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Comparison of the Efficacy of Massage and Aromatherapy Massage With Geranium on Depression in Postmenopausal Women: A Clinical Trial

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Background: Depression exacerbates the physical problems in menopause in addition to influencing the individual, occupational and social functioning of women. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the effect of aromatherapy massage on depression in menopausal women. Patients and Methods: In this clinical trial, 120 menopausal women were selected based on the inclusion criteria and were randomly divided into three groups namely control, aromatherapy massage and massage group. Data collection tool in this study was demographics questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). In aromatherapy massage group, essential oil of geranium (2%) in almond oil was used. Both groups were treated for 8 weeks, once a week for 30 minutes and their depression rate was assessed before and after the intervention and were compared with the control group. ANOVA and t-test were used for data analysis. Results: Aromatherapy massage reduced the mean depression score (MD: 0.51, 95%CI). Massage therapy also reduced depression score (MD: 0.20, 95%CI) (P < 0.001). To detect the effects of aromatherapy and massage therapy separately, the mean depression score was compared and aromatherapy massage reduced the depression score more than massage therapy (MD: -0.31, 95%CI). Conclusions: The results of this study consider aromatherapy massage beneficial in improving symptoms of depression and recommend it as a complementary therapy.
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... Ulaşılabilen literatürde menopoz dönemindeki kadınlarda aromaterapinin etkinliğini inceleyen 16 çalışmaya ulaşılmıştır. [19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34] Çalışmaların on birinin İran, üçünün Kore, birinin Japonya ve birinin de ülkemizde yapıldığı görülmektedir. Aromaterapi uygulaması çalışmaların altısında masaj, altısında inhalasyon, dördünde oral yol ile uygulanmıştır. ...
... Psikolojik durum üzerine aromaterapi uygulamasının etkisinin altı çalışmada incelendiği görülmektedir. 19,23,25,27,28,34 Çalışmalarda depresyon, anksiyete, psikolojik semptomlar ve psikolojik iyilik hali kavramları incelenmiştir. Çalışmalarda "Beck Depresyon Envanteri", "Kendi Kendini Değerlendirme Depresyon Ölçeği", "Spielberger Sürekli Durumluk Kaygı Ölçeği", "Menopoz Derecelendirme Ölçeği'nin psikoloji alt boyutu" ve "Psikosomatik İyilik Hali Ölçeği" gibi ölçüm araçları kullanılmıştır. ...
... Çalışmalarda aromaterapi uygulamasının psikolojik semptomları, anksiyete ve depresyon düzeyini azalttığı, psikolojik iyilik halini arttırdığı gösterilmiştir. 19,23,25,27,28,34 (Tablo 1) ...
... 23,27 Five RCTs assessed inhalation aromatherapy, 21-23,25,26 and two RCTs assessed massage aroma-therapy. 27,29 Five of the included RCTs originated in Iran, 22,23,26,27,29 one in Taiwan, 21 and one in Korea. 25 The studies were published between 2012 and 2020. ...
... 23,27 Five RCTs assessed inhalation aromatherapy, 21-23,25,26 and two RCTs assessed massage aroma-therapy. 27,29 Five of the included RCTs originated in Iran, 22,23,26,27,29 one in Taiwan, 21 and one in Korea. 25 The studies were published between 2012 and 2020. ...
... 25 The studies were published between 2012 and 2020. Six of the included trials used a parallel design, 21,22,[25][26][27]29 while one RCT employed a crossover design. 23 Two RCTs measured menopausal symptoms using the Green climacterics scale, 21,23 one used the MRS, 27 and the other used the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life (MENQOL). ...
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Background: Aromatherapy is widely used in women's health as a complementary therapy. Objective: This review aimed to critically evaluate clinical evidence of the effectiveness of aromatherapy in managing menopausal symptoms. Design: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: A total of 11 electronic databases were searched up to November 5, 2020. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating any type of aromatherapy against placebo in menopausal individuals were eligible. Two authors independently assessed the study eligibility and risk of bias as well as extracted the data for each study. Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to evaluate the methodological quality of each included studies. No ethical approval was required for this manuscript as this study did not involve human subjects or laboratory animals. Results: Seven RCTs met our inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Most of the included RCTs had low risk of bias in most domains except for blinding. Four studies tested the efficacy of aromatherapy for menopausal symptoms. The results showed that aromatherapy (lavender or low dose of neroli) inhalation had superior effects on reducing the total menopausal symptom score compared with the placebo. One study presented that aromatherapy massage with mixed oils reduced menopausal symptoms. Three studies investigated the effects of aromatherapy inhalation on sexual desire, and all of the studies showed that aromatherapy inhalation (lavender or low dose of neroli or mixed oils) had superior effects compared with the placebo. Conclusion: This review indicates limited evidence of the benefit of aromatherapy (lavender or low dose of neroli) in improving total menopausal symptoms and sexual desire. Further studies are highly warranted to validate the findings.
... Aromatherapy combined with other CAM interventions may provide additional symptom relief. A study, for example, found that aromatherapy massage with 2% essential oil of geranium in almond oil for 8 weeks may be beneficial in reducing depression in menopausal women [57]. Another study by Taavoni et al. [58] showed that 30min aromatherapy sessions with aroma oil twice a week for 4 weeks decreased the psychological symptoms of menopause. ...
... Espí-López et al. [65] reported that 30 minute craniofacial massage sessions using an average degree of pressure consisting of synchronized kneading and sliding movements for three consecutive weeks improved the mental health of menopausal women. Lotfipur Rafsanjani et al. [57] found that 30-miniute massage therapy with essential oil of geranium 2% in almond oil for 8 weeks reduced depression in menopausal women. Another study by Taavoni et al. [58] also revealed that 30-miniute massage therapy with odorless oil twice a week for four weeks decreased the psychological score of menopausal women. ...
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Menopause is not a high-risk period for psychiatric illness but can cause psychological issues; the most common of which are anxiety and depression, which can impair coping and reduce women's quality of life. Thus, many women have leaned toward complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for the relief of menopause-related symptoms. No rigorous study exists in the literature on the effects of CAMs on the psychological symptoms of menopause despite this growing patient interest. This systematic review aimed to assess the efficacy of CAM interventions on psychological symptoms of menopause. Databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar) were searched from January 2000 to May 2021 using the keywords: menopause, menopausal symptoms, psychological symptoms, and complementary and alternative medicine. The quality of the included studies was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT) for randomized clinical trials. Of the 704 articles found, 33 articles with 3,092 participants entered the final review. Aromatherapy, massage, yoga, and acupuncture, as well as some dietary and herbal supplements improved psychological symptoms during menopause based on the findings of the current study. However, the effectiveness of reflexology and exercise was debatable. However, necessary precautions should be taken when using them in clinical settings despite the positive effect of various CAM interventions on reducing psychological symptoms. More studies with a higher methodology quality are required to make better decisions about the effect of various CAM interventions on the psychological symptoms of menopause.
... depression and anxiety than those in the control group. Similar studies that examined the effect of aromatherapy massage on depression in the elderly were not observed, but the results are consistent with the results of some studies that investigated the effect of similar scents, with or without massage, on depression reduction in menopausal women, (26) and cancer (27) and hemodialysis patients. Also, result of present study is consistent with the results of the Rho et al. (20) study that examined the aromatherapy massage with a combination of three oils similar to the present study (lavender, chamomile, and rosemary) and lemon oil on the anxiety and self-esteem of the elderly. ...
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Introduction: This study investigated the effect of aromatherapy massage with lavender, chamomile, and rosemary oils on the depression and anxiety of elderly adults living in nursing homes. Methods: This randomized controlled trail was conducted on elderly adults living in nursing homes in Kerman, Iran. Through convenience sampling, 38 elderly adults were recruited and assessed using demographic questionnaire and Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS), respectively. Then, elderly adults were randomly allocated to either a control (19) or an intervention (19) group through block randomization. Elderly adults in the intervention group received aromatherapy massage using lavender, chamomile, and rosemary. Each massage session lasted 20 min and was performed three times per week for two three-week periods with an intervening one-week break, while their counterparts in the control group solely received routine nursing homes care services. HADS Scale completed with repeated measurements before the intervention, at the end of the third week, at the beginning of the fifth week and at the end of the seventh week. Results: According to the results, mean anxiety in the intervention group went from 11.9 ± 4 to 6.26 ± 3.38 (p <.0001), and the mean depression went from 9.94 ± 3.2 to 4.15 ± 2.14, indicating that anxiety and depression were significantly reduced compared with before intervention (p <.0001). Conclusion: Aromatherapy massage with lavender, chamomile, and rosemary oils is effective in significantly reducing anxiety and depression of elderly adults living in the nursing homes.
... 16,17 Perfume oils are believed to reduce anxiety and increase relaxation, which may be helpful in relieving the stressful symptoms of menopause. Researchers who study of the effect of aromatherapy [18][19][20] have shown that aromatherapy is effective in reducing physical and psychologic symptoms. However, there is insufficient evidence to support aromatherapy as an independent treatment to reduce menopausal psychiatric symptoms. ...
Article
The main aim of this study was to investigate the effects of inhaled lavender aromatherapy on depression and anxiety levels among postmenopausal women. A randomized clinical trial was performed in which 46 postmenopausal women received 2% inhaled lavender essence or distilled water 20 minutes nightly before bedtime for 4 successive weeks. Depression and anxiety mean scores decreased in the lavender group compared with controls, providing evidence that lavender aromatherapy may be an effective noninvasive treatment during the postmenopausal stage.
... The second study applied aromatherapy massage and reported a decrease in depression levels. 42 In both studies, body massage was applied but neither study included cranial or facial massages. Both studies suggest that massage can be an effective complementary therapy to treat psychological symptoms. ...
Article
Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of massage in the craniofacial area in menopausal women after the treatment and one month after its completion, and to measure its influence on quality of life in relation to symptoms of menopause, mental health, and body image perception. Design: 50 participants with menopause, aged 45-65 years, participated in a single-blind randomized controlled trial. Participants were randomly assigned to two groups: craniofacial massage group (CMG), who received massage treatment (n = 25), and control group (CG), without treatment (n = 25). Prior to randomization, all participants provided demographic and clinical information. Quality of life, mental health and body image perception were evaluated at three time points: at the beginning of the study, at the end, and one month after finishing the treatment. Results: A repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance (RM-MANOVA) was used to determine if mean scores in the criteria differed significantly between time points within subjects. The results obtained indicate that the cranial massage techniques had a large, positive between-subjects effect on our three criteria (Wilks Λ = .83, F(3, 44) = 3.04, p. <.05; Partial η = .17; ƒ = .45) as well as a large, positive between-within subjects effect (Wilks Λ = .64, F(6, 41) = 3.91, p. <.01; Partial η = .36; ƒ = .76). In short, our treatment improved participants' mental health, partially ameliorated the decrease in scores on the Menopause Rating Scale and stopped the decrease in Body Image perception's scores. Conclusions: The craniofacial massage protocol, applied to the craniofacial sphere, constitutes a complementary and valid therapy-based therapeutic option for clinicians in the treatment of different symptoms that occur in the climacteric period.
... Lavender may have both direct and indirect effect on the quality of sleep. Indirect effect may be related to other properties of lavender as previous studies showed the efficacy of lavender for sexual function [14,18], hot flash [4], physical [14], and psychological [14,19] symptoms. The main compounds in lavender (L. ...
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Objectives: The present systematic review was conducted to compare the effect of lavender on the quality of sleep, sexual desire, and vasomotor, psychological and physical symptoms among menopausal and elderly women. Methods: There were five electronic databases which selected to search respective articles which included were Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library without any language restriction since the study inception to March 10, 2018. The quality of studies was assessed in accordance with a jaded scale. Results: According to three trials, the lavender as utilized in a capsule form or aromatherapy could significantly improve the measured Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score (P < 0.05) in the menopausal and elderly women. The aromatherapy with lavender improved sexual function (P < 0.001), depression (P < 0.001), anxiety (P < 0.001), and physical (P < 0.001) symptoms. Based on a trial, 66.7%, 70.0%, and 53.3% of subjects reported feelings of relaxation, happiness, and cleanness effects of having used lavender respectively. Conclusions: The results suggested the effectiveness of the use of lavender either in capsule form or aromatherapy on the improved quality of sleep, depression, anxiety, sexual desire, and psychological and physical symptoms. These results, however, should be interpreted with caution considering the limitations of the study.
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Women will experience menopause physiologically at the age of 45 and show different signs symptoms. Menopause can cause psychological disturbances like frequent drowsiness, difficulty concentrating, insomnia, and fatigue. This study aimed to determine the effect of essential oil aromatherapy on insomnia. The pre-experimental design was used, with the One Group Pretest-Posttest approach to 30 menopausal women with insomnia in the ATMA Home Care Poncokusumo area, Malang Regency. The sampling technique chosen was accidental sampling. The data on insomnia was examined by modifying the KSPBJ-IRS-10 questions. The differences between groups were analyzed using the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. The respondents' age ranged between 46-53 years old (average 48 years), the average length of menopause was two years, and most graduated from high school, with mild insomnia. After the treatment, the respondents experienced a decrease in insomnia with a smaller mean score (19.5 to 11.5), p-value = 0.000 0.05, which means that there was a significant difference between the score of insomnia. It can be concluded that aromatherapy of essential oils can reduce the degree of insomnia in menopausal women. It is recommended to properly monitor the evaluation of the use of aromatherapy online and through home visits, as well as measure the characteristics of respondents.
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One of the major symptoms of climacteric syndrome is hot flushes (HF). They are most often experienced as very disabling. Estrogen therapy is the most effective treatment. However, it may be contraindicated in some women. The aim of this article is to provide a review of the scientific literature on pharmacological and non-pharmacological alternatives in this context. Only randomized trials and meta-analyses of randomized trials were considered. This review shows that some treatments usually used in non-gynecological or endocrinological disease have significant effect in reducing the frequency and/or severity of HF. Hence, some selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (paroxetine, citalopram and escitalopram), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (venlafaxine, desvenlafaxine) gabapentin, pregabalin and clonidine have a statistically effect as compared with placebo in reducing, the frequency and/or severity of HF. Some phytoestrogens, such as genistein, may also reduce the frequency of HF. Regarding non-pharmacological interventions, hypnosis, acupuncture or yoga have been analyzed with significant beneficial results, even if their evaluation is difficult by the absence of a good placebo group in most trials. By contrast, other approaches, both pharmacological or non-pharmacological, appear to be ineffective in the management of HT. These include homeopathy, vitamin E, alanine, omega 3, numerous phytoestrogens (red clover, black cohosh…), primrose oil, physical activity. In women suffering from breast cancer, several additional problems are added. On the one hand because all phytoestrogens are contraindicated and on the other hand, in patients using tamoxifen, because the molecules, that interact with CYP2D6, are to be formally avoided because of potential interaction with this anti-estrogen treatment. In conclusion, several pharmacological and non-pharmacological alternatives have significant efficacy in the management of severe HF.
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Menopause is associated with problematic symptoms, including hot flashes, sleep problems, mood disorders, sexual dysfunction, weight gain, and declines in cognitive functioning. Many women seek complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for symptom management. This article critically reviews the existing literature on CAM treatments most commonly used for menopausal symptoms. Electronic searches were conducted to identify relevant, English-language literature published through March 2017. Results indicate that mind and body practices may be of benefit in reducing stress and bothersomeness of some menopausal symptoms. In particular, hypnosis is a mind-body intervention that has consistently shown to have a clinically significant effect on reducing hot flashes. Evidence is mixed in regard to the efficacy of natural products and there are some safety concerns. Health care providers should consider the evidence on CAM in providing an integrative health approach to menopausal symptom management.
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Menopausal symptoms experienced by women vary widely, and while many women transition through menopause with manageable symptoms, others experience severe symptoms, which may impair their quality of life. A randomized clinical trial was conducted to determine the effect of aromatherapy massage on psychological symptoms during menopause. The study population comprised 90 women. Each subject in the aromatherapy massage group received 30min aromatherapy sessions with aroma oil, twice a week, for four weeks; each subject in the massage therapy group received the same treatment with odorless oil, while no treatment was provided to subjects in the control group. The outcome measures were psychological symptoms, as obtained through the psychological subscale of the Menopause Rating Scale. A total of 87 women were evaluated. A statistically significant difference was found between the participants' pre- and post-application psychological score in intervention groups, whereas the score in the control group did not differ significantly. Aromatherapy massage decreased the psychological score MD: -3.49 (95% Confidence Interval of Difference: -4.52 to -2.47). Massage therapy also decreased the psychological score MD: -1.20 (95% Confidence Interval of Difference: -2.19 to -0.08). To distinguish the effect of aromatherapy from massage separately, we compared the reduction in the psychological score. Aromatherapy massage decreased the psychological score more than massage therapy MD: -2.29 (95% Confidence Interval of Difference: -3.01 to -0.47). Both aromatherapy massage and massage were effective in reducing psychological symptoms, but, the effect of aromatherapy massage was higher than massage.
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Objective: The current study characterizes health-related quality of life, work productivity, and resource use among postmenopausal women by severity of vasomotor symptoms (VMS). Methods: Participants were selected from the 2010 US National Health and Wellness Survey. Women aged 40 to 75 years who did not report a history of menstrual bleeding or spotting for 1 year were eligible for analysis (N = 3,267). Cohorts of women with no VMS (n = 1,740), mild VMS (n = 931), moderate VMS (n = 462), and severe VMS (n = 134) were compared after controlling for demographic and health characteristics. Outcome measures were assessed using linear models and included health status, work productivity within the past 7 days, and healthcare resource use within the past 6 months. Results: The mean age of women experiencing severe VMS was 57.92 years. After demographic and health characteristics had been controlled for, women experiencing severe and moderate VMS reported significantly lower mean health status scores compared with women with no symptoms (P < 0.0001). The mean number of menopause symptom-related physician visits was significantly greater among women with severe, moderate, or mild symptoms than among women with no symptoms (P < 0.0001). Among employed women experiencing VMS, women with severe and moderate symptoms had adjusted presenteeism of 24.28% and 14.3%, versus 4.33% in women with mild symptoms (P < 0.001), and activities of daily living impairment of 31.66% and 17.06%, versus 6.16% in women with mild symptoms (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: In postmenopausal women, a greater severity of VMS is significantly associated with lower levels of health status and work productivity, and greater healthcare resource use.
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Although women have a lower risk of stroke during middle age than men, the menopausal transition is a time when many women develop cardiovascular risk factors. Additionally, during the 10 years after menopause, the risk of stroke roughly doubles in women. Endogenous oestrogen concentrations decline by 60% during the menopausal transition, leading to a relative androgen excess, which could contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk factors in women. Earlier onset of menopause might affect the risk of stroke, but the data are not clear. Because of the stroke risk associated with it, hormone therapy is recommended only for treatment of vasomotor symptoms, and some formulations might be safer than others. More research is needed to understand which women are at greatest stroke risk during midlife and to identify the safest formulation, dose, and duration of hormone therapy that can be used to treat vasomotor symptoms without increasing the risk of stroke.