Article

Optimizing the Power of Choice: Supporting Student Autonomy to Foster Motivation and Engagement in Learning

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Choice plays a critical role in promoting students' intrinsic motivation and deep engagement in learning. Across a range of academic outcomes and student populations, positive impacts have been seen when student autonomy is promoted through meaningful and personally relevant choice. This article presents a theoretical perspective on the motivational role of choice in learning, based on self-determination theory. Theoretical principles and current research on student motivation and engagement are described. Conditions under which choice promotes students' intrinsic motivation are then presented.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Based on the evidence from the SDT and relevant research, it is suggested that parents and tutors are the immediate social influencers that may alter an individual's course to intrinsic motivation [19]. As such, this study aspires to examine possible ways in which the influence of tutors and families act as hindering or enhancing factors for the self-determination and, subsequently, the motivation of students. ...
... p. [18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34] Tsirides, A. Exploring (de)motivating factors in school years. The role of students, schools, and families from a Self-Determination Theory perspective. ...
... The participants discussed the role of having choices throughout their path in school years, and the general notion throughout the database is that well-designed, meaningful, and personally relevant choice is a critical determinant of intrinsic motivation of students. Choice appears as a promoter of autonomy, with positive outcomes being recorded across a variety of academic settings and populations [19,55]. A possibly significant yet poorly identified determinant of this demotivation may be the lack of choice and decision makingin school environments [5,56]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Using the Self-Determination Theory (SDT) as the theoretical background and Thematic Analysis as the methodology, this qualitative study explores factors that intrinsically or extrinsically motivated or demotivated students through their course to higher education. Six Greek senior high school graduates discussed their school experiences in semi-structured interviews. Using a top-down, deductive, descriptive / non-interpretative analytic strategy the content of the interviews was analysed. six subthemes were identified, divided in two main group themes: The roles of tutors, grades, and module experientiality were explored as parts of the educational environment; also, the role of choice, the need for sense, meaning, and utility value, and finally the roles of their parents, as parts of the family and student environment. The analysis of the narrative content of the interviews revealed ways in which schools and families interact with students, satisfying or thwarting their needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness, and thus promoting or hindering their intrinsic motivation. Using the explanatory, and in many cases predictive capacity of SDT, the results outline some focus points for future research and possibly future interventions to promote intrinsic motivation of Greek students.
... The results show that participants in the All Help condition are less likely to activate a help facility on startup. This potentially indicates too much choice, or a choice that was simply not meaningful [27,28,67,104]. On the other hand, the two effective help facilities, Interactive Help and Video Help, are linear. These two help facilities are also the ones that participants in the All Help condition spent the most time with, suggesting that users preferred to spending time in these help facilities over Text Help and Intelligent Agent Help. ...
... More work, however, is needed to understand why Intelligent Agent Help was less helpful than Interactive Help. It is possible that the number of dialog choices contained in the Intelligent Agent Help was overwhelming for users [27,28,67,104]. More research is needed to understand how to best optimize different help facilities. ...
... The results show that participants in the All Help condition are less likely to activate a help facility on startup. This potentially indicates too much choice, or a choice that was simply not meaningful [27,28,67,104]. On the other hand, the two effective help facilities, Interactive Help and Video Help, are linear. These two help facilities are also the ones that participants in the All Help condition spent the most time with, suggesting that users preferred to spending time in these help facilities over Text Help and Intelligent Agent Help. ...
... More work, however, is needed to understand why Intelligent Agent Help was less helpful than Interactive Help. It is possible that the number of dialog choices contained in the Intelligent Agent Help was overwhelming for users [27,28,67,104]. More research is needed to understand how to best optimize different help facilities. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Help facilities have been crucial in helping users learn about software for decades. But despite widespread prevalence of game engines and game editors that ship with many of today's most popular games, there is a lack of empirical evidence on how help facilities impact game-making. For instance, certain types of help facilities may help users more than others. To better understand help facilities, we created game-making software that allowed us to systematically vary the type of help available. We then ran a study of 1646 participants that compared six help facility conditions: 1) Text Help, 2) Interactive Help, 3) Intelligent Agent Help, 4) Video Help, 5) All Help, and 6) No Help. Each participant created their own first-person shooter game level using our game-making software with a randomly assigned help facility condition. Results indicate that Interactive Help has a greater positive impact on time spent, controls learnability, learning motivation, total editor activity, and game level quality. Video Help is a close second across these same measures.
... Willis (2016) noted that success in achieving the goals of a task naturally helps enhance students' motivation. In addition, Evans and Boucher (2015) suggested that students must be given opportunities to experience autonomy to enhance their intrinsic motivation to engage in a learning activity. Offering the students choices for where to shoot and how to film supported the students' engagement with the task. ...
... Providing the choice of not showing their faces on the video enabled all students to complete the task successfully. This attempt to accommodate individual learners' needs is recommended in universal design for learning (Evans & Boucher, 2015) to create an inclusive environment. ...
Article
Task-based language teaching (TBLT) is one of the mainstream pedagogical approaches in the TESOL field (Miyasako, 2012), but TBLT is not a popular pedagogy in the Japanese senior high school (SHS) context. However, it is sometimes necessary for teachers to complement the contents of the textbook to make lessons more communicative and authentic. Willis’s (2016) TBLT framework was used to design lessons in an elective English Conversation class with 13 SHS students majoring in agriculture. An example task is described in which students recorded introduction videos of their unique school facilities and these were then used for the students’ presentation tests. Their performance tests became more authentic and most students were motivated to complete the task. It is suggested that TBLT could be a good method to supplement the textbook in SHS in Japan. タスクを用いた教授法(以下、TBLT)は、英語教授法の分野において主要な一教授法である(Miyasako, 2012)が、日本の高等学校教育現場では、TBLTはあまり用いられていない。一方教員は、授業をよりコミュニカティブで真正性を高めるために、教科書内容を補完する必要性に迫られることがある。そこで、13名の農業高校生の受講する選択英語会話の授業にWillis(2016)の提唱するTBLTの枠組みを取り入れた。学校特有の施設紹介を動画撮影することをタスクとして課し、生徒の発表テストとした。そうすることで、パフォーマンステストの真正性が増し、大半の生徒はタスクを遂行しようとする意欲が高まった。本稿は、TBLTは教科書内容を補填するためには良い方法であると提唱する。
... Pour un impact optimal, les choix proposés doivent être significatifs pour les élèves, c'est-à-dire qu'ils doivent correspondre à leurs besoins et leurs intérêts (Assor, Kaplan et Roth, 2002;Patall, Dent, Oyer et Wynn, 2012). Dans une visée autonomisante, les enseignants gagneraient également à s'assurer que tous les élèves soient mis au défi de manière appropriée en leur offrant des options de différents niveaux de difficulté (Evans et Boucher, 2015). Or, nos participants ne semblent pas associer le fait de planifier des tâches complexes, signifiantes, centrées sur les intérêts et dont le niveau de défi est adapté aux pratiques de soutien à l'autonomie. ...
Article
Le développement de l’autonomie est une visée importante en éducation et fait partie des visées de la gestion de classe. Or, les conceptions de l’autonomie sont multiples et elles peuvent conséquemment se traduire par des pratiques bien différentes. Dans le cadre d’une recherche qualitative interprétative réalisée auprès de treize enseignants du secondaire (français, anglais, mathématiques et sciences) œuvrant dans des classes ordinaires où plusieurs élèves présentent des comportements difficiles, nous avons cherché à répondre aux questions suivantes : Quel sens les enseignants accordent-ils à l’autonomie? Quelles pratiques jugent-ils pertinentes à mettre en œuvre pour la soutenir? Les résultats recueillis lors des entretiens individuels mettent en évidence la grande importance qu’accordent les enseignants à l’autonomie, une vision déficitaire du niveau d’autonomie des élèves et la coexistence de quatre grandes conceptions de l’autonomie, soit l’autonomie vue comme : 1) une évolution, 2) une injonction, 3) une indépendance et 4) une automatisation. Malgré la volonté des enseignants, peu de pratiques sont déployées en soutien à l’autonomie. Certains paradoxes du soutien à l’autonomie au secondaire sont discutés. Des pistes de recherche et de formation sont amenées.
... Autonomy support is defined as "the instructional effort to involve, nurture, and develop students' inner motivational resources and capacity and responsibility for selfmotivation" (Reeve, 2009, p. 168). Effective teachers foster autonomy in the classroom by creating opportunities for students to take ownership of their own learning by building instruction around students' interests, preferences, and choices (Evans & Boucher, 2015;Katz & Assor, 2007). Teacher practices that support autonomy nurture students' internal motivation to learn, rather than relying on external sources of motivation such as rewards, consequences, and deadlines (Reeve, 2009). ...
Article
Even after spending five to six years sitting in a classroom almost every day for anywhere between four to seven hours, a significant share of students in low- and middle-income countries are still not able to read, write, or do basic arithmetic. What explains this “learning crisis?” A growing body of evidence suggests that poor teaching practices and little to no learning inside the classroom are the main culprits. As such, the learning crisis reflects a teaching crisis. So what can teachers do inside the classroom to tackle these joint crises? This paper systematizes the evidence regarding effective teaching practices in primary school classrooms, with special focus on evidence from low- and middle-income countries. By doing so, the paper provides the theoretical and empirical foundations for the content of the newly developed Teach classroom observation tool. Implications for teacher education and evaluation are also discussed.
... Such autonomy, translated into instructional practices, may lead to engagement in a learning task (Deci, Ryan, & Williams, 1996). To optimize the power of choice for engagement, choices should be personally relevant and meaningful, competenceenhancing, and provided in just the right amount (Evans & Boucher, 2015). In the instructed language classroom, learners, when provided with opportunities to choose what topics to learn, what materials to use, whom they work with, and/or how they demonstrate their language products may have a better chance for students to be engaged in tasks (e.g., Egbert & Abobaker, 2018;Palfreyman, 2018) Social interaction. ...
Article
Full-text available
Drawing upon self-determination theory, flow theory, and the engagement literature, this study explored language tasks that English as a foreign language (EFL) college students and teachers preferred within their language classrooms and identified common conditions underlying these tasks that could facilitate learners’ engagement. With qualitative survey data collected from 392 Chinese college students and 54 English language teachers, this study confirmed the six principle task engagement conditions, namely, authenticity, social interaction, challenge, autonomy, learning support, and interest, and further extended the conceptualization with Chinese EFL population. In particular, both students and teachers perceived social interaction and interest as the most important task conditions in support of engagement; however, they perceived challenge and autonomy as less important. Divergences emerge, with regard to the perceptions towards authenticity and learning support. These findings provide EFL teachers with insights on how to interpret and incorporate these conditions into task designs so as to enhance engagement.
... Students are now active participants in their learning, in fact driving their experience, evaluating resources, and constructing knowledge based on their personal, social and contextual surroundings (Jonassen, 2000). Student autonomy, voice, and choice have become buzz words in the 21st century classroom (Evans & Boucher, 2015;Hastie et al. 2013). Baeten et al. (2010) provided five categories in which this paradigm shift can be organized: (1) stimulating knowledge construction, (2) considering the teacher as a facilitator and coach of the learning process, (3) implementing cooperative work, (4) using authentic assignments and (5) embedding opportunities for self-regulated learning. ...
Article
In March of 2020, school buildings were closed in response to the global health crisis. Administrators and teachers alike were forced to reimagine education in order to meet the needs of students and the community, effectively over a single weekend across an ever changing landscape. Servant and distributive styles of leadership were needed to face these unprecedented, adaptive challenges and a “new normal” model of leadership rose to prominence. Because connecting in a virtual environment requires technological acuity in skill, pedagogy, and practice, effective teachers who had developed cultures of choice, creativity, and autonomy in their student-centered classrooms weathered this rapid shift more easily than others. These effective teachers modeled successful, productive communication and collaboration norms and many were called upon to share their expertise to support communication and collaboration norms and many were called upon to share their expertise to support dynamic, ever shifting pandemic conditions to identify how elements of technology interacted with teacher leadership identity and development by way of effective instruction, teacher voice, influence and reach, collegial interactions, recognition, and opportunity.
... Providing choice is a key element in increasing student intrinsic motivation to engage in learning (Evans & Boucher, 2015). The foundational underpinnings for understanding the value and power of choice are seen in self-determination theory (SDT) (Deci & Ryan, 1985;Deci & Ryan, 2000). ...
Article
Full-text available
Asynchronous online discussion boards are a primary tool for instructors to cultivate social and cognitive presence in an online classroom. This article investigates the undergraduate student experience with remote learning during COVID-19 with the intent to examine the purpose and structure of online discussion boards. Researchers used semi-structured student interviews and student course evaluations to analyze learner perceptions of online class discussions. Though the goals of discussion boards are to provide a space for learner to learner interaction and to enhance critical thinking skills, discussion boards often fall short of these intended outcomes due to discussions feeling repetitive and artificial. Findings indicate that long-held traditional practices can be improved with different strategies; students value opportunities to ask questions and have choice. Reimagining the structure of online discussion boards can increase engagement and deepen learning.
... Student Interest. Student'Motivation'is'linked'to'the'student'perceived'value'or'meaning'in'the'academic'work'at' hand.' ' It' is' connected' to' student' interest' specifically,' where' interest' carries' both' affective' and' cognitive' components.' ' Tapping' into' student' interest' can' increase' academic' achievement,' study' skills,' and' engagement,' as' it' is' seen' to' inspire' reengagement' with' content' (Hidi' &' Ainley,' 2008;' Linnenbrink' and' Pintrich,' 2002).' Students' experience' a' positive' connection' between' choice' and' task' success' when' they' have' an' initial' interest' in' the' topic' or' activity' (Patall,' 2013),' but' can' also' develop' interest' once' engaged.' ' School' does' not' often' support' studies' of' specific' interest' to' the' learner'(Fredericks,'Alfeld'&'Eccles,'2010)'but'could'do'so'by'providing'opportunities'for'student' choice' (Evans' &' Boucher,' 2015;' Williams,' Wallace' &' Sung,' 2015).' ' In' fact,' a' cornerstone' of' more' autonomous' SDI' models' is' the' element' of' student' choice:' choice' in' topic,' research' process,' and' presentation' of' findings' and' knowledge.' ' Additional' research' on' the' influence' of' perceived' student' relevance' is' needed' (Seifert,' 2004),' as' is' research' using' classroom' observations' (Linnenbrink' &' Pintrich,' 2002),' wherein' researchers' work' together' with' teachers' and' other' educators' to' provide' academic' opportunities' to' leverage' student' interest' thought' to' provide' deeper,'more'meaningful'learning' (Barron'&'DarlingTHammond,'2008).''More'information'on'how' ...
Article
This paper explores the research literature relevant to the increasingly popular field of Inquiry Based Learning (IBL) practices in K-12 academic environments. IBL is constructivist and student-centered (Barron & Darling-Hammond, 2008; Condliffe, Visher, Bangser, Drohojowska & Saco 2016; Duffy & Raymer, 2010; Kuhlthau, Maniotes, & Caspari, 2015), leveraging student motivation and engagement through its grounding in authentic, relevant study (Deci & Ryan, 2016; Saunders-Stewart, Gyles, Shore & Bracewell, 2015). Recent research shows positive academic and achievement gains for students engaged in IBL work and the practice is growing.
... En effet, la possibilité de faire lui-même des choix, parmi des options disponibles ainsi que sur les actions elles-mêmes (Reeve & al., 2003), permet à l'étudiant de mieux ajuster son expérience d'apprentissage à ses propres objectifs et comble son besoin d'autonomie, le motivant à s'engager davantage (Evans & Boucher, 2015;Katz & Assor, 2007 ...
... Motivation explains factors that influence students to choose and engage in a particular activity or vice versa. Providing options to choose boosts motivation and enhances the willingness to engage in tasks (Evans and Boucher, 2015). In higher education, developing students' motivation is an educational goal. ...
Article
Lack of motivation is one of the grounds for dropouts among engineering students. Although developing students’ motivation is notable for its importance in engineering education, changes in students’ motivation over time have not been fully explored. By adopting Self-Determination Theory, this study examined the changes in engineering students’ motivation over six months and assessed the correlations between motivation and academic performance. A cohort of forty-six (n=46) first-year chemical engineering students from a public university in Malaysia participated in this study. By using the Academic Motivation Scale, amotivation, extrinsic motivation, and intrinsic motivation of the students over six months were examined. In addition, correlations between motivation and academic performance were assessed. The students’ motivation generally remained unchanged after engaging in their studies for 6 months, except the extrinsic motivation – external regulation significantly increased. The students demonstrated the least amotivation, but they were most motivated “to have a good life later on”. The extrinsic motivation was significantly correlated with students’ first-semester academic performance while the intrinsic motivation – to experience stimulation was significantly correlated with students’ second-semester academic performance. First-year engineering students did not develop higher motivation after enrolling in the program, hence there is a need for motivation enhancement.
... In a study by Tian and Wu (2018), it was shown that there are only little intercultural differences for the choice effect leading to the assumption that this effect is not moderated by the cultural background of learners. However, there is also evidence that not all choice situations lead to an increase in learning (e.g., Evans & Boucher, 2015;Flowerday & Shell, 2015;Schneider et al., 2018;Wijnia et al., 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Based on the Self‐Determination Theory, the choice effect states that offering learners choice options independent from their relevance for learning will increase the perception of autonomy and intrinsic motivation as well as the learning performance. However, an increasing number of choice options can also have detrimental effects. This study examines the influence of the number of choice options on learners' performance. In the first experiment (N = 208) with a one‐factorial between‐subjects design with the factor number of choice options (two to six choice options) and an additional control group without a choice, the motivation, autonomy, cognitive load, and learning scores were measured. Results revealed that three to five choice options increased learning‐relevant variables most. In the second experiment (N = 180) with a one‐factorial between‐subjects design, two, four, or six choice options as experimentally relevant groups found in Experiment 1 were tested again to validate the findings and test mediations derived from the data of Experiment 1. Results reveal that the increase in learning from two to four options is mediated by an increase in decisional autonomy, whereby the decrease in learning from four to six choice options is mediated by a decrease in affective autonomy.
... La littérature du domaine de l'éducation, traitant des stratégies pédagogiques permettant à l'étudiant de faire des choix, éclaire la notion de contrôlabilité. La possibilité de faire lui-même des choix, parmi des options disponibles ainsi que sur les actions elles-mêmes (Reeve et al., 2003), permet à l'étudiant de mieux ajuster son expérience d'apprentissage à ses propres objectifs et comble son besoin d'autonomie, le motivant à s'engager dans l'apprentissage (Evans et Boucher, 2015 ;Katz et Assor, 2007). La théorie des buts d'accomplissement (Ames, 1992) suggère aussi qu'un contexte d'apprentissage offrant des choix dans les tâches scolaires, le matériel pédagogique, les méthodes d'apprentissage ou la vitesse du curriculum mène les étudiants à poursuivre des buts d'apprentissage axés sur le développement de leurs compétences, plutôt que des buts de performance axés sur la comparaison sociale (Patall et Yang Hooper, 2019 (Laurier et al., 2005) de cette perception, c'est-à-dire être en mesure de comparer les résultats à divers moments du processus de modification ou d'amélioration des services, entre groupes d'étudiants distincts ou auprès des mêmes étudiants. ...
Article
Full-text available
Des enseignants du postsecondaire constatent que de nombreux étudiants qui pourraient bénéficier du soutien des centres d’aide disciplinaires de leur établissement pour réussir leurs cours ne s’y présentent pas. Des moyens de motiver les étudiants à utiliser ces services sont en développement et devront être évalués. Cet article présente le processus d’élaboration et de validation de l’Échelle de perception d’un centre d’aide en français du postsecondaire (ÉPCAFP). L’instrument comporte trois sous-échelles (intérêt, utilité et contrôlabilité). Des collégiens (n = 1324) provenant de quatre cégeps du Québec ont participé à son évaluation. Les analyses factorielles exploratoire et confirmatoire révèlent une structure qui distingue bien les dix items de l’échelle en fonction des trois dimensions conceptuelles représentant les sous-échelles. De plus, les résultats sont satisfaisants quant à la consistance interne, la validité discriminante ainsi que la validité critériée de l’instrument. Les résultats de cette étude sont discutés en fonction de la problématique ayant justifié sa conduite. Mots-clés : perception, centre d’aide en français (CAF), motivation, échelle de mesure, validation
... Moreover, as highlighted by Self-determination theory (SDT), when psychological needs like autonomy, competence, and relatedness are met through different learning activities, they function as a motivational asset, central to the development of a sense of belonging and persistence in engineering programs [4]. With regards to creating opportunities for student autonomy, Evans and Boucher [5] suggest the provision of choice and the removal of external controls in student learning experiences. They suggest including instances in which students can set their own goals considering their personal values, strengths, and interests, identifying important steps to achieve those goals, and taking initiative in progressing toward those goals in order to determine one's own future. ...
... Second, teaching to individual student needs is similarly well supported by research, with studies showing positive relationships between individualized instruction and academic achievement, knowledge application and problem-solving ability (Alexandre & Enslin, 2017). Third, student choice has been found to promote motivation, engagement, and learning across a variety of subject areas and student populations (Boatright & Allman, 2018;Evans & Boucher, 2015), with the Association for Middle Level Education calling for young adolescents to "have ongoing and meaningful input into what and how they learn" (Bishop & Harrison, 2021, p. 39). Fourth, research on formative assessment is similarly positive, demonstrating improved outcomes for students (Bennett, 2011;Dini et al., 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
As of March 31, 2020, the closure of schools in 192 countries due to the COVID-19 pandemic had resulted in over 1.6 billion learners being temporarily forced out of school buildings. New educational inequities arose, and existing ones were exacerbated. Acknowledging that disruption may also stimulate innovation, the purpose of this qualitative research was to identify possible improvements in middle grades teachers’ practices as they enacted emergency remote instruction. Through narrative responses provided to an online survey administered between May 27 and June 19, 2020, 332 middle grades educators self-identified aspects of their teaching practice that improved while teaching remotely. Findings included deepened knowledge of individual learners; increased individualized instruction; greater opportunities for student choice and self-pace; more timely assessment feedback; enhanced family engagement; and increased technology skills. Implications of this study for educational practice, and for school scheduling in particular, are examined.
... In this paper, we adopt a well-known framework, Universal Design for Learning (UDL) [26], which includes three aspects that are essential for a successful learning experience: Engagement, Representation, and Action & Expression. Engagement refers to how students can be motivated and engaged in a learning process [13]. Representation deals with the considerations regarding how the content and the learning materials are represented to the students [29]. ...
... The self-determination theory of motivation (Ryan & Deci, 2017) focuses on competence, relatedness, and autonomy as three central psychological needs and the basis of intrinsic motivation. Self-determination theory has been used as a framework for many research studies since it was first published in 1985 (cf. Deci et al., 1991;Evans & Boucher, 2015). Self-determination theory purports that people are intrinsically motivated when their behavior is driven by their own pleasure and satisfaction with the task. ...
... The role of choice in motivating high-ability students to learn is documented in relation to tying student motivation and learning to differentiation, acceleration, and enrichment activities (Gentry and Springer, 2002). Choice is identified as motivating to students' learning and well-being; needing to relate to the students' interests (Katz and Assor, 2007); and both well designed and meaningful (Evans and Boucher, 2015). However, providing students with choice can impact negatively on teachers' perceptions of teaching and learning as some may feel threatened by the loss of control if they provide choices (Flowerday and Schraw, 2000). ...
Article
A decline in the number of students opting to study science in high school is a matter of international concern, particularly in relation to students who demonstrate high academic ability in science. These high-ability students have the potential to be the innovators and leaders of the future. There is a paucity of research that provides insight into how schools address the motivational and learning needs of high-ability science students. Underpinned by a constructivist view of learning, this exploratory case study research used student questionnaires and focus group interviews to explore students’ views about their learning experiences in science. It investigated high-ability students’ perceptions of how their needs were being met. Findings indicate that these students generally experienced a wide range of teaching approaches across all science disciplines. Learning was mostly limited to science content and procedures with little evidence of students learning about how science works through Nature of Science.
... Student autonomy, perhaps the greatest asset of online learning, is also a major element of student-centered learning and it promotes intrinsic motivation. 57 We saw a glimpse of this when students at two schools became more engaged when given more choice in how they ran their PBL groups. Moving away from the prescribed schedule and allowing some degree of choice would allow students to relate their learning to personal values and goals and leverage their established skills. ...
Article
Full-text available
Issue: Calls to change medical education have been frequent, persistent, and generally limited to alterations in content or structural re-organization. Self-imposed barriers have prevented adoption of more radical pedagogical approaches, so recent predictions of the ‘inevitability’ of medical education transitioning to online delivery seemed unlikely. Then in March 2020 the COVID-19 pandemic forced medical schools to overcome established barriers overnight and make the most rapid curricular shift in medical education’s history. We share the collated reports of nine medical schools and postulate how recent responses may influence future medical education. Evidence: While extraneous pandemic-related factors make it impossible to scientifically distinguish the impact of the curricular changes, some themes emerged. The rapid transition to online delivery was made possible by all schools having learning management systems and key electronic resources already blended into their curricula; we were closer to online delivery than anticipated. Student engagement with online delivery varied with different pedagogies used and the importance of social learning and interaction along with autonomy in learning were apparent. These are factors known to enhance online learning, and the student-centered modalities (e.g. problem-based learning) that included them appeared to be more engaging. Assumptions that the new online environment would be easily adopted and embraced by ‘technophilic’ students did not always hold true. Achieving true distance medical education will take longer than this ‘overnight’ response, but adhering to best practices for online education may open a new realm of possibilities. Implications: While this experience did not confirm that online medical education is really ‘inevitable,’ it revealed that it is possible. Thoughtfully blending more online components into a medical curriculum will allow us to take advantage of this environment’s strengths such as efficiency and the ability to support asynchronous and autonomous learning that engage and foster intrinsic learning in our students. While maintaining aspects of social interaction, online learning could enhance pre-clinical medical education by allowing integration and collaboration among classes of medical students, other health professionals, and even between medical schools. What remains to be seen is whether COVID-19 provided the experience, vision and courage for medical education to change, or whether the old barriers will rise again when the pandemic is over.
... 25,26 Choice can also be motivating because students are given more autonomy 27 and are prompted to take a more active role in their learning. 28 Offering students choices is a key component of universal design for learning (UDL). UDL articulates how barriers to learning can be removed to make content more accessible. ...
Article
General chemistry is a gateway course for most STEM majors, so student success is a priority for chemistry faculty. Providing quality information resources for students, including textbooks, is one way that instructors can support student learning. However, these resources can be prohibitively expensive for some students, causing them to opt out of purchasing a textbook or incur stress from the costs of time and money to obtain a textbook. Open educational resources (OERs) are no-cost materials, available in the public domain, that students and instructors can use to reduce the financial burden of college coursework. However, as chemistry instructors consider adopting OERs, they may be concerned about the time cost to reframe their courses around different materials, the risk of negatively impacting student learning, and whether the benefits to students outweigh those costs and risks. Although the financial benefits to students have been established, and the evidence suggests minimal risk of poor academic outcomes, the cost to instructors continues to be prohibitively high. In this study, the instructor used a commercial text as the official resource for the course and offered students a choice to use either the commercial textbook or an OER textbook. This soft adoption of OERs dramatically reduced the time cost associated with using the OER for the instructor, while providing financial benefits to students who chose the OER. To address the risk that using an OER might negatively impact student performance, we investigated the impact of student textbook choice on student performance in general chemistry, controlling for relevant academic and affective variables. We found that students using OER performed as well as students using the commercial textbook. With minimal effort, chemistry instructors can provide a no-cost alternative for students, with confidence that it will not detrimentally affect their learning.
... Effective teachers foster autonomy in the classroom by creating opportunities for students to take ownership of their learning by building instruction around their interests, preferences, and choices (Evans & Boucher, 2015;Katz & Assor, 2007). If teachers use choice carefully and in a way that matches students' interests and needs, students are more motivated and engaged, spend more time learning in ways that they prefer, can exercise their ability to assert their own opinion, and show better academic, behavioral and socioemotional outcomes (Fredricks et al., 2004;Jang et al., 2016;Katz & Assor, 2007;Reeve, 2006;. ...
... Autonomy support is defined as "the instructional effort to involve, nurture, and develop students' inner motivational resources and capacity and responsibility for selfmotivation" (Reeve, 2009, p. 168). Effective teachers foster autonomy in the classroom by creating opportunities for students to take ownership of their own learning by building instruction around students' interests, preferences, and choices (Evans & Boucher, 2015;Katz & Assor, 2007). Teacher practices that support autonomy nurture students' internal motivation to learn, rather than relying on external sources of motivation such as rewards, consequences, and deadlines (Reeve, 2009). ...
... [5][6][7] Increased engagement should be supported by the fact that the project offers students the opportunity to customize their learning, allowing them to choose a specific application area of interest to them, which has also been shown to drive student engagement. 8 The associated research question is: do students enjoy the project and does it motivate them? In a class that can be theoretical and abstract, it is difficult to understate the importance of this benefit. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
... Based on the premise of self-determination theory [22], one of the justifications for studentcentered hands-on/minds-on learning activities, is the potential to increase student motivation to learn [23], [24], as we have found to be true of makerspaces [12]. Makerspace activities are student-centered by design [25] with students designing and building prototypes based on criteria and constraints. ...
... Offering choice alone is not sufficient to result in positive outcomes. Instructional choice needs to be connected to student values and experiences, appropriately challenging for students (i.e., not too easy or too difficult), and limited in scope as providing too many choices can be overwhelming for students (Evans & Boucher, 2015;Parker et al., 2017). It is important to know that the boundaries associated with choice and the amount of teacher support provided during the choice-making process varies based on student age, competency, and development (Dabrowski & Marshall, 2015). ...
Article
Students with disabilities, including emotional and behavioral disorders and learning disabilities, tend to experience a higher rate of challenging behavior in school than their peers (Lane et al., 2008; NCLD, 2019). At the same time, increasing numbers of students receiving special education services are being educated in general education classrooms by teachers with limited training in evidence-based classroom management practices (Freeman et al., 2014; NCLD, 2019; Oliver & Reschly, 2010). Thus, there is a need for feasible classroom management strategies that effectively support the behavior and academic achievement of all students. One strategy with promising evidence is instructional choice (e.g., Royer et al., 2017). This dissertation includes a meta-analysis and a single-case study that primarily investigate the effect of instructional choice on students’ classroom behavior. The meta-analysis includes 29 studies using single-case design; this includes 78 cases and 259 effect sizes. Using random-effects assumptions and robust variance estimation, results suggest that instructional choice leads to a statistically significant improvement in classroom behavior (LRR = .33, SE = .127, 95% CI [.053, .617]). Exploratory moderator analyses found that only functional relation significantly moderates effect size; on average, cases with a functional relation using visual analysis have an LRR .31 greater than studies with no functional relation. The single-case study used an alternating treatments design embedded in a multiple baseline to investigate the relationship between instructional choice and class-wide behavior and academic achievement in a high school. The study also evaluated whether within-task choice or between-task choice had a greater effect on student outcomes. Three classroom teachers and their classes participated in the study. Due to the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2020 and subsequent closure of schools, the study was terminated prior to completion. Preliminary data, however, suggest promising findings. Implications, limitations, and future directions of both the meta-analysis and the study are discussed.
... Blended learning is widely used today to combine different technologies and pedagogical approaches (Kristanto, 2017). Aligned with theories of motivation such as self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2002), choice was shown to build autonomy and internal motivation in the learning process (Evans & Boucher, 2015). ...
Article
Sexual harassment and racial discrimination training often fails. In their focal article, Hayes et al. (2020) summarize some of the limitations of organizational training in decreasing sexual harassment and/or discriminative behaviors in the workplace. They briefly present some of the prerequisites for effective training yet leave little room for explaining how these conditions are often unrealized. In addition, Hayes et al. focus mainly on training itself, as a rather isolated process, although there is wide agreement in the literature that such an “atomic approach” is likely to be ineffective unless it is part of an encompassing attempt to bring about organizational change. Adopting Schein’s (1992) model for organizational change, we capitalize on Hayes et al.’s work to demonstrate how some of the principals of effective training could be better introduced and practiced in organizations. Based on Schein’s (1992) terminology, when exposed to a program intended to change attitudes or behavior, individuals and groups often demonstrate “resistance to change,” which emanates from “learning anxiety.” To succeed in facilitating change, organizations should reduce the learning anxiety of their employees as much as possible (Schein, 1992). How can this be done? Greater attention to the complex hidden forces that drive unwillingness to learn, both at the individual and the organizational levels, may make efforts to implement effective interventions more successful.
... In this way, concepts are delivered through the player experiencing the effects of their choices. This dimension draws from notions of choice-based learning [45,63] and self-determination theory [37] in learning science and serious games literature, which have shown the substantial impact such approaches can have on autonomy, engagement, and learning [44,114]. For this strategy, feedback was observed to be generally diegetic, aiming to provide diegetic consequences that could represent real life consequences. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Interactive narratives are widely used to frame and contextualize education in games. However, the specifics of how their designs aid the learning process and outcomes remains relatively unexplored. To better understand this space, a study was conducted that focused on one sub-genre of interactive narrative, Visual Novels. Specifically, in this paper we conducted a survey of thirty-one existing educational Visual Novels, analyzing design elements that fostered learning and delivered educational content. The resulting taxonomy consists of five key dimensions for educational design and teaching strategies within Visual Novels: 1) Teaching Through Choice, 2) Teaching Through Scripted Sequences, 3) Teaching Through Mini-games, 4) Teaching Through Exploration and 5) Non-interactive Teaching. These dimensions demonstrate that there are a number of design considerations for supporting learning through Visual Novels. This work has implications for designers of educational games by classifying the different designs a Visual Novel can employ to teach-ultimately informing how to better present educational subject matter in interactive narrative games.
... Psychologically, providing choice can enhance intrinsic motivation, effort, task performance among other outcomes (Patall, Cooper, & Robinson, 2008). However, having too many choices can also undermine students' feelings of competence and engagement (Evans & Boucher, 2015). Consistent with these research results, a case study on choice provision in a PL environment showed that the profusion of choice was actually demotivating for some students, and balancing between student choice and academic rigor was also challenging for teachers (Netcoh, 2017). ...
Article
The passage of the 2015, Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA), affords states funding for many new options to address the needs of learners. One of the prominent options is personalized learning (PL). This study sought to determine how states positioned PL in their state plans. This study used a qualitative research design to analyze state ESSA plans for presence of and relation to PL. From this analysis, four themes emerged, (a) definitions of PL, (b) goals of PL for students, (c) supports for PL, and (d) partnership for PL. The findings from this study suggested that many states contain aspects of PL in their state plans; however, there is little consensus of how to best implement PL. This article reported on these findings as well as offered guidance to policymakers and state departments of education on how to operationalize and implement PL.
... As the reflection prompts did not specifically inquire about students' feelings of control (and students offered little commentary on this construct), it is difficult to ascertain exactly why WS students felt less autonomous (recall that the reflec-tion prompts were developed before the decision to use SDT). However, it is interesting that 90% of students in WS still reported they enjoyed the course (compared with 94% in Phage), even though autonomy is often reported in the literature as the most critical need for motivation and satisfaction (29). ...
Article
Full-text available
Day 1: Watershed (WS) is a first-year program designed to provide an inclusive environment for students and immerse them in research from day 1 of college. Originally developed to support students from underrepresented groups (URGs) including first-generation students and students of color, WS provides authentic research experiences for all students as they collect and analyze water and microbiological samples from the local watershed. WS also includes a living-learning community with students living in the same dorm and taking common courses during their first year. In the first year of our study, researchers investigated students' anxieties, feelings of belonging or isolation, supports received, and personal habits. In year 2 (the primary year reported), researchers used mixed-methods and self-determination theory to determine how WS students differed from students in other introductory and research-based courses in terms of basic psychological needs satisfaction (including autonomy, competence, and relatedness). Results indicated that although WS students felt less autonomous and, at times, less competent than other students, 90% reported a positive experience. Furthermore, findings suggest that WS students' feelings of connection with classmates and instructors, as well as a sense of belonging in the course, provided the necessary motivational support to facilitate a positive learning experience. These findings indicate that the WS program can be a viable model for supporting students in early science courses and making them feel included.
... With regard to the growing interest in developing students' autonomy to prepare them for lifelong learning (e.g., Evans & Boucher, 2015;Dickinson, 1994;Littlewood, 1996;Little, 1999;Reinders & White, 2016), few studies have been conducted to examine e-learning teachers' role in this respect. Farivar and Rahimi (2015), for instance, have asserted that most Iranian students at different levels of education are dependent upon teachers in the classroom, and there are few opportunities for students to control their own learning. ...
Article
Full-text available
Studies have shown that learner autonomy plays a decisive role in online learning, but teachers' autonomy supportiveness is still under-researched. This issue has particularly remained untouched in online instruction which has gained importance recently. Considering the lack of an appropriate context-specific scale for the investigation of online teachers' autonomy support, the current study sought to develop and validate a scale for this purpose. It investigated the factors that contribute to autonomy support by Iranian EFL teachers in online contexts. The literature on the topics of autonomy and e-learning was reviewed extensively, and a questionnaire was developed and validated through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) methodology. The thematic analysis of the literature and experts' opinions finally yielded 48 factors that were grouped in seven categories comprising negotiation, awareness, freedom, teacher attitude, scaffolding, authenticity, and technical help.
... The evidence, therefore, suggests that a mathematics teacher, who is responsive to student needs and values student choice for mode of learning, would demonstrate an autonomy-focused style of teaching, thereby facilitating engagement, which can predict intrinsic motivation. It is important to note, however, that merely offering choice is not, in itself, a motivating factor, as Evans and Boucher (2015) demonstrated that for choice to be motivating, it needs to be relevant, meaningful and competence-enhancing. ...
Article
First-year undergraduates may be particularly prone to experiencing difficulties with facilitating feelings of relatedness, due to the recent shift in educational environments (i.e. from high school to university), which may be unfamiliar. Therefore, the current study aimed to determine whether the implementation of a single pedagogical strategy, centred within the self-determination theory framework, could effectively address students’ innate need for relatedness. Specifically, informal verbal feedback was utilized to enhance teacher–student communication, where the teacher spoke with each undergraduate student individually at the start of every lesson for 1–2 minutes. A total of 243 Advanced Science undergraduates enrolled in the first-year course at the University of New South Wales, Sydney, were included in the study. Seventy-one undergraduates were enrolled in 2016, whereas 172 undergraduates were enrolled in 2017. A mixed research methodology was employed to best leverage the utility of both qualitative and quantitative data. Interestingly, the use of informal verbal feedback as a pedagogical strategy significantly improved the student’ perceptions of receiving helpful feedback to aid their learning. These findings are important as they emphasize the utility and effectiveness of implementing one new pedagogical strategy to facilitate student’ motivation, by enhancing feelings of relatedness.
... Definitions Agency Sawyer, Smith, Rowe, Azeved, & Lester (2017) define agency as "the degree of freedom and control that a student has to perform meaningful actions in a learning environment." Giving learners choice and autonomy in their learning has been shown to improve motivation and support the development of intrinsic motivation (Evans and Boucher, 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
This the class notes for the course HCI 510X titled "Foundations of Game-based Learning"
... Similarly, while we studied supports at the personal level (with the MSPSS) and the advisor-advisee level (with the AWAI), future research should examine the differential impacts of support at other levels (e.g., lab group, department, graduate school, institution-wide) on mental health outcomes. Additionally, other personal resources-such as resilience (Steinhardt and Dolbier, 2008), optimism (Kleiman et al., 2017), and autonomy (Deci and Ryan, 1987;Evans and Boucher, 2015;Kusurkar and Croiset, 2015)-may contribute significantly to student well-being. These additional, unmeasured factors may account for some of the unexplained variance in the stress process mediation models and may represent future avenues of study. ...
Article
Although doctoral students in the biomedical sciences have been recognized as a population at particular risk for mental health problems such as burnout and depression, little research has been conducted to identify candidate targets for intervention. To this end, we used the stress process model to evaluate potential mediators of stress-burnout and stress-depression relationships in biomedical doctoral students. A cross-sectional sample (n = 69) completed validated self-report measures of stress; symptoms of burnout and depression; and perceptions of mastery, social support, and advisor support. In linear regression models, we found that academic stressors were most predictive of burnout, whereas family/monetary stressors were most predictive of depression. In mediation models, we found that the relationship between stress and burnout was partially mediated by mastery and advisor support, while the stress-depression relationship was partially mediated by mastery. These findings represent a first step in identifying interventional targets to improve mental health in this at-risk population. Whereas certain stressors are inherent to the doctoral training environment, psychosocial interventions to enhance one's sense of mastery and/or to improve advisor relationships may mitigate the influence of such stressors on burnout and depression.
... Additionally, interest can be generated through the provision of choice (Evans & Boucher, 2015). Although educational settings might be difficult environments to promote relevance and meaning for all students, incorporating personalization is one way through which student meaning and relevance can be supported. ...
... (1) TSR positivity, which is often characterized by relatedness and involvement and includes teacher's expressions of empathy, warmth, and caring toward a student (McHugh, Horner, Colditz, & Wallace, 2013;Raufelder et al., 2013) and (2) TSR autonomy, often defined by teacher behaviors such as providing a rationale for academic work and providing students with self-directed learning activities (Evans & Boucher, 2015). TSR positivity is a strong predictor of psychosocial and academic success (Garcia-Reid, Hamme Peterson, & Reid, 2015;Tucker et al., 2002). ...
Article
Full-text available
The negative impact of discrimination on adolescent mental health is well established, but less is known about the effects of identity-based bullying (i.e., verbal or physical assaults targeting identity(ies)). The current study examined the impact of identity-based victimization (i.e., everyday discrimination and identity-based bullying) on mental health, and the protective role of teacher-student relationships, in a diverse sample of adolescents. Data from a diverse sample of 9th-12th graders (N = 986, 51% youth of Color, 52% cisgender girls, 22% sexual minorities, 41% free/reduced-price lunch status) in a semi-urban high school were analyzed using structural equation modeling analyses, including moderation and multi-group comparisons. Findings indicated that identity-based victimization is pervasive and negatively associated with mental health. Adolescents with stigmatized identities across sexual orientation, race, and gender faced a higher risk of experiencing identity-based victimization, and mental health challenges. Teacher-student relationships that were positive and autonomy-enhancing had a moderating effect on the association between identity-based victimization and mental health for many adolescents, such that they were not protective for those experiencing more severe victimization (i.e., high discrimination or identity-based bullying). Multigroup analyses indicated significant model fit differences across race and gender. Results suggest that extant school-based supports are not enough to combat the pervasive effects of identity-based victimization. Findings support the examination and implementation of changes in clinical and school-based practice and policy to better support stigmatized and victimized adolescents.
Chapter
Academic success is a key aspect of one’s life and development (Donolato, Giofrè, & Mammarella, 2019). Students are required to achieve various goals that are of fundamental importance to their academic and future development. Along with the large body of literature focusing on individual factors related to academic success, such as motivation (Usán et al., 2019), effort-making (Baars et al., 2020), self-concept (Delgado et al., 2019), and working memory (Fitzgerald et al., 2020), researchers have been effectively advancing our understanding of the association between emotion-related constructs and academic learning (Valiente et al., 2012).
Chapter
When Japanese STEM students attempt to join an international academic community as novice scholars, they are sometimes encouraged to participate in poster sessions. This chapter reports development of a unique poster presentation course for the third-year students at a private university in Tokyo. The course started in 2015 and has evolved and improved, reflecting suggestions from students and teachers. Post surveys on the effectiveness of the course and the students’ perceptions of group work were conducted and analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. The results revealed that the course was effective and motivating to participants, and the course improved and evolved year by year. Finally, suggestions on planning and implementing such a course are provided.
Article
As classroom teachers, we understand the struggles students face daily, especially in mathematics. These challenges can include language barriers which may or may not be related to disabilities. We have seen students in classrooms struggle with the digital divide and limited digital access. Both language and digital access are crucial for mathematical student learning. We provide practical ideas for middle school teachers to help bridge the gap for students with language barriers using digital access and the concept of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) in mathematics. The ideas presented are to provide greater equity for students with language-based issues in all areas, but with a special focus on the more complex needs presented in today’s middle school mathematics classrooms.
Article
Previous research into approaches to support the wellbeing of teachers have been informative in understanding the sources of stress and burnout, and, strategies to help teachers cope with the demands of the profession. However, less research has focused on approaches that promote wellbeing in a proactive and preventative way, a notion captured by the field of positive psychology. This study aimed to explore how school-based positive psychology interventions are delivered to foster teacher wellbeing, drawing on evidence from ten studies in a qualitative systematic review. The results indicated that interventions included mindfulness-based, multi-modal programs, and, gratitude interventions. All reported outcomes were positive, with some findings indicating that the structure of the interventions was as important to success as the content of the programs. Six common core elements were identified, including voluntary participation, the use of multiple methods, context-specific design, group format, professional instructors, and, weekly sessions. Based on the exisiting literature and an emphasis on common unifying findings, this review highlights the potential of positive psychology interventions in supporting teacher wellbeing by providing practical insights for schools, teacher educators, and, policymakers.
Article
Mobile devices facilitate learning activities in a self‐paced way. However, the current understanding of learning participation and its consequence are minimal when learners take advantage of opportunities provided by mobile technologies worldwide. The primary purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of environmental incentives on app learning behaviour and learning performance based on a multi‐dimensional approach. We also evaluate whether the role of anxiety attenuates these influences. In this study, 323 participants’ learning activities were tracked weekly to measure the completion of their daily learning plan during 16 weeks. Then, an online survey was conducted to assess the environmental incentives, perceptions, and self‐evaluations of these participants after the learning tracking process. Participants’ learning progress was measured by the comparison of paired course test scores before and after the tracking period. The results indicated that engagement, sense of meaning, and stage accomplishment exerted a directly significant influence on shaping the learning habits and outcomes. In addition, the results also tapped the role of anxiety in the app learning context, indicating the significant moderating effects on the relationship between social incentives, stage accomplishment, and learning habits. The app learning habits of the users with high‐level anxiety exerted less impact on their performance progress than users with low‐level anxiety. This study provides insights into how the mobile environment can influence learning activities and learning performance, implying practical implications to leverage mobile technologies for educational purposes.
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic has emphasized the importance of designing effective methods for remote teaching. At the University of California, Berkeley, and the University of California, Santa Cruz, instructors adapted to the necessity of remote laboratory instruction by creating choose-your-own-adventure-style video-based online experiments introduced to thousands of students across 11 different courses. These experiments are designed to provide students with the opportunity to make and receive feedback on experimental decisions and learn from common mistakes that they may have encountered in hands-on laboratory instruction. Students' and instructors' impressions of the online experiments and student learning outcomes in both online and traditional laboratory courses were assessed using surveys, focus groups, and interviews via a mixed-methods approach. Though most respondents (79%) did not agree that online laboratory instruction was as effective as in-person instruction, the majority agreed that the online experiments were clear and easy to follow (75%), interesting and engaging (52%), and helpful for learning about lab techniques (70%) and the concepts underlying these techniques (77%). Many also mentioned benefits of online laboratory instruction, including flexibility in scheduling and an increased focus on conceptual learning. Assessments of student learning also suggested that students who took the course online learned as much conceptually as students who had previously completed the course in-person. The results of this study highlight the positive and negative aspects of this type of interactive online laboratory instruction, which could help inform the design of future lab experiences whether they take place in an online, hybrid, or in-person environment. © 2022 American Chemical Society and Division of Chemical Education, Inc.
Article
Full-text available
Despite the centrality of motivation for all learning, few studies have examined the effectiveness of online language teacher education (OLTE) programmes within a psychological framework. This explorative study seeks to address this gap by evaluating the effectiveness of a two semesters OLTE course for German teachers in the Norwegian context. The course was developed to address students' innate psychological needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness within the framework of self-determination theory (SDT). The paper first details the steps taken to meet students' needs, and then evaluates the effectiveness of the programme by analysing the data from students' questionnaires, which were completed after each of the two semesters. The results showed that most students were highly motivated throughout the course, and that their motivation increased over time. Furthermore, most of the students felt that their psychological needs of autonomy, competence and relatedness were met. Thus, we suggest that designing OLTE programmes according to SDT principles can be an effective means of professional training for future language teachers.
Article
We argue that students can understand an historical period by building on the foundations of their existing knowledge. Specifically, popular media can be used to develop students’ historical literacies – that is their ability to engage with past societies vastly different from their own. Our methodology takes inspiration from the ancient Romans’ own partial literacies and utilises pedagogy drawn from Classical Reception Studies, which examines how the ancient world has been subsequently reinvented in everything from poetry to cinema. While traditional methods of teaching Classics potentially alienate learners and entrench the discipline’s elitism, we advocate learning about the past from a point of familiarity. Harnessing familiar texts and platforms to teach history can engage non-traditional learners and develop their historical literacies by leveraging pre-existing digital literacies. Furthermore, digital pedagogy fosters in students a sense that they can valuably contribute to disciplinary knowledge by recontextualising ancient sources.
Article
Providing a choice is desirable and helpful to learning motivation and task processing. This study explored how choice and achievement goals affect motivation and reward awareness using the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique. Twenty‐four college students participated in this study, in which a 2 × 2 factorial design (choice/no choice × reward/no reward) was used in association with a verbal frequency task involving the selection of the more frequent word between two presented words. In the within‐group analyses, participants showed activation of the medial frontal gyrus in the choice condition regardless of the reward types. The brain activation patterns differed depending on the level of achievement. Overall, providing a choice is beneficial to students in terms of performing a task and processing their reward. It is important to consider an individual's achievement goal when providing choices as a strategy to motivate a learner. This study explored how choice and achievement goals affect motivation and reward awareness using functional magnetic resonance imaging. The results show that brain activation patterns differ depending on the level of achievement. Overall, providing a choice is beneficial to students in terms of performing a task and processing their reward. It is important to consider an individual's achievement goal when providing choices as a strategy to motivate a learner.
Chapter
The chapter examines the concept of brain-based learning to bridge the gap between neuropsychology and education while understanding the best way to use our brain for meaningful learning. It suggests learning as a developmental process that enhances in a challenging but less threatening environment. Brain plasticity suggests that repeated exposure to a stimulus in a conducive environment helps in better recall and retrieval, as the repeated exposure allows the formation of new neural connections and strengthening the old ones while engaging in the task. As the application of brain-based learning moves away from the traditional style of learning, it focuses on a more holistic understanding of the process of learning. The chapter talks about applying a brain-based learning model to enhance learning in a stimulating surrounding to explore and stimulate various sense organs and further enhance neural connections. It discusses strategies to incorporate to allow engagement of sensory organs and problem-solve to enhance learning. Another perspective suggests attaching emotion to a situation which leads to forming a meaningful association in our brain. Depending on the strength of this connection, it becomes easier to recall and retrieve the memory. When compared to the traditional style of teaching, brain-based learning has shown to better academic accomplishment.
Article
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung Choice and voice ist eine zentrale Forderung im Kontext personalisierter Lernkonzepte und steht für den Anspruch den Schüler*innen Wahl- und Mitbestimmungsmöglichkeiten einzuräumen. Unabhängig der neuen Rhetorik haben verschiedene innovative Schulen langjährige Praxiserfahrung mit Wahl- und Mitbestimmungsmöglichkeiten, wobei wenig über deren Wahrnehmung aus Sicht der Schüler*innen bekannt ist. Der vorliegende Beitrag untersucht, wie Schüler*innen der Sekundarstufe I choice and voice in Schulen mit personalisierten Lernkonzepten wahrnehmen. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Schüler*innen regelmäßig Wahlfreiheit wahrnehmen, insbesondere was lernorganisatorische Fragen betrifft. Die Möglichkeit, Inhalte und Ziele mitzubestimmen, nehmen sie als weniger ausgeprägt wahr. Der Personalisierungsgrad als Maß dafür, wie stark sich eine Schule aus Sicht der Lehrpersonen an personalisierten Lernkonzepten orientiert, erweist sich in einem Mehrebenen-Strukturgleichungsmodell als relevanter Prädiktor zur Vorhersage der Wahrnehmung der Schüler*innen in Bezug auf Wahl- und Mitbestimmungsmöglichkeiten. Des Weiteren zeigt sich, dass häufiger wahrgenommene Wahl- und Mitbestimmungsmöglichkeiten mit einer stärker positiv wahrgenommenen Unterstützung der Lehrperson einhergehen. Der Artikel leistet einen Beitrag zur Klärung des vielschichtigen Personalisierungsbegriffes, indem er zeigt, dass choice and voice nicht nur aus theoretischer, sondern auch aus empirischer Sicht eine wichtige Dimension personalisierter Lernkonzepte darstellt.
Chapter
The important role of social and emotional learning (SEL) to promote the holistic development of students, improve academic instruction, and prepare students for the world of work and civic life has been well-established. Although wide consensus has emerged about the importance of SEL, understanding the primary role SEL plays within academic learning and how to more fully embed SEL throughout the school day still appears to be elusive. Compounded by efforts to use SEL as a lever for equity and excellence, educators need practical tools and guidance about approaches that help them attune to the social, emotional, and academic needs of their students. In this chapter, the authors review 10 teaching practices that promote social, emotional, and academic development and ways in which each of these practices can be implemented in classrooms in a culturally responsive way.
Article
Background and purpose Deep thinking is a desirable trait for higher education especially at a time where knowledge application, rather than knowledge acquisition, is premium. As assessment plays a critical role in shaping learning behaviors, this study attempted to evaluate the benefits of administering a ‘student-designed assessment problems’ (SDAP) assignment as a tool to instill deeper learning among students. The supposition was that when tasked to design assessment problems, students are challenged to higher cognitive levels of thinking on the Bloom's revised taxonomy scale. Educational setting and activity This study was conducted on a group of third year pharmacy students taking an elective module on pharmacokinetics and toxicokinetics. Students were shown an example of a finished product and were given three weeks to complete the take-home assignment. The questions that students designed were characterized according to the revised Bloom's taxonomy category by two independent reviewers. Feedback on students' experience was also evaluated. Findings All 18 students reading the module submitted their SDAP with questions that demonstrated all levels of thinking, with application-based questions being most significant, followed by analytical questions. Feedback from the students was positive, with clear indications of self-directed and peer learning. Summary This exercise offered a surprising insight into students' way of thinking, by externalizing their inquiring minds and translating their thoughts into written questions. This positive outcome informed that it has stirred deep thinking and learning among the students who participated. Evidently, SDAP is impactful as an assessment for and of learning.
Article
Full-text available
This study examined a process model of relations among children's perceptions of their parents, their motivation, and their performance in school. Children's perceptions of their parents on dimensions of autonomy support and involvement were measured with the new children's perceptions of parents scale. Three motivation variables-control understanding, perceived competence, and perceived autonomy-were hypothesized to mediate between children's perceptions of their parents and their school performance. Analyses indicated that perceived maternal autonomy support and involvement were positively associated with perceived competence, control understanding, and perceptions of autonomy. Perceived paternal autonomy support and involvement were related to perceived competence and autonomy. In turn, the 3 motivation variables, referred to as inner resources, predicted children's performance. Structural equation modeling generally supported the mediational model.
Article
Full-text available
A study was conducted to determine if secondary-age students could use self-determination contracts to regulate the correspondence between their plans, work, self-evaluations, and adjustments on academic tasks. The authors examined the impact of these contracts on the plan, work, evaluation, and adjustment behaviors of 8 secondary-age students with severe emotional/behavioral problems. The students completed daily self-determination contracts to schedule their work on academic tasks, plan for work outcomes, evaluate progress, and adjust for the next day's activity. One-way repeated-measures (ANOVAs) yielded 15 significant effects for the correspondence between plan and work, between work and evaluation, between evaluation and adjustment, and between adjustment and the next day plan. Pre- and post-assessment found significant academic improvement. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Article
Full-text available
Relations between perceived classroom control, self-regulation strategies and academic achievement were investigated in a sample of 302 sixth grade students. Four distinct perceived classroom control styles were determined, based on the balance between teacher and student control over learning. It was hypothesised that student mathematics achievement would be contingent on the combined effects of teacher and student control: it would be highest when both teacher and student control is high, and would be lowest when both of them are low. Student adoption of self-regulated learning strategies would be linked to the net effect of student control: they would be highest when student control is high and teacher control is low, and would be lowest when teacher control is high and student control is low. The data tended to support these hypotheses, indicating that both achievement and self-regulation strategies were contingent on classroom processes.
Article
Full-text available
The wide range of 401(k) plans offered to employees has raised the question of whether there is such as thing as too much choice. The 401(k) participation rates among clients of the Vanguard Group were studied to verify the assumption that more choice is more desirable and intrinsically motivating. It was found that 401(k) plans that offered more funds had lower probability of employee participation. © Pension Research Council, The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, 2004. All rights reserved.
Article
Full-text available
Two experiments investigated the effect of choice on cognitive and affective engagement during reading. Both experiments compared college students who either selected what they read or were assigned the same story without being allowed to choose. Experiment 1 found that unrestricted choice heightened favorable affective perceptions of the reading experience compared with denied-choice and control groups but had no effect on cognitive measures of engagement. Experiment 2 replicated these findings when individuals within a single group were offered choice or were denied choice. The authors discuss the need for a more explicit theory of choice, which presently does not exist. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
This experiment examined the effects on the learning process of 3 complementary strategies—contextualization, personalization, and provision of choices—for enhancing students' intrinsic motivation. Elementary school children in 1 control and 4 experimental conditions worked with educational computer activities designed to teach arithmetical order of operations rules. In the control condition, this material was presented abstractly. In the experimental conditions, identical material was presented in meaningful and appealing learning contexts, in either generic or individually personalized form. Half of the students in each group were also offered choices concerning instructionally incidental aspects of the learning contexts; the remainder were not. Contextualization, personalization, and choice all produced dramatic increases, not only in students' motivation but also in their depth of engagement in learning, the amount they learned in a fixed time period, and their perceived competence and levels of aspiration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
Using self-determination theory, the authors tested a motivational model to explain the conditions under which rural students formulate their intentions to persist in, versus drop out of, high school. The model argues that motivational variables underlie students' intentions to drop out and that students' motivation can be either supported in the classroom by autonomy-supportive teachers or frustrated by controlling teachers. LISREL analyses of questionnaire data from 483 rural high school students showed that the provision of autonomy support within classrooms predicted students' self-determined motivation and perceived competence. These motivational resources, in turn, predicted students' intentions to persist, versus drop out, and they did so even after controlling for the effect of achievement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
This research examined changes in intrinsic and extrinsic motivation during the transition from junior to senior high school as well as the impact of motivational changes on various educational consequences (i.e., dropout intentions, absenteeism, homework frequency, and educational aspirations). A total of 646 participants completed a questionnaire in 8th, 9th, and 10th grade. Using the true intraindividual change modeling technique (R. Steyer, I. Partchev, & M. J. Shanahan, 2000), the authors reached results revealing that students' intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation decreased gradually from 8th to 10th grade. Furthermore, less educational adjustment was observed for students experiencing a decline in external regulation during the transitional year and students experiencing a decline in intrinsic motivation and identified regulation during the year after the transition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
We interviewed 36 practicing teachers, using phenomenological methods to examine what, when, where, and to whom teachers offer choice. Teachers participated in pilot, interview, and member-check phases. Our final results focused on the following main points: (a) Teachers believe that choice promotes learning and motivation; (b) choice is used in a number of ways; (c) teachers have a variety of reasons for giving choices; and (d) teachers imposed limits on classroom choice based on (e) student age, ability, and prior knowledge and (f) teacher experience, efficacy, and management style. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
The authors investigated 3 commonly cited experiential qualities to propose a model of the essential nature of perceived self-determination in intrinsic motivation–internal locus, volition, and perceived choice. In 3 studies, they used structural equation modeling to compare a series of nested models in which 1, 2, or all 3 of these qualities were used to identify the best fitting conceptual model. Results consistently supported the model in which internal locus and volition, but not perceived choice, constitute valid indicators of self-determination. In light of the findings, the authors proposed a modified definition for perceived self-determination and discussed the conundrum of choice by proposing the conditions under which teachers can (and cannot) expect choice to increase students' intrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation energizes important growth-fostering be-haviors, such as seeking out challenges, exercising skills, and pursuing one's interests (Deci & Ryan, 1985b). It is a natural motivational force in all people that arises spontaneously out of the needs for self-determination and competence (Deci & Ryan, 1985b, 1991). As such, the rise and fall of intrinsic motivation occurs as environmental and interpersonal variables support and interfere with people's experiences of self-determination and com-petence. The present investigation focuses exclusively on self-determination, though we recognize fully the important contribu-tion that the experience of perceived competence plays in intrinsic motivation (Deci & Ryan, 1985b; Harter, 1978; White, 1959).
Article
Full-text available
When motivating others during uninteresting activities, people typically use extrinsic contingencies that promote controlling forms of extrinsic motivation. In contrast, we investigated a motivational strategy that could support another person's capacity to personally endorse and value the effort he or she put forth during the uninteresting activity. That strategy is the provision of an externally provided rationale when communicated in an autonomy-supportive way. In two studies, we tested and found support for a motivational mediation model, based on self-determination theory, in which the presence of such a rationale (vs. its absence) adds to participants' identification with the task's personal value which, in turn, explains participants' subsequent effort. These studies suggest that extrinsically motivated behaviors can become self-determined through the process of identification and that the promotion of this identification experience depends on the presence of a rationale that is communicated in an autonomy-supportive way.
Article
Full-text available
This article addresses the controversy regarding the value of offering choices as a teaching practice. Inconsistent of results regarding the effects of choice in various settings suggest that choice can be either motivating or de-motivating. Based on the self-determination theory of motivation (Deci & Ryan, 2000), we propose that choice can be motivating when the options meet the students’ need for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. For example, choice is motivating when the options are relevant to the students’ interests and goals (autonomy support), are not too numerous or complex (competence support), and are congruent with the values of the students’ culture (relatedness support). Given the many factors involved, it is not surprising that in some studies choice was not found to promote engagement. However, when choice was offered in a way that met the needs of the students, it was found to enhance motivation, learning, and well-being.
Article
Full-text available
Self-regulation is analyzed in terms of self-determination theory using the concepts of intrinsic motivation and the internalization of extrinsic motivation. Laboratory experiments and field studies are reviewed indicating that: (1) intrinsic motivation and fully internalized extrinsic motivation are positively associated with high quality learning and personal adjustment; and (2) maintaining intrinsic motivation and internalizing extrinsic motivation are facilitated by social contexts that allow satisfaction of the basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Such contexts are ones that are characterized by the provision of choice, optimal challenge, informational feedback, interpersonal involvement, and acknowledgment of feelings.
Article
Full-text available
This study examined a process model of relations among children's perceptions of their parents, their motivation, and their performance in school. Children's perceptions of their parents on dimensions of autonomy support and involvement were measured with the new children's perceptions of parents scale. Three motivation variables—control understanding, perceived competence, and perceived autonomy—were hypothesized to mediate between children's perceptions of their parents and their school performance. Analyses indicated that perceived maternal autonomy support and involvement were positively associated with perceived competence, control understanding, and perceptions of autonomy. Perceived paternal autonomy support and involvement were related to perceived competence and autonomy. In turn, the 3 motivation variables, referred to as inner resources, predicted children's performance. Structural equation modeling generally supported the mediational model.
Article
Full-text available
Current psychological theory and research affirm the positive affective and motivational consequences of having personal choice. These findings have led to the popular notion that the more choice, the better-that the human ability to manage, and the human desire for, choice is unlimited. Findings from 3 experimental studies starkly challenge this implicit assumption that having more choices is necessarily more intrinsically motivating than having fewer. These experiments, which were conducted in both field and laboratory settings, show that people are more likely to purchase gourmet jams or chocolates or to undertake optional class essay assignments when offered a limited array of 6 choices rather than a more extensive array of 24 or 30 choices. Moreover, participants actually reported greater subsequent satisfaction with their selections and wrote better essays when their original set of options had been limited. Implications for future research are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Human beings can be proactive and engaged or, alternatively, passive and alienated, largely as a function of the social conditions in which they develop and function. Accordingly, research guided by self-determination theory has focused on the social-contextual conditions that facilitate versus forestall the natural processes of self-motivation and healthy psychological development. Specifically, factors have been examined that enhance versus undermine intrinsic motivation, self-regulation, and well-being. The findings have led to the postulate of three innate psychological needs--competence, autonomy, and relatedness--which when satisfied yield enhanced self-motivation and mental health and when thwarted lead to diminished motivation and well-being. Also considered is the significance of these psychological needs and processes within domains such as health care, education, work, sport, religion, and psychotherapy.
Article
Full-text available
This article responds to Wright and Kirby's (this issue) critique of our biopsychosocial (BPS) analysis of challenge and threat motivation. We counter their arguments by reviewing the current state of our theory as well as supporting data, then turn to their specific criticisms. We believe that Wright and Kirby failed to accurately represent the corpus of our work, including both our theoretical model and its supporting data. They critiqued our model from a contextual, rational-economic perspective that ignores the complexity and subjectivity of person-person and person-environmental interactions as well as nonconscious influences. Finally, they provided criticisms regarding possible underspecificity of antecedent components of our model that do not so much indicate theoretical flaws as provide important and interesting questions for future research. We conclude by affirming that our BPS model of challenge and threat is an evolving, generative theory directed toward understanding the complexity of personality and social psychological factors underlying challenge and threat states.
Book
I: Background.- 1. An Introduction.- 2. Conceptualizations of Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination.- II: Self-Determination Theory.- 3. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Perceived Causality and Perceived Competence.- 4. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Interpersonal Communication and Intrapersonal Regulation.- 5. Toward an Organismic Integration Theory: Motivation and Development.- 6. Causality Orientations Theory: Personality Influences on Motivation.- III: Alternative Approaches.- 7. Operant and Attributional Theories.- 8. Information-Processing Theories.- IV: Applications and Implications.- 9. Education.- 10. Psychotherapy.- 11. Work.- 12. Sports.- References.- Author Index.
Article
This review examines recent developments in research on social-cognitive theories of motivation during adolescence and the ways in which such research can be applied to the reform of middle grade schools. While there is ample evidence that the environments in many middle grade schools are antithetical to the needs of early adolescents, few reform efforts have emerged which consider the motivational and developmental needs of youth. This article suggests that effective reform must consider the multiple contexts in which students interact. Recent examples of reform at the classroom and school level using a goal theory perspective are presented.
Article
The authors examined the effects of choice, topic interest, and situational interest on reading engagement, attitude, and learning. The outcomes were measured using scores on a multiple-choice test, a content essay, and a personal reaction essay, and completion of an attitude checklist. Experiment 1 found a small negative effect for choice on the writing of content essays. Students in the control group, who were not given choice, wrote higher quality content essays. Situational interest had a positive effect on attitude. There were no effects for topic interest on any measure. Experiment 2 replicated Experiment 1 using a different text. Once again, situational interest had a positive effect on attitude. In addition, higher quality content essays were associated with situational interest. No effects were found for choice or topic interest. These findings support the claim that situational interest, rather than choice or topic interest, promotes engagement.
Article
Students with emotional or behavioral disorders (E/BD) typically experience academic and social difficulties in school settings. One intervention, opportunities to make choices, has been implemented for students with E/BD to address inappropriate behaviors. Three elementary-aged students with E/BD from a self-contained special education classroom participated in this study. A multiple-baseline, across-students, single-subject design was used to compare the effects of Choice and No Choice conditions on multiple academic and social behaviors. All study sessions were conducted during regularly scheduled math activities in the special education classroom by the classroom teacher. Results suggest that opportunities to make choices during academic situations positively affected the academic and social behaviors of two of the three students. Limitations of and future research directions for opportunities to make choices for students with E/BD are provided.
Article
This study investigates whether there are differences in the print environments and experiences offered to children in 20 first-grade classrooms chosen from very low- and very high-socioeconomic status (SES) districts. Each classroom was visited for 4 full days over the course of a school year. On each visit, information was recorded about the classroom library, classroom environmental print, and any activity during the school day that involved print in any way. Data indicate that there are substantial differences between the low- and high-SES classrooms in all major areas examined, including the amount, type, and uses of print. Literacy can be added to the list of domains for which meaningful differences in instruction have been observed in schools serving different socioeconomic groups. Literacy is another domain through which schools may contribute to lower levels of achievement among low-SES children and may begin to do so quite early in the schooling process.
Article
This review examines recent developments in research on social-cognitive theories of motivation during adolescence and the ways in which such research can be applied to the reform of middle grade schools. While there is ample evidence that the environments in many middle grade schools are antithetical to the needs of early adolescents, few reform efforts have emerged which consider the motivational and developmental needs of youth. This article suggests that effective reform must consider the multiple contexts in which students interact. Recent examples of reform at the classroom and school level using a goal theory perspective are presented.
Article
Describes a learning orientation scale in which 5 dimensions are defined by an intrinsic and an extrinsic pole: preference for challenge vs preference for easy work, curiosity/interest vs teacher approval, independent mastery attempts vs dependence on the teacher, independent judgment vs reliance on the teacher's judgment, and internal vs external criteria for success/failure. The reliability and factorial validity of the scale have been adequately demonstrated. Additional validity studies with a total of 2,925 Ss in Grades 3–9 are reported. Higher-order factoring yielded 2 distinct clusters of subscales: The 1st 3 dimensions form 1 factor and are interpreted as more motivational in nature; the remaining 2 are viewed as more cognitive–informational in nature. Developmental data show that across Grades 3–9 there was a shift from intrinsic to extrinsic on the 1st motivational cluster. Conversely, there was a dramatic developmental shift from extrinsic to intrinsic on the cognitive–informational cluster. Interpretations for these developmental differences are advanced, and the educational implications are explored. The discussion focuses on the need to be precise in conceptualizing and operationalizing the term "intrinsic motivation." (9 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Used direct observation and sequential analytic techniques to identify naturally occurring rates of aggressive behavior (AB) for 28 elementary school-aged children (aged 6–12 yrs) identified with emotional and behavioral disorders. Naturally occurring antecedents and consequences of Ss' AB were classified as directed toward teachers, peers, or property. Prevalent and predictive sequences of behaviors resulting in ABs were examined. Low rates of positive social interactions with teachers characterized the daily classroom ecology of Ss displaying AB. Ss with high rates of ABs also engaged in more negative verbal behavior and physical aggression toward peers than did Ss with low rates of ABs. Antecedents to teacher-directed ABs included teacher social or instructional commands, while peer-directed ABs were usually precipitated by interactions with other peers or peer aggression. Prevalent ABs were not necessarily predictive of problematic ABs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
No issue in the psychology of health is of greater interest and importance than whether and how stress influences adaptational outcomes, such as well-being, social functioning, and somatic health. This issue has generated extensive research on stressful life events (see Thoits, 1983, for a recent review). More recently, researchers have been interested in the stressful events of day-to-day living, variously referred to as microstres-sors (McLean, 1976; Monroe, 1983), chronic role strains (Pearlin, 1983), and daily hassles (DeLongis, Coyne, Dakof, Folkman, & Lazarus, 1982; Kanner, Coyne, Schaefer, & Lazarus, 1981; Lazarus, 1984; Lazarus & DeLongis, 1983).
Article
Based on self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 1987, 1991), we assessed the effect of controlling strategies and restricted choice options on students'' performance on analytic reason problems. Subjects in the controlling-directives condition were told by their teacher that a given strategy was the way students should solve a set of analytical problems. Although subjects in the noncontrolling-directives condition were taught the same strategy, they were encouraged to use any strategy they chose to solve the identical problems. The results indicated, as predicted, that subjects in the controlling-directives condition performed significantly worse than subjects in the noncontrolling-directives condition on a subsequent set of analytic reasoning problems, when tested by an experimenter who was unaware of a subject''s condition. Interestingly, subjects in the controlling-directives condition regarded the teacher as qualitatively more competent than noncontrolling-directives subjects, in spite of their poorer performance. Furthermore, feelings about the task, mood differences, or perceptions of performance as a function of condition did not account for these findings. The data are discussed as they relate to the theoretical and practical import of the deleterious use of controlling techniques in a number of contexts, as well as adults'' erroneous beliefs about controlling strategies.
Two process tracing techniques, explicit information search and verbal protocols, were used to examine the information processing strategies subjects use in reaching a decision. Subjects indicated preferences among apartments. The number of alternatives available and number of dimensions of information available was varied across sets of apartments. When faced with a two alternative situation, the subjects employed search strategies consistent with a compensatory decision process. In contrast, when faced with a more complex (multialternative) decision task, the subjects employed decision strategies designed to eliminate some of the available alternatives as quickly as possible and on the basis of a limited amount of information search and evaluation. The results demonstrate that the information processing leading to choice will vary as a function of task complexity. An integration of research in decision behavior with the methodology and theory of more established areas of cognitive psychology, such as human problem solving, is advocated.
Article
This article examines two questions concerning teacher-behaviours that are characterised in Self-Determination Theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000) as autonomy-supportive or suppressive: (1) Can children differentiate among various types of autonomy-enhancing and suppressing teacher behaviours? (2) Which of those types of behaviour are particularly important in predicting feelings toward and engagement in schoolwork? It was hypothesised that teacher behaviours that help students to understand the relevance of schoolwork for their personal interests and goals are particularly important predictors of engagement in schoolwork. Israeli students in grades 3-5 (N = 498) and in grades 6-8 (N = 364) completed questionnaires assessing the variables of interest. Smallest Space Analyses indicated that both children and early adolescents can differentiate among three types of autonomy enhancing teacher behaviours - fostering relevance, allowing criticism, and providing choice - and three types of autonomy suppressing teacher behaviours - suppressing criticism, intruding, and forcing unmeaningful acts. Regression analyses supported the hypothesis concerning the importance of teacher behaviours that clarify the personal relevance of schoolwork. Among the autonomy-suppressing behaviours, 'Criticism-suppression' was the best predictor of feelings and engagement. The findings underscore the active and empathic nature of teachers' role in supporting students' autonomy, and suggest that autonomy-support is important not only for early adolescents but also for children. Discussion of potential determinants of the relative importance of various autonomy-affecting teacher actions suggests that provision of choice should not always be viewed as a major indicator of autonomy support.
Theory and research on student perceptions in the classroom
  • D H Schunk
Schunk, D. H. (1992). Theory and research on student perceptions in the classroom. In D. H. Schunk & J. L. Meece (Eds.), Student perceptions in the classroom (pp. 3-23). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Teaching every student in the digital age: Universal design for learning. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development
  • D Rose
  • A Meyer
Rose, D., & Meyer, A. (2002). Teaching every student in the digital age: Universal design for learning. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.