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Are herbal mouthwash efficacious over chlorhexidine on the dental plaque?

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Abstract

To compare the effect of herbal extract mouthwash and chlorhexidine mouthwash on the dental plaque level. The subjects (60 healthy medical students aged ranges between 20 and 25 years) were randomly divided into two groups, that is, the herbal group and the chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash group. The data were collected at the baseline and 3 days. The plaque was disclosed using erythrosine disclosing agent and their scores were recorded using the Quigley and Hein plaque index modified by Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman. Statistical analysis was carried out later to compare the effect of all the two groups. Our result showed that the chlorhexidine group shows a greater decrease in plaque score followed by herbal extract, but the result was statistically insignificant. The results indicate that herbal mouthwash may prove to be an effective agent owing to its ability to reduce plaque level, especially in low socioeconomic strata.

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... The primary aim of this review is to find an alternative to chlorhexidine mouthwash -A gold standard mouthwash which is prescribed by most of the dentist during treatments like gingival inflammation and periodontal diseases. Susceptibility to dental and periodontal disease depends on risk factors includes genetics, systemic factors, and oral hygiene [1]. Plaque is the primary cause for gingivitis [2]. ...
... A. vera mouthwash, mixture of Terminalia chebula and cinnamon, mixture of Staphysagria, Chamomilla, Echinacea, Plantago, Ocimum, and cistus extracts, mouthwashes with turmeric, neem and triphala, mixture of Acacia Arabica, Punica granatum, Chameli leaves, Glycyrrhiza glabra and neem shows significant reduction of plaque indices and gingival scores comparatively to chlorhexidine mouthwash and can be a better alternative to chlorhexidine mouthwash [1,33,34]. ...
... T. chebula extract is effective against Helicobacter pylori, Xanthomonas campestris pr.citri and Salmonella typhoid, herpes simplex virus Type-1, HIV-1. It has similar effect on plaque control and alters the oral flora [1]. Mixture of herbal extract from myrrh, Echinacea and chamomile inhibit the growth of S. mutans and Actinomyces viscosus. ...
Article
Objective: To discuss the benefits of herbal mouthwashes with the standard chlorhexidine mouthwash. This review is conducted to explore the benefits of herbal mouthwashes. Methods: Many herbal extracts are now available as mouthwash for maintaining the good oral hygiene. Plaque accumulation and increase in oral microorganisms are the main factors for poor oral hygiene. Herbal extracts such as German chamomile, Terminalia chebula, Aloe vera, Green tea, peppermint satva, turmeric, neem, triphala, pomegranate extracts, guava extract, propolis, alum, darim leaves, mulethi, etc., are similar to chlorhexidine in plaque control and gingivitis reduction. Many herbal mouthwashes contain herbs with anti-microbial property such as neem, yavani satva, nagavalli, Gandhapura taila, pilu, Bibhitaka, Ocimum, Echinacea, Chameli leaves, etc. Many herbs are with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant property such as neem, clove, triphala (combination of amalaki, haritaki, and vibhitaki), tulsi, grapefruit, celery, licorice, katha, spearmint, and chamomile essential oil. Some herbal mouthwash with chamomile extract kills some skin pathogens such as staphylococcus and Candida species. Mixture of Staphysagria, Chamomilla, Echinacea, Plantago, Ocimum, and Cistus extracts used as mouth wash which was is better than chlorhexidine in reducing salivary mutans streptococci count. Hence usage of herbal mouthwash will enhance the oral hygiene comparatively with chlorhexidine mouthwash without any adverse effects. Result: Though herbal mouthwashes has the ability to maintain good oral hygiene on daily basis, but still it is less effective than chlorhexidine mouthwash during treatments like gingivitis, periodontitis, trauma, etc. Conclusion: Besides the disadvantages, chlorhexidine mouthwash plays effective role during dental treatments on short term usage. Herbal mouthwashes are suitable for maintaining good oral prophylaxis. Many programs have to be conducted to make them aware about mouthwashes in their oral hygiene.
... [10] Various mouthwashes are available in the market; among them, chlorhexidine is the most popular and has been recognized as the primary agent for chemical plaque control. [11] The effect of chlorhexidine in the prevention of bacterial colonization and VAP has been addressed in several studies. [12][13][14] However, some studies reported that compared to placebo, chlorhexidine did not produce significant differences in bacterial colonization or the incidence of VAP. ...
... [15,16] Moreover, the Center for the Disease Control and Prevention does not recommend the routine use of chlorhexidine [13] because of its side effects such as teeth discoloration, unfavorable taste, oral mucosal lesions, and parotid swelling. [11,17] Due to the side effects of chlorhexidine, researchers have tried to examine some other mouthwashes. Herbal mouthwashes might act as a good and cost-effective substitute for oral hygiene in ICU patients. ...
... Herbal mouthwashes might act as a good and cost-effective substitute for oral hygiene in ICU patients. [11,18,19] A study examined the effect of orthodentol -a mouthwash containing the extract of Khouzestani Savory -on oral hygiene of patients under mechanical ventilation and reported that it was as effective as chlorhexidine. [18] Another study also compared the effect of a herbal mouthwash (containing cinnamon and Terminalia chebula) and chlorhexidine and reported that the two mouthwashes were equally effective in reducing the dental plaque level. ...
Article
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Background: Oral hygiene is a crucial nursing care in the intensive care unit (ICU) that can prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia. Objectives: This study compares the effect of mouthwash with Boswellia extract and chlorhexidine on the prevention of dental plaque formation in ICU patients having an endotracheal tube. Methods: A clinical trial was performed on 90 patients under mechanical ventilation in the ICU of Ayatollah Kashani Hospital in Isfahan, Iran, in 2018. The study data were collected using a demographic information form, a checklist, and the O'Leary dental plaque index (ODPI). The patients were randomly divided into two groups to receive mouthwash using solutions containing Boswellia or chlorhexidine. Data were analyzed using the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, analysis of variance, independent samples, and paired t-tests. Results: Most of the patients were male (76.67%), with a smoking background (60%) and in the age range of 18–38 years. The two groups did not significantly differ in terms of demographic characteristics (P > 0.05). The mean ODPI was 0.89 ± 0.07 at baseline in the Boswellia group and changed to 0.67 ± 0.05 after the intervention (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the mean ODPI was 0.93 ± 0.03 in the chlorhexidine group and change to 0.77 ± 0.09 after the intervention (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Both Boswellia and chlorhexidine mouthwashes were effective in the prevention of dental plaque in patients under mechanical ventilation.
... All the studies showed no difference between herbal extract formulations and control group in treating gingival health, excepting for the study done by Devanand et al [15] in which the herbal extract mouthrinse reduced plaque formation in slightly lesser proportion as compared to the control group. ...
... Study conducted by Pannuti et al [29] and Devanand et al [15] was done on dental students. Hawthorne effect could have influenced the outcome of this study as mere participation in the trial could have improved the scores by motivating participants to adopt better oral hygiene behaviours irrespective of whichever group they were in. ...
... Other studies with a similar study design showed that the regular use of it failed to retard plaque-associated gingivitis (Fine et al., 1985;Stoeken et al., 2007). With the continuous need to counter the adverse effects, improve the antiplaque and antigingivitis potential, and to reduce the increasing microbial resistance to conventional antiseptics and antibiotics, attention is now turning to the use of natural antimicrobial compounds (herbal extracts) (Gupta et al., 2015). Herbal products are being used in India since ancient times for the treatment of various ailments. ...
... Herbal products are being used in India since ancient times for the treatment of various ailments. Of late, the commercial use of these products in toothpaste and for oral irrigation delivery has increased manifold (Gupta et al., 2015). Some of the natural or herbal products and their extracts, such as guava, pomegranate, neem, propolis, tulsi, green tea, cranberry, and grapefruit, when used in mouthwashes have shown significant advantages over the chemical ones. ...
Article
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Dental plaque is a structurally- and functionally-organized biofilm that is formed in an ordered way and has a diverse microbial composition that, in health, remains relatively stable over time (microbial homeostasis). The predominant species from diseased sites are different from those found in healthy sites, although the putative pathogens can often be detected in low numbers at normal sites. In dental plaque, there is a shift toward community dominance by acidogenic and acid tolerating species such as Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli, although other species with relevant traits may be involved. Strategies to control plaque could include inhibition of biofilm initiation by various chemical and natural substances. In this study, various products both natural and commercial were used to evaluate its ability to control plaque formation. Essential oils such as Eugenol, Eucalyptus, Thyme, Peppermint, Cinnamon have been well known since centuries for their anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory properties and have been used to prevent and cure dental plaque formation. Along with traditional use of essential oils, recent trends of commercial mouth rinses such as Listerine, Colgate Plax, Chlorhexidine etc have also been used widely for prevention of dental plaque prevention. The diet we consume also plays a major role in the formation of dental plaque, different kinds of food that we consume daily contribute differently to plaque formation, previous reports suggest that cranberry juice, pomegranate juice have the ability to eradicate dental plaque. Hence in this study, the activity of pomegranate juice was also assessed for inhibition of plaque.
... Other studies with a similar study design showed that the regular use of it failed to retard plaque-associated gingivitis (Fine et al., 1985;Stoeken et al., 2007). With the continuous need to counter the adverse effects, improve the antiplaque and antigingivitis potential, and to reduce the increasing microbial resistance to conventional antiseptics and antibiotics, attention is now turning to the use of natural antimicrobial compounds (herbal extracts) (Gupta et al., 2015). Herbal products are being used in India since ancient times for the treatment of various ailments. ...
... Herbal products are being used in India since ancient times for the treatment of various ailments. Of late, the commercial use of these products in toothpaste and for oral irrigation delivery has increased manifold (Gupta et al., 2015). Some of the natural or herbal products and their extracts, such as guava, pomegranate, neem, propolis, tulsi, green tea, cranberry, and grapefruit, when used in mouthwashes have shown significant advantages over the chemical ones. ...
... Furthermore, CHX was reported to lead to potential side effects, as reported by the patients, which limited its acceptability as against the herbal mouthrinse. [12] In a similar study, Bagchi et al., also, observed herbal mouthrinse and CHX to be equally effective as adjuncts to mechanical plaque control regimes in prevention of dental plaque and gingivitis. [13] In yet another study, Marrelli et al., on analysis of clinical data from a trial carried-out with 3 different mouthrinses including 0.2% CHX concluded that, though, efficacy of CHX was found to be unmatched, all 3 mouthrinses tested were effective in reducing plaque formation in the absence of brushing as well as aided in protection of gingival tissues. ...
Background: Chlorhexidine (CHX) gluconate has remained the gold standard chemical plaque control agent till date, though, being associated with several disadvantages including its tendency to stain teeth and leading to irritation of soft tissues. To overcome these inherent disadvantages, there has been a surge of studies in the recent past to evaluate the efficacy of herbal mouthrinses as against CHX. Objective: The present study was planned to compare the anti-plaque efficacy of Hi-Ora mouthrinse as against 0.12% CHX in patients with chronic gingivitis. Materials and methods: The present study was designed as a case-control study including 90 patients with chronic gingivitis who were divided into 3 groups including Group A in which 0.12% CHX was prescribed, Group B in which patients were prescribed Hi-Ora and Group C in which normal saline was prescribed after oral prophylaxis while the mean Gingival Index (GI) and Plaque Index (PI) scores were recorded on the 5th postprocedural day. Results: The mean GI score in CHX group was found to be 0.70 ± 0.25 as against 0.66 ± 0.16 in Hi-Ora and 1.59 ± 0.55 in normal saline groups. Similarly, the mean PI score in CHX group was found to be 0.80 ± 0.31 as against 0.77 ± 0.30 in Hi-Ora and 1.86 ± 0.61 in normal saline groups. Conclusions: The results of the present study suggested Hi-Ora to be more effective than 0.12% CHX in reducing the mean GI and PI scores among all the 3 groups.
... Lowering CHX concentration, in combination with herbal extract additives, might be a good approach as shown in the few studies. In some trials, herbal extracts have been compared to CHX solutions, whereby slight clinical benefits were found [58][59][60]. No in vivo trials could be found evaluating a mixed herbal/CHX solution, however. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Biofilm management and infection control are essential after periodontal and implant surgery. In this context, chlorhexidine (CHX) mouth-rinses are frequently recommended post-surgically. Despite its common use and many studies in this field, a systematic evaluation of the benefits after periodontal or implant surgery is—surprisingly—still missing. Objectives To evaluate the benefits of chlorhexidine rinsing after periodontal or implant surgery in terms of plaque and inflammation reduction potential. Furthermore, to screen whether the concentration changes or additives in CHX solutions reduce side effects associated with its use. Materials and methods A systematic literature search was performed for clinical trials, which compared CHX rinsing after periodontal or implant surgery with rinsing using placebo, non-staining formulations, or solutions with reduced concentrations of the active compound. Four databases (Medline, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane) were searched up to June 2018. Two reviewers independently identified and screened the literature. Results From 691 titles identified, only eleven publications met the inclusion criteria and were finally included. Mainly early publications assessed the benefits of CHX over placebo rinsing, whereas more recent publications focused more on the evaluation of new formulations with regard to effectiveness and side effects. The use of CHX after surgery showed in general significant reduction in plaque (means of 29–86% after 1 week) and bleeding (up to 73%) as compared to placebo. No consensus, however, was found regarding the most beneficial CHX formulation avoiding side effects. Conclusion Chlorhexidine rinsing helps to reduce biofilm formation and gingival inflammation after surgery. However, no additional reduction of periodontal probing depth over any given placebo or control solution could be found irrespective of whether CHX was used or not. The use of additives such as antidiscoloration systems (ADS) or herbal extracts may reduce side effects while retaining efficacy. Clinical relevance Within the limitations of this review, it can be concluded that CHX may represent a valuable chemo-preventive tool immediately after surgery, during the time period in which oral hygiene capacity is compromised. To reduce the side effects of CHX and maintain comparable clinical effects, rinsing with less concentrated formulations (e.g., 0.12%) showed the most promising results so far.
... The natural product in issue has to be compared to both positive as well as negative control. [25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41] To establish the effectiveness of this product studies must be conducted where safety and microbiological parameters can be assessed. ...
Article
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Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of Barleria prionitis extract mouthwash in comparison with gold standard chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwash on the oral health. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 subjects were randomly divided into two groups, B. prionitis group and the CHX gluconate mouthwash group. The data were collected at the baseline and 3 days. The plaque was disclosed using erythrosine disclosing agent and their scores were recorded using the Quigley and Hein plaque index modified by Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the effect of the two drug regime. Results: Our result showed that the CHX and the B. prionitis were statistically equally effective against dental plaque. Although the action of CHX was more pronounced. Conclusions: This study has confirmed antimicrobial potential of the plant B. prionitis, thus supporting its folklore application as preventive remedy against oral microbial diseases. SUMMARY Within the limitation of this trial, herbal mouthwash has been shown to demonstrate similar effects on plaque as compared to the standard drug CHX. Further long term research needs to be done to check the efficacy and effectiveness of herbal products over standard drug regime
... However, there is inadequate clinical research on herb based mouthrinses and dentifrices in Asia. 6 Till present, there are many conditions affecting the oral health which can be prevented and/or using natural product-based drugs or formulations. 7 Antimicrobial effectiveness of herbal and 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthrinse … Nagappan N et al of many commercialized mouthrinses antimicrobial agents due to the broad range effects towards oral microbes and pathogens. ...
Article
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Background: Microorganisms in the oral cavity are still considered as serious public health problems and inflict a costly burden to health care services in and around the world. Mouthrinses have been used for centuries with the objective of reducing the amount of microorganisms in the oral cavity. Mouthrinses are used as adjuncts to mechanical oral hygiene. Therapeutic mouthwashes are often recommended as an adjunct to mechanical plaque control for prevention of plaque accumulation and to maintain gingival and periodontal health. Mechanical control alone for reducing recalcitrant biofilms in the oral cavity has been challenged because it is considered to be rather time-consuming and most importantly insufficient for effective oral hygiene. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of herbal and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthrinse against Streptococcus mutans. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial effectiveness (zone of inhibition) of an herbal mouthrinse and 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthrinse was determined by agar well diffusion method. Results: The zone of inhibition of S. mutans was 19 mm for the 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthrinse. The arowash liquid mouthrinse shows that S. mutans do not produce a zone of inhibition. Conclusion: Chlorhexidine mouthrinse (0.2%) has a better antimicrobial efficacy against the S. mutans when compared to herbal mouthrinse (arowash liquid).
... Dental plaque is a host associated biofilm, which exists as soft deposits adhering to tooth surfaces or other hard surfaces in the oral cavity, and consists of bacteria embedded in a matrix of polymers of bacterial and salivary origin [2]. There is a causal relationship between dental plaque and gingivitis that was established decades ago [3]. Clinical control of these diseases can most readily be achieved by reducing the oral microbial load of the plaque biofilm [4]. ...
Article
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Objective: The present study evaluated the effectiveness of Spirulina mouthwash on the reduction of dental plaque and gingivitis.Methods: A single-blind clinical trial was conducted among thirty patient’s aged 18-40 y visiting dental college and hospital in Bangalore city. Mouthwash was prepared using 0.5% Spirulina. Intervention protocol consisted of instructing the patients to rinse with 10 ml of mouthwash for 1 minute twice daily for 7 d. Plaque index and Gingival index were used to assess the variables at the baseline and after the intervention. The perception of the individual subjects with regard to the use of mouthwash was assessed using 10 cm long visual analog scale (VAS). Statistical analysis was carried out using Wilcoxon signed rank test for mean pre and post plaque and gingival scores respectively. Descriptive statistics was performed for VAS questionnaireResults: The results showed a highly significant difference (p<0.001) between the mean plaque scores at the baseline (2.16±0.34) and at the follow up (1.27±0.46). The mean gingival scores at the baseline (1.86±0.38) and at the follow-up (1.05±0.43) also showed a highly significant difference (p<0.001). Regarding the Visual Analog Scale, the mean values of 5 or greater than suggested the responses to be favourable as the values were reflectedConclusion: The study showed that Spirulina mouthwash resulted in significant reduction in dental plaque and gingivitis. Also, the mouthwash was convenient to use without any adverse effects. Hence, the use of herbal mouth rinses such as Spirulina should be supported.
... Hence these chemical methods of reducing plaque are appealing as they can provide significant benefits to patients who cannot maintain adequate mechanical plaque control [5]. The digluconate of Chlorhexidine is a synthetic antimicrobial drug which is effective in vitro against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and considered as gold standard [6]. ...
... [26] A study to evaluate the effects of cinnamon and chlorhexidine on dental plaque reported an equal effectiveness of both cinnamon and chlorhexidine as an anti-plaque agent. [21] In a study by using a combination of cinnamon and T. chebula, a significant reduction in plaque was observed thereby indicating its utility as an effective anti-plaque agent [27] . Similar results were also obtained in several other studies. ...
... More clinical trials are required to know the effectiveness of P. granatum and its advantage over the prototype chemical plaque control agent, i.e., chlorhexidine, which is still a gold standard for reduction of plaque scores. [20] Although chlorhexidine still continues to be the gold standard, pomegranate-containing or herbal mouthwash can be easily substituted for long-term use, avoiding the side effects of chlorhexidine. ...
Article
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Background: Punica granatum contains polyphenols and tannins which possess anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties. The main enemy for dental caries and periodontal diseases is dental plaque. Several plaque control measures have been suggested to prevent plaque accumulation. One among them will be the use of chlorhexidine mouthwash which is considered to be gold standard plaque control measure. However, the major adverse effect of chlorhexidine will be staining and taste alteration. To overcome the adverse effects of chlorhexidine, various naturally occurring antibacterial agents have been incorporated to prevent plaque formation. One among them will be P. granatum. Hence, the present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial effectiveness of P. granatum and chlorhexidine-containing mouthwash. Materials and Methods: A single-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted among twenty healthy individuals. The participants were randomly allocated into two groups: Group I (experimental group - P. granatum) and Group II (controlled group - chlorhexidine). Before conducting the trial, the study design was explained to the qualifying participant and informed consent was obtained from the voluntary patients who were willing to participate in the study. Plaque samples were evaluated for Streptococcus mutans at baseline and 15th day of follow-up. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare the mean differences before and after treatment within each group for plaque S. mutans. Mann-Whitney U-test was used to estimate differences in the mean plaque S. mutans count between the groups. Results: A statistically significant reduction in mean plaque S. mutans was observed in both Group I and Group II at baseline and 7th day follow-up. However, there was no statistically significant difference observed between the groups at 7th day of follow-up. Conclusion: To conclude, there was no statistically significant difference was observed in mean plaque S. mutans between group 1 and group 2 at 7th day of follow-up. Hence, the current study shows that P. granatum can be used as an effective alternative to chlorhexidine mouthwash against plaque S. mutans.
... It was not surprising green peppermint oil could inhibit bacterial growth, since some herbal extracts have been shown to reduce dental plaque levels. 11 However, the antibacterial activity was increased greatly in the presence of g-PGA, especially when inhibiting the growth of S. aureus. Previous studies tested the antibacterial activity of g-PGA when mixed with chitosan or magnetite nanoparticles, and the results showed that the mixtures could inhibit the growth of E. coli, S. aureus, or P. aeruginosa after culturing bacteria with the mixtures for 18e24 h. 12 In this study, we tested the antibacterial activity of g-PGA after culturing with bacteria for 18 h and found that 10000 ppm of g-PGA had the same antibacterial effect as commercial mouthwashes. ...
Article
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Background/purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether poly-gamma-glutamic acid (γ-PGA), a naturally derived biomaterial, was suitable as an alternative antibacterial mouthwash in the absence of alcohol. Materials and methods: Three bacterial strains, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were used for testing the antibacterial activity of mouthwashes. In addition, cell viability, cytotoxicity, and genotoxicity experiments were conducted for testing the toxicity of mouthwashes. Results: We demonstrated that 10000 ppm of γ-PGA without alcohol could efficiently inhibit 99% of bacterial growth. In addition, γ-PGA did not cause any cytotoxicity or genotoxicity. Conclusion: 10000 ppm of γ-PGA in an alcohol-free mouthwash is an alternative biomaterial for mouthwashes.
... All these chemicals have side effects (9,10) . Therefore, using natural products from plants extract as mouthwash is a promising approach to overcome the side effects of chemical mouthwashes (11) . ...
Article
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Background: During the course of fixed orthodontic therapy, it is difficult to maintain high standard oral hygiene care by mechanical tooth cleaning only. Therefore, mouthwashes are commonly used as adjunct for mechanical tooth cleaning. Most of the mouthwashes are chemicals and have a wide range of side effects. Plant extracts have stood the test of time as safe inexpensive and available remedy for providing general health care. Objective: The present study attempted to evaluate the efficacy of gargling with aqueous extract of Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) on the oral hygiene status of patients wearing fixed orthodontic appliances. Methods: Eleven male patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances were recruited in the study. All patients were given the same oral hygiene regimen during the study period. Clinical evaluation of OPI (orthodontic plaque index) and salivary streptococcus mutans count were recorded at the first activation visit (three weeks after placement of the orthodontic appliances) which considered the baseline visit and after one week of gargling with the extract. The data were statistically analyzed with SPSS (version 21) using Paired Samples t-test. Result: The results of the statistical analysis revealed that, there were highly significant reductions in both OPI and salivary streptococcus mutans count after one week gargling with aqueous extract of Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale). Conclusion: The present finding concluded that, aqueous extract of Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) could be use as a promising ingredient in manufacturing mouthwashs and other dental supplies that contribute in maintaining good oral hygiene during the course of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances.
... (4) The present scientific evidence based review of literature focuses on the possible role of Ayurveda in the management of various dental health conditions .The commonly used herbs in Dentistry Amala , Launga oil , Nimbu/lemon solution, Triphala ,Haritaki, (tea tree oil), Aloe Vera, Azadirachta Indica (Neem), Piper Betel, Osmium sanctum (Basil, Tulsi) , Curcuma longa (haldi-turmeric powder) posses antibacterial and antiplaque properties. (5) As "substitutes" to the other conventionally available oral product prescribed by the dentist, most of the individuals use naturally available herbal mouth rinses which are plant-based ingredients that emphasize holistic health and wellness. Regular use of an efficient anti-plaque compound, such as in toothpaste, can be very beneficial in plaque control. ...
... There is no proven evidence with true cinnamon of any harm, while cassia has been shown to have several disadvantages. Recent research with mouthwash containing true cinnamon extract (50%) has not been reported as having any harmful effects (Gupta et al. 2015). Oral hygiene targeted cinnamon toothpastes containing bark or bark oil are continually being introduced into the market by many product developers (Telrandhe et al. 2017;Akotakar et al. 2018). ...
Chapter
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Sri Lanka is the market leader of Ceylon cinnamon with a 90% global market share. Cinnamon is one of the leading foreign exchange earners from among agricultural exports of Sri Lanka. The cinnamon extent of cultivation, production, and yield has only marginally increased over the past few decades despite high potential in the global market. However, the major competitive product cassia produced and exported predominantly by Indonesia, China, and Vietnam has contributed to the erosion of Ceylon cinnamon market share, notwithstanding warning from leading health agencies about its negative impact on health due to high content of coumarin. Ceylon cinnamon has the potential to become Sri Lanka’s number one foreign exchange earner from the agriculture sector by building on its competitive edge as the main true cinnamon supplier. Product and process innovation with a focus on compliance with food safety and quality requirements remains the most feasible and practical option to exploit the competitive edge of Ceylon cinnamon in the global marketplace. Marketing strategies should focus on product diversification, value addition, and brand recognition.
... There is no proven evidence with true cinnamon of any harm, while cassia has been shown to have several disadvantages. Recent research with mouthwash containing true cinnamon extract (50%) has not been reported as having any harmful effects (Gupta et al. 2015). Oral hygiene targeted cinnamon toothpastes containing bark or bark oil are continually being introduced into the market by many product developers (Telrandhe et al. 2017;Akotakar et al. 2018). ...
Chapter
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True (Ceylon) cinnamon, a traditional spice, is used as a flavor enhancer in a variety of food products in many parts of the world. Today, the consumer is becoming increasingly health conscious and sophisticated, and the food and beverage market is more dynamic than ever and is shifting from synthetic to natural products with the advent of a burgeoning green economy. Ceylon cinnamon has unique organoleptic attributes, including exotic flavor, distinct aroma, and pungent taste with functional properties, such as antiaging, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antibacterial, antiflatulent, and analgesic uses. Therefore, it has found wide industrial applications, including food and beverage, nutraceutical, oral care, and packing industries. Cinnamon is used as an ingredient in a wide range of confectionaries. In the beverage industry, it is added to tea and alcoholic and ready-to-drink beverages. Among cinnamon-flavored beverages, cocktails, wine, tequila, and beer are popular and command an appreciable market. In view of its antibacterial, antifungal, and insect-repelling properties, cinnamon-impregnated food packaging material is used to extend shelf life of food products and to reduce their vulnerability to pest attack. Therefore, cinnamon shows great promise as an agro-industrial crop with a wide range of applications in the food and beverage industry through value addition and value creation.
... [4] Due to the ill-effects of CHX, plant extracts are used as alternatives. [5] Recently, herbal products are incorporated in dentifrice, mouthwash, gum paints, gum astringents, and oral gels to forfend biofilm formation. [6] Piper This is an open access journal, and articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as appropriate credit is given and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms. ...
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Background: Dental biofilm plays a crucial role in periodontal disease development. Mouth rinse is used to enhance oral hygiene after scaling and root planning (SRP). The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical and microbiological effectiveness of a piper extract mouthwash against Chlorhexidine (CHX) in periodontitis patients. Materials and methods: Sixty patients with Stage II periodontitis participated in this study and were randomly divided into two groups (Group I - Stage II Grade A periodontitis patients were provided with prepared piper extract mouthwash and Group II - Stage II Grade A periodontitis patients were provided with 0.2% CHX). Plaque index, gingival index, sulcus bleeding index, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment level were recorded at baseline and 30 days after SRP. Subgingival plaque samples were taken for microbial examination (colony-forming unit), quantification of Porphyromonas gingivalis using the real-time polymerase chain reaction at baseline, and 30 days after SRP. Results: Intragroup comparison for the clinical parameters showed statistically significant reduction in both the groups (P < 0.0001). Intergroup comparison for clinical parameters, there was no statistical significance seen after 30 days. Intragroup comparison for microbial analysis showed significant reduction in both the groups after 30 days (P < 0.0001). On intergroup comparison for microbial analysis, both the groups showed reduction after 30 days without significance. Conclusion: Piper extract mouthwash (Group I) showed similar antimicrobial activity against P. gingivalis when compared to 0.2% CHX mouthwash (Group II) that could be used as a substitute to CHX.
... There is no proven evidence with true cinnamon of any harm, while cassia has been shown to have several disadvantages. Recent research with mouthwash containing true cinnamon extract (50%) has not been reported as having any harmful effects (Gupta et al. 2015). Oral hygiene targeted cinnamon toothpastes containing bark or bark oil are continually being introduced into the market by many product developers (Telrandhe et al. 2017;Akotakar et al. 2018). ...
Book
Cinnamon Botany, Agronomy, Chemistry and Industrial Applications
... Herbal formulations or herb based mouthwashes can also be advocated to decease the caries risk. [39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50] ...
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Dental problems in the preschool children are neglected by their parents as the deciduous teeth are going to shed off, and hence considered to be of no importance and more of economic burden if attended to them. This study was to determine the caries prevalence in preschool children (3-5-year-old) of rural Moradabad district, to analyze the specific pattern of dental caries experience in this population and to assess the treatment needs among them. Children within the age group of 3-5 years attending Anganwadi centers of rural Moradabad district were included in the study. Caries diagnosis was based on decayed, extracted, filled surface (defs) and the treatment needs were recorded using World Health Organization (WHO) oral health assessment form 1997. Out of 1,500 children examined, 48.7% males and 52.6% females did not require any treatment. The mean decayed, extracted, filled teeth (deft) value was found to be significantly high in 5-year-old participants when compared to 3-year-old participants (P < 0.01). Majority of the children required one surface filling followed by two surface fillings, caries arresting sealant care, extraction, crown bridge element, pulp care, and space maintainer. The most common pattern was pit and fissure, then maxillary anterior pattern, posterior proximal pattern, and posterior buccal lingual smooth surface pattern. The mean deft value was higher in males as compared to females. There is a greater need for oral health education among parents and teachers.
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Aim: The null hypothesis is that there is no difference in the post-operative anti-inflammatory efficacy of chlorhexidine (CHX), 2% saline rinses (SR) and a herbal mouthwash (MW) after non-surgical mechanical debridement (MD) for treatment of peri-implant mucositis (PiM). The aim was to compare the post-operative anti-inflammatory efficacy of CHX, 2% SR and a herbal oral rinse after non-surgical MD of PiM. Materials and methods: The present randomized controlled trial had a single-blinded parallel arm design. Patients diagnosed with PiM were enrolled. Demographic information was recorded. All patients underwent MD and were randomly divided into 4 groups: CHX-group: 0.12% non-alcoholic CHX; Sodium chloride (NaCl) group: 2% NaCl rinses; Herbal MW group: Herbal-based MW and H2 O group: distilled water with peppermint flavour. After MD, all the participants were advised to rinse twice daily (every 12 hrs) for 2 weeks with their respective MWs. In all groups, peri-implant modified plaque index (mPI), modified gingival index (mGI) and probing depth (PD) were measured at baseline and at 12 weeks of follow-up. Sample size was estimated using data from a pilot investigation; and group-comparisons were performed. Statistical significance was confirmed when P-values were below 0.01. Results: Sixty individuals (15 patients/group) were included. At baseline, mPI, mGI and PD were comparable in all groups. At baseline, there was no significant difference in peri-implant mPI, mGI and PD in all groups. At 12-weeks' follow-up, there was a statistically significant reduction in peri-implant mPI (p < 0.01), mGI (p < 0.01) and PD (p < 0.01) in CHX, NaCl and herbal MW groups compared with H2 O group. There was no significant relation between implant location, duration for which, implants were functional, gender and peri-implant clinical parameters in all groups. Conclusion: After non-surgical MD, post-operative use of CHX and herbal and NaCl MWs is useful for the management of PiM in the short-term.
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Introduction: The act of indicating one or more drugs to be taken by the patient, its dosage, and the interval of the treatment is known as prescribing. It is a dynamic and individualized clinical process. Cultural, social, economic and promotional factors can influence the pattern of prescription. Thus the present study was conducted to evaluate the drug prescription knowledge in third year and final year dental students at Teerthanker Mahaveer Dental College and Research Centre, Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh, India. Methodology: A questionnaire consisting of 10 open-ended questions was used in a study which was conducted among 170 male and female, third year and final year dental students of Teerthanker Mahaveer Dental College and Research Centre. Tables and graphs were used to represent data. Results: Pain was found to be the most important reason for prescribing medication. Diclofenac was found to be the most commonly prescribed NSAID. While amoxicillin was found to be the most widely prescribed antibiotic. Lack of knowledge about drug posology was the basic reason for error done by students. Maximum number of students gets their information for prescribing drugs from their professors. Maximum number of students was unacquainted about the WHO Guide to Good Prescribing. Conclusion: The knowledge of prescribing drugs is of utmost need for good dental practice and hence, it is essential to expand the knowledge related to pharmacological therapy and to know about the proper therapeutic guidelines. With the help of WHO Guide to Good Prescribing, and some educational programs students will develop better prescribing skills.
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Oral cavity is the mirror to general health as it is interconnected with other systems of the body. The human body has inbuilt defence mechanism against various disease causing agents. A free radical is one of the reactive oxygen species which causes oxidative stress and further lead to cell damage and progression to other severe diseases. Antioxidants are the first line of defence against these free radicals. Antioxidants like beta-carotene, lycopene, selenium are believed to have a preventive role against various oral diseases. This article overviews the different antioxidants available and their influence in the oral cavity.
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To compare the effect of honey, chlorhexidine mouthwash and combination of xylitol chewing gum and chlorhexidine mouthwash on the dental plaque level. Ninety healthy dental students, both male and female, aged between 21 to 25 years participated in the study. The subjects were randomly divided into three groups, i.e. the honey group, the chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash group and the combination of xylitol chewing gum and chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwash group. The data was collected at the baseline, 15(th) day and 30(th) day; the plaque was disclosed using disclosing solution and their scores were recorded at six sites per tooth using the Quigley and Hein plaque index modified by Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman. Statistical analysis was carried out later to compare the effect of all the three groups. P ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Our result showed that all the three groups were effective in reducing the plaque but post-hoc LSD (Least Significant Difference) showed that honey group and chlorhexidine + xylitol group were more effective than chlorhexidine group alone. The results demonstrated a significant reduction of plaque indices in honey group and chlorhexidine + xylitol group over a period of 15 and 30 days as compared to chlorhexidine.
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Acupuncture ( Zhēn Jiǔ) ('acus' (needle) + 'punctura' (to puncture)) is the stimulation of specific points along the skin of the body involving various methods such as penetration by thin needles or the application of heat, pressure, or laser light. Acupuncture ( Zhēn Jiǔ) aims to treat a range of medical and dental ailments, though is most commonly used for pain relief. This article reviews about the various possible roles of acupuncture ( Zhēn Jiǔ) in clinical dental practice. Acupuncture ( Zhēn Jiǔ) has potential in supplementing conventional treatment procedures by its diverse applicability outreach. Role of acupuncture ( Zhēn Jiǔ) in dental practice has been well supported by clinical trials. Its role in alleviating facial pain, pre-operative and post-operative dental pain has led to its widespread application. Its role as sole analgesic for treatment procedure has to be tested. It's It is a thought that acupuncture ( Zhēn Jiǔ) may prove an indispensible supplement to conventional treatment modalities and more of clinical trials and studies are required to prove the efficacy. Acupuncture ( Zhēn Jiǔ) is not a miracle cure and is not going to replace the drill. However, the technique can be a supplement to conventional treatments in TMDs, facial pain, pain management Sjoegrens syndrome, and in phobias and anxiety. The application and use of Acupuncture ( Zhēn Jiǔ) comes with some side effects. Proper training needs to be obtained before commencement of any procedure related to acupuncture ( Zhēn Jiǔ). Various training programs are offered to train clinical practitioners the apt method to use acupuncture ( Zhēn Jiǔ).
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Musculoskeletal problems have become a significant issue in the profession of dentistry. There are currently no recommended effective disease-preventing and modifying remedies. High prevalence rates for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among dentists have been reported in the literature. Complementary and alternative medicine can be helpful in managing and preventing the MSDs. The purpose of this study was to determine if dentists in the western part of India are using complementary and alternative medicine therapies for MSDs, and also to find if those who use complementary and alternative medicine therapies have greater job/career satisfaction compared to conventional therapy (CT) users. Dentists of western India registered under the Dental Council of India (N = 2166) were recruited for the study. Data were analyzed using univariate and bivariate analyses and logistic regression. A response rate of 73% (n = 1581) was obtained, of which 79% (n = 1249) was suffering from MSDs. The use of complementary and alternative medicine or CT was reported by 90% (n = 1124) of dentists with MSDs. Dentists using complementary and alternative medicine reported greater health (P < 0.001) and carrier satisfaction (P < 0.001) and were able to work as many hours they wanted (P < 0.001) compared to CT users. Complementary and alternative medicine therapies may improve the quality of life and enhance job satisfaction for a dentist who suffers from MSDs.
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Background: Periodontal diseases are ubiquitous, affecting all dentate animals. Regular methods for controlling it have been found to be ineffective, which have paved the way for the use of herbal products as an adjunctive to mechanical therapy as they are free to untoward effects and hence can be used for a long period of time. Ocimum sanctum is a plant which has the greater medicinal value and enormous properties for curing and preventing disease. Objective: In the present study we assessed the effectiveness of Ocimum sanctum on dental plaque, gingival inflammation and comparison with gold standard chlorhexidine and normal saline (placebo). Materials and methods: A triple blind randomized control trial was conducted among volunteered medical students. They were randomly allocated into three study groups: (1) Ocimum sanctum mouthwash (n = 36); (2) Chlorhexidine (active control) (n = 36); (3) normal saline (negative control) (n = 36). Assessment was carried out according to plaque score and gingival score. Statistical analysis was carried out later to compare the effect of both mouthwash. ANOVA (Analysis of variance) and post-hoc LSD tests were performed using software package used for statistical analysis (SPSS) version 17. P ≤0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Our result showed that Ocimum sanctum mouthrinse is equally effective in reducing plaque and gingivitis as Chlorhexidine. The results demonstrated a significant reduction in gingival bleeding and plaque indices in both groups over a period of 15 and 30 days as compared to control group. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that Ocimum sanctum mouthrinse may prove to be an effective mouthwash owing to its ability in decreasing periodontal indices by reducing plaque accumulation, gingival inflammation and bleeding. It has no side effect as compared to chlorhexidine.
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A comparative study was carried out between cinnamon oil and clove oil on the oral micro-biota causing dental caries. Cinnamon oil was found to be more effective than clove oil exhibiting broad spectrum of antibacterial activity inhibiting all the ten test bacterial species involved in dental caries. Cinnamon oil produced maximum inhibition zone of diameter (IZD) of 24.0 mm against Streptococcus mutans (major causative bacteria of dental plaque) as compared to clove oil (IZD = 13.0mm). This is contrary to the popular belief that clove oil is effective in tooth decay and dental plaque. This study shows the potential of cinnamon oil over clove oil in the treatment of dental caries. (www.actabiomedica.it).
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This double-blind, randomized control trial sought to evaluate the clinical effects of 3 mouthrinses against salivary mutans streptococci (MS). Ninety high-caries risk volunteers were randomly assigned to 3 groups, each group using a selected mouthrinse BID for 30 days. Subjects in Group 1 rinsed with 10 ml of 50% Acacia nilotica, Group 2 subjects rinsed with 10 ml of 0.2% chlorhexidine (active control), and subjects in Group 3 rinsed with saline water (passive control). Unstimulated saliva samples were collected at baseline, 30, and 60 days. MS were cultured on mitis salivarius bacitracin agar, and colony counts were obtained. The margin of error was fixed at 5%. ANOVA and post hoc least significant difference tests were performed. There were significant decreases in the MS colony count in the A. nilotica and chlorhexidine groups at 30 days (85% and 83%, respectively) and at 60 days (65% and 63%, respectively) (P < 0.0001). The antibacterial action of A. nilotica against MS was similar to that of chlorhexidine.
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Purpose: The present study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of Terminalia chebula on plaque and gingival inflammation and compare it with the gold standard chlorhexidine (CHX 0.2%) and distilled water as control (placebo). Materials and methods: A double-blind randomised control trial was conducted among undergraduate students who volunteered. They were randomly allocated into three study groups: 1) Terminalia chebula mouthwash (n = 30); 2) chlorhexidine (active control) (n = 30); 3) distilled water (placebo) (n = 30). Assessment was carried out according to plaque score and gingival score. Statistical analysis was carried out to compare the effect of both mouthwashes. ANOVA and post-hoc LSD tests were performed using SPSS version 17 with p ≤ 0.05 considered statistically significant. Results: Our result showed that Terminalia chebula mouthrinse is as effective as chlorhexidine in reducing dental plaque and gingival inflammation. The results demonstrated a significant reduction of gingival bleeding and plaque indices in both groups over a period of 15 and 30 days as compared to the placebo. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that Terminalia chebula may prove to be an effective mouthwash. Terminalia chebula extract mouthrinse can be used as an alternative to chlorhexidine mouthrinse as it has similar properties without the side-effects of the latter.
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Purpose: The present study was done to assess the prevalence of tobacco abuse among school going students of the age group 15 to 18 year old in the rural areas of Almora district, Uttrakhand state, India. Materials and methods: Schools were grouped into 4 zones north, south and east, west based on their location in district, respectively. Second stage one private and one government school was randomly selected from each zone of rural Almora. All students belonging to age 15 to 18 year were selected from the selected schools. Data was collected by a pretested, closed ended questionnaire. Results: Overall, the prevalence of tobacco consumption among the adolescents was 45.42%. 63% male and 47.1% female adolescents were habituated to it. All female and majority of the male adolescents predominantly consumed a smokeless form of tobacco. Conclusion: The prevalence of tobacco consumption indicates a downward shift in the age for the uptake of tobacco habit by adolescents and a rising prevalence among girls. Our findings suggest that tobacco use prevention and control measures are warranted and should be started very early preferably at primary education level.
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Background: Musculoskeletal disorders have serious impact on the profession of dentistry. There is common occurrence of pain due to incorrect posture in dental professionals. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies may cast a new light on preventing and intercepting musculoskeletal disorders (MSD). An epidemiological study was conducted in an effort to contribute to the prevention of musculoskeletal disorders in dentistry. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of MSD at dentists using CAM as a treatment and preventive modality for MSD and to compare job/career satisfaction between dentists who use CAM and conventional therapy (CT). Material and methods: Dentists registered in Uttrakhand state, India, under the Dental Council of India and registered members of the Indian Dental Association, Uttrakhand branch (N = 1496) were surveyed. Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS 17. Results: A response rate of 84% (N = 1257) was obtained, revealing that 90% (N = 1131) had the problem of MSD. Seventy three percentage (N = 826) of dentists with MSD reported the use of CAM and CT. Complementary and alternative medicine users reported greater overall health (72.7% vs. 51%, p < 0.001), job satisfaction (61.2% vs. 35%, p < 0.001) and work efficiency compared to CT users. Conclusion: Complementary and alternative medicine therapies may improve quality of life, reduce work interruption and enhance job satisfaction for dentists who suffers from MSD. Through the course of their studies, dentists should be equipped with knowledge on ergonomics and CAM therapies, such as yoga and others, to help them prevent musculoskeletal disorders more effectively.
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Due to increasing resistance to antibiotics and rising incidence of oral diseases, there is a need for alternative treatment modalities to combat oral diseases. The aim of the present study was to access the effect of Aloe vera mouthwash on the dental plaque in the experimental period of 4 days and to compare it with the bench mark control chlorhexidine and placebo (saline water). A total of 300 systemically healthy subjects were randomly allocated into 3 groups: Aloe vera mouthwash group (n=100), control group (=100)-chlorhexidene group and saline water-Placebo (n=100). To begin with, Gingival index (GI) and plaque index (PI) were recorded. Then, baseline plaque scores were brought to zero by professionally cleaning the teeth with scaling and polishing. After randomization of the participants into three groups they were refrained from regular mechanical oral hygiene measures. Subjects were asked to swish with respective mouthwash (Aloe vera mouthwash, 0.2%chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash, or normal saline) as per therapeutic dose for 4 days. The results showed that Aloe vera mouthrinse is equally effective in reducing plaque as Chlorhexidine compared to placebo over a period of 4 days. There was a significant reduction on plaque in Aloe vera and chlorhexidine groups and no statistically significant difference was observed among them (p>0.05). Aloe vera mouthwash showed no side effects. The results of the present study indicated that Aloe vera may prove an effective mouthwash due to its ability in reducing dental plaque.
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High prevalence rates of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSD) among dentists have been reported. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies can be helpful in managing and preventing work-related musculoskeletal disorders. The purpose of this study was to determine if dental professionals are using CAM for work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Who have greater job satisfaction: dentist who uses Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) or conventional therapy (CT) as a treatment modality for WRMSD. Dentists who registered in Uttar Pradesh state, India under Indian Dental Council, Uttar Pradesh branch (n=1134) were surveyed. Data were analyzed using univariate and bivariate analyses and logistic regression. A response rate of 53% (n=601) was obtained, revealing that 82% (n=487) of the respondents suffered from work-related musculoskeletal disorders. The use of complementary and alternative medicine or conventional therapy was reported among 80% (n=390) of the dentists with work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Complementary and alternative medicine users reported greater overall health compared to conventional therapy users (P<0.001). Of those with work-related musculoskeletal disorders, 35.5% (n=172) considered a career change for once, and 4.0% (n=19) reported having left dentistry. Complementary and alternative medicine therapies may improve quality of life, reduce work disruptions and enhance job satisfaction for dentists who suffer from work-related musculoskeletal disorders. It is important that dentists incorporate complementary and alternative medicine strategies into practice to facilitate musculoskeletal health that will enable longer and healthier careers, increase productivity, provide safer workplace and prevent musculoskeletal disorders.
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A double blind, randomized, controlled study with three parallel treatment groups was done to evaluate the efficacy of a Terminalia chebula 10% mouth rinse compared with chlorhexidine 0.12% mouth rinse, applied two times daily for 2 weeks, in the treatment of dental plaque and gingivitis. Seventy-eight patients were included in the study. The efficacy variables were periodontal indices on days 0, 7 and 14 after commencement of therapy. Twenty six patients received chlorhexidine mouth rinse, twenty six Terminalia chebula mouth rinse and twenty six received saline solution. The clinical parameters were significantly reduced by both chlorhexidine and Terminalia chebula mouth rinse although no significant difference was seen between the two groups (P > 0.05). This study demonstrated that Terminalia chebula mouth rinse is effective in reducing microbial plaque, gingival inflammation and neutralizing salivary pH. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Many of the spices and herbs used today have been valued for their antimicrobial effects and medicinal powers in addition to their flavor and fragrance qualities. Most of the foodborne bacterial pathogens examined were sensitive to extracts from plants such as cinnamon, clove, garlic, mustard, onion and oregano. The antimicrobial compounds in spices and herbs are mostly in the essential oil fraction. The Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to the antimicrobial compounds in spices than Gram-negative bacteria. The extent of sensitivity varied with the strain and environmental conditions imposed. Certain spices can have a direct effect on the rate of fermentation by stimulating acid production in starter cultures. Phenols, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, ethers and hydrocarbons have been recognized as major antimicrobial components in spices. The antimicrobial activity and modes of actions of spices and their major antimicrobial components are reviewed.
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Dental plaque is an example of a biofilm; its presence is natural and it supports the host in its defense against invading microbes. In health, the microbial composition of dental plaque is diverse and remains relatively stable over time (microbial homeostasis). The predominant microorganisms prefer host molecules (eg, salivary mucins) and a neutral pH for growth. Under certain circumstances, this microbial homeostasis can break down and diseases such as caries can occur. In dental caries, there is a shift toward increased proportions of acid-producing and acid-tolerating species, such as mutans streptococci and Lactobacilli, although other species with relevant traits can participate in demineralization. Strategies to control caries include effective oral hygiene practices to reduce biofilm development, and adoption of a low-sugar diet to restrict periods of acidic challenge to teeth. These conventional approaches also should be augmented by interference with the factors that enable the cariogenic bacteria to outcompete the organisms associated with health. Evidence suggests that regular conditions of low pH in plaque select for mutans streptococci and Lactobacilli. Therefore, the suppression of sugar catabolism and acid production by the use of metabolic inhibitors in oral care products, the consumption of nonfermentable sweeteners in snacks, the stimulation of saliva flow, and/or other strategies that maintain supragingival plaque at a pH around neutrality will assist in the maintenance of microbial homeostasis in plaque.
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In this study, bacteriocidal effects of cinnamic aldehyde on Bacillus cereus were investigated. The bacterial culture or cell suspension in 0.85% NaCl was treated with cinnamic aldehyde at a concentration of 0.3 ml l(-1). Viable cells were counted on a nutrient agar plate. Protein leakage from the cell was determined using a protein dye. Cell morphology was observed using a scanning electron microscope. Bacillus cereus cells were the most sensitive to cinnamic aldehyde among four different food-borne pathogens. When the cells were treated with 0.3 ml l(-1) of cinnamic aldehyde, the viable counts decreased about 6 log cycles after 6 h of incubation. The bacterial cells remained unlysed although they were killed by cinnamic aldehyde. Treatment of cinnamic aldehyde to the exponential phase cells resulted in no significant protein leakage but strong inhibition of cell separation. The present findings suggest that cinnamic aldehyde exhibits bacteriocidal effects and inhibition of cell separation on B. cereus. These data represent an interesting background for a possible mechanism for antibacterial effects of cinnamic aldehyde.
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In vitro studies have demonstrated antibacterial activity of essential oils (EOs) against Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Shigella dysenteria, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus at levels between 0.2 and 10 microl ml(-1). Gram-negative organisms are slightly less susceptible than gram-positive bacteria. A number of EO components has been identified as effective antibacterials, e.g. carvacrol, thymol, eugenol, perillaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde and cinnamic acid, having minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.05-5 microl ml(-1) in vitro. A higher concentration is needed to achieve the same effect in foods. Studies with fresh meat, meat products, fish, milk, dairy products, vegetables, fruit and cooked rice have shown that the concentration needed to achieve a significant antibacterial effect is around 0.5-20 microl g(-1) in foods and about 0.1-10 microl ml(-1) in solutions for washing fruit and vegetables. EOs comprise a large number of components and it is likely that their mode of action involves several targets in the bacterial cell. The hydrophobicity of EOs enables them to partition in the lipids of the cell membrane and mitochondria, rendering them permeable and leading to leakage of cell contents. Physical conditions that improve the action of EOs are low pH, low temperature and low oxygen levels. Synergism has been observed between carvacrol and its precursor p-cymene and between cinnamaldehyde and eugenol. Synergy between EO components and mild preservation methods has also been observed. Some EO components are legally registered flavourings in the EU and the USA. Undesirable organoleptic effects can be limited by careful selection of EOs according to the type of food.
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Screening was done of some plants of importance in the Ayurvedic system of traditional medicine used in India to treat enteric diseases. Fifty four plant extracts (methanol and aqueous) were assayed for their activity against multi-drug resistant Salmonella typhi. Strong antibacterial activity was shown by the methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos, Salmalia malabarica, Punica granatum, Myristica fragrans, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Terminalia arjuna and Triphal (mixture of Emblica of fi cinalis, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia belerica). Moderate antimicrobial activity was shown by Picorhiza kurroa, Acacia catechu, Acacia nilotica, Cichorium intybus, Embelia ribes, Solanum nigrum, Carum copticum, Apium graveolens, Ocimum sanctum, Peucedanum graveolens and Butea monosperma.
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Both Cinnamomum verum J.S. Presl. and Cinnamomum cassia Blume are collectively called Cortex Cinnamonmi for their medicinal cinnamon bark. Cinnamomum verum is more popular elsewhere in the world, whereas C. cassia is a well known traditional Chinese medicine. An analysis of hydro-distilled Chinese cinnamon oil and pure cinnamaldehyde by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed that cinnamaldehyde is the major component comprising 85% in the essential oil and the purity of cinnamaldehyde in use is high (> 98%). Both oil and pure cinnamaldehyde of C. cassia were equally effective in inhibiting the growth of various isolates of bacteria including Gram-positive (1 isolate, Staphylococcus aureus), and Gram-negative (7 isolates, E. coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Samonella typhymurium), and fungi including yeasts (four species of Candida, C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, and C. krusei), filamentous molds (4 isolates, three Aspergillus spp. and one Fusarium sp.) and dermatophytes (three isolates, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagraphytes). Their minimum inhibition concentrations (MIC) as determined by agar dilution method varied only slightly. The MICs of both oil and cinnamaldehyde for bacteria ranged from 75 microg/ml to 600 microg/ml, for yeasts from 100 microg/ml to 450 microg/ml, for filamentous fungi from 75 microg/ml to 150 microg/ml, and for dermatophytes from 18.8 microg/ml to 37.5 microg/ml. The antimicrobial effectiveness of C. cassia oil and its major constituent is comparable and almost equivalent, which suggests that the broad-spectrum antibiotic activities of C. cassia oil are due to cinnamaldehyde. The relationship between structure and function of the main components of cinnamon oil is also discussed.
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This article reviews the rationale for incorporating effective antimicrobial mouthrinses into a daily oral hygiene regimen along with mechanical plaque control methods. The author reviewed studies demonstrating the essential etiologic role of a pathogenic dental plaque biofilm in the development of gingivitis, as well as studies indicating that most people fail to maintain a level of mechanical plaque control sufficient to prevent disease. In addition, he did a brief review of studies of oral microbial ecology that identified the oral mucosal tissues as a reservoir of bacteria that colonize tooth surfaces, and he summarized six-month clinical studies of marketed antimicrobial mouthrinse ingredients and products. There is a twofold rationale for daily use of antimicrobial mouthrinses: first, given the inadequacy of mechanical plaque control by the majority of people, as a component added to oral hygiene regimens for the control and prevention of periodontal diseases; second, as a method of delivering antimicrobial agents to mucosal sites throughout the mouth that harbor pathogenic bacteria capable of recolonizing supragingival and subgingival tooth surfaces, thereby providing a complementary mechanism of plaque control. The efficacy of several mouthrinse ingredients and products is supported by published six-month clinical trials. The daily use of an effective antiplaque/antigingivitis antimicrobial mouthrinse is well-supported by a scientific rationale and can be a valuable component of oral hygiene regimens.
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Diabetes Mellitus Leading Expiry of Oral Health
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Evaluation of nasal form in average, pleasing and attractive looking individuals
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Role of herbal leaf extracts in caries prevention
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  • G Kayalvizhi
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Effect of water cinnamon extract on mutans streptococci, in comparison to chlorhexidine gluconate and zac (in vitro and in vivo study)
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