey of 446 young people between 15 and 19 years of age, suggest four main predictors of the intention to stay in their rural hometowns: gender, the personal attachment, the father's education level, and the interest in the family history. Conversely, no significant relations were found between social capital and intention to stay or leave the Altiplano de Granada. Specific recommendations for policies and rural development programs emerge from these results regarding the inclusion of youth, education systems, and local innovation systems as a priority.
... SEs operation, in countries like South Africa, is made more complex by the fact that they also directly interact with governments and public agencies accountable for the welfare of citizens, to negotiate political or financial support or to influence changes in policies and regulations (Pache and Chowdhury, 2012). Hence, SEs sustainability in this context is based upon the creation of a mix of income streams, with their local and regional governance, to involve developing relational assets. ...
Article
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Purpose This paper aims to understand social entrepreneurship (SE) business model design to create values whilst undertaking public service delivery within the complex environments of local governments in South Africa. Design/methodology/approach Face-to-face semi-structured interview was conducted with 15 purposively selected social entrepreneurs in Gauteng and Western Cape provinces. The interview guide consisted of main themes and follow-up questions. Themes included SEs’ general history, the social business model; challenges faced and how these were overcome; scaling and growth/survival strategies. These enabled the evaluation of SEs in terms of identifying key criteria of affordability, availability, awareness and acceptability, which SEs must achieve to operate successfully in low-income markets. Social enterprise owners/managers within the electricity distribution, water reticulation and waste management services sectors were surveyed. Findings Most respondents focus on building a network of trust with stakeholders, through communication mechanisms that emphasize high-frequency engagements. There is also a strong focus on design-thinking and customer-centric approaches that strengthen value creation. The value creation process used both product value and service value mechanisms and emphasized quality and excellence to provide stakeholder, as well as societal value, within their specific contexts. Practical implications This study builds upon other research that emphasizes SEs’ customer-centric approaches to strengthen value creation and on building a network of trust with multiple stakeholders. It contributes to emphasizing the business paradigm shift towards bringing social values to the business practice. Social implications Social good, but resource providers are demanding more concrete evidence to help them understand their impact (Struthers, 2013). This is because it is intrinsically difficult for many social organizations to document and communicate their impact in more than an anecdotal way. The research has contributed to the understanding of how SEs can provide evidence of value creation. Originality/value This study contributes to the understanding of how business models are designed to create value within the context of the overwhelming complexity of local government services in South Africa.
... Before choosing the articles for this special issue, we took note of the different articles published on social entrepreneurship education. Many of these academic works focused on pedagogic tools and models that aimed at enhancing the learning experience of students or by generating ideas on improving the syllabus or the theoretical understanding of social entrepreneurship (Kickul et al., 2012(Kickul et al., , 2018Mitra et al., 2019;Pache & Chowdhury, 2012;Tracey & Philips, 2007). Our key intention through this issue was to not only capture the best practices in pedagogy and research within the growing field of social entrepreneurship education but also to push boundaries and question the taken-for-granted assumptions in this discipline. ...
Article
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Our key intention through this special issue in social entrepreneurship education is to capture the best practices in pedagogy and research within this growing field of social entrepreneurship and also to push boundaries and question the taken-for-granted assumptions in this discipline. Therefore, two contributions chosen for this issue advocate the importance of a service learning approach to enhance students’ learning experience beyond the classroom. The other two contributions address the need to challenge assumptions of social entrepreneurship, thus improving students’ practical and theoretical knowledge of the field.
... Critics argue that they do not (H€ agg & Sch€ olin, 2018;Lack eus, 2017), and that the neoliberal view of entrepreneurship education has itself become a threat to freedom by producing "useful unreflective citizens" (H€ agg & Sch€ olin, 2018: 656) who are capable of advancing their own wealth and happiness at the expense of freedoms available to others (Lack eus, 2017). The growth of student interest in social entrepreneurship (Pache & Chowdhury, 2012), with its focus on addressing inequality, poverty, environment, and health (Kickul, Janssen-Selvadurai, & Griffiths, 2012;Lyons, Hamlin, & Hamlin, 2018), can also been interpreted as a critique rather than an extension of the social imaginary of mainstream entrepreneurship education. ...
Article
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While conventional historical narratives of entrepreneurship education focus on its rise in business schools since the 1970s, this paper traces its roots to the early nineteenth century and chronicles its evolution within the field of higher education more broadly. Using a comparative-history design, we show how changing social imaginaries of entrepreneurship education in Germany and the United States were based on divergent and evolving justifications of entrepreneurial autonomy and its relationship to the common good. Our narrative explores how these social imaginaries shaped the moral and political legitimacy of entrepreneurship and the aims, practices, and organizational forms of entrepreneurship education. We draw out the implications of this deeper history for entrepreneurship education today, including: (a) its current social imaginary, (b) the character of entrepreneurial knowledge, and (c) its relationship to the modern university.
... As the aforementioned syllabi reviews have shown, educators often overemphasize the use of practical exercises to equip students with the necessary competencies "for" social entrepreneurship. However, deploying traditional techniques to establish conceptual knowledge "about" social entrepreneurship is substantially valuable for holistic student development (Pache & Chowdhury, 2012). ...
Preprint
As boundaries Between the business and social sectors dissolve, social entrepreneurship has emerged as a phenomenon that bridges two worlds previously divided. Now, social entrepreneurs embrace market-based tools to address society’s greatest challenges. Coinciding with the growth of the sector, students and researchers have sought to understand development, growth strategies, and the practical challenges related to social entrepreneurship. In turn, universities have bolstered social entrepreneurship education by creating academic offerings that emphasize business, social impact, and innovation. Still, social entrepreneurship education remains in its infancy. Courses are as varied as the field itself, and instructors routinely rely on their professional backgrounds and networks to develop curricula that explore the field’s multifaceted character. Thus, social entrepreneurship courses are diverse across disciplines, and the academic literature theorizing the phenomenon is similarly emergent. As social entrepreneurship courses combine theoretical insights with experiential learning in a myriad of ways, aligning theoretical insights with necessary core competencies presents a challenge. To address this dilemma, we highlight the importance of employing theory-driven concepts to develop core competencies in social entrepreneurship students. In doing so, we review key threshold concepts in the social entrepreneurship literature and suggest how instructors might link theoretical insights to practical skill sets.
... Elmes and colleagues (2012) acknowledge the role of place and place making to social entrepreneurship education. Still others suggest experiential learning in the field (Kickul, Griffiths, Berq, 2010), service learning (Litzky, Godshalk and Walton-Bongers, 2009), leveraging design thinking (Kickul et al., 2018), and opportunities to experience the competing logics of social entrepreneurship (Pache and Chowdhury, 2012). A common thread across all of these approaches is the noted benefit for active engagement that often reaches outside of the classroom. ...
Article
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Social entrepreneurship is on the rise. For educators, it is no longer a question of if we should teach social entrepreneurship, but rather how we might best do so. The Social Enterprise Audit is introduced as an innovative way to combine in-class learning with active engagement in the social entrepreneurship community. Student teams are matched with local social enterprises. As foundational concepts of social entrepreneurship are taught in the classroom, student teams visit and meet with their social enterprise partner to apply the concepts. The final deliverable includes an analysis and critique of the social enterprise along with a set of recommendations. The structured approach is easy for the instructor to implement and aligns directly with course material. Students benefit by nurturing their identity as a social entrepreneur while developing a skillset that equips them to make a difference.
... In this regard, universities within the education system have responded by adapting their processes to the SDGs (Fleacă et al. 2018), while businesses are seeing socially responsible policies as an opportunity to be competitive (Vilanova et al. 2009). This challenge has also become part of sustainable (and social) development, as well as ecoentrepreneurship (e.g., Matzembacher et al. 2019;Moon 2018;Mars and Lounsbury 2009) and social entrepreneurship (Pache and Chowdhury 2012;Corner and Marcus 2010). As such, it may probably require the development of new competencies to complement entrepreneurial business skills. ...
Article
Associated with global climate agreements and the European Union’s focus on climate-neutral goals by 2050, the development of Green Transformation competencies in society has become topical. This viewpoint paper proposes a conceptual model for applying Entrepreneurship Education (EE) to designing an integrated transdisciplinary, Green Transformation Competence framework. In line with this, EE is seen as a tool for developing an active, informed, responsible, yet sustainable, living ecosystem-oriented and green orientation of citizens in the education system. Nevertheless, this viewpoint recognises several challenges for further research.
... Referring to the problem derived from the literature about the lack of consensus on how programs in entrepreneurship education have to be concretely designed to become effective and measurable, we note that the differences in framework conditions and individual motivations and abilities are too great for standardized training programs. Another consideration is that differences in the form of entrepreneurship (see social entrepreneurship [61]) also need to be taken into account in educational programs. ...
Article
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Companies are confronted with increasingly demanding environments, including globalization, technologization, intergenerationality, and crises such as the coronavirus pandemic. To accept uncertainties as a challenge and to recognize opportunities for development, well-educated and resilient founders are needed who can foster innovation and sustainable development within society and the economy. The majority of today’s entrepreneurs have an academic background. Hence, institutions for higher education need to provide comprehensive educational offerings and support initiatives to train and sensitize future entrepreneurs. Therefore, since 2013, agile teaching formats have been developed in our project at a Bavarian university of applied sciences. In two stages, we founded a limited company for hands-on experimentation with entrepreneurship and also conceptualized an elective course and an annual founders’ night. Based on a theoretical model and continuous teaching evaluations, we adjusted the individual modules to suit the target group. The objective is to promote the acquisition of key competencies and exert a positive influence on the startup quotient in the region. There are six startups by students who can be traced back to our project. This indicates that a target-group-oriented educational program encourages motivation and awareness of entrepreneurial thinking and action among students.
... Accordingly, entrepreneurship is not a synonym for self-employment or an option to obtain a job. Entrepreneurial development comprises a set of abilities that support individuals succeed in a broader context, including corporate life, social roles, and business making [71]. ...
Article
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This literature review aims to analyze three research designs, namely quantitative, mixed-method, and qualitative using exemplary leadership diction. The method used is the VoS Viewer bibliometric method to search and, in the end, the authors determine the articles reviewed. The results show that 1) quantitative research designs are confirmatory factor analysis centered on Kousez and Posner's exemplary leadership, 2) mixed methods design studies focus on the Kennedy Leadership Qualities. Kennedy’s five leadership qualify cultural differences: a) making variety a preference, b) getting to knowing personalities and their variations, c) enabling valuable connection, d) liability as an essential advantage, e) mutualism as the ultimate arbiter, and 3) meanwhile, in the qualitative research design, exemplary diction is more heroic, which relies on one role model with all the sacrifices, dedication, risk, and skills to adapt the application of various leadership styles associated with exemplary diction. It is clear that to apply exemplary diction requires sharp intuition of leadership, the intelligence to mix several styles, and the courage to take risks.
... Hence in this research, we recognise and acknowledge that an informal woman entrepreneur's strategic agency is rooted within prevailing institutional logics (Lok, 2010;Martin et al., 2016;Greenwood et al., 2014;Pache and Chowdhury, 2012). Therefore, this study draws on an integrated framework (paper 1) that combines institutional logics, orders, and voids with the notion of strategic responses to gender-related institutional pressures. ...
Thesis
The purpose of this research is to study why and how informal women entrepreneurship unfolds in economies that are riddled with gendered and concurrent institutional voids. It consists of three distinct research papers. The first paper integrates the institutional voids perspective with the institutional logics approach to conceptualize how informal women entrepreneurs may strategize when facing both enabling and constraining conditions arising from gendered and concurrent institutional voids, and across different institutional orders. By bridging the discourses on institutional orders, institutional voids and institutional logics, it strengthens the conceptual sensitivity of the developed framework, extends prior work on complexity of institutional environment that influences women entrepreneurs in the informal sector and their response strategies, and presents a research agenda for advancement of knowledge to other socio-spatial and cultural contexts. The second paper qualitatively explores the conflicting influences of the institutional order of family on the motivations to pursue informal entrepreneurship and on the response strategies informal women entrepreneurs devise to resolve the conflicting and contending logics. It focuses on the impact of enabling, orienting or constraining family logics on decision making; hence rendering visible the reflective and pre-reflective agency of informal women entrepreneurs. This paper provides novel empirical evidence of the engagement of micro-process such as strategy formulation with existing meso and macro-institutional structures. It expands the theory of vi institutional logics prespective by taking into account the unexplored environmental dimension of gendered and concurrent institutional voids. The third paper explores the role of digital space in enabling informal women entrepreneurship in developing economies, characterized by gendered and concurrent institutional voids. It discovers the unique mechanisms of interaction between societal and digital logics which result in transposing and diffusing entrepreneurial practices across societal and digital contexts. This study advances the understanding of the role of digitisation as a contemporary, and emerging institutional logic. It also addresses institutional complexity in developing economies in stimulating digital entrepreneurship opportunities for women entrepreneurs operating in the informal sector.
... De acuerdo con Fernández (2017), la educación superior es un bien de carácter estratégico para las naciones, debido a que es el vínculo indisoluble entre la generación de capital humano altamente capacitado, así como para la producción y difusión de conocimientos que favorecen la conformación de sociedades más justas y economías más competitivas. Asimismo, es otra razón de peso para el fomento de competencias que promuevan la creatividad, imaginación, pensamiento crítico, colaboración, proactividad y el trabajo en equipo (Korsgaard, 2011;Pache y Chowdhury, 2012;Sánchez, 2013;Raposo y Do Paco, 2011), por lo cual el sistema educativo debe estimular una cultura emprendedora primordialmente entre los más jóvenes, no solo en la enseñanza superior, sino también en nivel básico y secundario, aportando en el medio y largo plazo para el empleo, el crecimiento, la competitividad y la innovación. ...
... Also due to the rise of social-tech organisations, the interest towards social entrepreneurship is fostering the growth of tailored educational programs addressed to develop specific skills required by social enterprises (Al Taji and Bengo, 2018). Some theoretical models about teaching and training for SE have been published (among others Smith et al. 2012;Pache and Chowdhury 2012), also adopting a place-based approach to the theme (Elmes et al., 2012). Nonetheless, educational models designed at developing social-tech entrepreneurial forms are still scarce in the literature: only Dzombak et al. (2016) effort in discussing the capacity of an educational program mixing engineering and social entrepreneurship in US context. ...
... Aspiring social entrepreneurs require social, cultural, and human capital to succeed in their business pursuits because social entrepreneurs must understand and network between social welfare sectors, commercial sectors, and public sectors. Mentors are key to ensuring that aspiring social entrepreneurs acquire these forms of capital because they provide the individualized and experiential learning necessary to utilize and apply these forms of capital, thus improving their ESE (Pache & Chowdhury, 2012). The mentees in the program confirmed this perspective when they were interviewed about their needs for their future businesses. ...
Article
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Community colleges and universities increasingly offer entrepreneurial training to reach a larger portion of underrepresented students. This paper offers insights into what techniques mentors should employ to increase entrepreneurial self-efficacy among their mentees, particularly for diverse community college students. Using a five-week, social entrepreneurship training program at community colleges in the United States Southwest, this paper utilizes semi-structured interviews to understand the challenges and techniques that are associated with increasing mentees’ entrepreneurial self-efficacy. Findings suggest that time and resources are the major constraints cited by both students and mentors. However, when mentors utilize storytelling, active listening, and open communication, they can further increase their mentees’ entrepreneurial self-efficacy. These insights offer a valuable in-depth qualitative understanding of mentoring approaches that similar programs can integrate into their curricula.
... Interest in social entrepreneurship has peaked in recent years (Bacq & Janssen, 2011;Choi & Majumdar, 2014;Dacin, Dacin, & Tracey, 2011;Dorado & Ventresca, 2013;Peredo & McLean, 2006;Saebi, Foss, & Linder, 2019;Short, Moss, & Lumpkin, 2009;Sutter, Bruton, & Chen, 2019; S. Zhao & Lounsbury, 2016). This has spawned a prolific stream of research into whether, and if yes how, management education can teach social entrepreneurship competencies (Chell, 2007;Douglas, 2015;Hockerts, 2018;Howorth, Smith, & Parkinson, 2012;Kickul, Janssen-Selvadurai, & Griffiths, 2012;Miller, Wesley II, & Williams, 2012;Pache & Chowdhury, 2012;Tracey & Phillips, 2007;Zhu, Rooney, & Phillips, 2016). A first systematic attempt to catalogue the competencies related with social entrepreneurship was created by Miller, Wesley II et al. (2012). ...
... Even though entrepreneurship is a discipline in its own right, both AMLE and IBE contain research related to entrepreneurship and social entrepreneurship. AMLE contains tens of articles related to entrepreneurship education (including the highly cited, Béchard & Grégoire, 2005;Nabi, LiñáN, Fayolle, Krueger, & Walmsley, 2017;Rauch & Hulsink, 2015), as well as social entrepreneurship (Driver, 2012;Pache & Chowdhury, 2012;Tracey & Phillips, 2007). Nevertheless, we propose further research and implementation of entrepreneurship, innovation, and social entrepreneurship in IBE as these are increasingly pertinent in IB and business education in general. ...
Article
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International business education (IBE) scholarship is extensive and is continuously growing. Nevertheless, to date there is no systems perspective overview of the literature dedicated to this topic. Using latest advancements in scientometric analysis, this study structures and visualizes the entire IBE scholarship, which allows to identify gaps in research and propose a number of future research directions. Data extracted from 894 peer-reviewed documents made available through the Scopus database allows to map the scholarship across five identified research directions in IBE – IB, political economy environment, and education; student learning and experience; the lingua franca and communication; interrelationship of IBE and the ecosystem; and business school curricula and internationalization. The scholarship was also compared to the Academy of Management Learning and Education and to the Journal of International Business Studies together with the Journal of World Business journal scholarships to recommend further prospective directions for the future development of IBE.
... In order to assess the sustainability of dual commitments to competing logics as the dependent variable, we operationalized top management's commitments to strategic issues both social and commercial as proxies of commitments to competing logics [104]. Adopting the items used by prior research [105,106] and considering feedback from 11 social entrepreneurs who we interviewed, we listed a broad range of topics that could be discussed by top managers [105]. ...
Article
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This study examines the conditions under which dual commitments to competing institutional logics, particularly a social vs. a commercial logic, are both important to organizational functioning for social enterprises. Using hand-collected data from a survey of 190 social enterprises in South Korea, we identify a reliable measure for the sustainability of competing logics. We also identify the factors associated with variation in a social enterprise’s capacity to sustain dual commitments to competing institutional logics. Using an imprinting perspective, we show that a social entrepreneur’s non-profit experience has a curvilinear effect on the sustainability of competing logics. Moreover, the non-linear effect of a social entrepreneur’s non-profit experience on the sustainability of competing logics is less profound in social enterprises with a highly ambivalent founder.
... Sosyal girişimcilerin ticari girişimcilerle paylaştıkları bir dizi davranışsal özelliği, "iş yetkinlikleri" anlamında önemli bulunan (Bacq ve Janssen, 2011: 379) Gainer ve Padanyi, 2002;Stokes, 2002, Bornstein, 2007Chell, 2007;Trexler, 2008, Shaw, 2014; Palacios-Marqués vd., 2019 Finansal Analiz Yatırım ve Operasyonel-Finansal Sürdürülebilirlik Anthes, 2004;Austin vd., 2006;Covin vd., 2006;Trexler, 2008;Hynes, 2009;Joy vd., 2011;Pache ve Chowdhury, 2012;Freiling ve Laudien, 2013;Lan, Zhu, Ness, Xing ve Schneider, 2014;Yunus 2017 Çevresel analiz yetkinliği, politik, ekonomik sosyo-kültürel, ekolojik ve yasal çevrede olan değişimlerin fırsat ve tehditler şeklinde algılanması olarak değerlendirilebilir (Wheelen ve Hunger, 2010: 89). Aynı noktada sosyal girişimciler için iç ve dış çevrede yaşanan değişimler paralelinde sosyal iş fikrini geliştirmek ve bu iş fikri etrafındaki kurguyu yapmak da bu yetkinlik düzeyindeki ustalık kalemleri arasında sayılabilmektedir. ...
... Further, they can try real-world, experiential learning methods through university institutions like living laboratories, entrepreneurship centers, technology transfer offices (TTOs), business incubators, clubs and networking organizations (Thomsen et al., 2018). These types of activities will benefit future social entrepreneurs to question and comprehend the challenges of combining multiple logics of social entrepreneurship (social welfare logic, commercial logic, and public sector logic) for creating social impact (Pache & Chowdhury, 2012). The programs can support innovators (student and academia), and at the same time, attract partners from the external environment (British Council, 2016). ...
Article
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The study reports on the operationalization of social entrepreneurship programs that are implemented by two university-based platforms in Turkey. Both initiatives have strategically come together with multiple partners (e.g., for-profit and nonprofit businesses and local governmental agencies) in order to achieve more than what they can accomplish on their own. Resource sharing with the partners, nature of social problems, and program outputs and outcomes were used for exploring the working principles of the two programs. The data collection included secondary data, participant observations, semi-structured interviews with program partners and beneficiaries, and a site visit. The social entrepreneurship ecosystem in the given context was found to be growing yet with gaps in support systems for scale-up projects and impact investing. The findings suggest that the two programs varied in their partnership arrangements, funding, scope, and outputs consistent with their program goals. Identifying the unmet needs in the ecosystem, knowing the platforms' strengths and capabilities, and matching with partners that have complementary resources are found to be effective strategies of the platforms. The study argues that universities are not fully utilizing their vital position to contribute to the improvements of the ecosystem, and more can be achieved by integrating the programs with teaching and research and increasing their specialization in various social issues (e.g., gender equality).
Conference Paper
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Bu çalışmanın amacı, çift yönlü iş aile zenginleşmesinin (iş-aile zenginleşmesi, aile-iş zenginleşmesi) işte mutluluk üzerindeki etkisini ve bu etkileşimde psikolojik sermayenin aracılık rolünün olup olmadığını belirlemektir. Araştırma Tokat ilinde tekstil sektörü çalışanları üzerinde yapılmıştır. Hiyerarşik regresyon analizi sonuçlarına göre iş-aile ve aile-iş zenginleşmesi, işte mutluluğu; yalnızca aile-iş zenginleşmesi ise psikolojik sermayeyi pozitif yönde etkilemektedir. Psikolojik sermayenin de işte mutluluk üzerinde pozitif etkisi saptanmıştır. Aracılık testi sonuçları ise, aile-iş zenginleşmesi ile işte mutluluk etkileşiminde psikolojik sermayenin kısmi aracılık rolü üstlendiğini göstermiştir. Mevcut bulgular, yazın ışığında tartışılmış ve gelecek çalışmalar için öneriler geliştirilmiştir. The purpose of the study is to determine the effect of work-family enrichment (work-family enrichment, family-work enrichment) on happiness at work and whether psychological capital has a mediating role on this effect. In the study, data were obtained from the textile sector. According to the hierarchical regression analysis results, work-family and family-work enrichment positively affect happiness at work, and only family-work enrichment positively affects psychological capital. Psychological capital has also been found to have a positive effect on happiness at work. Mediation test results showed that psychological capital plays a partial mediating role on the relationship between family-work enrichment and happiness at work. The current findings are discussed in the light of the literature and suggestions for future studies are developed.
Article
Over the past few decades, the field of entrepreneurship education has undergone exponential growth. Courses in entrepreneurship are now found in many different fields of education, including ones that have a social rather than a commercial focus. In line with this, courses in social entrepreneurship are now common within social work education. Entrepreneurship offers new opportunities in terms of dealing with societal problems. Still, entrepreneurship is based on rationales that potentially conflict with the norms found in social work education. In order to find ways to implement entrepreneurship in education, a better understanding of the different norms must be developed. In this article, the potentially conflicting norms are explored through a case study of social work students in Denmark who participated in an entrepreneurship competition. The study indicates that the students felt alienated because of the commercial and competitive aspects, which seemed to be predominant within the entrepreneurship community. On the other hand, the students’ focus on social issues seemed to be in line with the ideals and norms of entrepreneurship. Thus, both differences and similarities seem to exist between the different institutions and traditions explored. At the end of the article, future perspectives and potentials regarding social work education and entrepreneurship are discussed.
Article
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This study discovers the influence of entrepreneurship education on juvenile prisoners’ entrepreneurial intentions in LPKA Batam, Pangkalpinang and Medan located in 3 provinces in Indonesia while also evaluating their entrepreneurial attitude as a mediating variable. An examination was held based on the 30 surveys collected to assess for the relationships. It is exhibited that entrepreneurship education in the 3 juvenile prisons significantly impacts on juvenile prisoners’ entrepreneurial intentions through the crucial roles of entrepreneurial attitude. The findings revealed that entrepreneurship education influences entrepreneurial intentions indirectly through entrepreneurial attitude in which its role is a complete mediation to entrepreneurial intentions. The results also recommended that government of Indonesia with their influential policy can embrace entrepreneurship education to form juvenile prisoners’ entrepreneurial attitude to improve young prisoners’ entrepreneurial intentions. Additionally, the strategic value of these findings is also as the resource to encourage government, academicians, enterprises with their corporate social responsibility, and community at large to play their roles in improving entrepreneurship education for juvenile prisoners in Indonesia.
Article
Social entrepreneurs are heralded for tackling entrenched social problems by approaching innovation, resource allocation, and the management of uncertainty in ways that escape the ability of established organizations. Although social entrepreneurship is manifested through the founding of new organizations or as entrepreneurial action inside established organizations, the latter has received far less scholarly attention to date. In this paper, we argue that the context of established organizations poses unique opportunities and challenges to individuals engaging in entrepreneurial action to address social problems, which remain hitherto unexplored. To advance our knowledge on social intrapreneurship, we integrate and synthesize the de novo social entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship literatures with a focus on how entrepreneurs in both contexts address the three core elements of entrepreneurial action: innovation, resource allocation, and uncertainty. In doing that, we offer a set of premises that conceptually develop entrepreneurial action by social intrapreneurs, and open avenues for future research.
Conference Paper
Social entrepreneurs play an important role in the economic and social development of the communities in which they operate. The career aspiration of social entrepreneurs can be encouraged if youths are given early educa-tional exposure when they are young. The purpose of this paper is to work out the proposal for study curriculum in order to include a subject of social entrepreneurship. To attain this aim, the following tasks were put forward: (1) to research literature regarding social entrepreneurship and social entrepreneurship education; (2) to describe the empiri-cal research methodology; (3) to discuss research results; (4) to propose a module for teaching social entrepreneurship to business students. These tasks account for the structure of the article: introduction, literature review, methodology, results and discussion, conclusions and recommendations. The theoretical basis of the current article consists of recent literature on the social entrepreneurship (taking into account Covid-19 circumstances), social entrepreneurship educa-tion, as well as of the legal documents of the Republic of Latvia. The empirical research is bipartite – first, a survey of business students, applying the snowball sampling method, using 5-point Likert scale questionnaire, second, a survey of business school lecturers. The results are interpreted using methods of descriptive and inferential statistics – mean ranking and Kruskal Wallis test. The results of the research have a practical value, as they identify the problematic areas of business education in regard to social entrepreneurship and make it possible to offer a practical solution – an insert module of social entrepreneurship.
Thesis
The discursive construction of the social enterprise phenomenon to an extent has dominantly been accomplished through the western academic literature and policy discourses by embracing a business-management school perspective. Literature also highlights social enterprises as a contextual phenomenon, however there is a dearth of qualitative and region-specific investigation and there is a considerable deficiency of literature critically examining the construction of social enterprises in India. Entrepreneurship research has highlighted the multiplicity and intersectionality of context and re-examines ‘all-are-alike’ approach which prevents from understanding diverse nature of entrepreneurship (Welter & Gartner, 2016), which involves moving away from compartmentalisation of ‘context’ and ‘individual’ to provide a more authentic understanding of entrepreneurial actions (Spedale & Watson, 2014). Although scholars highlight multiplicity of context in theorising context in entrepreneurship research, however context has been dealt in a simplistic manner ‘discrete contexts’ (singular variable) having a functionalist role in promoting or constraining entrepreneurship. Thus, theorising context in entrepreneurship needs ‘multi-context perspective’ using diverse sampling (groups), across multiple sectors (sampling) and conducting contextual research in diverse settings from different disciplines (Welter, 2011). Taking this forward, in a special issue of six papers Chandra and Kerlin (2021) puts back theorising context in social entrepreneurship research and expanding the facets of social entrepreneurship. This special issue offers a typology of contexts in social entrepreneurship research that points out the extant of areas available for further research that can help in theory, practice and policy building. This qualitative enquiry adopts a social constructivist lens and an inductive theory-building approach to examine social enterprise phenomenon in India. It will use semi-structured interviews involving thematic narrative analysis research design with two groups of participants: (a) paradigm building actors (i.e. Government, social impact investors, incubators and educational institutions) (b) practitioners from three generational cohorts (i.e. SG senior generation, generation X and generation Y).
Article
While the growing literature has examined the strategies of buyers to ensure the sustainability of suppliers, the underlying theoretical dynamics and measurement of such strategies have been overlooked. Drawing on institutional logics perspective, this study develops and tests a measurement model of sustainable supply chain strategies. The study identifies three theoretically-driven strategies as performance-oriented strategy for commercial logic, risk avoidance-oriented strategy for public logic, and collaboration-oriented strategy for social-welfare logic. Then, a measurement construct is developed through the review of extant literature and corporate practices as well as using the findings of a semi-structured interview with 21 managers in nine suppliers. The construct is tested based on a survey data drawn from a sample of 131 suppliers of Western companies in Turkey. The analysis confirms a three-dimensional measurement model. Considering the importance of knowing how to strategically approach a supplier to ensure its sustainability, both scholars and managers can use this model to investigate the implications of formulation and implementation of diverse sustainability strategies at supply chain context.
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This compilation describes the framework that the project "SEinHE - Developing Social Entrepreneurial Skills in Higher Education" proposes for teachers and institutions for developing social entrepreneurship competences.
Chapter
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The chapter explores the change in educational philosophies application through the rapid adaptation of simulations and technologies
Book
The publication is devoted to issues related to the development of tools for measuring social impact generated by social enterprises. A valuable aspect of the monograph is the inclusion of case studies of selected tools (such as social return on investment, local multiplier, balanced scorecard) in partnership with social enterprises. The authors pay special attention to solutions enabling the operationalization of social change measurement, taking into account not only financial but, above all, non-financial aspects. They believe that the measurement of impact should take into account not only the economic perspective, but also the public and social one, where values other than material profit also count. The tools should indicate the responsibility of entities towards various types of stakeholders and serve to increase the quality of social services by providing valuable information to individual organizations.
Purpose This study explores the relationship between intense exposure to entrepreneurship education and training (EET), defined as the deliberate practice of entrepreneurial learning, and self-efficacy, for entrepreneurs in the post-creation stage. When analyzing this relationship, we account for individuals' entrepreneurial experience gained through parental ties with entrepreneurs as a moderating variable. In doing so, our research aims to contribute to the literature on the relationship between EET and entrepreneurial self-efficacy in several ways. First, we address the relationship by bridging the gap between intention and action in the context of actual entrepreneurs engaged in the early stages of their new ventures. In doing so and drawing on the theory of planned behavior, we complement the important stream of research on entrepreneurial intention by highlighting antecedents of entrepreneurial self-efficacy in the post-creation stage. Second, when analyzing the relationship between EET and self-efficacy for actual entrepreneurs, we approach EET as a deliberate practice of voluntary exposure to new entrepreneurial knowledge. Third, we provide new insights into the EET–self-efficacy relationship by exploring the moderating effect of entrepreneurial vicarious learning and, more specifically, the individual's embeddedness in an entrepreneurial parental environment. Finally, drawing from Kirkpatrick's (1959a, b, 1960a, b, 1996) reference framework on training and education evaluation, we provide empirical observations of EET outcomes evaluated in the later (“behavior” and “results”) stages. Design/methodology/approach Drawing on the theory of planned behavior as well as role modeling and absorptive capacity, we develop hypotheses that we examine using a sample of 76 French entrepreneurs who have created new ventures since less than five years. Findings The results show no significant direct influence of the intensity of EET on the different dimensions used to measure entrepreneurial self-efficacy. However, we find that entrepreneurial parental environment and non-entrepreneurial parental environment constitute two distinct moderating learning contexts leading to opposite EET intensity–self-efficacy relationships. Originality/value Our research has several implications for both scholars and practitioners. From a theoretical standpoint, we extend the debate on direct and vicarious experiences and their respective impact on self-efficacy (Bandura, 1977; Baron and Henry, 2010). In the context of actual entrepreneurs in the post-creation stage, our results neither support nor invalidate the superiority of one specific type of experience. In our research, vicarious experience appears fully effective when interacted with other sources of learning such as EET. As such, theoretical attention should shift from the stand-alone effect of vicarious experience on self-efficacy to its fostering effect on other learning sources. Rather than opposing these two (direct and vicarious) types of experiences, future research should theorize their joint effect on entrepreneurial self-efficacy. Moreover, in showing the importance of entrepreneurial parental environment, our research responds to the call to further study the contingent factors enhancing the impact of EET (and deliberate practice of entrepreneurial learning) on entrepreneurial self-efficacy (Fayolle and Gailly, 2015; Litzky et al. , 2020; Rideout and Gray, 2013). From a practical standpoint, our results help formulate recommendations on how to design EET programs to enhance nascent and actual entrepreneurs' self-efficacy. Given the central role of an entrepreneurial parental environment in developing self-efficacy, we suggest that, in addition to teaching traditional entrepreneurial academic content, EET programs should allow students to vicariously experience the entrepreneur's curriculum through in-depth role modeling. More precisely, this role modeling should go beyond mere testimonials and engage students in trusted, intense, repeated interactions with inspiring instructors, both entrepreneurs and lecturers, to create and activate the fostering conditions of an entrepreneurial (parental) environment. In simulating quasi-parental role modeling within EET programs, academic institutions can contextualize the positive impact of EET on entrepreneurial venturing.
Chapter
In the past two decades, as the management economy transformed into an entrepreneurial economy, entrepreneurship education has been recognized by all countries in reserving human resources for economic development and has become the common practice of most HEIs in the world.
Article
Purpose The present study attempts to analyze how social entrepreneurs (SEs) develop technological innovation in the face of diverse institutional logics, which are embedded in the National Systems of Innovation (NSI). Design/methodology/approach Based on the content analysis of Ashoka Fellows, the study compares SEs in developed and developing countries, which represent strong versus weak NSIs. Findings SEs selectively couple the elements of diverse institutional logics to ensure the resource inflow and legitimacy of their operations. However, SEs particularly at weak NSIs are also decoupling their profit and non-for-profit branches to address conflict among diverse logics. Moreover, the study finds that 12 out of 20 entrepreneurs who identify themselves as technologically innovative did not develop any new technological innovation. Practical implications The study shows that being technologically innovative depends on the acquisition of resources and the management of legitimacy challenges, SEs can diversify their innovations by creating more incremental, architectural and modular innovations to address competing demands among logics. Social implications The study reveals that SEs in weak NSIs interact with multiple institutional logics more frequently than their counterparts in strong NSIs. Although this context leads them to diversify their technological innovation, there is a need for improving the NSIs of SEs in developing countries to facilitate the continuity of resource inflow and ensure the legitimacy of their operations. Originality/value Integrating two complementary theoretical lenses, the study contributes to the literature by exploring the impact of the interaction between logics nested within a supra system and SEs’ ability to develop technological innovation.
Article
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In September 2004, Academy of Management Learning and Education published a special issue on the role of management education in the training and development of entrepreneurs. Despite making a significant contribution to current thinking about entrepreneurship education, we consider that the special issue contains an important omission - there is no discussion of social entrepreneurs, individuals who develop economically sustainable solutions to social problems. In this essay we seek to address this omission and to outline the distinctive challenges and issues involved in teaching and developing entrepreneurs that combine social and commercial objectives.
Article
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Throughout the 20th century multiple discourses of the nature of enterprise and the entrepreneur have developed. In this article, we trace these discourses and perspectives as a backdrop to understanding social and economic entrepreneurship. The article considers the nature of social enterprise and whether,indeed how, it might be construed as a form of entrepreneurship. It is argued that in the past social enterprises have been modelled on tenets of not-for-profit' charitable organizations that have attracted human and social capital with pro-social, community-spirited motives, and have engendered survival strategies premised on grant dependency. In the longer term, we argue, social enterprises should be self-sustaining and therefore entrepreneurial in their endeavours.From these premises, we suggest that the definition of entrepreneurship might be modified to include the creation of social and economic value' and may thus be applied to both private, entrepreneurial ventures as well as social enterprises.
Article
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Opportunity identification is emerging as an important content area in entrepreneurship education. We propose that opportunity identification is a competency that can be developed as are other unique competencies and that the entrepreneurship classroom is an appropriate venue for developing the skills necessary to improve the ability to identify opportunities. Using a variation of a Solomon Four Group Designed experiment, our results show that individuals can learn processes of opportunity identification and improve both the number of ideas generated and the innovativeness of those ideas. In addition, the results indicate that a predisposition toward innovation does not significantly alter the ability to learn processes of opportunity identification.
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In-depth interviews with business school faculty members suggest that work relationships are more than strategically chosen means to career mobility. Relationships are career-defining ends as well, and negative relationships may be as consequential as helpful ties. Findings also showed significant gender differences: women, more than men, told stories about harm; men, more than women, told stories about help. Workplace relationships may play different roles for professionals and managers, and men's and women's different relational experiences may foster different career logics, or ways of striving for success.
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We explore how new types of hybrid organizations (organizations that combine institutional logics in unprecedented ways) can develop and maintain their hybrid nature in the absence of a "ready-to-wear" model for handling the tensions between the logics they combine. The results of our comparative study of two pioneering commercial microfinance organizations suggest that to be sustainable, new types of hybrid organizations need to create a common organizational identity that strikes a balance between the logics they combine. Our evidence further suggests that the crucial early levers for developing such an organizational identity among organization members are hiring and socialization policies.
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Despite the ubiquity of business planning education in entrepreneurship, there is little evidence that planning leads to success. Following a discussion of the theoretical and historical underpinnings, three pedagogical models are compared, including two alternative experiential methods: simulations and the contingency approach. The contingency model, as introduced, utilizes Piaget's concept of equilibration, and is asserted to provide both cognitive tools and flexibility in accommodating unanticipated environmental factors faced by future entrepreneurs.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how extending social innovation and impact learning to the field was accomplished. Design/methodology/approach – The paper discusses how experiential learning can be adapted to social entrepreneurship education and how to structure the course and deliverables. It highlights the importance of students' selection and preparation. Findings – The paper shares some students' reflections on their fieldwork and how they dealt with new ideas. It also provides three central lessons – “go real”, “go deep”, “get feedback” – that were learned through the experience. Research limitations/implications – Since information from only one course offering has been reported, a simple generalization should be made cautiously. For this reason, the transferability of this experiential learning course to other regions of the world is discussed and recommendations are offered for educators who want to engage in a successful “boundary-less classroom.” Originality/value – Initial evidence is provided that the success of experiential learning in social innovation and impact can be guaranteed by a number of elements, including students' preparation to assist them as they confront challenges found in the field experience. Experiential learning would not be transferable without deep intercultural understanding and a well-chosen selection of social enterprises and social entrepreneurs with whom to collaborate.
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Institutional logics The phrase, ‘institutional logic’ has become somewhat of a buzz-word. Buzz words are over used; as a result their meanings often get distorted and overextended and they burn-out of existence. Mizruchi and Fein (1999) showed in the institutional theory literature how meanings get distorted and then taken for granted. To avoid misunderstandings of the institutional logic concept and to build on research in this genre, now is the time to reflect on definitions and the theoretical and methodological contributions this perspective brings to the analysis of institutions. We begin by defining the concept of an institutional logic and how it emerged as part of the development of institutional theory since the 1970s. Second, we illustrate the institutional logics approach as both a meta-theory and a method of analysis. Third, we present a select review of the literature emphasizing how the institutional logics approach makes headway in addressing several ...
Book
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Institutional logics, the underlying governing principles of societal sectors, strongly influence organizational decision making. Any shift in institutional logics results in a similar shift in attention to alternative problems and solutions and in new determinants for executive decisions. Examining changes in institutional logics in higher-education publishing, this book links cultural analysis with organizational decision making to develop a theory of attention and explain how executives concentrate on certain market characteristics to the exclusion of others.Analyzing both qualitative and quantitative data from the 1950s to the 1990s, the author shows how higher education publishing moved from a culture of independent domestic publishers focused on creating markets for books based on personal, relational networks to a culture of international conglomerates that create markets from corporate hierarchies. This book offers broader lessons beyond publishing—its theory is applicable to explaining institutional changes in organizational leadership, strategy, and structure occurring in all professional services industries.
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As advocates for social entrepreneurs and social entrepreneurship education throughout our careers, we have gathered a plethora of resources for both faculty new to the field of social entrepreneurship and seasoned veterans who blazed the trail in the early twenty first century. The first version of the Social Entrepreneurship Teaching Resources Handbook was published in January 2004 and included twenty schools actively teaching social entrepreneurship courses. The expanded version is a culmination of the Social Entrepreneurship Teaching Resources Handbook prepared in partnership with Ashoka's Global Academy for Social Entrepreneurship. Bill Drayton, founder of Ashoka said we are at a tipping point in social entrepreneurship. The growth of the sector now includes over 350 professors who are actively teaching or researching in social \entrepreneurship from more than 35 countries, with over 30 national and international competitions, 800 different articles and 200 cases used in social entrepreneurship courses. Our efforts are to consolidate the number of resources available and to catalogue the growing cadre of academics around the world who are collectively building the field of social entrepreneurship. In completing the research on social entrepreneurship programs and faculty, we are inspired by the commitment to teach students how to embrace social entrepreneurship as a career option to make a difference in the world. As individuals seek to find meaningful careers, social entrepreneurs provide an opportunity for young people to be as Gandhi said "the change you wish to see in the world."
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Examines the characteristics and role of the entrepreneur and the challenges for business schools posed by the need to develop more enterprising individuals. Argues that the traditional education system stultifies rather than develops the requisite attributes and skills to produce entrepreneurs, and proposes that if entrepreneurs are to be developed, considerable changes are required in both the content and process of learning. In particular it suggests that there needs to be a shift in the emphasis from educating "about" entrepreneurship to educating "for" it. Stresses equally that entrepreneurship should not be equated with new venture creation or small business management, but with creativity and change. In this context proposes that educational institutions need to change the process of learning to enable their students to develop their right brain entrepreneurial capabilities as well as their left-brain analytical skills. As Chia argues, business schools need to weaken the thought processes so as to encourage and stimulate the entrepreneurial imagination. (Publication abstract)
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Studies the theory of effectual reasoning with focus on the creation of firms in nonexistent or not-yet-existent markets. Effectuation takes "a set of means as given" and focuses "on selecting between possible effects that can be created with that set of means." The effectuation process is actor dependent whereas the causation process is effect dependent. Some key characteristics of effectuation are: selection criteria based on affordable loss or acceptable risk, excellence at exploiting contingencies, and explicit assumption of dynamic, nonlinear, and ecological environments. The theoretical works of March, Mintzberg, and Weick are explored to identify connections between their work and the proposed theory of effectuation. Recent empirical works that fall outside of the traditional causation models are also discussed. The four principles of effectuation are affordable loss, strategic alliances, exploitation of contingencies, and control of an unpredictable future. Based on these principles, a series of testable hypotheses are presented. The hypotheses consider the role of effectuation at different levels including the economy, the market or industry, the firm, and the founders/decision makers. The theory of effectuation advanced in this analysis concludes that the essential agent of entrepreneurship is the effectuator. (SRD)
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The factors leading nascent entrepreneurs to expend effort writing business plans are examined and the effect such planning has on new organizations is considered. This is part of a larger consideration within institutional theory about whether or not conformity leads to profitability or survival. There were 396 nascent Swedish entrepreneurs investigated over a four consecutive six-month periods. Both the production of the plan and the outcomes were examined. New organizations are subject to institutional pressure to produce written business plans - they are expected to plan, they imitate other successful organizations, or they are told to plan. The findings show that institutional variables (such as coercion and imitation) predict the likelihood for new organizations to write business plans. The study's results are more in line with institutional predictions and are contrary to rationalist predictions of planning-performance. Conclusions indicate that writing a business plan has no significant effect on the survival or profitability of the new organization. (TNM)
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Social Entrepreneurship Education Resource Handbook The 2011 Social Entrepreneurship Education Resource Handbook is for colleges and universities engaged in teaching, research and applied learning in social entrepreneurship. Developed by Ashoka U and Debbi Brock, the fifth edition provides a comprehensive look at social entrepreneurship education and is an effective tool for advancing social entrepreneurship for your students, on your campus, and for the local community. Originally designed for faculty members interested in teaching social entrepreneurship, the Handbook was revised to include uses and applications for administrators eager to advance social entrepreneurship at their colleges and universities, students interested in launching their own social ventures and plugging into relevant resources, and practitioners of social entrepreneurship with an interest in higher education programs. This pdf contains the first 12 pages.The Handbook includes enhanced features to help navigate recent developments in the field including:* Comprehensive listings of global universities with Centers, Initiatives, Masters, Minors and Certificates in Social Entrepreneurship* Comprehensive listings of case-studies and academic/practitioner books used to teach Social Entrepreneurship in the classroom* Business plan competitions for student venture funding and funding for emerging social entrepreneurship practitioners* Listings of academic, practitioner, and student conferences related to Social Entrepreneurship* A global faculty directory of professors teaching and researching Social Entrepreneurship around the world.
Article
Purpose – Facing the multiplication of entrepreneurship education programmes (EEP) and the increasing resources allocated, there is a need to develop a common framework to evaluate the design of those programmes. The purpose of this article is to propose such a framework, based on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Design/methodology/approach – TPB is a relevant tool to model the development of entrepreneurial intention through pedagogical processes. The independent variables are the characteristics of the EEP and the dependent variables are the antecedents of entrepreneurial behaviour. To illustrate and test the relevance of the evaluation methodology, a pilot study is conducted. Findings – Data are consistent and reliable, considering the small scale of this experiment. The EEP assessed had a strong measurable impact on the entrepreneurial intention of the students, while it had a positive, but not very significant, impact on their perceived behavioural control. Research implications/limitations – This is a first step of an ambitious research programme aiming at producing theory-grounded knowledge. Reproduction of the experiment will allow researchers to test how specific characteristics of an EEP influence its impact and how the impact differs across several cohorts of students. Those comparisons will serve to improve a priori the design of EEP. Originality/value – The new methodology is built on a robust theoretical framework and based on validated measurement tools. Its originality is about a relative – longitudinal – measure of impact over time and a particular use of the theory of planned behaviour which is seen as an assessment framework.
Chapter
There are hundreds of innovations brought to the market every year by socially oriented entrepreneurs (Dees et al., 2004; Phills et al., 2008). While many of these innovations fail, some prove successful in their local context, addressing a pressing social problem and improving the economic and social conditions of populations. Successful social entrepreneurs then face a choice: Do they want to continue working in their current region, and fulfill predominantly local needs, or do they want to increase their impact by replicating their innovations in other geographies? Entrepreneurs who choose to scale social impact are faced with limits to organizational growth such as scarce resources or decreasing returns to scale. They often confront this challenge by transferring their innovations to other socially oriented organizations.
Book
This volume investigates the relationship between economic globalization and institutions, or global governance, challenging the common assumption that globalization and institutionalization are essentially processes which exclude each other. Instead, the contributors to this book show that globalization is better perceived as a dual process of institutional change at the national level, and institution building at the transnational level. Rich, supporting empirical evidence is provided along with a theoretical conceptualization of the main actors, mechanisms and conditions involved in trickle-up and trickle-down trajectories through which national institutional systems are being transformed and transnational rules emerge.
Article
Many formal organizational structures arise as reflections of rationalized institutional rules. The elaboration of such rules in modern states and societies accounts in part for the expansion and increased complexity of formal organizational structures. Institutional rules function as myths which organizations incorporate, gaining legitimacy, resources, stability, and enhanced survival prospects. Organizations whose structures become isomorphic with the myths of the institutional environment-in contrast with those primarily structured by the demands of technical production and exchange-decrease internal coordination and control in order to maintain legitimacy. Structures are decoupled from each other and from ongoing activities. In place of coordination, inspection, and evaluation, a logic of confidence and good faith is employed.
Article
We introduce the concept of identity workspaces, defined as institutions that provide a holding environment for individuals' identity work. We propose that institutions offering reliable social defenses, sentient communities, and vital rites of passage are likely to be experienced as identity workspaces. The fluidity of contemporary corporate environments and the movement toward individually driven careers has generated an increased need for identity work, while concurrently rendering corporations less reliable as spaces in which to conduct it. As a result, we posit that business schools are increasingly invested with the function of identity workspaces. The conceptual framework presented here provides a lens to better understand how and why business schools are called upon to fulfill a function of growing importance-developing management education that goes beyond influencing what managers know and do, and supports them in understanding and shaping who they are.
Article
This article explores how hybrid organizations, which incorporate competing institutional logics, internally manage the logics that they embody. Relying on an inductive comparative case study of four work integration social enterprises embedded in competing social welfare and commercial logics, we show that, instead of adopting strategies of decoupling or compromising, as the literature typically suggests, these organizations selectively coupled intact elements prescribed by each logic. This strategy allowed them to project legitimacy to external stakeholders without having to engage in costly deceptions or negotiations. We further identify a specific hybridization pattern that we refer to as "Trojan horse," whereby organizations that entered the work integration field with low legitimacy because of their embeddedness in the commercial logic strategically incorporated elements from the social welfare logic in an attempt to gain legitimacy and acceptance. Surprisingly, they did so more than comparable organizations originating from the social welfare logic. These findings suggest that, when lacking legitimacy in a given field, hybrids may manipulate the templates provided by the multiple logics in which they are embedded in an attempt to gain acceptance. Overall, our findings contribute to a better understanding of how organizations can survive and thrive when embedded in pluralistic institutional environments.
Article
We examine the proactive role of interns in fostering positive internship experiences and how such experiences may bring about beneficial outcomes for both interns and sponsoring organizations. The model suggests that interns' emotional expressions (i.e., emotional masking and emotional sharing) and social activities influence the degree to which they learn and receive mentoring from their supervisors during the internship, which further influence interns' job satisfaction, affective commitment to the internship sponsor, and career attitude. The results, based on a sample of 167 college student interns working in the retail industry, indicate that emotional sharing is positively related to both learning and mentoring, while emotional masking is negatively related to learning. In addition, intern social activity is positively related to mentoring. We also found that the levels of learning and mentoring received are significantly related to intern job satisfaction, affective commitment to the internship sponsor, and a positive attitude toward the industry they interned with as a potential future career. Practical implications for the design and implementation of internship programs are discussed.
Article
We argue service-learning pedagogy and the associated educational experiences provide a partial solution to the significant problem of narrowness in business education. Service-learning pedagogy seeks to balance academic rigor with practical relevance, set in a context of civic engagement, which furnishes students with a broader and, we argue, richer, educational experience. We present four specific critiques of business education: (1) the business curriculum focuses on functional and discrete rather than cross-functional and holistic knowledge; (2) coursework emphasizes practical problem-solving "tool kits" rather than deep theoretical knowledge; (3) the underlying paradigm of business education views humanity and human interactions in purely transactional terms; (4) the grounding morality of business education asserts the supremacy of shareholder wealth. Based on our collective experience with service-learning, we believe that the pedagogy presents a needed counterpoint to the narrow focus of business education. The four Rs of service-learning: Reality, Reflection, Reciprocity, and Responsibility each yield a broader educational and experience base for students.
Article
We examine the current state of the social entrepreneurship literature, asking what is unique about social entrepreneurship and what avenues create opportunities for the future of the field. After an evaluation of social entrepreneurship definitions and comparison of social entrepreneurship to other forms, we conclude that while it is not a distinct type of entrepreneurship, researchers stand to benefit most from further research on social entrepreneurship as a context in which established types of entrepreneurs operate. We demonstrate these opportunities by describing avenues for further inquiry that emerge when examining valuable assumptions and insights from existing theories inherent in conventional, cultural, and institutional entrepreneurship frameworks and integrating these insights in ways that address the unique phenomena that exist in the context of social entrepreneurship.
Article
This publication contains reprint articles for which IEEE does not hold copyright. Full text is not available on IEEE Xplore for these articles.
Article
This paper focuses on a radical change, in which organizations abandon an institutionalized template for arranging their core activities, that is likely to occur in organizational fields that have strong, local market forces and strong but heterogeneous institutional forces. We examine the role of market forces and heterogeneous institutional elements in promoting divergent change in core activities among all U.S. rural hospitals from 1984 to 1991. Results support the view that divergent change depends on both market forces (proximity to competitors, disadvantages in service mix) and institutional forces (state regulation, ownership and governance norms, and mimicry of models of divergent change).
Article
As theory develops and increases our understanding of the role of emotion in learning from failure, entrepreneurship educators have the opportunity to reflect these advancements in their pedagogies. This requires a focus on how students "feel" rather than on how, or what, they "think." I offer suggested changes to pedagogy to help students manage the emotions of learning from failure and discuss some of the challenges associated with measuring the implications of these proposed changes. I then expand my scope to explore possibilities of educating students on how to manage their emotions to avoid failure and, more generally, improve their emotional intelligence and for organizations to improve their ability to help individuals regulate their emotions.
Article
GARY GORMAN IS AN ASSOCIATE DEAN AND associate professor and Dennis Hanlon an assistant professor at the Faculty of Business Administration, Memorial University ofNewfoundland, Canada, and Wayne King is director of the P. J. Gardiner Institute for Small Business Studies as well as an assistant professor at Memorial University of Newfoundland. This paper reviews the literature in the areas of entrepreneurship education, enterprise education and education for small business management. The review covers the period from 1985 to 1994 inclusive and is limited to mainstream journals that focus on entrepreneurship and small business. Theoretical and empirical papers are examined from the perspective of content and market focus. The paper also suggests directions for future research.
Article
Organizations are increasingly subject to conflicting demands imposed by their institutional environments. This makes compliance impossible to achieve, because satisfying some demands requires defying others. Prior work simply suggests that organizations develop strategic responses in such situations. Our key contribution is to provide a more precise model of organizational responses that takes into account intraorganizational political processes. As a result, we identify situations in which conflicting institutional demands may lead to organizational paralysis or breakup.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between general education, specific forms of entrepreneurial education and a range of entrepreneurial activities. Design/methodology/approach – The relationships were investigated through an analysis of peer-reviewed research published in a wide range of journals and proceedings between 1995 and 2006. Findings – Findings suggest strong evidence supporting the relationship between levels of general education and several entrepreneurial success measures. The findings are less clear in regards to the link between general education and the choice to become an entrepreneur. The findings linking specific programs of entrepreneurship education to entrepreneurship, although ambiguous, suggest a positive link between such education and both the choice to become an entrepreneur and subsequent entrepreneurial success. Research limitations/implications – The review of research suggests four implications for existing research: a need for increased research outside the USA; an understanding that inconsistencies in findings may be to a great extent temporal artifacts; a need for increased research focused on innovation; and an acknowledgement that “venture exit” as an outcome measure has received limited attention. Practical implications – Given the significant investments by both private organizations and governments aimed at increasing rates of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial success through education, it is important to understand that while the evidence supporting the links between education and entrepreneurial outcomes is promising it is not yet definitive. Originality/value – In addition to providing a review of existing research this paper suggests an integrative framework for future research.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact that entrepreneurship education can have on entrepreneurial outcomes. The author aims to investigate the perceived influence that various entrepreneurship education courses have had on a cohort of 64 graduate entrepreneurs from eight HEIs in the UK. Design/methodology/approach – Semi-structured, in-depth telephone interviews were conducted annually over a ten year period (1997 to 2006) to document, measure and analyse respondent progression from graduation and into entrepreneurship. Findings – Results indicate that graduate needs for entrepreneurship education do not match actual outcomes in terms of entrepreneurial skills, knowledge and attitudes. This mismatch influences an entrepreneur's perceptions of actual and future educational needs. Most of the graduate entrepreneurs, however, seem to be satisfied with the outcomes of their entrepreneurship education, both in relative and in absolute terms. Practical implications – The findings provide valuable insights for educators, policy makers and graduate entrepreneurs. Stakeholders could use this study to make better choices in relation to the education of future graduate entrepreneurs. Originality/value – This study provides an empirically rigorous insight into a relatively neglected area of entrepreneurship education research. It provides valuable longitudinal data for stakeholders involved in both the supply and the demand side of the entrepreneurship education process.
Article
Business groups—confederations of legally independent firms—are ubiquitous in emerging economies, yet very little is known about their effects on the performance of affiliated firms. We conceive of business groups as responses to market failures and high transaction costs. In doing so, we develop hypotheses about the effects of group affiliation on firm profitability: affiliation could either boost or depress firm profitability, and members of a group are likely to earn rates of return similar to other members of the same group. Using a unique data set compiled largely from local sources, we test for these effects in 14 emerging markets: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, India, Indonesia, Israel, Mexico, Peru, the Philippines, South Africa, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, and Turkey. We find evidence that business groups indeed affect the broad patterns of economic performance in 12 of the markets we examine. Group affiliation appears to have as profound an effect on profitability as does industry membership, yet strategy scholars have a much clearer grasp of industries than of groups. Moreover, membership in a group raises the profitability of the average group member in several of the markets we examine. This runs contrary to the wisdom, conventional in advanced economies, that unrelated diversification depresses profitability. Overall, our findings suggest that the roots of sustained differences in profitability may vary across institutional contexts; conclusions drawn in one context may well not apply to another. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.