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Celebrity Endorsement for Nonprofit Organizations: The Role of Celebrity Motive Attribution and Spontaneous Judgment of Celebrity-Cause Incongruence


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This study investigated relationships among celebrity motive attribution, celebrity-cause congruence, and involvement with a cause. A 2 (altruistic motive: high vs. low) X 2 (congruence: high vs. low) X 2 (involvement: high vs. low) experimental study examined perceptions of celebrity credibility, attitudes toward celebrity endorsement and nonprofit organization, and intentions to donate money and volunteer time. The findings attest to main effects of causal attribution of a celebrity's altruistic motive and interaction effects between motive attribution and congruence (i.e., spontaneous judgment of celebrity-cause incongruence). Further, three-way interaction effects suggest the role of involvement in spontaneously activating celebrity-cause disassociation.
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Celebrity Endorsement for Nonprofit
Organizations: The Role of Celebrity
Motive Attribution and Spontaneous
Judgment of Celebrity-Cause
Sun-young Parka & Moonhee Chob
a Rowan University, Glassboro, New Jersey, USA
b University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA
Published online: 29 Apr 2015.
To cite this article: Sun-young Park & Moonhee Cho (2015) Celebrity Endorsement for Nonprofit
Organizations: The Role of Celebrity Motive Attribution and Spontaneous Judgment of Celebrity-Cause
Incongruence, Journal of Promotion Management, 21:2, 224-245, DOI: 10.1080/10496491.2014.996802
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Journal of Promotion Management, 21:224–245, 2015
Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
ISSN: 1049-6491 print / 1540-7594 online
DOI: 10.1080/10496491.2014.996802
Celebrity Endorsement for Nonprofit
Organizations: The Role of Celebrity Motive
Attribution and Spontaneous Judgment of
Celebrity-Cause Incongruence
Rowan University, Glassboro, New Jersey, USA
University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA
This study investigated relationships among celebrity motive attri-
bution, celebrity-cause congruence, and involvement with a cause.
A 2 (altruistic motive: high vs. low) X 2 (congruence: high vs.
low) X 2 (involvement: high vs. low) experimental study examined
perceptions of celebrity credibility, attitudes toward celebrity en-
dorsement and nonprofit organization, and intentions to donate
money and volunteer time. The findings attest to main effects of
causal attribution of a celebrity’s altruistic motive and interaction
effects between motive attribution and congruence (i.e., sponta-
neous judgment of celebrity-cause incongruence). Further, three-
way interaction effects suggest the role of involvement in sponta-
neously activating celebrity-cause disassociation.
KEYWORDS causal attributions, celebrity endorsement, congru-
ence, nonprofit organizations, spontaneous judgment
Effective communication strategies to accomplish organizational mis-
sions are a key issue for both for-profit and not-for-profit organizations.
Central to this issue is selection of an appropriate message source for an
organization. Interest in the potential uses of different marketing approaches
has surged in the nonprofit sector recently (Andreasen, Goodstein, & Wil-
son, 2005; Andreasen & Kotler, 2003), and using celebrities to raise awareness
Address correspondence to Sun-Young Park, Department of Public Relations and Adver-
tising, College of Communication and Creative Arts, Rowan University, 201 Mullica Hill Rd,
Glassboro, NJ 08028, USA. E-mail:
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Celebrity Endorsement for Nonprofits 225
and funds for socially worthy causes is becoming a popular technique. Many
celebrities support organizations addressing a wide range of causes and have
been actively involved in campaigns with strong impacts on public aware-
ness and attitudes while gathering millions of dollars in donations. Charities
can benefit from celebrity endorsements because stars can strengthen media
attention to a cause as well as create an emotional attachment with the public
(Traub, 2008).
Given the popularity of celebrity endorsement for charities, people
might question celebrities’ motivation for endorsing a nonprofit organiza-
tion and wonder if they are supporting the organization to revive a tarnished
reputation or if they are sincere and truly involved in the charitable works
(Soden, 2007). Amid the popularity of celebrity endorsers in a nonprofit
setting, their association with a social cause can enhance or undermine the
perception of a charitable organization. It is important to note that the rela-
tionship between a celebrity endorser and a cause is strengthened when the
celebrity’s features are carefully matched up with the image of the organi-
zation. Moreover, depending on individuals’ involvement with a cause, the
response to advertising messages can differ (Flora & Maibach, 1990; Hajjat,
Nevertheless, minimal research has offered a theoretical explanation for
the effects of celebrity endorsers in socially oriented communications; most
research focuses on their effects on the demand for consumer products. Thus,
the current study centers on the nonprofit sector and investigates the effects
of attributions of celebrities’ motives and the perceived congruence between
celebrities and causes, as well as the influence of individuals’ involvement
with a cause on their attitudinal and behavioral responses to celebrity en-
dorsements. Specifically, the findings of this study attest to source effects on
consequential responses, including perceptions of the celebrity’s credibility,
the celebrity’s endorsement, and the nonprofit organization and intentions to
donate money and volunteer time to the charitable organization. This study
lays the theoretical groundwork that explains the effects of an individual’s
attribution of celebrity motive on spontaneous generation of celebrity–cause
(in) congruence, and boundary conditions for the spontaneous activation,
highlighting the role of individuals’ involvement.
Communication Strategies for Nonprofit Charitable Organizations
The nonprofit sector, or the third sector, is no exception for the use of
a celebrity endorser when it comes to seeking an effective messenger to
communicate an organization’s mission. In fact, with limited resources, non-
profit organizations have a critical need to implement effective communi-
cation strategies to raise funds for accomplishing their missions. More than
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226 S.-Y. Park and M. Cho
1.6 million nonprofit organizations in 27 distinct categories are registered
with the U.S. Internal Revenue Service, and the majority (over 950,000) are
501(c)(3) charitable organizations (National Center for Charitable Statistics,
2010). As the third sector expands, nonprofit organizations face various chal-
lenges such as increased responsibility for public service, high competition
for funds and in-kind and volunteer assistance, difficulty in raising funds
and meeting higher operating costs, and increased public concern about
their accountability (Broom & Sha, 2012). Moreover, government policies
that have reduced support to the third sector since the Reagan era have
led nonprofit organizations to seek effective communication strategies to
develop and maintain relationship with donors (Levy, 1999). The sector’s
special attention to marketing and branding strategies has been documented
since the 1980s (Andreasan & Kotler, 2003). For instance, nonprofit organi-
zations with annual revenues of more than $10 million collectively spend
$7.6 billion per year in marketing and public relations efforts (Watson,
Several areas of study have investigated effective communication strate-
gies in nonprofit settings, including message appeals (Hung & Wyer, 2009),
fund-raising techniques (Sargeant & Hudson, 2008), relationship manage-
ment strategies (O’Neil, 2008), and media strategies (Waters, Burnett, Lamm,
& Lucas, 2009). One of the important concepts in the nonprofit research
field is personal involvement with a cause. The role of involvement has
been tested in various communication settings, such as consumer behavior
research (Petty, Cacioppo, & Schumann, 1983), health campaigns (Rimal &
Real, 2005), and corporate social responsibility effects (Grau & Folse, 2007).
Of particular interest, Grau and Folse found that consumers who are more
involved with a cause are more likely to participate in a marketing campaign
related to that cause. Those who are less involved are more likely to be per-
suaded by peripheral message cues, such as donation to a local community
and positive message framing.
With regard to celebrity endorsement, one study compared the effective-
ness of three different types of spokespersons in a public service announce-
ment relating to Hurricane Katrina—national celebrity, local celebrity, and
victims, suggesting that people considered the fictitious victims more credi-
ble and believable than actual celebrities (Toncar, Reid, & Anderson, 2007).
Samman, McAuliffe, and MacLachlan (2009) revealed that survey respon-
dents were not personally influenced by a celebrity’s endorsement even
though they were fairly aware of celebrity involvement in international aid
and matched celebrities with various social causes they supported. Wheeler
(2009) found that celebrity endorsers who were highly matched to a non-
profit organization produced high source credibility, which ultimately influ-
enced the intention to volunteer time or donate money.
Clearly there is a lack of empirical research on the effectiveness of
celebrity endorsers in the nonprofit context (Samman et al., 2009). Thus,
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Celebrity Endorsement for Nonprofits 227
it is important to understand theoretical underpinnings in evaluating the
effectiveness of using celebrity endorsement for nonprofit sectors.
Attributions of Celebrity Motives
Attribution theory is a useful theoretical approach for understanding celebrity
endorsement effectiveness. This theory posits that individuals make causal
inferences that enable them to understand and predict events they observe
and experience, describing the personal factors internal to the actor (called
intrinsic motives) and the situational factors that are external to the actor
(called extrinsic motives) (Heider, 1958). This attributional approach to un-
derstanding effectiveness of celebrity endorsement could be significant for
examining its effects. In particular, attribution theory provides a comprehen-
sive theoretical framework of how individuals understand and predict events
by suggesting discounting principles (Kelley, 1972). According to Kelley, the
augmentation principle explains situations in which extrinsic factors function
as inhibitory factors (e.g., monetary loss), while intrinsic factors assume the
role of facilitative factors. In this case, individuals are most likely to augment
internal motivation toward events. If a celebrity makes a socially responsible
choice despite the possibility of wasted time and monetary loss, people de-
termine the celebrity’s ethical standard as the primary reason for the socially
responsible behavior.
On the other hand, the discounting principle proposes that a given
cause (either internal or external) of the behavior is discounted if other
plausible causes are also present and become salient (Kelley, 1972). People
discount a celebrity’s intrinsic motive if they infer that the celebrity makes
endorsements merely for financial compensation or to improve his or her
reputation (an extrinsic motive) rather than from a belief in the social cause
(an intrinsic motive) (Mowen & Brown, 1981). Unless it is clearly stated
that a celebrity endorser does not receive financial compensation for an
endorsement, individuals are more likely to infer that it occurs because the
celebrity believes in the positive characteristics of the product or because
of external factors such as monetary incentives (Moore, Mowen, & Reardon,
1994; Sparkman, 1982).
It can be expected that individuals would regard a celebrity who has
been perceived as caring about the public welfare as an endorser who has
intrinsic motives about a cause. A celebrity who has been widely recognized
as being philanthropic with regard to specific social causes may influence
individuals’ inference of their motives behind his or her promotion of social
causes. The attributions of the celebrity’s altruistic (i.e., intrinsic) motives,
as opposed to self-serving (i.e., extrinsic) motives, may generate stronger
perceptions of perceived celebrity credibility and more positive attitudes
toward the celebrity (Moore et al., 1994). Attribution of altruistic motives may
also general a positive attitude toward the ad and the brand and increase
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228 S.-Y. Park and M. Cho
purchase intention (Tripp, Jensen, & Carlson, 1994). Thus, the following
hypothesis is posited:
H1: Attribution of high altruistic motives of a celebrity will elicit (a)
stronger perceptions of celebrity credibility, (b) more positive attitudes
toward the endorsement, (c) more positive attitudes toward the charitable
organization, (d) stronger intentions to donate money to the charitable or-
ganization, and (e) stronger intentions to volunteer time to the charitable
organization than will attribution of low altruistic motives of a celebrity.
Spontaneous Activation of Celebrity–Cause (In)congruence
In celebrity endorsement literature, academic discourses exist concerning the
congruence between the type of spokesperson and brand are derived from
the principle of congruity of Osgood and Tannenbaum (1955). The effective-
ness of celebrity endorsement has been explained in terms of how well the
image and/or personality of the celebrity fits perceptions of the endorsed
brand (Erdogan, Baker, & Tagg, 2001). Celebrity–message congruence en-
hances advertising effectiveness by increasing recall of the brand as well as
by transferring the affect from spokesperson to brand (Misra & Beatty, 1990).
Congruence generates perceptions that the celebrity may be believed and
creates a more favorable attitude toward the brand (Kamins & Gupta, 1994).
Similarly, the match-up hypothesis maintains that a good fit between the
message conveyed by the celebrity image and the brand leads to effective
advertisement (Kamins, 1990).
Although no literature has explicitly suggested a theoretical relation-
ship between congruence effects between celebrity and cause and attribu-
tional inferences of celebrity endorsement motives, it is plausible that when
people suspect a possible hidden motive for a source’s actions, the per-
ceived congruence between source and message is lowered (Schul, Mayo,
& Burnstein, 2004). The perception of a celebrity endorser’s philanthropic
motives associated with a nonprofit cause is more likely to moderate the
effects of celebrity–cause congruence, given the importance of the per-
ceived motive of the endorser. People are likely to infer that a source has
certain desirable traits that resonate with their sense of self if the source
behaves in a socially responsible manner (Dutton, Dukerich, & Harquail,
1994). When people are distrustful of a source’s motive, the cognitive sys-
tem reacts to the distrust by automatically triggering incongruent associ-
ations between the source and its messages. That is, a great likelihood
exists that people spontaneously activate associations that are incongruent
with the given message when they are distrustful of the source’s motive
(Schul et al.). Such a reaction is explained by individual suspicion increas-
ing the complexity of integrating the messages within a single frame as a
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Celebrity Endorsement for Nonprofits 229
form of testing counter-scenarios (Kruglanski & Freund, 1983). Along similar
lines, receivers who suspect the validity of messages encode the messages
and process information that they are about to receive as if they are true
and, simultaneously, as if their opposites are true (Fein, Hilton, & Miller,
In light of this, individuals’ attribution of the celebrity’s motive may
moderate the impact of congruence. In particular, the positive effect of
celebrity–cause congruence could be more pronounced for celebrities with
altruistic motives than those with self-serving motives. Therefore, the follow-
ing hypothesis is suggested:
H2: The level of celebrity altruistic motive and celebrity–cause congru-
ence will interact. Under the condition of high altruistic celebrity motive,
high celebrity–cause congruence will result in (a) stronger perceptions
of celebrity credibility, (b) more positive attitudes toward the endorse-
ment, (c) more positive attitudes toward the charitable organization, (d)
stronger intentions to donate money to the charitable organization, and
(e) stronger intentions to volunteer time to the charitable organization
than will low celebrity–cause congruence. Under the condition of low
altruistic celebrity motive, there will be no significant difference between
high and low congruence.
Moderating Role of Involvement
This study assumes that the interaction effects between celebrity altruistic
motives and celebrity–cause congruence are differentiated based on the level
of personal involvement with causes. The important role of involvement has
been well researched. Defined as an individual’s “perceived relevance of the
object based on inherent needs, values, and interests” (Zaichkowsky, 1985,
p. 342), personal involvement has been considered to be a key antecedent
in information process and persuasion (Chaiken, 1980; Petty & Cacioppo,
1986). Emphasizing both active and passive cognitive responses of people
toward persuasive messages, Petty and Cacioppo proposed the Elaboration
Likelihood Model (ELM), which includes two different mechanisms or routes,
central and peripheral, to reach persuasion goals: building, reinforcing, and
changing attitudes and behavior. Personal involvement plays a significant
role in determining which route an individual takes during the information
process. People who are highly involved take the central route and engage
in thoughtful and responsible consideration of the information provided,
whereas people with low involvement are highly influenced by peripheral
cues, such as the number of arguments, expertise, or physical attractiveness
of the message sources, and question order (Chaiken, 1980; Petty et al., 1983;
Rimal & Real, 2005).
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230 S.-Y. Park and M. Cho
Consistent with the ELM, people with high involvement generate sig-
nificantly less spontaneous source derogation and more message comments
than those with low involvement (Wright, 1974). A spontaneous source eval-
uation is more likely in the low-involvement condition in which people are
less motivated to expend a great deal of cognitive effort on processing per-
suasive messages (Kardes, 1988). Therefore, the effects of automatic and
spontaneous judgment of celebrity endorsers will remain under the low-
involvement condition, while the effects will not remain under high involve-
ment. Thus, the following hypothesis is posited:
H3: There is a three-way interaction effect among celebrity al-
truistic motive, celebrity–cause congruence, and involvement level.
Under high-involvement conditions, there will be no interaction ef-
fect between celebrity altruistic motive and celebrity–cause congru-
ence; however, under low-involvement conditions, there will be an in-
teraction effect between celebrity altruistic motive and celebrity–cause
Mediating Role of Celebrity Credibility
Source credibility has been considered a crucial dimension in determin-
ing message sources of campaigns (Salmon & Atkin, 2003). In particular, a
celebrity’s credibility is composed of three dimensions: expertise, trustwor-
thiness, and attractiveness (Ohanian, 1990). Expertise describes an endorser’s
knowledge, experience, or skills as perceived by the target audience (Hov-
land, Janis, & Kelley, 1953; Ohanian, 1990), whereas trustworthiness refers
to the perceived honesty, integrity, and believability of an endorser (Er-
dogan et al., 2001). Attractiveness denotes the similarity, familiarity, and
likeability of an endorser as well as his or her “physical attractiveness”
(McGuire, 1968). The influence of source credibility on delivering messages
effectively—especially expertise and trustworthiness—was described in nu-
merous communication studies (Ohanian, 1991; Till & Busler, 2000). Also,
many studies have shown that physically attractive communicators, com-
pared to unattractive counterparts, serve as an important cue in an individ-
ual’s initial judgment of another person as well as in enhancing attitudes
(Kahle & Homer, 1985) and generating purchase intentions (Petty et al.,
More importantly, if the attribution of the celebrity endorser’s intrinsic
motives undermines the celebrity’s credibility and likeability, it will nega-
tively affect ad and brand evaluations and purchase intentions (Tripp et al.,
1994). Similarly, Rifon, Choi, Trimble, and Li’s (2004) study indicates that
credibility perceptions of the sponsor mediate the relationship between indi-
viduals’ judgments about a sponsor’s altruistic motives and attitudes toward
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Celebrity Endorsement for Nonprofits 231
the sponsor. In nonprofit settings, Wheeler (2009) found that the impact of
the perceived connection of the celebrity endorser to an organization, which
emphasizes a logical fit between the celebrity and the organization, on in-
tention to support the organization is mediated by celebrity credibility. It
is plausible that the spontaneous reaction to celebrity endorsement can be
mediated by increased perceptions of celebrity credibility as well. Thus, the
following hypothesis is posited:
H4: Perceptions of celebrity credibility will mediate the ef-
fects of (a) attribution of altruistic motives of a celebrity, (b)
celebrity–cause congruence, and (c) interaction between attribution and
Prior to the main experiment, a pretest was conducted to determine an ap-
propriate celebrity endorser and a social cause. A group of 20 undergraduate
students from a communication class in a large state university participated
in the pretest. To increase the ecological validity, real and familiar celebrities
were considered for inclusion, and four were chosen based on People’s 25
Most Intriguing People of the Year: Taylor Swift,Rihanna,Robert Pattin-
son,andKim Kardashian. Based on the guidelines of Charity Navigator,
one of the premier independent charity evaluators in the United States, nine
charity categories were identified: animals, arts/culture/humanities, educa-
tion, environment, health, human services, international, public benefit, and
religion. The questionnaire was produced on paper and distributed to partic-
ipants in classrooms. Participants indicated their identification with the four
celebrities (i.e., a satisfying self-defining relationship to the celebrities), their
interest in donating money to and volunteering in the charity categories, and
the perceived fit between each celebrity and charity category.
The highest mean score and the highest standard deviation of celebrity
identification was found for Kim Kardashian (M=4.53, SD =1.12), and
the highest mean score of both donating and volunteering was found in
human services, such as helping children in extreme poverty (M=4.35 and
5.05, respectively). Identification with celebrity was measured with a 7-item,
7-point Likert-type scale, which was adapted from the measurement scale of
Basil (1996). To test identification with celebrities, as a sense of friendship
or intimacy, can naturally occur through regular media exposure over time,
and has been found to generate positive cognitive and behavioral responses
(Brown, Basil, & Bocarnea, 2003). Participants were asked to indicate the
likeability of, feelings toward, and relevance of the celebrity (α=.80).
Also, regarding volunteer and donation intentions, participants were asked
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232 S.-Y. Park and M. Cho
to indicate to what extent they would be interested in donating money
and volunteering time to each of the nine charity categories. Indeed, it was
most appropriate to select Kim Kardashian as a spokesperson for the social
cause (i.e., helping children in extreme poverty) because she had no prior
endorsement history regarding this issue. Based on a single-item, seven-point
semantic differential scale, which was anchored by not a good fit/good fit,
the results showed a moderate perceived fit between the celebrity and the
social cause (M=3.17, SD =1.70).
Study Design and Stimulus Development
For this study, a 2 (celebrity motives) ×2 (celebrity–cause congruence)
×2 (involvement) between-subjects randomized experimental study was
conducted to test the proposed hypotheses. The main experimental study
used news articles as stimulus materials. First, a celebrity with high versus
low altruistic motives was manipulated in a cover story in which Kim Kar-
dashian was described either as a person deeply involved in socially worthy
causes who cared about helping children in extreme poverty, or as a per-
son who was not deeply involved in the causes but did care about doing
a variety of work not necessarily focused on helping children. That is, she
was very concerned about child hunger under the altruistic condition, while
the self-serving version presented her as being vaguely concerned with a
variety of different social causes. All executional elements were held con-
stant across the experimental conditions. For example, the experience-based
congruence was held constant across the two experimental conditions, in-
cluding her quotes, “When I was young and I would watch television and I
would see all the children suffering, I always said: when I grow up, I want
to help” in both stories. In doing so, motive was distinguished from con-
gruence operationalized as the experience-based congruence (Toncar et al.,
2007; Brown et al., 2003). The other independent variables, celebrity–cause
congruence and the participants’ involvement with the cause (i.e., helping
a child in poverty), were gauged prior to the motive manipulation in or-
der to be split at the sample median. Each stimulus news article contained
information about a fictitious charity called the Help Child Foundation that
worked to save children at risk of hunger and malnutrition and those af-
fected by natural disasters, along with descriptions of the celebrity’s role as
a spokesperson for the foundation.
Participants and Data Collection
A total of 201 undergraduate students from communication classes in a large
state university participated in the main study in exchange for extra course
credit. The use of convenience samples is justified for exploratory purposes
“to probe for possible explanations or hypotheses, and to explore constructs
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Celebrity Endorsement for Nonprofits 233
for dealing with particular problems or issues” (Ferber, 1977, p. 58). Further,
the sample had clear relevance to the topic under the current study. Accord-
ing to previous research in the field of volunteering activities (Toncar et al.,
2007), young adults have positive views of volunteering in particular. Indeed,
the use of convenience college student samples is well documented within
social issue advertising or advocacy advertising research, including the fol-
lowing: Nan (2008), who examined the influence of attitude toward a PSA on
issue attitudes using a series of social issues (e.g., aiding the poor); Reinhart,
Marshall, Feeley, and Tutzauer (2007), who examined the effects of mes-
sage framing on reactions to campaign messages promoting organ donation;
and Toncar et al. (2007), who investigated the impact of spokespersons on
reactions to messages related to contributions for victims of natural disaster.
Participants were randomly assigned to one of the two experimen-
tal conditions. Upon consenting to take part in the Web-based study,
participants were asked to rate their likelihood of identification with Kim
Kardashian and their involvement with helping children in poverty. Next,
they were asked to view the corresponding scenario with the manipulated
celebrity motives. The participants then filled out the questionnaire. Men and
women composed 37.3% and 62.7% of the sample, respectively. The average
age of participants was 20.3 years (SD =1.32). Sixty-seven percent of partic-
ipants were White, 15% Hispanic, 10% Asian, 6% African American, and 2%
other. In addition, 51.2% of the participants reported that they had donated
money to a charitable organization similar to Help Child Foundation (e.g.,
UNICEF, Save the Children), and 53.0% indicated that they had volunteered
their time for a charitable organization similar to the featured organization.
For the manipulation of celebrity altruistic motives, participants were asked
to respond to statements concerning the reasons for the celebrity’s endorse-
ment of the charitable organization. To assess participants’ attributions to the
celebrity’s altruism, a four-item Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (extremely
unlikely) to 7 (extremely likely) was created for this study, adapted from
Rifon et al. (2004). The participants’ perceptions of the celebrity’s altruis-
tic motives were gauged via four statements: the celebrity’s belief in the
characteristic of the cause, concern about the cause, sincere belief in the
cause, and concern about public welfare in general (α=.92). The ma-
nipulation of celebrity–cause congruence was examined with a four-item
semantic differential scale, adapted from Rifon et al.: not a good fit/a good
fit, not congruent/congruent, not compatible/compatible, and not consis-
tent/consistent (α=.98). Also, the involvement was evaluated using the
Personal Involvement Inventory (Zaichkowsky, 1985) for the involvement
manipulation. Participants were asked to rate five seven-point semantic dif-
ferential scales: important/unimportant, of no concern/of concern to me,
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234 S.-Y. Park and M. Cho
means a lot to me/means nothing to me, matters to me/does not matter, and
significant/insignificant (α=.93).
For the dependent variables, the 15-item semantic differential scale of
Ohanian (1990) was used to measure the perceived overall credibility of
celebrity endorsers (CCredibility)(α=.94). Specifically, for trustworthiness,
each 5-item, 7-point scale was anchored by undependable/dependable,
dishonest/honest, unreliable/reliable, insincere/sincere, and untrustwor-
thy/trustworthy in the dimension of trustworthiness (α=.94). For ex-
pertise, the anchors were inexpert/expert, inexperienced/experienced, un-
knowledgeable/knowledgeable, unqualified/qualified, and unskilled/skilled
(α=.94). For attractiveness, the anchors were unattractive/attractive, not
classy/classy, ugly/beautiful, plain/elegant, and not sexy/sexy (α=.86).
In addition, based on the measurement for attitudes of MacKenzie and
Lutz (1989), subjects were asked to rate their overall attitudes of celebrity
endorsement (AEndorsement)(α=.97) and the charitable organization
(AOrganization)(α=.98) on a 3-item, 7-point bipolar adjective scale. The scale
was anchored by good/bad, favorable/unfavorable, and pleasant/unpleasant.
The intentions to donate to the foundation (DI) (α=.91) and volunteer
(VI) (α=.94) were assessed via a 3-item, 7-point bipolar scale anchored
by very likely/very unlikely, probable/improbable, and possible/impossible
(Yi, 1990).
Manipulation Checks
A series of independent-sample t-tests were performed to verify whether the
manipulation of the celebrity’s altruistic motive significantly altered partic-
ipants’ attitudes toward the celebrity and the cause. The results show that
there were significant effects of altruistic motive manipulations (t=5.39,
p<.001). The motive mean score for the news article featuring celebrities
with high altruistic motive (M=5.08) was significantly higher than that for
the advertisement featuring celebrities with low altruistic motive (M=4.21).
Also, the mean score of high congruence (M=4.32, SD =.73) was signifi-
cantly higher than that of low congruence (M=2.59, SD =.42, t=18.70,
p<.001). Finally, the mean score of low involvement (M=6.75, SD =.31)
was found to be significantly higher than that of high involvement (M=
5.03, SD =.77, t=21.11, p<.001).
Test of Hypotheses
A series of three-way ANOVAs were used to test the hypotheses to deter-
mine the main effects of attribution of altruistic motives of celebrity and the
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Celebrity Endorsement for Nonprofits 235
FIGURE 1 Three-Way Interaction (DV: Celebrity Credibility).
interaction effects between attribution and congruence, and the interaction
effects among attribution, congruence, and involvement. The results for H1
show that the celebrity’s perceived altruistic motive had significant effects on
overall CCredibility,F(1, 193) =15.27, p<.001, p<.001, η2=.07. Significant
effects of the perceived altruistic motive were also found for AEndorsement,F(1,
193) =5.70, p<.05, η2=.03, AOrganization,F(1, 193) =F=9.02, p<.01, η2
=.04, DI, F(1, 193) =4.05, p<.05, η2=.20, and VI, F(1, 193) =6.80, p<
.05, η2=.03. Thus, H1(a) through H1(e) are supported.
Regarding the interaction effects predicted in H2, the results show that
celebrity altruistic motive and celebrity–cause congruence significantly im-
pacted CCredibility,F(1, 193) =7.58, p<.01, η2=.15, AEndorsement ,F(1, 193)
=4.80, p<.05, η2=.10, and AOrganization,F(1, 193) =6.02, p<.05, η2=
.03. However, the interaction effects were not significant for DI, F(1, 193)
=.87, p>.1, and VI, F(1, 193) =.53, p>.1. As shown in Table 1, the
results of the simple main effects reveal that the mean difference between
high and low congruence within a high altruistic motive condition reached
statistical significance for all the dependent variables; on the other hand,
when the celebrity’s perceived altruistic motive was lower, there were no
significant differences between high- and low-congruence conditions. The
results confirm that the direction of interaction effects is consistent with the
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236 S.-Y. Park and M. Cho
FIGURE 2 Three-Way Interaction (DV: Endorsement Attitude).
prediction in H2. Therefore, H2(a) through H2(c) are supported, but H2(d)
and H2(e) are not supported.
Regarding the three-way interaction effects suggested in H3, the results
show significant interaction effects on CCredibility,F(1, 193) =5.06, p<.05,
η2=.04, AEndorsement,F(1, 193) =4.49, p<.05, η2=.02, and AOrganization ,
F(1, 193) =4.45, p<.05, η2=.03. but no significant interaction effects on
DI, F(1, 193) =.22, p>.1, and VI, F(1, 193) =2.05, p>.1. As shown
in Table 2, the results of the simple main effects for the low-involvement
condition show that there was a significant difference between high and low
congruence under a high altruistic motive condition for all the dependent
variables. Nevertheless, for the high-involvement condition, the effects of
high celebrity altruistic motive on high versus low celebrity congruence
were nearly identical to the effects of low celebrity altruistic motive on
celebrity high versus low congruence as predicted (see Figures 1, 2, and 3).
Therefore, H3(a) through H3(c) are supported, but H3(d) and H3(e) are not
supported. The means and standard deviations for all dependent variables
are summarized in Table 3.
Finally, the mediation effects of celebrity credibility were tested by
adding overall credibility perceptions to the original hypothesis testing mod-
els as a covariate based on previous research (Rifon et al., 2004). All changes
in the significance of main effects of attribution and congruence and their
interaction effects were examined. A precondition of the mediation analysis
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Celebrity Endorsement for Nonprofits 237
FIGURE 3 Three-Way Interaction (DV: Organization Attitude).
was that the independent variables had significant effects on both mediating
variable and dependent variables. Based on the experimental results, the
mediating effects of CCredibility on attribution were thus tested for AEndorsement,
AOrganization, DI, and VI. The mediating effects of CCredibility on congruence
and on the attribution–congruence interaction were examined for all of these
variables except DI and VI. As shown in Table 4, CCredibility had significant
effects on all four variables (p<.001), whereas Fvalues for the main effects
of congruence and attribution and the interaction effects decreased when
the effects of CCredibility were accounted for. Specifically, the significant main
effects of attribution became nonsignificant for all attitudes and behavioral
intentions. The significant main effects of congruence and the significant
interaction effects also became nonsignificant for all attitudinal responses.
Thus, H4(a) through H4(c) were supported.
The present study gives a basic understanding of how to utilize a celebrity
endorser for nonprofit causes to maximize the effectiveness of communica-
tion efforts. Results of the present study have both theoretical implications for
scholars and applied value for nonprofit practitioners. First of all, this study
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238 S.-Y. Park and M. Cho
TABLE 1 Simple Main Effects of Means (Motive ×Congruence)
High motive Low motive
High- vs. Low- congruence High- vs. Low- congruence
CCredibility 5.56 vs. 4.36 (1.20)4.62 vs. 4.25 (.37)
AEndorsement 6.02 vs. 4.66 (1.34)5.11 vs. 4.69 (.42)
AOrganization 6.60 vs. 5.79 (.81)5.70 vs. 5.73 (.03)
Note. CCredibility =celebrity credibility; AEndorsement =endorsement attitude; AOrganization =organization
focused on the role of celebrity altruistic motives in enhancing the overall
effectiveness of celebrity endorsement for not-for-profit charitable organi-
zations. Consistent with previous findings in consumer research (Mowen &
Brown, 1981; Tripp et al., 1994), individuals’ attribution of celebrity motives
is a direct determinant of behavioral responses (e.g., donation and volunteer-
ing intentions), as well as attitudinal responses (e.g., celebrity endorsement
Of particular interest are the interaction effects between celebrity mo-
tive and celebrity–cause congruence. A theoretical relationship between con-
gruence and attributional inferences of the endorser’s (sponsor’s) behavior
has been suggested in previous research; however, conceptual distinctions
between the two constructs and empirical tests of their relationships are
limited in the literature. Thus, the present study points to the need to the-
oretically distinguish celebrity motive from celebrity–cause congruence in
order to understand celebrity credibility and endorsement effectiveness. The
results of the study show that the effects of celebrity–cause congruence
on individuals’ overall attitudinal responses might depend on their attribu-
tions of celebrity altruistic motives. Indeed, preliminary empirical evidence
TABLE 2 Simple Main Effects of Means (Motive ×Congruence ×Involvement)
High involvement Low involvement
High motive Low motive High motive Low motive
High- vs. Low-
High- vs. Low-
High- vs. Low-
High- vs. Low-
CCredibility 5.73 vs. 4.63
4.86 vs. 3.89 (.97)5.29 vs. 4.14
4.40 vs. 4.57
AEndorsement 6.09 vs. 4.79
5.75 vs. 4.48
5.90 vs. 4.64
4.52 vs. 4.88
AOrganization 6.67 vs. 6.10
6.47 vs. 6.06 (.41) 6.47 vs. 5.51
4.93 vs. 5.42
Note. CCredibility =celebrity credibility; AEndorsement =endorsement attitude; AOrganization =organization
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Celebrity Endorsement for Nonprofits 239
TABLE 3 Results of Mediation Effects Analyses
Variable ordering
Sources of
variation Original model Mediation model
1. CCredibility M 11.87 .00
C 31.31 .00
MXC 6.30 .01
2. AEndorsement CCredibility 68.25 .00
M 5.02 .03 .44 .51
C 21.61 .00 3.46 .06
M X C 4.35 .04 .59 .44
2. AOrganization CCredibility 17.76 .00
M 8.23 .01 3.32 .07
C 4.12 .04 .36 .55
M X C 5.06 .03 3.34 .07
3. DI CCredibility 68.25 .00
M 5.02 .03 .44 .51
3. VI CCredibility 17.76 .00
M 8.23 .01 3.32 .07
Note. M=motive; C =congruence; CCredibility =celebrity credibility; AEndorsement =endorsement attitude;
AOrganization =organization attitude; DI =donation intention, VI =volunteer intention.
indicates celebrities are more effective as endorsers when they are per-
sonally and sincerely connected to a cause, as well as when they are se-
lected based on how relevant their work and personality are to the cause
(Wheeler, 2009). The findings of the current study suggest that a perceived
lack of sincerity in the celebrity endorser’s motives can have a detrimen-
tal effect on endorser credibility evaluation and endorsement effectiveness,
even when the celebrity is well matched with the cause. Weakening the unit
connection between the endorser and the cause, the self-serving attribution
could have increased participants’ distrust of the message and elicited more
incongruent thoughts about the endorser and message than the altruistic
The results of the three-way interaction effects suggest that for people
who have low involvement with a cause (e.g., the general public), the impact
of congruence was greater for the celebrity whose motive was attributed to
altruism rather than self-interest; yet, no significant differences between high
and low congruence were shown in the condition of low altruistic motive.
Only when people perceive that a celebrity endorser genuinely cares about
the advocated cause can the celebrity–cause congruence effect be maximized
in terms of celebrity credibility and attitudes toward celebrity endorsement.
Nevertheless, these patterns were not shown under the high-involvement
condition (e.g., donors, members). Therefore, nonprofit practitioners should
keep in mind the importance of creating tailored messages targeting each
segment as well as selecting the appropriate celebrity endorsers.
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TABLE 4 Cell Means and Standard Deviations
High motive Low motive
High Congruence Low Congruence High Congruence Low Congruence
High IV
Low IV
High IV
Low IV
High IV
Low IV
High IV
Low IV
CCredibility 5.73 5.29 4.63 4.14 4.86 4.40 3.89 4.57
(.68) (.73) (.95) (.92) (1.25) (1.00) (.97) (.75)
AEndorsement 6.09 5.90 4.79 4.64 5.75 4.52 4.48 4.88
(1.23) (.87) (1.80) (1.07) (1.11) (1.36) (1.80) (1.00)
AOrganization 6.68 6.44 6.13 5.51 6.50 4.96 6.06 5.42
(.64) (.60) (1.21) (1.15) (.93) (1.21) (1.17) (1.28)
DI 5.24 4.09 5.38 4.00 4.49 3.52 4.83 4.01
(1.61) (1.16) (1.53) (1.23) (1.88) (1.45) (1.23) (1.37)
VI 5.38 5.09 5.84 4.25 5.15 3.72 5.46 3.98
(1.44) (1.29) (1.31) (1.62) (2.03) (1.40) (1.41) (1.44)
Note. IV =Involvement, CCredibility =celebrity credibility; AEndorsement =endorsement attitude; AOrganization =organization attitude; DI =donation intention, VI =
volunteer intention.
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Celebrity Endorsement for Nonprofits 241
Finally, the results of the mediation analyses showed that perceived
celebrity credibility plays a significant role in the effects of attribu-
tional inferences of and celebrity–cause congruence. It fully accounted
for the main effects of attribution and congruence and their interac-
tion effects on sequential attitudes and behavioral intentions. Consider-
ing the strong persuasive influence of endorser credibility consistently
evidenced in the extant literature, these results suggest that decreased
perceptions of celebrity credibility as a result of extrinsic attribution of
the celebrity’s endorsement motives have a significant bearing on inten-
tions to perform the requested behaviors as well as attitudes toward the
celebrity endorsement and organization. In addition, the effects of spon-
taneous inference formation regarding the celebrity-message incongruence
can be mediated by perceptions of decreased celebrity credibility, which
lead to negative evaluations of both celebrity endorsement and charitable
Although it has theoretical and practical implications, several limitations
of this study need to be acknowledged. First, it employed a college student
convenience sample even though the celebrity and cause were relevantly
chosen based on the sample’s characteristics. Second, only one type of char-
ity was tested. Human services were the most preferred charitable category
among the student participants, and the study conclusions are confined to
this type of charity and this sample. Indeed, the results of the interaction
effects consistently showed that behavioral intentions such as donating and
volunteering intentions were not influenced by the endorsement. It is pos-
sible that participants based the perceived costs and benefits of helping
through donations or volunteering not only on their values but also their fi-
nancial situation (Lichtenstein, Drumwright, & Braig, 2004). Compared to the
general population, college students are likely to have limited money and
time. Therefore, future research should be conducted with a more represen-
tative population sample and other social causes for greater generalizability
of the results.
Another major limitation of this study is that while a real social cause
was used, the use of a fictitious nonprofit organization weakened the ex-
ternal validity of the experiment. Also, the use of a real celebrity, which
was intended to strengthen the external validity of the study, might have
confounded participants’ prior perceptions of the celebrity with regard to
familiarity and likeability. Although considerable caution was used to tighten
both manipulations through pretests, it would be hard to dismiss the pos-
sibility that some degree of participants’ personal preferences about the
celebrities might have introduced noise in the observed treatment effects.
Thus, an alternative experimental design that uses a real celebrity and or-
ganization, while statistically controlling for prior perceptions of celebrity
endorsers, would enhance external validity.
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... The present study utilizes attribution theory to understand the formation of the public's evaluations of athlete advocacy (Heider 1958;Kelley 1973;Malle 2011). Attribution theory explains how people make causal inferences about others' actions and has been applied in the context of celebrities' social activities (Park and Cho 2015;Garcia de los Salmones et al. 2013). This theory posits that people tend to consider the motivations underlying others' actions (Heider 1958). ...
... These attributions are based on the information related to communicators or circumstances (Kelley 1973). In the issue advocacy context, receivers attribute altruistic or egoistic motivations to advocacy efforts based on observations of communicators' actions (Ellen et al. 2000;Garcia de los Salmones et al. 2013;Park and Cho 2015). Researchers have reported that altruistic-motivated actions are perceived as favorable, whereas egoistic-motivated efforts are evaluated as unfavorable (e.g., Ellen et al. 2006;Park and Cho 2015). ...
... In the issue advocacy context, receivers attribute altruistic or egoistic motivations to advocacy efforts based on observations of communicators' actions (Ellen et al. 2000;Garcia de los Salmones et al. 2013;Park and Cho 2015). Researchers have reported that altruistic-motivated actions are perceived as favorable, whereas egoistic-motivated efforts are evaluated as unfavorable (e.g., Ellen et al. 2006;Park and Cho 2015). In addition, these attributions could eventually lead to a Soc. ...
Full-text available
Athlete advocacy is recognized as an important method of persuading the public on social issues, and it demonstrates the role of athletes in achieving racial justice. However, how athlete advocacy can gain the persuasiveness to encourage public involvement remains unclear. This study investigates how the evaluation of an advocate athlete functions to encourage public issue involvement, focusing on Naomi Osaka’s racial advocacy. In particular, driven by balance theory and attribution theory, this study examines the effects of five sociopsychological factors on public involvement in racial issues: perceived credibility, hypocrisy, cause fit, effort expended, and role model status of advocate athletes. Data were collected from a cross-sectional online survey of 855 Japanese adults who were aware of Osaka’s advocacy. The findings highlight that public involvement in racial issues is significantly associated with the evaluations of the athlete’s credibility and hypocrisy. These evaluations are further influenced by perceptions of the athlete’s cause fit and role model status. This study enriches the literature on the management of sports for social change by demonstrating the importance of source evaluation in athlete advocacy in achieving advocacy outcomes. Our evidence implies that athletes looking to promote racial justice issues should effectively be seen as credible, knowledgeable, and non-hypocritical in their issue advocacy.
... However, a high congruence between endorser and brand may not generate as much elaboration as low congruence, and ultimately result in decreased scepticism from consumers who are more likely to infer intrinsic motives behind the endorsement (Carlson et al., 2020). Park and Cho (2015) found a significant interaction between the celebrity altruistic motives and celebrity-cause congruence and concluded that celebrity-cause congruence was higher for the advertisement featuring celebrities with high altruistic motives. When people are distrustful of a source's motives, the cognitive system reacts to the distrust by automatically triggering incongruence associations between the source and its messages. ...
... The attributions of altruistic motives to the endorser (i.e., intrinsic motives,) generate stronger perception of credibility and a more positive attitude toward him or her (Park and Cho, 2015). Accordingly, we hypothesise the following: H7b: Attribution of altruistic motives positively influences the perceived endorser expertise. ...
... The questionnaire consisted of 5 scale items adapted from previous studies that measured the variables of endorser credibility (Ohanian, 1990), brand/celebrity congruence (Fleck et al., 2012), ideal self-image congruence (Sirgy and Su, 2000), altruistic motives attribution (Rifon et al., 2004;Park and Cho, 2015) and attitude toward the ad (Aaker, 2000). All survey items used in the study were measured on a five-point Likert scale from 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 5 (Strongly Agree). ...
This study extends celebrity endorsement and influencer endorsement to financial brand commu�nication and explores the Generation Z (Gen-Z) attitudes toward financial advertising using an endorsement strategy. We investigate the effect of endorser type on the endorsement strategy effectiveness. This research is based on an experiment involving a total of 313 students aged 18 to 25 years old. Structural equation modelling (Amos Graphics 25) and MANOVA were used to ana�lyse the data. Our findings support that Gen-Zers perceived social media influencers (SMIs’) image as more congruent with financial brand image and more credible, with more altruistic motives than traditional celebrities. Indeed, this study showed that brand-endorser congruence and ideal�self-image congruence contributes to the attribution of altruistic motives to the endorser, which in turn influences endorser credibility. Gen-Zers’ ad attitude is mainly impacted by the endorser attractiveness and trustworthiness. This research highlights the interest of financial institutions in using SMI when advertising to Gen-Z. Keywords: Financial services, endorsement strategy, Gen-Z, Traditional celebrity, Social media influence
... Students from the institute's undergraduate, postgraduate, and doctoral programs were freely recruited as responders, as student samples were determined to be suitable for experimental studies (Druckman & Kam, 2011;Tapar et al., 2021). Participants of the study were from the Marketing department, which meant they were part of at least one (marketing, advertising) class that allowed them to receive extra credit for participation, and randomization (Park & Cho, 2015) was used to assign the group. The participants in the study for pretest 1 (n ¼ 218, M age ¼ 26 years, male 58%), pretest 2 (n ¼ 89, M age ¼ 28 years, male 61%), and for main experiment (n ¼ 148, M age ¼ 30 years, male 72%. ...
The purpose of the study is to understand how threat as a message appeal in social cause advertising impacts consumer behavior. The study extends the protection motivation theory by involving threat as a message appeal and agency and communal orientation as possible moderators between social cause messages, consumers’ behavior, and intention to follow social distancing under the ambit of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. The study considered 2 Social cause Ads VizPromotional Social Cause (PSC) vs Partake-in-our-cause (PIOC) X 2 Orientation (Agency vs Communal) X Message Appeal (With Threat vs Without Threat) factorial experimental design. The study manipulated the PSC versus PIOC message appeals by including threats and understanding the impact on both the agency and communal-orientated people. Two pretests followed by a pilot test were conducted before the main experiment. A factorial design experiment reveals that people with agency and communal orientation do get impacted if a threat is involved in the advertisement, while it follows social distancing norms.
... For instance, in the context of endorsements, individuals often try to explain why a celebrity promotes a specific brand product by evaluating the media character's traits (e.g. Park & Cho, 2015). Promotional posts by SMIs are known to incorporate both commercial as well as organic elements, and thus the true motive behind the message might be challenging to determine (Kim & Kim, 2021;Shan et al., 2020). ...
Due to the practice of greenwashing, consumers’ trust in green advertising has been reduced. Consequently, when confronted with green advertising appeals, individuals often infer ulterior motives, do not purchase sustainable products and are less inclined to behave pro-environmentally. Based on their success in regular advertising campaigns, social media influencers (SMIs) have been recommended as endorsers for green products to increase advertising effectiveness and sustainable behavior, but no empirical evidence supports these suggestions. An online study with a two-level between-subjects experimental design (N = 145) was employed to validate the positive impact of green advertising on SMIs’ followers compared to non-followers. Results indicate that followers, who have established an intense parasocial relationship with the SMI, believe them to be more trustworthy and consequently attribute affective rather than calculative motives. The attribution of an affective motive, in turn, increased green advertising effectiveness. Furthermore, parasocial relationships enhanced pro-environmental intentions regarding sustainable behavior.
To reduce the negative impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, local government officers conducted live streaming to sell and endorse local products. Understanding factors and mechanisms affecting consumer engagement and purchase intention in officer live streaming have a profound effect on local economic recovery and rural revitalization. By integrating the two-factor theory, source credibility model, and Stimuli-Organism-Response (S-O-R) framework, the authors conduct an online survey to investigate how characteristics of officer live streaming drive consumer engagement and purchase intention. The results show that: (1) Motivation factors of officer live streaming include officer streamer physical attractiveness, interaction friendliness, altruism, expertise, product price attractiveness, and product local uniqueness; hygiene factors include product authenticity, officer streamer trustworthiness, and government credibility; (2) Utilitarian benefit, hedonic benefit and risk perception mediate the effects of motivation factors and hygiene factors on consumer engagement and purchase intention; (3) Power distance belief and consumer region (local-shoppers vs. out-shoppers) moderate these effects.
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With the ongoing growth of social media, social media influencers are starting to play a critical role in the marketing plans of organisations. While most companies are keen to employ influencers to generate profits and gain market share, only a few studies have discussed how social media influencers can contribute to non-profits or social activities (Park & Cho, 2015). This inspires the present study to explore the mechanism of online influencers endorsing social problem campaigns. This research has two main objectives: 1) to examine which impression management tactics have been utilised by social media influencers; 2) to identify consumers’ responses to those tactics. This research used a qualitative case study approach with Asian hate as the case. Content analysis was adopted to analyse the Instagram posts of eight social media influencers and the comments of their followers in relation to those posts. I have found two dominant tactics, which are Solution and Campaign-promotion, and two supplement tactics, including Supplication and Association. In accordance with these tactics, the Instagram audience comments revealed five themes of responses: Educated, Feelings, Support, Resonance and Seeking reasons. The analysis revealed Solution as one of the leading tactics that will trigger people to feel educated and be supportive of the campaign posts, while Campaign-promotion will provoke Resonance, Reasons seeking and feeling Educated. The findings of this dissertation enrich the knowledge of impression management theory and tactics. It also encourages policymakers and social marketers to formulate appropriate policies to deal with social problems and adopt influencers as a tool to promote social causes. In this presentation, I will introduce the impression management tactics used by social media influencers as well as followers’ responses triggered by those tactics in the context of the #StopAsianHate movement.
Based on psychological theories of associative learning and self-concept, this study proposes an integrated conceptual framework of dual-path relationships between two types of congruence (product-celebrity congruence vs. self-celebrity congruence) and two dimensions of source credibility (endorser expertise vs. endorser trustworthiness), and their impact on advertising effectiveness in celebrity endorsement. Path analysis using data from college students (N = 273) in the U.S. supports the proposed dual-path relationships in the model. First, perceived endorser expertise (EE) mediates the effects of product-celebrity congruence (PCC) on attitude toward the ad (Aad). Furthermore, Aad mediates the effect of PCC on attitude toward the brand (Ab). Second, perceived endorser trustworthiness (ET) mediates the effects of self-celebrity congruence (SCC) on Aad. Furthermore, Aad mediates the effect of SCC on Ab. The new framework contributes to celebrity endorsement literature by integrating two congruence factors and two source credibility dimensions into one model, and by uncovering the serial mediation relationships between these factors and attitude toward the ad and attitude toward the brand. In addition, this study focuses on the effects of congruence between actual self and celebrity for low-risk functional products, extending previous research that has focused on the congruence between ideal self and celebrity for symbolic products. The study findings have practical implications on celebrity selection and message framing according to advertisers' positioning strategies.
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Monografia vznikla ako výstup z rozsiahleho výskumu, ktorý sme realizovali vrámci projektu VEGA 1/0216/15 Celebrity v sociálnej reklame a ich preferencia u adolescentov. Ústrednou myšlienkou publikácie je zodpovednosť zy budúcnosť spoločnosti prostredníctvom formovania hodnotového systému mládeže. V monografii sme priniesli rôzne aspekty uvedenej problematiky ako sú definícia sociálnej reklamy, sociálneho marketingu, CSR, príslušnej generácie a ich vzájomnych vzťahov. Pokuázali sme na dôležitú úlohu celebrít v sociálnej reklame ako nositeľov deklarovanej socjálnej zodpovednosti s ohľadom na ich vplyv na mladšie generácie.
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As many nonprofits have grown larger, they are adopting concepts and tools from the private sector to improve their own operations and effectiveness. For such growth and adaptation to continue, it is important to understand bow knowledge is transferred across sectors. This article describes a pioneering study of marketing knowledge transfer based on the experiences of executives in relatively large nonprofit organizations who migrated across sectors. The study reveals that the use of marketing concepts and tools in the nonprofit sector is much lower, and it offers explanations rooted in cultural and organizational differences. This article provides recommendations for promoting more cross-sector transfer of marketing knowledge.
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Although a number of scholars have investigated effective celebrity endorser characteristics with consumer samples using experimental methods, there is only one study by Miciak and Shanklin (1994) that explored the point of view of practitioners who are responsible for the selection of celebrities. This paper investigates British advertising agency managers' consideration of important celebrity characteristics when selecting an endorser and these factors' importance according to product types. The research findings validate much of the consumer-based research in that managers consider a range of criteria when choosing celebrity endorsers and indicate that the importance of the criteria depends on the product type.
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As many nonprofits have grown larger, they are adopting concepts and tools from the private sector to improve their own operations and effectiveness. For such growth and adaptation to continue, it is important to understand how knowledge is transferred across sectors. This article describes a pioneering study of marketing knowledge transfer based on the experiences of executives in relatively large nonprofit organizations who migrated across sectors. The study reveals that the use of marketing concepts and tools in the nonprofit sector is much lower, and it offers explanations rooted in cultural and organizational differences. This article provides recommendations for promoting more cross-sector transfer of marketing knowledge.
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This chapter outlines the two basic routes to persuasion. One route is based on the thoughtful consideration of arguments central to the issue, whereas the other is based on the affective associations or simple inferences tied to peripheral cues in the persuasion context. This chapter discusses a wide variety of variables that proved instrumental in affecting the elaboration likelihood, and thus the route to persuasion. One of the basic postulates of the Elaboration Likelihood Model—that variables may affect persuasion by increasing or decreasing scrutiny of message arguments—has been highly useful in accounting for the effects of a seemingly diverse list of variables. The reviewers of the attitude change literature have been disappointed with the many conflicting effects observed, even for ostensibly simple variables. The Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) attempts to place these many conflicting results and theories under one conceptual umbrella by specifying the major processes underlying persuasion and indicating the way many of the traditionally studied variables and theories relate to these basic processes. The ELM may prove useful in providing a guiding set of postulates from which to interpret previous work and in suggesting new hypotheses to be explored in future research. Copyright © 1986 Academic Press Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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Two studies are presented that examine the role of attractiveness and expertise in the “match-up hypothesis.” Much “match-up hypothesis” research has focused on physical attractiveness. Study One examined physical attractiveness as a match-up factor and its impact on brand attitude, purchase intent and key brand beliefs. In a 2 × 2 experiment, endorser attractiveness and product type are manipulated. Results indicated a general “attractiveness effect” on brand attitude and purchase intent but not the match-up predicted in previous literature. Study Two considered expertise as the match-up dimension. The second experiment manipulated product and endorser type. A match-up effect was found as the athlete was most effective as an endorser for the energy bar in increasing brand attitude, but not purchase intent. The variable “fit,” or “belongingness,” was shown to play an important role in match-up effects.
Corporations sponsoring causes may hope to create the appearance of "good citizenship." Using attribution theory, the authors develop and test a cognitive explanation of sponsorship effects. Results of the experiment suggest that a good fit between a company and the cause it sponsors generates consumer attributions of altruistic sponsor motives and enhances sponsor credibility and attitude toward the sponsor. Mediation analysis results indicate that congruence effects on sponsor attitudes were mediated by sponsor credibility.