Article

An Overview of 3D Printing Technologies for Food Fabrication

Authors:
  • qiongzhou college
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Abstract

Different from robotics-based food manufacturing, three-dimensional (3D) food printing integrates 3D printing and digital gastronomy to revolutionize food manufacturing with customized shape, color, flavor, texture, and even nutrition. Hence, food products can be designed and fabricated to meet individual needs through controlling the amount of printing material and nutrition content. The objectives of this study are to collate, analyze, categorize, and summarize published articles and papers pertaining to 3D food printing and its impact on food processing, as well as to provide a critical insight into the direction of its future development. From the available references, both universal platforms and self-developed platforms are utilized for food printing. These platforms could be reconstructed in terms of process reformulation, material processing, and user interface in the near future. Three types of printing materials (i.e., natively printable materials, non-printable traditional food materials, and alternative ingredients) and two types of recipes (i.e., element-based recipe and traditional recipe) have been used for customized food fabrication. The available 3D food printing technologies and food processing technologies potentially applicable to food printing are presented. Essentially, 3D food printing provides an engineering solution for customized food design and personalized nutrition control, a prototyping tool to facilitate new food product development, and a potential machine to reconfigure a customized food supply chain.

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... Three-dimensional printing, also called additive manufacturing, is a technology including numerous processes in which material is amalgamated or solidified under computer control to generate a three-dimensional entity from digital models. It is an emerging field that is being integrated into numerous applications such as prototyping, automotive, aerospace engineering, art, construction, computers, robots, oceanography, food fabrication, wound dressing, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicines (Mohammed 2016;Stanton et al. 2015;Sun et al. 2015;Zhang et al. 2019). For example, 3D printing is a promising technology to make 3D tissues based on copies of patienťs organ model obtained with tomography (Yanagawa et al. 2016). ...
... The main advantage of this food processing is to adapt the printing material to the individual needs of the consumers and also to make a prototype for food developments. As explained in the review of Sun et al. (2015), it is fundamental to distinguish the differences between food printing and robotic-based food manufacturing. In the first one, a fabrication process integrates digital gastronomy and 3D printing manufactured foods with defined and adapted parameters such as nutrient contents or color. ...
... In the field of regenerative medicine, polymers such as acid hyaluronic, alginate, chondroitin sulfate, chitosan, agarose, gellan, pullulan, and cellulose have been Sun et al. 2015) widely used as bioink in 3D printing for developing scaffolds and hydrogels (Tai et al. 2019). Some of their main advantages include the mechanical resistance and rheological properties required for their use, their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and safety (Tai et al. 2019). ...
... As a result, 3D food printing has the potential to simplify food manufacturing processes, establish high material use efficiency in terms of minimizing waste, portion control, and production of well-structured and tasty food products from food ingredients. Although food materials have complex structures with vast differences in physicochemical properties, some researchers (Sun, Peng, et al., 2015;Sun, Zhou, Huang, Fuh, & Hong, 2015) have attempted to widen the scope of 3D printing so as to accommodate varying food materials via the likes of fused deposition modeling (FDM) (also known as extrusion-based 3D printing), powder bed fusion and binder jetting (3D Systems, 2018;3DigitalCooks, 2018;BeeHex, 2018;Byflow, 2018;CandyFab, 2006;Choc Edge, 2018;Createbot, 2018;Dovetailed, 2018;Edutechwiki, 2018;FoodJet, 2021;Itis3d, 2016;Krassenstein, 2014;Landoni, 2015;Lipton, Arnold, Nigl, Cohen, & Lipson, 2010;Lipton et al., 2015;Mmuse, 2018;Natural Machines, 2020;Ontwerp, 2021;Procusini, 2018;RIG, 2018;Van der Linden, 2015;. ...
... have been successfully printed, as their raw materials in form of paste or dough exhibit less difficulty during printing, and also possess enough shape stability after deposition, and may or may not require further post-processing after printing. They are mostly consumed as snacks, and not as main foods (Liu et al., 2017;Sun, Zhou, et al., 2015). Traditional foods such as cereals such as rice, legumes such as beans, animal protein such as meat and fish, as well as fruits and vegetables, which are daily consumed by people. ...
Article
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Three‐dimensional (3D) printing has promising application potentials in improving food product manufacturing, increasingly helping in simplifying the supply chain, as well as expanding the utilization of food materials. To further understand the current situation of 3D food printing in providing food engineering solutions with customized design, the authors checked recently conducted reviews and considered the extrusion‐based type to deserve additional literature synthesis. In this perspective review, therefore, we scoped the potentials of 3D extrusion‐based printing in resolving food processing challenges. The evolving trends of 3D food printing technologies, fundamentals of extrusion processes, food printer, and printing enhancement, (extrusion) food systems, algorithm development, and associated food rheological properties were discussed. The (extrusion) mechanism in 3D food printing involving some essentials for material flow and configuration, its uniqueness, suitability, and printability to food materials, (food material) types in the extrusion‐based (3D food printing), together with essential food properties and their dynamics were also discussed. Additionally, some bottlenecks/concerns still applicable to extrusion‐based 3D food printing were brainstormed. Developing enhanced calibrating techniques for 3D printing materials, and designing better methods of integrating data will help improve the algorithmic representations of printed foods. Rheological complexities associated with the extrusion‐based 3D food printing require both industry and researchers to work together so as to tackle the (rheological) shifts that make (food) materials unsuitable. Practical Applications As a processing technology with digital additive manufacturing methodology, 3D food printing over the decades has evolved greatly with the extrusion‐based type increasingly studied. This perspective review scoped the potentials of 3D extrusion‐based printing in resolving food processing challenges. In this work, we demonstrated how this extrusion‐based technique increasingly contributes to situate the 3D food printing as among innovative technologies with an upscale dimension. To fully embrace the extrusion‐based 3D printing, the food industry needs to primarily understand the potentials this technology would provide in enhancing food material properties/types.
... The 3DFP supply network aims to link up with any location at any time through error-free, ready-to-eat food delivery (Sun et al. 2015a;Sun et al. 2015c), provide robust and safe delivery of food services (Godoi, Prakash, and Bhandari 2016;Dankar et al. 2018;Baiano 2021), and obtain strategic advantages (Jiang 2020). 3DP food service stores can adopt such smart technologies to improve customer value and shopping efficiency (Mohr and Khan 2015;Kothman and Faber 2016). ...
... The Foodini printer can also print tasty food with fresh ingredients (Sun et al. 2015c;McHugh and Bilbao-Sainz 2017 ...
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3D printing is estimated to play a significant role in offering tangible and commercial benefits to the supply chains making the manufacturing processes more efficient and productive. The application of 3D printing technologies for printing of food is becoming more complex and flexible putting pressure on the 3D food printing companies. 3DP of food is expected to help in controlling the quality of food products, food waste, and offer increased food variety. Despite the vast potential of 3DP of food the adoption is still in its nascent stage. Therefore, this study attempts to identify the various barriers that affect the adoption of 3DP in food industry in the Indian context. The study identifies and investigate the interdependencies between 3D food printing implementation barriers to developing sustainable food supply chains. The hybrid "interpretive structural modelling (ISM) and decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL)” methodology was employed to better understand the hierarchical and contextual relationships between barriers to implementing 3D food printing. Thirteen barriers were identified from the literature review and validated by 3D food printing experts. The cost of consumables was identified as a major barrier to implementing 3D food printing in supply chains. We also identified linkage barriers and dependent barriers. Our findings led us to put forward suggestions for overcoming some of the implementation barriers to 3D food printed supply chains identified, helping to advance the development of sustainable 3D food printingbased supply chains.
... The special features of the 3D food printing allow the design flexibility for the specific patient-tailored application for easy feeding. Extrusion-based 3D printing, inkjet 3D printing, and selective laser sintering-based techniques have been widely reported for the manufacturing of customized food and food products ( Fig. 8.7) [15][16][17][18]. It should be noted that the Drosophila-based protein extract may be processed as the raw materials in solid, liquid, powder, and hydrocolloid form, whichever is suitable for preparation of the customized and texture flexible food items by the 3D printing processes. ...
... This technique is capable of increasing the production speed with a reduction in cost, and it influences the consumer demand for overproduction. This leads to greater input on the final products from the consumers, and they may request more specifications on the product [33][34][35]. At the same time, 3D printing facilities are located near to consumer and allow for more responsive and flexible manufacturing processes with higher controllability in quality parameters. ...
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3D printing is a constantly expanding technology that represents one of the most exciting and disruptive production possibilities available today. This technology has gained global recognition and garnered considerable attention in recent years. However, technological breakthroughs, particularly in the field of material science, continue to be the focus of research, particularly in terms of future advancements. The 3D printing techniques are employed for the manufacturing of advanced multifunctional polymer composites due to their mass customization, freedom of design, capability to print complex 3D structures, and rapid prototyping. The advantages of 3D printing with multipurpose materials enable solutions in challenging locations such as outer space and extreme weather conditions where human involvement is not possible. Each year, numerous research papers are published on the subject of imbuing composites with various capabilities such as magnetic, sensing, thermal, embedded circuitry, self-healing, and conductive qualities by the use of innovative materials and printing technologies. This review article discusses the various 3D printing techniques used in the manufacture of polymer composites, the various types of reinforced polymer composites (fibers, nanomaterials, and particles reinforcements), the characterization of 3D printed parts, and their applications in a various industries. Additionally, this review discussed the limitations of 3D printing processes, which may assist future researchers in increasing the utility of their works and overcoming the shortcomings of previous works. Additionally, this paper discusses processing difficulties, anisotropic behavior, stimuli-responsive characteristics (shape memory and self-healing materials), CAD constraints, layer-by-layer appearance, and void formation in printed composites. Eventually, the promise of maturing technology is discussed, along with recommendations for research activities that are desperately required to realize the immense potential of operational 3D printing.
... In 1981, Kodama invented the prototype of 3DP. Since then, 3DP has developed rapidly and has been widely used in many industrial fields, including the fabrication of complex structures and objects, medical items (Seol et al., 2014), and food manufacturing (Sun et al., 2015). 3DPC is a type that can be deposited layer by layer by a 3D printer without any formwork support and vibration process. ...
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Carbon nanotube (CNT) is a promising nanomaterial with excellent mechanical, electrical, thermal, and chemical stability. It has received extensive attention due to its unique multifunctional properties in engineering materials. Researchers have explored the preparation and characterization of CNT reinforced cement-based materials. Studies have shown that adding CNT will significantly improve the performance of cement-based materials. This article introduces the techniques for the dispersion characterization of CNT and summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of these techniques. The functionalized applications of CNT in cement-based materials are reviewed, including sensing performance, structural health monitoring of concrete, electromagnetic shielding, and other applications. In addition, the application and development prospects of CNT in 3D printing concrete have been prospected. Finally, we discussed the existing problems and challenges in developing and applying CNT in cement-based materials and suggested future research.
... Using 3Dprinting, it is always possible to mix various raw materials, including different types of protein, fat, dietary fiber and trace amounts (vitamins and minerals), in balanced proportion according to the individual body structure and nutritional needs. Thus it can provide customized nutritional design for pregnant women, athletes, the elderly and children that cannot be realized by traditional processing methods (Dankar, Haddarah, El Omar, Sepulcre, & Pujola, 2018;Lipton, Cutler, Nigl, Cohen, & Lipson, 2015;Liu, Zhang, Devahastin, & Wang, 2020;Sun, Peng, Zhou, et al., 2015;Sun, Peng, Yan, Fuh, & Hong, 2015;Sun, Zhou, Huang, Fuh, & Hong, 2015). What is more interesting is that 3D printed food materials are simple, mostly powders or slurry/paste, easy to mix, and have a long shelf life, so researchers have developed 3D food printers to provide fresh food for astronauts and ensure dietary nutrition in the space application (Lipton et al., 2015). ...
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3D printing technology has a wide range of application in the food industry. Current research has focused on the improving printing accuracy and expanding the range of printing materials, while the feasibility of 3D printing technology in controlling processing characteristics and improving technological aspects have not yet been critically reviewed. This paper provides a concise critical evaluation of techniques to enhance the characteristics of 3D printed foods including their post-processing e.g. drying, frying, baking, cooling. sterilization etc. This paper provides guidance for future research and development in the field of post-treatment of 3D food printed products which is critically important for wider industrial application of this rapidly evolving technology.
... Essentially, 3D-printing technology provides an engineering solution for the development of personalized custom foods and facilitates the development of food products, and can also reconfigure the machines of the custom food supply chain [35]. In addition, 3Dprinting technology makes the real-time detection of meat freshness/degradation possible; the freshness of meat can be determined by testing the pH. ...
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Food packaging plays a vital role in the food supply chain by acting as an additional layer to protect against food contamination, but the main function of traditional conventional packaging is only to isolate food from the outside environment, and cannot provide related information about food spoilage. Intelligent packaging can feel, inspect, and record external or internal changes in food products to provide further information about food quality. Importantly, intelligent packaging indicators will account for a significant proportion of the food industry's production, with promising application potential. In this review, we mainly summarize and review the upcoming progress in the classification, preparation, and application of food packaging indicators. Equally, the feasibility of 3D printing in the preparation of intelligent food packaging indicators is also discussed in detail, as well as the limitations and future directions of smart food packaging. Taken together, the information supported in this paper provides new insights into monitoring food spoilage and food quality.
... The printing of edible substances via AM has been a concept for almost 20 years [66]; originally implemented to assist maintaining food supply levels to cope with a rapidly expanding population, as well as producing customized foodstuffs. The area has since evolved into various applications, from personalized nutrition to product marketing [67]. ...
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Introduction: Sustainability within the pharmaceutical industry is becoming a focal point for many companies, to improve the longevity and social perception of the industry. Both additive manufacturing (AM) and microfluidics (MFs) are continuously progressing, so are far from their optimisation in terms of sustainability; hence it's the aim of this review to highlight potential gaps alongside their beneficial features. Discussed throughout this review also will be an in-depth discussion on the environmental, legal, economic, and social particulars relating to these emerging technologies. Areas covered: Additive manufacturing (AM) and microfluidics (MFs) are discussed in depth within this review, drawing from up-to-date literature relating to sustainability and circular economies. This applies to both technologies being utilised for therapeutic and analytical purposes within the pharmaceutical industry. Expert opinion: It is the role of emerging technologies to be at the forefront of promoting a sustainable message by delivering plausible environmental standards whilst maintaining efficacy and economic viability. AM processes are highly customisable, allowing for their optimisation in terms of sustainability, from reducing printing time to reducing material usage by removing supports. MFs too is supporting sustainability via reduced material wastage and providing a sustainable means for point of care analysis.
... For the first time, FLM was used to prepare cake mix, in the form of the pulp of a mixture that consisted of starch, yeast, sugar, corn syrup, and cake topping by Lille, Nurmela, Nordlund, Metsa-Kortelainen, & Sozer (2018). Later on, the Selective Hot Air Sintering and Melting (SHASAM) process was used to fuse sugar granules using a laser beam (Sun, Zhou, Huang, Fuh, & Hong, 2015). As technology advanced, the 3D printing system with the extruder assembly, which allowed the printing of distinct materials, was adopted for the printing of chocolate and confectionery products (Zoran & Coelho, 2011). ...
Article
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3D printing, an additive manufacturing technique, is being used in many sectors and when it is adopted for the rapid and customized production of food items, the technology is known as food-layered manufacturing (FLM). FLM can be used to prepare customized and texture modified food products, having desired nutritional value and food quality, from different ingredients and additives. This paper reviews the development of various food printing technologies from the perspective of theoretical models to the available commercialized printers. The technologies and their mechanisms, that are used in food 3D printing were studied in detail. Numerous material supplies and recipes had been studied followed by developing an understanding of the role of different food constituents and additives. Food additive manufacturing technology (FLM) was developed by combining digital gastronomy with additive manufacturing technology. Since the technology is at a nascent stage, FLM has many challenges and limitations such as limited shelf-life, food safety, etc. FLM provides opportunities, like nutritious food, reduction in food wastage, automated cooking, etc. The study aims to find a way to develop a new setup for making personalized, tailor-designed, and nutritious foods because the need for such food items is strongly realized in the present times of the global pandemic. To eliminate the problem of shortage of food, which is caused due to population blast and limitation of the resources, it is high time to adopt the alternate resources as an ingredient to prepare the nutritious foods by using the FLM.
... Extrusion-based 3D printing is an emerging food manufacturing technique that allows layer by layer deposition of three-dimensional structures according to a digital design (Sun et al., 2015). ...
... Within the selected publications in this review, the research work of Godoi et al. (2016) in the blue cluster had the largest link, which means that 30 papers have cited their work on 3D printing technologies applied for food design: status and prospects. This is followed by with work of Guo et al. (2019) on model building and slicing in food 3D printing process: A review, with 21 cited papers and an overview of 3D printing technologies for food fabrication by Sun et al. (2015) with 20 cited papers within the selected documents for this review. ...
Article
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Three-dimensional (3D) food printing is one technology that can revolutionized food processing and product development due to its multiple advantages including the design of customized, personalized nutrition food design from available food material. Research documents on 3D food printing came into the limelight in the year 2006, and have since exponentially increased, especially in developed countries. In this review, we collected and analysed scientific documents related to 3D food printing (3DFP). The collected data were analysed on VoSViewer 1.6.18 for annual publication trend, contributing authors, countries, institutions, funding agencies, journals and the relationship between these parameters. With a total of 800 documents which showed an increasing trend over the years, China was identified as the most productive country. As such, African institutions and scientists working on 3DFP need to collaborate with relevant researchers in institutions around the world, while relevant stakeholders also need to provide necessary funds needed.
... 3D food printing is an example of digitalization in the food sector, which is a popular means of developing the capability of the supply and manufacturing chain [1]. 3D food printing is able to formulate personalized nutrition control and customized food design, and is a potential technology to reconfigure a customized food and prototyping tool to facilitate new food product development [2]. Using 3D printing to personalize food nutrition is a field of high importance in research. ...
Article
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Recently, personalized meals and customized food design by means of 3D printing technology have been considered over traditional food manufacturing methods. This study examined the effects of different proteins (soy, cricket, and egg albumin protein) in two concentrations (3% and 5%) on rheological, textural, and 3D printing characteristics. The textural and microstructural properties of different formulations were evaluated and compared. The addition of soy and cricket protein induced an increase in yield stress (τ₀), storage modulus (G′), and loss modulus (G″) while egg albumin protein decreased these parameters. The textural analysis (back extrusion and force of extrusion) demonstrated the relationship between increasing the amount of protein in the formula with an improvement in consistency and index of viscosity. These values showed a straight correlation with the printability of fortified formulas. 3D printing of the different formulas revealed that soy and cricket proteins allow the targeting of complex geometry with multilayers.
... The intrinsic properties of the food material are closely related to its macronutrient content, determining the rheological and physicochemical properties [26]. Accordingly, some authors have made a general classification of food materials as printable or non-printable [72][73][74], although classifying and determining the printable nature of complex materials such as food may be a difficult task because several parameters such as temperature, food components, and additives, among others, may affect it. In addition, the thixotropic behavior of the materials must also be considered [75]. ...
Article
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Additive manufacturing, or 3D printing, has raised interest in many areas, such as the food industry. In food, 3D printing can be used to personalize nutrition and customize the sensorial characteristics of the final product. The rheological properties of the material are the main parameters that impact the 3D-printing process and are crucial to assuring the printability of formulations, although a clear relationship between these properties and printability has not been studied in depth. In addition, an understanding of the mechanical properties of 3D-printed food is crucial for consumer satisfaction, as they are related to the texture of food products. In 3D-printing technologies, each manufacturing parameter has an impact on the resulting mechanical properties; therefore, a thorough characterization of these parameters is necessary prior to the consumption of any 3D-printed food. This review focuses on the rheological and mechanical properties of printed food materials by exploring cutting-edge research working towards developing printed food for personalized nutrition.
Chapter
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Chapter
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The COVID-19 pandemic process, which has affected the whole world, has accelerated technological developments by laying the groundwork for digital transformation in many fields. In this context, various technological innovations have been introduced, such as a social distance tracking system that warns when the appropriate social distance rules are violated between employees, robot dogs on patrol, the use of drones for delivery, and robots that can do many jobs that humans can do. The restaurant industry has also tried to integrate these rapid technological developments as much as possible. In this study, which is about how the recent advances in technology have or can be affected restaurants, examples from the world are given for each technological development mentioned in order to better understand the subject. It is considered that the study will contribute to the literature, future studies, sector representatives who want to apply technological developments in their restaurants, and investors who want to open a new restaurant with technological infrastructure.
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3D printing as a reforming food processing technique aid in the customized design of foods with precise control over nutrition. Printability dictates the ability of the material supplies to withstand their weight on layered deposition. The success of printing is determined by the nature of the material which in turn is related to rheological and mechanical attributes. Broadly, the materials used for 3D printing have been categorized as natively printable, non‐printable, and alternative food ingredients. On considering printability, the natively printable materials are those foods that possess the inherent ability of printable attributes on their own. The present chapter discusses the various food materials that are categorized as natively printable. Understanding of molecular interaction and chemical behavior of natively printable materials is crucial in improving the mechanical stability of the 3D printed construct without adding additives. Despite the inherent tendency towards printability, few of the natively printable material supplies requires pre‐processing step for enhancing printability. In addition, this work describes the underlying science of natively printable materials to exert printability and delivers valuable insights on the scope of applications of natively printable food ingredients in enhancing the printability of non‐printable material supplies. As a standalone technology, 3D food printing can be conveniently used for the utilization of staple food crops to deliver customized and nutritious 3D printed foods.
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Three‐dimensional (3D) printing is an emerging novel technology in the manufacturing sectors of the present decade. With rising trends in digitalized technologies, additive manufacturing remains to be the key focus, drawing the attention of scientists, researchers, industrialists, and entrepreneurs. 3D printing as a convenient approach imparts several advantages from an economical point of view in reducing the production cost and minimizes wastage. Very importantly, the existing resources of the modern world can be efficiently utilized in a sustainable manner surpassing the disadvantages of the conventional manufacturing processes. In this regard, the printing of foods remains no more a fancy thing. 3D food printing delivers the customized foods through digitalized nutrition control based on individual needs and requirements. However, 3D food printing is not an easy process such as the 3D‐printing process of other industrial sectors. Food is a complex material comprising macro and microelements that complex the food‐printing process. 3D food printing is the deposition of food material in a layered manner with intricate design and stable structure that often requires pre‐ and postprocessing operations. The present chapter discusses the advancements of 3D printing technology, configurations of 3D printers, and system components, emphasizing the design improvements and research progress on 3D printing in the food industry.
Article
The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential uptake and inhibitors of 3D-printed food applications in the food service market to provide market salient evidence to inform business investments. An online survey was designed and distributed to an adult Irish population and was completed by 1,045 participants. The collected data was analysed using Structural Equation Modelling to test a hypothesised model of willingness to try 3D-printed food applications. Results showed that perceived personal relevance of the technology is a strong positive determinant of willingness to try (Standardised β = 0.614***). Novel Food Technology Neophobia (NFTN) represents a barrier to willingness to try 3D-printed food applications as evident from its significant negative direct effect (Standardised β = -0.167***). NFTN is also found to have a depressing indirect effect when mediated through perceived personal relevance (Standardised β = -0.202***), while the importance consumers attach to naturalness is yet another barrier (Standardised β = 0.053*). Overall, considering its total effect, NFTN (Standardised β = -0.369***) presents the greatest barrier to willingness to try 3D printed foods. The role of trust in science by directly diminishing the effects of NFTN (Standardised β = -0.445***) and the importance of naturalness also emerges (Standardised –β = 0.137***). Consequently, this work has identified some of the major obstacles facing the technology in the forms of NFTN and the importance of naturalness but has pointed to possible resolutions in building continued support and trust in science, and a focus on designing and delivering both customisable consumer-focused food products and accompanying marketing strategies that communicate and emphasise the personal benefits that this novel food technology affords.
Article
As food technology continues to advance, the potential for new food products to enter the food market grows, attracting considerable media interest. Whilst previous research has explored public perceptions of food-related hazards, much of this took place over 10 years ago. Continued technological developments have yielded new food products, for which there is no extant research on public perceptions. In light of this, there is a pressing need to update and extend research exploring public perceptions of food-related hazards. Using a psychometric approach, a nationally representative UK sample (n= 907) provided ratings of 11 old and new food hazards on a total of 12 risk characteristics (identified from previous research). Principal components analysis identified two main components: ‘dread’ and ‘knowledge’, which explained 80.8% of the variance in perceptions, consistent with past findings. Additives were perceived as the least dreaded and most known of the hazards considered, whereas ractopamine pork, atrazine corn and hormone beef were dreaded the most. 3D printed food and lab-grown meat were perceived as the least known. Our results highlight the importance of knowledge in shaping risk perceptions and have implications for risk management. An understanding of the factors which determine risk perceptions is vital for the development of effective risk management and risk communication strategies.
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The application of 3-D printing in the food industry, especially in the past few years, has been related to many start-up companies that have released their own-brand 3-D printers, using various food substances as printing materials. Since the first 3-D technology came out, printing methods and other technologies have made revolutionary progress: improving the printing quality of various source materials; significantly reducing the cost of the obtained products and printing equipment; and expanding the subject area. The necessary machines and equipment include the following: 3-D scanners; personal computers; 3-D printers and other technical equipment designed to prepare the base and bring objects into cooking preparation and canning; 3-D CAD software in the form of programs; raw materials, taking into account the physical characteristics and types of design objects, 3-D printing methods, and further technical processing. By 2016, food 3-D printing had become one of the applications of 3-D printing. There are also home food-grade 3-D printers for the consumer and semiprofessional markets. Another requirement of the 3-D printing food technology process is the technician's knowledge of the specialized software used to build 3-D models, despite the fact that modern 3-D printers have a considerable standard form basis embedded in their memory. Expanding the range of raw materials and increasing the number of print heads in 3-D printers will make it possible to produce products with specific foods, biological and energy values, and physical and sensory characteristics, that is, specialized food.
Article
"The current paper describes a new low-cost sensing system that employs a load cell embedded in the tool carriage assembly of an open hardware fused deposition modelling (FDM) 3D printer. The sensor system automates the process of detecting and compensating for inconsistencies in the flatness of the bed's surface relative to the nozzle. A sensor system prototype was implemented in an FDM 3D printer to determine contact between the bed and the tool's nozzle. The system was then used by a software routine in the machine's microcontroller firmware to automate the bed levelling. Finally, an automated bed leveling system was observed and analyzed its behavior. The sensor system and the Automatic Bed Levelling (ABL) process are evaluated by observing the bed surface obtained via a load cell bed probe. From the machine controller, the ABL process takes 75 seconds. The bed levelling system uses the load cell probe to automate the manual bed levelling process, saving time. The current work reduces error and improves the efficiency of 3D printer operation. It also reduces the amount of time needed to operate and improves print quality. "
Article
Three‐dimensional (3D) food printing is a digital food engineering method that has a remarkable application potential in long‐term manned spaceflight. Extrusion‐based 3D food printing, among the available 3D food printing techniques utilised in the food industry, is one of the most suitable printing methods for manned spaceflight. Extrusion‐based 3D food printing could suffice most of the energy and personalised nutritional requirements of astronauts during long‐term stay in space by utilising fruits, vegetables, meat products, and nutrients as printing materials. However, 3D food printing in manned spaceflight is still limited by technologies and costs such as printing materials, microgravity, post‐processability of food, and engineering transportation under the existing technical conditions. Therefore, this article reviews the 3D food printing and manned spaceflight technologies that are currently available and discusses the challenges involved in 3D food printing in manned spaceflight, thus providing a theoretical basis for future 3D food printing for space missions.
Article
The 4D printing of a Pickering emulsion stabilized by citrus pectin/β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD) complexes was realized utilizing pH-sensitive curcumin. The fabrication, microstructure, and mechanical properties of the Pickering emulsion were investigated with laser confocal microscopy observations, rheological measurements and TPA. Results indicated that the emulsion prepared with an oil phase mass fraction (φ) of 65%, composition ratio (Rβ/C) of 2:2, and citrus pectin/β-CD concentration (W) of 2% exhibited smaller droplet size, strong gel network, and best printing performance. In addition, pH-sensitive curcumin was added to the emulsion to evaluate its 4D printing capabilities. The decomposition of HCO3⁻ into CO3²⁻ resulted in the increase of pH after heating, induced the printed samples to change color from yellowish to red and the chroma of the samples changed accordingly: L*and b* value decreased while a* value increased. These findings offer greater flexibility to produce novel food formats and designs.
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3D printing is revolutionizing the manufacturing sector due to the myriad of materials and techniques available. Furthermore, it allows decentralized production sites for both industry and the public. However, it is restricted to static structures that cannot react to external stimuli or adapt to the environment and are, therefore, not suitable for functional and motile parts. Recently, two approaches are proposed to give dynamism to 3D printed structures: the printing of “stimulus-responsive” (a.k.a. smart) materials and “4D printing,” the first implying features change due to a stimulus while the second indicating the time evolution of properties after a stimulus activation. Nanomaterials, particularly 2D nanomaterials, exhibit a broad and distinctive combination of features. Thus, they are highly effective at enabling this dynamism due to their morphological, optoelectrical, and mechanical properties. This review summarizes recent advances in 3D/4D printing of smart deformable and stimuli-responsive materials which utilize 2D nanomaterials. The benefits of 2D materials in this framework are summarized, and how to translate their potential into 3D/4D printing is also discussed. The most promising achievements to date are deformable piezoresistive materials for strain sensing, Joule heaters, and actuators. Future advancements and possible upcoming application areas are finally proposed.
Article
Three-dimensional (3D) food printing is a promising technique as it allows to create elaborated food constructs or customized food for elderly people and other sensitive population (i.e. children, pregnant women or athletes). The structural and textual properties of food constructs depend strongly on the ingredients used and the shape produced. Two important biological macromolecular components, namely protein and polysaccharides, are the most important in terms of nutritional content. In this work, we developed a water-based protein/polysaccharide food ink from a mixture of gelatin B (GB) and xanthan gum (XG) for 3D printing. A 40-layer 3D scaffold with defined features was successfully printed at room temperature using an aqueous mixture of 3 wt% GB and 10 wt% XG. Adding 37.5 mM calcium ions (Ca²⁺) or lowering the storage temperature to 4 °C improved the rheological properties of the ink, which endowed the scaffold with higher shape fidelity right after printing and good shape retention for at least 96 h. Texture profile results revealed that the infill percentage of the scaffold is critical to textural properties of the scaffold, highlighting the advantage of 3D printing in tuning sensory food perception.
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Changing consumer attitudes toward food choices and preferences drive the food industry crazy. 3D printing is a print and eats technique that provides convenient foods based on industrial requirements. Understanding complex interactions of food constituents help in designing novel food cuisines out of 3D printing. The designing of food formulation is quite important in achieving a stable 3D printed construct. The science of food printing would be quite complicated at the molecular level. Hence, this chapter considers this significant aspect to decode the material properties that are responsible for the enhancement of the binding mechanism. A detailed discussion is provided on the effects of various basic components of food including carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals, vitamins, and water on printability. Certainly, this chapter throws light on establishing standards through the classification of material supplies based on their printability. Ultimately, this chapter provides insights on the development of exemplar modern cuisines out of common food ingredients by exploring the science of chemical transition and material interaction during the 3D printing process.
Article
Additive manufacturing using edible feedstock – known as “edible three-dimensional (3D) printing” – offers a unique method of producing visually appealing meals with customizable nutrition profiles. Direct ink write (DIW) 3D printing is a popular choice for edible 3D printing due to its low cost and open framework for broad material choices. However, the breadth of food suitable for DIW 3D printing is hindered due to the unsuitably low viscosity of many potential edible feedstocks such as food purees. In this paper, we present cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) as a safe and renewable rheological modifier capable of enabling DIW 3D printing of a variety of foodstuffs, specifically spinach puree, tomato puree, and applesauce, and using freeze-dry to obtain final solid structures. We first analyzed the rheological characterization of foodstuffs combined with varying volume fractions of CNCs to produce shear-thinning, printable inks. The print quality of different inks was then analyzed via image processing techniques. Finally, we demonstrated the capability of CNC-laden inks by printing a variety of structures, including multi-material structures with integrated packaging. This study found that CNCs are an effective rheological additive which promoted shear-thinning, viscous behavior in the studied edible feedstocks necessary for DIW 3D printing of self-supporting edible structures.
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3D gıda baskısı, diğer tüm 3D yazıcılarda olduğu gibi bir ürününün katman katman inşa edilerek üç boyutlu bir nesnenin oluşturulabildiği bir süreçtir. Hamburger gibi et ürünlerinden, pizza, makarna, çikolata, kahve köpüğü süslemeleri, kek, pasta dekorasyonu ve diğer birçok şekerleme ürünlerine kadar çok çeşitli malzemeler 3D gıda yazıcısı kullanılarak basılmıştır. 3D baskı teknolojisi gastronomi alanında da kullanımı olanağı bulmuş şeflerin ve restoranların da ilgisini çekmiştir. Restoranlarda gerek klasik yemeklerin üzerine farklı şekillerde tasarım materyallerin gerekse şeflerin oluşturduğu özel reçetelerle hazırlanan yemeklerin üretilmesinde kullanılabilmektedir. Aslında yaratıcılığın teknolojiyle şekillenmesi olarak tanımlanabilecek fine-dining restoranlara sanatsal sunum yeteneği sağlamakla başlayan uygulamalar endüstriyel mutfak sektörüne doğru genişlemektedir. 3D gıda baskısı teknolojisinin potansiyeli düşünüldüğünde gıda üretiminde yeni sınırların tanımlanacağı, kişiselleştirilmiş beslenme, yemek yeme deneyimleri, yiyecek hazırlama yöntemleri, kültür, ekonomi, tedarik zinciri gibi gastronomi ile ilgili tüm yönleri kapsayacak şekilde etkiler yaratacağı düşünülmektedir. Bu çalışma, 3D gıda yazıcısının mevcut kullanımını incelemekle birlikte mutfakta gerçekleştireceği devrim ve gastronomideki geleceği için fütüristik bir perspektif oluşturmak üzere hazırlanmıştır.
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Despite 3D food printing being a nascent emerging technology in the food industry, it has a greater potential in fulfilling commercial and consumer needs. 3D printing has been forecasted to be revolutionizing the technology of the future. Various well‐known 3D printing technologies are material extrusion, powder bed fusion, binder jetting, material jetting, vat polymerization, sheet lamination, and direct energy deposition. In context with food, not all the printing technologies are suitable for the printing process as food is a complex perishable commodity that often undergoes desired amount of pre‐ as well as postprocessing operations. Hence, this chapter envisages the major considerations of the food‐printing process, material properties, and selectivity of materials that are suitable for specific food 3D printing technologies. Extrusion technology, selective sintering, inkjet printing, binder jetting, and bioprinting are the common 3D printing technologies used for the food‐printing process that are distinct based on the mechanism of binding of printed layers. Understanding food printing technology is very crucial in terms of technical and design aspects for delivering 3D‐printed food with enhanced levels of customization. Hence, the present chapter provides valuable insights into the working principles, binding mechanism, and system components of 3D food printing technologies. Certainly, this chapter helps in better understanding of food‐printing process in upbringing the technology of 3D food printing to the next level. In addition, the future outcomes in designing multihead food printers and their efficiency in food production through 3D printing are also briefed.
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The dietary pattern and eating habits of consumers are constantly changing with busy lifestyles. The consumer's food decisions and marketability of developed products are assessed by nutritional and functional benefits, cost, eating pleasure, taste, and convenience. Due to increasing awareness about physical wellbeing, the markets of functional foods, nutraceuticals, and personal care products witnessed a hike in the last decade. However, the nutritional needs of individuals are highly varied making the food industry look for alternative technology. 3D food printing is a fascinating technology that allows customizing the foods based on individual likeness without compromising the nutritional benefits. Although the applications of 3D printing are well‐identified in non‐food sectors, its applications are at the infant stage in the food industry. The present chapter summarizes various applications of 3D printing in the food industry. 3D printing not only automates food production but also reduces the multiple unit operations thereby simplifies the food supply chain. As a sustainable technology 3D printing aids in combating climate change and allow efficient utilization of uncommon food sources and waste by‐products to be processed into value‐added 3D printed foods. This chapter outlines the advantages of food printing over conventional food processing highlighting various opportunities of 3D printing in food customization, personalized nutrition, food packaging, communication, and teaching aid. Further, the advancements and future outlook of 3D printing on integration with conventional food processing and biotechnological approaches are detailed. Understanding the research feasibilities of 3D printing in the food industry is adequate in expanding the lab‐scale applications to the industrial level especially in alleviating global hunger and malnourishment.
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3D printing allows decentralization and localized production of foods when food printing enters into business trade with the globalization of 3D‐printed foods. Most of the research works in the literature are focused on the system design and optimization of the printing process. However, only very few reports are available on the safety of 3D‐printed foods. In this regard, the present chapter mainly discusses the safety aspects of 3D‐printed foods, challenges, and research needs. Consumers have the right to know about the source and origin of food ingredients which cannot be overviewed when it comes to 3D‐printed foods. Even though 3D printing delivers foods based on localized demand, it is crucial to provide proper labeling of 3D‐printed foods. The storage stability of 3D‐printed foods is equally important as that of the optimization of printability. The significance of postprocessing and end quality of 3D‐printed foods are highlighted in this chapter. Thus, the sustenance of food printing relies on not only the technical development but also the practical implementation with societal and economic implications in the food supply and distribution chain. Various measures considered in preserving the storage stability, safety, and edibility of 3D‐printed foods are discussed in context with food safety, labeling, legal framework, and regulation concerns. The present chapter envisages the practical challenges associated with the safety of 3D‐printed foods and highlights a future outlook on measures to be undertaken in overcoming safety concerns to explore 3D food printing at the commercial level.
Article
Material extrusion is a popular additive manufacturing process that gained prominence in various industrial applications. The current work addresses the limitations of the existing slicing software in producing parts with customized filament layouts. A new filament deposition algorithm that produces filament paths taking as input arbitrary point-wise orientation fields is presented. Like slicing software, it can control various process parameters, including extrusion width, layer height, filament spacing, number of layers, printing and travel speeds, and produces G-Code instructions. Capabilities of the algorithm are presented by producing parts with both partial and maximum infill and parts with a multi-oriented layer stacking sequence. The results show that the algorithm can print parts with filaments oriented along the input orientation field at different infills, thus making this contribution a potential tool for many applications that demand customized filament placement.
Chapter
3D printing is a disruptive technology that claims to simplify the food supply and distribution chain. With the outbreak of technological boon, 3D printing is increasingly adopted in the manufacturing sector due to design innovations, cost‐effectiveness, minimal wastage, higher flexibility, on‐demand production, and digital fabrication. However, the socioeconomic benefits and the environmental sustainability of 3D printing are not well understood. The convergence of 3D printing with the cocreation of web‐based technologies leads to the globalization of 3D‐printed foods. The present chapter summarizes the sustainability and the circular economy of 3D food printing. With technological advancements, the online platforms allow consumers, culinary professionals, and industrial firms to share the e‐files with less effort and time. 3D food printing is forecasted to create a new competitive dynamic market through digitalization and the democratization of food production practices. Understanding the economic paradigms of food production through 3D printing is adequate. Certainly, this chapter highlights the real‐world practical implications of large‐scale adoption of food 3D printing. Consumer behavior, bias, food preferences, and buying habits remain the potential drivers of the market of 3D‐printed foods that would lead to the usage of 3D food printers in every kitchen as a domestic appliance in near future. Since the business model of 3D printing has a broad range of the spectrum that incurs grayscale in between the marketing firms, more case studies are required on the management of food supply and distribution chain of 3D printing of foods. Addressing these research gaps would transform food production and rebalances the global economy in combating climate change and environmental concerns.
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3D food printing is a digitalized technology that follows pre‐defined process steps in the conversion of 3D design into printable form through the slicing of a 3D model. Food printing is an integration of 3D printing and gastronomic approaches with digitalized nutrition control. Two significant aspects that influence 3D printing are the nature of the material and process parameters. Both intrinsic (physical, chemical, rheological, mechanical, frictional, thermal, and dielectric properties) and extrinsic factors (optimization of material supply and printing process variables) have a great impact on the mechanical stability and aesthetic aspects of 3D printed constructs. This chapter solely discusses the above‐mentioned critical process variables of printability. The major discussion is provided for extrusion‐based technology with a brief discussion on other food printing technologies. Certainly, the present work attempts to provide insights on the relationship between material properties and printing process variables in the optimization of the food printing process. Understanding various factors affecting the printability of foods is crucial in avoiding the discrepancies in the production of a 3D construct that resembles the 3D model in transforming the imagination into reality. Knowledge about the response of material supplies towards various printing process variables is quite significant for a successful 3D printing process in achieving a stable 3D food construct.
Article
Herein, we investigated the influence of temperature on the rheological properties, 3D printability, and textural characteristics of soy protein isolate (SPI) pastes. All protein pastes showed shear-thinning behavior and high temperature improved the storage modulus (G′), the yield stress (τy), and the minimum flow stress (τf) of SPI paste. However, the addition of sodium alginate and gelatin reduced G′, τy, and τf of SPI-based pastes. After adding gelatin, more stable 3D printed structures formed with higher hardness, resilience, cohesiveness, springiness, and chewiness at higher printing temperatures of 35 °C and 45 °C. The addition of gelatin and higher printing temperatures promoted the formation of tight connections between soy protein particles which induced the formation of a dense 3D structure in SPI-based pastes. Overall, this work provided useful information to prepare protein-based food with good 3D printability.
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It is a severe challenge to construct 3D scaffolds which hold controllable pore structure and similar morphology of the natural extracellular matrix (ECM). In this study, a compound technology is proposed by combining the 3D bioprinting and electrospinning process to fabricate 3D scaffolds, which are composed by orthogonal array gel microfibers in a grid-like arrangement and intercalated by a nonwoven structure with randomly distributed polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibers. Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) are seeded on the hierarchical scaffold and cultured 21 d for in vitro study. The results of cells culturing show that the microfibers structure with controlled pores can allow the easy entrance of cells and the efficient diffusion of nutrients, and the nanofiber webs layered in the scaffold can significantly improve initial cell attachment and proliferation. The present work demonstrates that the hierarchical PCL/gel scaffolds consisting of controllable 3D architecture with interconnected pores and biomimetic nanofiber structures resembling the ECM can be designed and fabricated by the combination of 3D bioprinting and electrospinning to improve biological performance in tissue engineering applications.
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Solid Freeform Fabrication (SFF) of food provides an exciting application for additive manufacturing technologies. A variety of materials has been used to demonstrate food printing. However, these materials were not suited for traditional food processing techniques (Baking, slow cooking, frying, etc) and thus eliminating the majority of today"s consumed food. We demonstrated new materials suitable for baking, broiling and frying. Turkey, scallop, celery were processed and modified using transglutaminase to enable them to be slow cooked or deep-fried after printing. Mutli-material constructs of turkey meat and celery were successfully printed. A cookie recipe was modified to be printable while retaining shape during baking. By adding cocoa powder to the modified recipe a second, visually and differently tasting material was created. A complex shape of the cocoa modified material was printed within a block of the modified material. The complex internal geometry printed was fully preserved during baking.
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Two kinds of 3D printers were developed in our group. One is bathtub-type gel printer named SWIM-ER. The other is ink-jet-type food printer named E-CHEF NO.1. Using Meso-Decorated gels and agar, 3D printing of the soft materials was carried out. The valve of blood vessel, which is difficult to build by soft materials, is printed successfully by SWIM-ER. Their dimensions became almost the same as the designed. We also succeeded in printing food by E-CHEF NO.1, while a few bubbles are found in the sample.
Article
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Solid Freeform Fabrication (SFF) of food has the potential to drastically impact both culinary professionals and laypeople; the technology will fundamentally change the ways we produce and experience food. Several imposing barriers to food-SFF have been overcome by recent open-source printing projects. Now, materials issues present the greatest challenge. While the culinary field of molecular gastronomy can solve many of these challenges, careful attention must be given to contain materials-set bloat. Using a novel combination of hydrocolloids (xanthium gum and gelatin) and flavor agents, texture and flavor can be independently tuned to produce printing materials that simulate a broad range of foods, with only a minimal number of materials. In addition to extensively exploring future applications of food-SFF, we also present a rigorous proof-of-concept investigation of hydrocolloids for food-SFF. A two-dimensional mouthfeel rating system was created (stiffness vs. granularity) and various hydrocolloid mixtures were characterized via an expert panel of taste testers.
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Thirty years into its development, additive manufacturing has become a mainstream manufacturing process. Additive manufacturing build up parts by adding materials one layer at a time based on a computerized 3D solid model. It does not require the use of fixtures, cutting tools, coolants, and other auxiliary resources. It allows design optimization and the producing of customized parts on-demand. Its advantages over conventional manufacturing have captivated the imagination of the public, reflected in recent mainstream publications that call additive manufacturing “the third industrial revolution.” This paper reviews the societal impact of additive manufacturing from a technical perspective. Abundance of evidences were found to support the promises of additive manufacturing in the following areas: (1) customized healthcare products to improve population health and quality of life, (2) reduced environmental impact for manufacturing sustainability, and (3) simplified supply chain to increase efficiency and responsiveness in demand fulfillment. In the mean time, the review also identified the need for further research in the areas of life-cycle energy consumption evaluation and potential occupation hazard assessment for additive manufacturing.
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Lentinula edodes was the first medicinal macrofungus to enter the realm of modern bio-technology. The present paper briefly reviews the history of the modern biotechnology of this mushroom starting with the production of the polysaccharide preparation lentinan, and ending with an overview of our own work regarding the production of lectins. Our work with lectins has involved studies of the effect of initial pH, carbon and nitrogen sources and the C:N ratio on lectin production in both the mycelium and culture medium. We have shown that lectin activity is related to morphological development, with the ac-tivity being highest in extracts of the pigmented mycelial films that precede fruiting body production.
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In this paper we report on a recent public experiment that shows two robots making pancakes using web instructions. In the experiment, the robots retrieve instructions for making pancakes from the World Wide Web and generate robot action plans from the instructions. This task is jointly performed by two autonomous robots: The first robot opens and closes cupboards and drawers, takes a pancake mix from the refrigerator, and hands it to the robot B. The second robot cooks and flips the pancakes, and then delivers them back to the first robot. While the robot plans in the scenario are all percept-guided, they are also limited in different ways and rely on manually implemented sub-plans for parts of the task. We will thus discuss the potential of the underlying technologies as well as the research challenges raised by the experiment.
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Biofabrication can be defined as the production of complex living and non-living biological products from raw materials such as living cells, molecules, extracellular matrices, and biomaterials. Cell and developmental biology, biomaterials science, and mechanical engineering are the main disciplines contributing to the emergence of biofabrication technology. The industrial potential of biofabrication technology is far beyond the traditional medically oriented tissue engineering and organ printing and, in the short term, it is essential for developing potentially highly predictive human cell- and tissue-based technologies for drug discovery, drug toxicity, environmental toxicology assays, and complex in vitro models of human development and diseases. In the long term, biofabrication can also contribute to the development of novel biotechnologies for sustainable energy production in the future biofuel industry and dramatically transform traditional animal-based agriculture by inventing 'animal-free' food, leather, and fur products. Thus, the broad spectrum of potential applications and rapidly growing arsenal of biofabrication methods strongly suggests that biofabrication can become a dominant technological platform and new paradigm for 21st century manufacturing. The main objectives of this review are defining biofabrication, outlining the most essential disciplines critical for emergence of this field, analysis of the evolving arsenal of biofabrication technologies and their potential practical applications, as well as a discussion of the common challenges being faced by biofabrication technologies, and the necessary conditions for the development of a global biofabrication research community and commercially successful biofabrication industry.
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Three Dimensional Printing is a process for the manufacture of tooling and functional prototype parts directly from computer models. Three Dimensional Printing functions by the deposition of powdered material in layers and the selective binding of the powder by “link-jet” printing of a binder material. Following the sequential application of layers, the unbound powder is removed, resulting in a complex threedimensional part. The process may be applied to the production of metal, ceramic, and metal-ceramic composite parts. An experiment employing continuous-jet ink-jet printing technology has produced a three-dimensional ceramic part constructed of 50 layers, each 0.005 in. thick. The powder is alumina and the binder is colloidal silica. The minimum feature size is 0.017 in., and features intended to be 0.5000 in. apart average 0.4997 in. apart in the green state and 0.5012 in. apart in the cured state, with standard deviations of 0.0005 in. and 0.0018 in., respectively. Future research will be directed toward the direct fabrication of cores and shells for metal casting, and toward the fabrication of porous ceramic preforms for metal-ceramic composite parts.
Conference Paper
In recent years, aging is progressing in Japan. Elderly people can't swallow the food well. So, the need of soft food is increasing greatly with the aging of the population. There are so few satisfying foods for the elderly to enjoy a meal. An equipment of printing soft food gives the elderly a big dream and is promising. In this study, we aim at developing a 3D edible gel printer in order to make soft food for the elderly. We made a prototype of the 3D edible gel printer. The printer consists of syringe pump and dispenser. The syringe pump extrudes the solution. The dispenser allows to model threedimensional objects. We use agar solution as the ink to carry out the printing. Agar’s gelation deeply depends on temperature. Therefore temperature control of the solution is important to mold optimal shapes because the physical crosslinking network of agar’s solution is instable. We succeeded in making the gels and plate-shape gel using the 3D edible gel printer. Further more, in order to increase the gelation speed agar’s solution, we changed the dispenser and the printing test is being done now. 4 kinds of soft food prepared from agar and gelatin were printed by the 3D edible gel printer. The compression tests of the printed soft food samples were done and their hardness is measured because the hardness is one of very important factors which influence the food texture greatly. In the future, the viscosity of the agar solution or other food ink should be adjusted to suitable for printing.
Article
Lentinus edodes belongs to the Basideomycotina sub-division and to Agaricaceae family. This fungus has been presented by the literature as a microorganism with potential for food industry, medical application, enzyme production and effluent treatment. The aim of this manuscript was to discuss its biotechnological potential. L. edodes is the second most cultivated mushroom and has been consumed world-wide. Shiitake has been cultivated in China and Japan for about 2000 years. The great interest in shiitake's commercialization is due to its flavor/taste and nutritional and medicinal properties. Antibiotic, anti-carcinogenic and antiviral compounds have been isolated intracellularly (fruiting body and mycclia) and extracellularly (culture media). Some of these substances were lentinans, lentins, lectins and eritadenins. There are scientific and economic interests in the enzymes produced by L. edodes. They have potential for application in paper industry for biopulping, residue treatments and improvement in the digestibility of animal rations, and the literature presents lot of works describing application and potential of these enzymes. Many studies have been carried out using L. edodes for the treatment of effluents from industries as olive oil processing, textile and pulp and paper. L. edodes enzymes are the main responsible for its treatment capacity. The potential of this microorganism is unquestionable in some of the most important areas of applied biotechnology.
Article
Additive Manufacturing is a digitally-controlled, robotic construction process which builds up complex solid forms layer by layer, applying phase transitions or chemical reactions to fuse layers together. Examples that utilise food materials (Food Layered Manufacture; FLM) are emerging in the public domain. FLM structuring operations are limited to metering, mixing, deposition and fusion; while materials used in FLM fabrication must have highly-standardised flow and setting properties. Therefore the construction of predictable structures by FLM requires a first-principles, materials science approach to formulation design. FLM is most suited to niche food applications having a strong emphasis on individualised food design or customised manufacturing.
Article
Despite such sage advice from Willy Wonka's creepily benevolent workforce, a group of master's degree student engineers at the University of Exeter in the United Kingdom is pressing on with a chocolate additive layer manufacturing (ALM) system to be used to create customized three-dimensional (3-D) structures and complex geometry out of chocolate. Dubbed ChocALM, the objective of the project is to design and build a desktop ALM system and develop it as a novel chocolate maker that is different from traditional chocolate manufacturing by offering the opportunity to design and manufacture innovatively shaped and personalized chocolates. Confectionary giant Cadbury Schweppes and electronic component distributors Hepco Motion and Farnell have backed the project.
Article
Purpose – Solid freeform fabrication (SFF) has the potential to revolutionize manufacturing, even to allow individuals to invent, customize, and manufacture goods cost-effectively in their own homes. Commercial freeform fabrication systems – while successful in industrial settings – are costly, proprietary, and work with few, expensive, and proprietary materials, limiting the growth and advancement of the technology. The open-source Fab@Home Project has been created to promote SFF technology by placing it in the hands of hobbyists, inventors, and artists in a form which is simple, cheap, and without restrictions on experimentation. This paper aims to examine this. Design/methodology/approach – A simple, low-cost, user modifiable freeform fabrication system has been designed, called the Fab@Home Model 1, and the designs, documentation, software, and source code have been published on a user-editable “wiki” web site under the open-source BSD License. Six systems have been built, and three of them given away to interested users in return for feedback on the system and contributions to the web site. Findings – The Fab@Home Model 1 can build objects comprising multiple materials, with sub-millimeter-scale features, and overall dimensions larger than 20 cm. In its first six months of operation, the project has received more than 13 million web site hits, and media coverage by several international news and technology magazines, web sites, and programs. Model 1s are being used in a university engineering course, a Model 1 will be included in an exhibit on the history of plastics at the Science Museum London, UK, and kits can now be purchased commercially. Research limitations/implications – The ease of construction and operation of the Model 1 has not been well tested. The materials cost for construction (US$2,300) has prevented some interested people from building systems of their own. Practical implications – The energetic public response to the Fab@Home project confirms the broad appeal of personal freeform fabrication technology. The diversity of interests and desired applications expressed by the public suggests that the open-source approach to accelerating the expansion of SFF technology embodied in the Fab@Home project may well be successful. Originality/value – Fab@Home is unique in its goal of popularizing and advancing SFF technology for its own sake. The RepRap project in the UK predates Fab@Home, but aims to build machines which can make most of their own parts. The two projects are complementary in many respects, and fruitful exchanges of ideas and designs between them are expected.
Article
The encapsulation of the light sensitive model β-carotene, a colorant and antioxidant molecule widely used in the food industry, has been successfully achieved in ultrafine fibers of zein prolamine, a sustainable agropolymer, by means of electrospinning. Fiber capsules were in the micro- and nanorange in the cross-section and the encapsulation preserved the fluorescence of the polyene molecules. Observations with confocal Raman imaging spectroscopy showed that the antioxidant was stable and widely dispersed inside the zein fibers but agglomerated in some areas. Nevertheless, a significant increase in the light stability of the β-carotene when exposed to UV–vis irradiation was determined for the encapsulated compound. As a result, electrospinning of zein prolamine shows an excellent outlook for its application in the stabilization of light sensitive added-value food components.
Article
The efficacy by which dietary interventions influence risk markers of multi-factorial diseases is mainly determined by taking population-based approaches. However, there exists considerable inter-individual variation in response to dietary interventions, and some interventions may benefit certain individuals or population subgroups more than others. This review evaluates the application of nutrigenomic technologies to further the concept of personalised nutrition, as well as the process to take personalised nutrition to the marketplace. The modulation of an individual's response is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Many nutrigenetics studies have attempted to explain variability in responses based on a single or a few genotypes so that a genotype may be used to define personalised dietary advice. It has, however, proven very challenging to define an individual's responsiveness to complex diets based on common genetic variations. In addition, there is a limited understanding of what constitutes an optimal response because we lack key health biomarkers and signatures. In conclusion, advances in nutrigenomics will undoubtedly further the understanding of the complex interplay between genotype, phenotype and environment, which are required to enhance the development of personalised nutrition in the future. At the same time, however, issues relating to consumer acceptance, privacy protection as well as marketing and distribution of personalised products need to be addressed before personalised nutrition can become commercially viable.
Article
This paper describes the development of a novel fabrication method known as chocolate additive layer manufacture (ChocALM). The system has been developed for the layer-by-layer manufacture of creative and personalised three dimensional (3D) chocolate products. This study investigates the material and property behaviour of a commercial chocolate. Deposition experiments have been carried using the newly developed ChocALM system to illustrate the effects of the deposition parameters on the geometrical accuracy and dimension of the deposited chocolates. The results revealed that process parameters such as extrusion rate, nozzle velocity and nozzle height are critical for successful deposition of chocolate and the optimisation of these parameters enables the ChocALM system to create 3D chocolates with appropriate quality.
Article
This paper explores how new institutional fields are established and extended. We argue that they are created by social movements engaging in hegemonic struggles and which develop social movement strategies, articulate discourses and construct nodal points. We examine how this process played out during the creation and development of the Slow Food movement. We argue that the positioning of Slow Food as a new field was based particularly on using multiple strategies, increasing the stock of floating signifiers, and abstracting the nodal points used. This mobilized new actors and enabled a more extensive collective identity which allowed the movement to progress, extend, and elevate the field of Slow Food. The field of Slow Food was transformed from appealing only to gastronomes to becoming a broader field that encompassed social justice activists and environmentalists. This study contributes to the existing literature on field formation, the role of social movements in this process, and political dynamics within social movements. We focus on the importance of hegemony in the institutional processes around field formation by drawing out how Slow Food created a field through the forging of hegemonic links among a range of disparate actors.
Article
Several complex set of engineering and scientific challenges in the food and bioprocessing industries for manufacturing high quality and safe food through efficient and sustainable means can be solved through nanotechnology. Bacteria identification and food quality monitoring using biosensors; intelligent, active, and smart food packaging systems; and nanoencapsulation of bioactive food compounds are few examples of emerging applications of nanotechnology for the food industry. We review the background about the potential of nanotechnology, provide an overview of the current and future applications of nanotechnology relevant to food and bioprocessing industry, and identify the societal implications for successful implementation of nanotechnology. KeywordsNanotechnology–Food–Bioprocessing–Nanosensors–Antimicrobial packaging–Nanoencapsulation
Article
Electrospun blend nanofibers were fabricated from chitosan (1,000kDa, 80% DDA) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO; 900kDa) at a ratio of 3:1 dispersed in 50% and 90% acetic acid. The influence of surfactants on the production of electrospun nanofibers was investigated by adding nonionic polyoxyethylene glycol dodecyl ether (Brij 35), anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate, or cationic dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide below, at, and above their specific critical micellar concentration to the polymer blend solution. Viscosity, conductivity, and surface tension of polymer solutions, as well as morphology and composition, of nanofibers containing surfactants were determined. Pure chitosan did not form fibers and was instead deposited as beads. Addition of PEO and an increasing concentration of surfactants induced spinnability and yielded larger fibers with diameters ranging from 10 to 240nm. Surfactants affected morphology yielding needle-like, smooth, or beaded fibers. Compositional analysis revealed that nanofibers consisted of both polymers and surfactants with concentration of the constituents in nanofibers differing from that in polymer solutions. Results suggest that surfactants may modulate polymer–polymer interactions thus influencing the morphology and composition of deposited nanostructures.
Article
The low rate of innovation and high rate of failure of new food products is a cause for concern. Whilst a wide range of product development process factors are known to influence product success and failure, these predictors are based almost exclusively upon investigations into ‘industrial’ rather than food products. In this paper, an analysis of existing models of product development is carried out, a recently developed model for reduced fat food product development is described and implications for best practice in food product development discussed. Market and consumer knowledge and retailer involvement are key success factors in food product development.
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