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Cultivation characteristics and flavonoid contents of wormwood (Artemisia montana Pamp.)

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Vol.2, No.4, 117-122 (2013) Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jacen.2013.24017
Cultivation characteristics and flavonoid contents of
wormwood (Artemisia montana Pamp.)
Yong Joo Kim1, Jeong-Hoon Lee2*, Sun-Ju Kim1*
1Department of Bio-Environmental Chemistry, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, South Korea;
2Department of Herbal Crop Research NIHHS, RDA, Eumseong, South Korea
*Corresponding Authors: kimsunju@cnu.ac.kr, artemisia@korea.kr
Received 21 October 2013; revised 22 November 2013; accepted 30 November 2013
Copyright © 2013 Yong Joo Kim et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License,
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
ABSTRACT
The aim of this study was to establish the opti-
mum harvesting time and the content of flavon-
oids in the leaves, stems, and roots of Artemisia
montana Pamp. A. montana was monitored from
June to October in 2012. The yield of A. montana
at high density (30 × 10 cm) was higher than that
of A. montana at low density (30 × 20 and 30 cm).
Yield in terms of dry weight was increased with
an extended growth period and development
stage. High yield achieved at 2580 and 2757
kg·10 a1 in September and October, respectively.
Among the leaves, stems, and underground plant
organs, jaceosidin and eupatilin were mainly
detected in the leaves, and the highest levels
were observed in June, at values of 66.6 and
158.2 mg·100 g1, respectively. In contrast, api-
genin was the major compound detected in the
underground plant organs, with levels ranging
from 21.2 to 29.5 mg·100 g1 until September.
Therefore, optimal harvest times were between
September and October, generating a high yield
and adding economic value although a higher
level of total flavonoids was observed in crops
harvested in June.
Keywords: Artemisia montana; Flavonoids; Harvest
Time; Plant Density
1. INTRODUCTION
Medicinal plants have long been recognized as natural
herbs that have minimal to negligible side effects. As the
culture of enhancing human well-being has gained
popularity, scientists have engaged in extensive studies
of medicinal plants, including studies on natural drugs,
herbal cosmetics, and natural pigments [1-3].
In Korea, wormwood has been used as an herb. Ar-
temisia spp. belongs to Compositae, and taxonomic es-
timates have indicated that 200 to 400 species exist
worldwide [4]. Approximately 40 species of Artemisia
are distributed in Korea, of which 26 species are re-
corded in the Color Illustrated Book about the Plants in
Korea [5]. In Korean traditional medicine, Artemisia spp.
is further classified as Chung-ho, Ae-yeop, In-jin, and
Am-ryeo. According to the herbal pharmacopoeia, the
Ae-yeop pertains to dried medicinal leaves and young
stems of Artemisia argyi Lev., A. princeps var. orientalis
(Pamp.) Hara., and A. montana Pamp. Ae-yeop has been
used as a medicinal herb [6]; it imparts warmth to the
body and controls blood circulation, body temperature,
bleeding, and pregnancy. It has also been used as a rem-
edy for abdominal pain due to complications, diarrhea,
chronic diarrhea, hematemesis, epistaxis, melena, and
amenorrhea [7]. Ae-yeop contains various compounds
such as flavonoids, steroids, phenylpropanoids, terpe-
noids, peptides, sesquiterpenoids, monoterpenoids, and
diterpenoids [8,9]. Among these, flavonoids are known
to possess excellent antioxidant activity that effectively
eliminates reactive oxygen species, as well as a variety
of other biological activities, including anti-cancer and
anti-inflammatory activities [10]. The major flavonoids
in Ae-yeop include eupatilin, jaceosidin, apigenin, and
eupafolin [9,11]. Its pharmacological activities include
anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, and anti-
allergic activities [12-15]. Eupatilin is known to have
strong inhibitory effects on gastric ulcers and has been
used as the main raw material for the preparation of
natural drugs [16,17]. In addition, the size of A. montana
commonly used as Ae-yeop is larger than the size of
other wormwood species. It has also been proven to have
antioxidant and anti-diabetic effects because of compo-
nents such as caffeic acid, caffeoylquinic acid, catechol,
*These corresponding authors contributed equally to this work.
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. OPEN ACCESS
Y. J. Kim et al. / Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment 2 (2013) 117-122
118
hyperoside, and protocatechuic acid making this herb a
potential drug resource [18,19]. However, agronomic
evaluation of this crop has not been conducted properly
because of difficulties in its morphological classification
among similar species. To establish “Good Agricultural
Practices” (GAP), plant growth characteristics and yields
of wormwood (Artemisia montana Pamp.) were evalu-
ated on the basis of plant density and harvest times.
Consequently, this study examined changes in the fla-
vonoid (apigenin, jaceosidin, and eupatilin) (Figure 1)
contents on the basis of cultivation characteristics and
harvest times of A. montana, to develop an economically
significant crop.
2. MATERIALS AND METHODS
2.1. Plant Materials
A. montana was collected from Gyeongsangbukdo
Ulleung-gun and planted in a test package at the De-
partment of Herbal Crop Research of the Korean Na-
tional Institute of Horticultural & Herbal Science on May
10, 2012. The plants were stored at KMRH under the
Voucher number: MPS0002514 (Figure 2). The plants
were grown in seedling trays containing 200 holes in a
greenhouse at the beginning of March 2012. After plant-
ing, the leaves were collected on the 10th day of each
month from July to October to investigate the crop char-
acteristics. Samples were harvested five times every
month from June to October for analysis of flavonoids.
The test package was prepared using 2000 kg·10 a1 base
manure and covered with black plastic bags. A random-
ized complete block design was used in triplicate. For
planting density, spacing between furrows and rows was
90 and 30 cm, respectively. The planting intervals were
10, 20, and 30 cm. After planting, 20 specimens were
evaluated three times at 30-day intervals. For extraction,
block sampling was used. The quantity was converted to
the number per 10 a after harvesting in one m3 test envi-
ronment.
2.2. Seed Characteristics
To determine the seed characteristics of A. montana,
20 seeds were randomly selected in triplicate. The shape,
size, and color of the seeds were evaluated. For 1000-
seed weight, the average value of 10 measurements was
calculated. For germination, seeds with uniform size and
color, as well as devoid of pest contamination, were se-
lected using a caliper and microscope. The selected seeds
were placed in disposable petri dishes and maintained in
constant-temperature incubators set at 15, 20, 25, and
30˚C. The petri dishes were lined with filter paper soaked
with distilled water. Germination was defined as the
emergence of young leaves and roots of approximately 1
mm in length through the seed coat. The first germina-
tion time, bud burst period and germination rate were
monitored.
2.3. Equipment and Reagents
Flavonoid standards, jaceosidin, and eupatilin were
purchased from Chengdu Biopurify Phytochemicals Ltd.
(Chendu, Sichuan, China) and apigenin from Sigma-
Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA). Seed characteristics were
microscopically evaluated (Olympus SZ61; Olympus Co.
Tokyo, Japan). Seed germination was monitored in a
constant temperature incubator (Multi-Room Incubator,
Wisecube, Wonju-si, Korea). Flavonoid analysis based
on growth stage was performed using the Agilent 1100
series HPLC system (Agilent Technologies, CA, USA).
2.4. Extraction and Analysis of Flavonoids
Approximately 10 g of powder was extracted from
each plant organ of A. montana by using methanol
(MeOH), thus generating 2.4 g from the leaves, 1.7 g
from the stems, and 1.8 g from the roots. Each extract
(10 mg) was placed in a 2 mL Eppendorf tube and mixed
with 1 mL of MeOH. After 5 min of ultrasonic extraction,
the extracts were centrifuged at 3,000 rpm at 4˚C for 5
min. The supernatant was filtered using a 0.45 µm PTFE
hydrophilic syringe filter (i.d., 13 mm) and collected in a
vial for HPLC.
For the analysis of flavonoids, the Agilent 1100 Series
HPLC system (Agilent Technologies, CA, USA) equipped
with u-Bondapak TM C18 (10 µm, 3.9 × 300 mm, Wa-
ters, MA, USA) was used. Detection was conducted at a
wavelength of 354 nm, the flow rate was 1 mL·min1,
and the column oven temperature was set at 30˚C. Ap-
proximately 20 µL of the sample was injected using an
auto sampler. The mobile phase solvents used were sol-
vent A [Water: H2PO4 (99.6: 0.4, v/v)] and solvent B
[acetonitrile]. The gradient program used as follows: 0 -
30 min, 30% 70% solvent B; 30 - 40 min, 70%
Figure 1. Chemical structure of flavonoids in A. montana. (a) apigenin; (b) jaceosidin; (c) eupatilin.
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. OPEN ACCESS
Y. J. Kim et al. / Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment 2 (2013) 117-122 119
Figure 2. Specimen of A. montana. Horti-
cultural traits: A. montana is a perennial
plant that belongs to Asteraceae and has
creeping roots and upright stems. The cau-
line leaves with hairs are alternately ar-
ranged. The size of A. montana is larger,
compared to the closely related taxa.
100% solvent B; 40 - 50 min, 100% 30% solvent B;
50 - 55 min, keep 30% solvent B. A stock solution of
each flavonoid standards (apigenin, jaceosidin, and eu-
patilin) was made with 1 mL of MeOH and diluted with
MeOH to make 50, 100, 200, 250, and 500 µg·mL1 for
standard solutions. After taking 20 μL of each standard
solution, HPLC chromatography was conducted to quan-
tify each component. A calibration curve was created
using the concentration of the standard solution as the
variable. The linear regression equation of the calibration
curve of each component was apigenin, y = 7.2412x +
8.8393; jaceosidin, y = 9.6193x + 8.8391; and eupatilin,
y = 8.5583x + 6.1677. The coefficient of determination
was R2 = 0.9999. By substituting the HPLC peak area
analyzed in each sample for the calibration curve regres-
sion equation, the amount of each compound (μg·mL1)
was calculated. By calculating the yield, the extracts
were quantified (mg·100 g1 of MeOH extracts).
2.5. Statistical Analysis
Data were analyzed by the application of the Duncan’s
multiple range test (DMRT, n = 3) at p 0.05 using the
SAS statistical program (SAS 9.3, SAS Institute Inc.,
Cary, NC, USA). The F-value is the ratio of the mean
square due to regression to the mean square due to error
and indicates the influence (significance) of each con-
trolled factor on the tested model.
3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
3.1. Seed Characteristics
A. montana seeds were oblong in shape, and the hair-
less achene was wrapped in a white fruit coat. The length,
width, and 1000-seed weight were 1.37 mm, 0.52 mm,
and 0.110 g, respectively (Figure 3). The first germina-
tion time was 2 days at 20˚C - 30˚C. However, the first
germination time was 3 days at 15˚C. The bud burst pe-
riod was observed at 20˚C - 30˚C and at 15˚C were 2
days and 5 days, respectively. This trend was similar to
that of A. capillaris, which is a closely related species
[20].
Germination rates at 15˚C, 20˚C, 25˚C, and 30˚C were
84.7%, 90.0%, 92.7%, and 87.3%, respectively, which
were slightly higher. The germination rate was the high-
est at 25˚C (Figure 3). The germination rate of A. mon-
tana increased up to a temperature of 30˚C, and, there-
after, decreased with higher temperature. Thus, 30˚C was
considered favorable for the initial germination of A.
montana. Our results were consistent with the findings of
Thompson [21]. Meanwhile, seed germination was close-
ly related to environmental conditions, such as genetic
differences, seed maturity, temperature, moisture, oxygen,
and sunlight [22]. The temperature has been reported to
have the greatest effect on germination rate [23,24]. Thus,
when considering the seed characteristics of A. montana
in this experiment, the optimum germination temperature
was 25˚C. This condition can influence the distribution
and seeding time of this species.
3.2. Growth Characteristics by Planting
Density
The growth characteristics and yields of A. montana
on the basis of planting density are shown in Table 1.
Plant height ranged from 168.3 to 176 cm. It appeared
that a higher density was often associated with a smaller
height. Such findings were contrary to the results of a
few studies [3,25,26], suggesting a higher planting den-
sity in Achyranthes japonica, Asparagus cochinchinensis,
and Ligusticum chuanxiong. Results indicated that the
heights of the plants were comparatively higher because
of the competition among the species and decrease in
light intensity. The results showed a similar tendency to
that of Song et al. [27], who reported that a higher plant-
ing density in P. sonchifolia and W. japonica led to a
lesser height because of competition between species [1].
Leaf dry weight ranged from 32 to 79.3 g. A lower plant
density was associated with a higher leaf dry weight. The
dry weight of the aerial plant organs per 10 a was the
highest in the 30 × 10 cm plots. However, no significant
differences were observed between the result and plant-
ing distance of 30 × 20 cm. A higher number of aerial
plant organs of A. montana were associated with a
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Y. J. Kim et al. / Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment 2 (2013) 117-122
120
(a) (b) (c)
Figure 3. Plant growth characteristics of A. montana according to different temperatures. (a) seed characteristics; (b) first
germination time and bud burst period (days); (c) germination rates (%).
Table 1. Plant growth characteristics and yields of A. montana according to plant density in September.
Yield (kg·10 a1, dry weight)
Plant density
(cm)
No. of plant
(ea·10 a1)
Plant height
(cm)
Stem diameter
(mm)
Leaf weight
(g, dry weight)
Dry weight
ratio (%) Aerial part
organa)
Underground part
organ
30 × 10 30,000 168.3 ± 4.10a 8.7 ± 1.40a 32.0 ± 1.50c 55.3a 2580 ± 224.0a 480.0 ± 91.24a
30 × 20 15,000 171.5 ± 6.17a 9.9 ± 1.87a 53.2 ± 8.14b 58.4a 2330 ± 91.65a 532.5 ± 68.74a
30 × 30 9,000 176.0 ± 6.42a 10.2 ± 170a 79 .3 ± 4.25a 47.9b 1847 ± 69.18b 559.5 ± 53.31a
F-value 1.41NS 0.70NS 233.53*** 12.60** 19.75** 0.93NS
Within each column, values followed by the same letters in a column are not significantly different at p 0.05 (n = 3). Significance level about F-value is rep-
resented at *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001; NSnot significant. a)Aerial plant organ indicated above-ground parts including stems and leaves.
greater planting density. These results were similar to
that of other medicinal plants such as A. japonica, A.
cochinchinensis, and L. chuanxiong [3,25,26].
3.3. Growth Characteristics by Harvest Time
Growth characteristics and yields of A. montana on the
basis of harvest time were investigated using 30 × 10 cm
plots (Table 2). The height sharply increased from
122.87 to 169.4 cm during the period of July-August,
without showing considerable differences after August.
The rainy season in July may have affected the growth of
A. montana because of the sufficient water and sunlight.
After the flowering period in August, growth stopped.
The stem diameter was the greatest in August when the
growth rate was the highest. Significant differences were
observed between August and other times. Leaf dry
weight was the highest in October. A longer growth pe-
riod was associated with a higher yield. Dry weight ratio
during the growth period decreased by 44.7% in Sep-
tember and by 71.9% in July. It may be possible that af-
ter the rainy season of July to August, the high moisture
content caused the higher dry weight ratio; in contrast, in
September the hot and dry weather caused the lower lev-
els of moisture content and dry weight ratio. Since Sep-
tember, the dry weight ratio has remained almost con-
stant. Apparently, the reason was that the change in cli-
mate after September was not significant. The dry weight
of the aerial plant organs by harvest time was 2757 kg·10
a1, which was the highest in October. No significant
differences were observed between the results collected
in October, 2757 kg·10 a1, and the dry weight of the
aerial plant organs harvested in September, 2580 kg·10
a1. Thus, considering leaf dry weights and the yields, the
optimal harvesting time for A. montana was the period
between mid-September and early October.
3.4. Flavonoid Analysis
Jaceosidin and eupatilin were detected only in the
leaves, whereas apigenin was detected in the roots (Ta-
ble 3). Contents of jaceosidin and eupatilin with respect
to harvest time showed a similar pattern, and the contents
in the leaves harvested in June were the highest levels
(66.6 and 158.2 mg·100 g1, respectively). The contents
of jaceosidin and eupatilin significantly decreased in July.
The contents of jaceosidin and eupatilin in the leaves of
A. princeps collected in May were the highest (38.6 and
211.4 mg 100 g1, respectively) [28]. The levels of
monoterpene in A. princeps were documented the highest
level in May 8, and they decreased rapidly after mid-
May [29]. Our results were similar to those of previous
studies. The level of apigenin in the roots ranged from
21.2 to 29.5 mg 100 g1. The content increased from June
to August and thereafter decreased. These results have
also been observed in other medicinal plants such as A.
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. OPEN ACCESS
Y. J. Kim et al. / Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment 2 (2013) 117-122 121
Table 2. Growth characteristics and yields of A. montana in different harvest times.
Harvest times Plant height
(cm)
Stem diameter
(mm)
Leaf weight
(g, dry weight)
Dry weight
ratio (%)
Ratio of leaf
weight (%)
Aerial part organa)
(kg·10 a1, dry weight)
July 122.8 ± 0.23b 8.9 ± 0.59b 13.5 ± 0.68c 28.1c 43.3a 937.0 ± 15.10c
August 169.4 ± 0.42a 11.7 ± 0.47a 26.0 ± 2.53b 35.1b 31.7b 2,459 ± 62.45b
September 168.3 ± 0.10a 8.7 ± 1.40b 32.0 ± 1.50ab 55.3a 37.2b 2,580 ± 224.0ab
October 165.4 ± 1.27a 9.4 ± 1.04b 39.3 ± 7.66a 51.6a 42.8a 2,757 ± 137.2a
F-value 187.31*** 6.15* 21.92*** 109.72*** 10.46** 115.73**
Within each column, values followed by the same letters in a column are not significantly different at p 0.05 (n = 3). Significance level about F-value is rep-
resented at *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001; NSnot significant. a)Aerial plant organ indicated above-ground parts including stems and leaves.
Table 3. Flavonoid contents (mg·100 g1, n = 3) in MeOH extracts of A. montana harvested at different development stages from
June to October.
Harvest times Parts Apigenin Jaceosidin Eupatilin
Roots 21.2 ± 0.40 NDa) ND
Stems tr.b) ND ND
June
Leaves ND 66.6 ± 2.18 158.2 ± 15.5
Roots 24.8 ± 0.97 ND ND
Stems TR ND ND
July
Leaves ND 4.5 ± 0.32 14.6 ± 0.26
Roots 29.5 ± 0.24 ND ND
Stems TR ND ND
August
Leaves ND 17.6 ± 0.32 5.3 ± 0.11
Roots 25.7 ± 0.18 ND ND
Stems TR ND ND
September
Leaves ND 0.9 ± 0.05 8.8 ± 0.10
Roots 11.2 ± 0.12 ND ND
Stems TR ND ND
October
Leaves ND 2.1 ± 0.06 11.0 ± 0.10
a)ND, not detected. b)tr., trace amounts.
capillaris. Capillarisin content in A. capillaris increased
until flowering time and thereafter decreased [30]. After
August, which was the flowering time of A. montana,
certain ingredients in the underground plant organs de-
creased.
The levels of active ingredients are influenced by cli-
matic conditions, including precipitation and temperature.
For A. princeps, whose Ae-yeop was used as herbal drugs,
samples collected from April to May showed excellent
antioxidant effects. The samples collected from August
to September showed high antimicrobial activity [31].
Thus, according to the results of this study, A. montana
had the potential of serving as natural drugs, and farm-
ers may thus consider wormwood as an economically
beneficial crop.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2007.07.017
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... After 6 weeks, each rooted cutting was transplanted into a pot (Φ 12 × H 11 cm) in a plant density of 72 plants/m 2 and cultivated for 8 weeks. The leaves of five plants per treatment were collected to determine eupatilin and jaceosidin production, as only leaves from A. princeps are known to contain these flavonoids (Kim et al. 2013). Leaf samples were harvested from each of the nine cultivation periods (between July 2016 and April 2017) and from each artificial light treatment (Exps. ...
... The increase in secondary metabolites under longphotoperiodic conditions can be a result of an increase in incident light energies (Jaakola and Hohtola 2010). However, decreases in flavonoid content seasonal changes of light duration have also been reported in several Artemisia species: A. annua, A. montana, and A. capillaris; the content increased until flowering and decreased after the reproductive stage (Choi et al. 2008;Ferreira et al. 1995;Kim et al. 2013). Various crops are also sensitive to the light duration for vegetative growth; for example, specific photoperiods produce high biomass due to prolonged vegetative growth in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) (Meki et al. 2017) and June-bearing strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) plants (Konsin et al. 2001). ...
Article
Artemisia princeps (Ganghwa wormwood) is a medicinal plant that produces two major flavonoids, eupatilin and jaceosidin, which are used in the treatment of gastritis and peptic ulcers. A. princeps is primarily field cultivated, which has some drawbacks, including only one cultivation period per year and variations in flavonoid production due to environmental changes. The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of seasonal light variation and artificial light treatments on the growth and flavonoid production of A. princeps grown in greenhouses for year-round production. The plants were cultivated and harvested nine times in one year under natural seasonal light conditions in greenhouses. During the winter growth period (when natural light is substantially lower), four artificial light treatments were applied during two cultivation periods, from September 2016 to January 2017: supplemental light, night interruption, low light, and low light with night interruption. The plants grown under the natural light condition in greenhouses were used as a control. After harvest, the growth of the plants was measured, and the contents of eupatilin and jaceosidin were determined. The plants had the highest biomass when the accumulated radiation and duration were highest. The growth and flavonoid production were significantly associated with accumulated radiation and light duration. The supplemental light and night interruption treatments resulted in significantly higher biomass and flavonoid production, with the night interruption treatment requiring less energy input than the supplemental light treatment. Therefore, for consistent biomass and flavonoid production of A. princeps, a night interruption treatment is suggested in greenhouse cultivation during low irradiation and short days (less than 13 h).
... Вміст флавоноїдів у листі рослин A. annua, визначений у різних експериментах, становив 2121,56 ± 358,46 мкг/г та 5...40 мг/100 г сухої маси [19,20]. Є лише поодинокі літературні дані щодо дослідження концентрації флавоноїдів у коренях рослин полину [21,22]. Так, концентрація апігенину у коренях рослин A. montana Pamp. ...
... Так, концентрація апігенину у коренях рослин A. montana Pamp. становила від 21,2 до 29,5 мг/100 г при вирощуванні за температури 15 та 30°С відповідно [21]. Крім того, вміст флавоноїдів у коренях іншого виду полину -A. ...
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Aim. The aim of the work was to investigate the effect of short-term cold stress (+10°С) on the growth, flavonoid synthesis and antioxidant activity in Artemisia vulgaris L. and A. annua L. “hairy“ root cultures. Methods. Transgenic roots were cultivated during the first 1, 2 and 5 days at +10°C on Murashige and Skoog basal medium with twice reduced macrosalt content. The total flavonoids content in Rutin equivalent was determined using alcohol extract reaction with alumunium chloride. Antioxidant activity was studied using the DPPH method. Results. Short-term cold stress resulted in a reduction of mass increment by 12–76 %. The total flavonoid content in «hairy» roots ranged from 32.0±3.13 to 187.0±21.04 mg RE/g dry weight. Decrease of temperature has led to decrease of the flavonoids content in No. 1, No. 2 A. vulgaris root lines and No. 5 A. annua line by 18–33 %. The reaction of No. 3 A. vulgaris and No. 4 A. annua root lines was expressed in stimulation flavonoid synthesis by 62 % and 56.5 %. Cultivation of «hairy» roots under short-term cold stress has led to decrease of the antioxidant activity in all roots lines by 4–40 %. Conclusions. Сold stress had negative effect the “hairy“ roots growth, stimulated flavonoids accumulation only in two “hairy” root lines and reduced the level of antioxidant activity. Keywords: «hairy» roots culture, Artemisia spp., cold stress, flavonoids, antioxidant activity.
... Individual phenolic content varies with harvest time and affects TPCs (Vagiri et al. 2015). TFCs in wormwood and antioxidant phytochemicals in strawberries were strongly affected by harvest time under greenhouse cultivation (Kim et al. 2013;Winardiantika et al. 2015). Antioxidant capacity can also vary greatly with harvest time depending on the plants and cultivars (Ariza et al. 2015). ...
... Son 2005; Kim et al. 2013;Okamura et al. 2014b). Thus, plant spacing and scheduling should be optimized for limiting factors such as bioactive compounds and biomass (Ioslovich and Gutman 2000;Kim et al. 2011;Hari et al. 2012). ...
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Since kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) is one of the healthiest vegetables, its cultivation is increasing for either fresh consumption or as a source for functional foods and nutraceuticals. Plant factories are able to control the environment and trigger the accumulation of bioactive compounds with a stable supply by systematic cultivation methods. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the changes in the total phenolic compounds (TPCs), total flavonoid compounds (TFCs), glucosinolates (GLSs), and antioxidant capacity of kale in a plant factory and to determine an optimal harvest time for the maximum annual production. Two cultivars, namely ‘Manchoo collard’ and ‘Jangsoo collard’, were cultivated in a plant factory and thinned to avoid mutual shading. Both cultivars were harvested every week from 14 to 49 days after transplanting (DAT). The fresh weight (FW), dry weight (DW), projected leaf area (PLA), TPCs, TFCs, GLSs, and antioxidant capacity of both plants were measured every week. The annual production was calculated as follows: DW × the concentration × planting density × cultivation cycles per year. The optimal harvest time was determined based on the continuous phase of the production by modeling. The FW and DW of both cultivars exponentially increased, but the PLA hardly increased at 35 DAT. The TPCs, TFCs, and antioxidant capacity fluctuated or slightly changed, but the amount of substance per plant gradually increased. Their annual production increased with increasing harvest time, and only the production of TPCs in ‘Manchoo collard’ showed a local maximum when harvested at 35–42 DAT. Glucoiberin, sinigrin, and glucobrassicin were the major components of GLSs in both cultivars, and their contents fluctuated. The concentration of total GLSs was the highest at 42 DAT. Additionally, the annual production of the total and major GLSs showed the same results as the TPCs, TFCs, and antioxidant capacity. From the results, the optimum harvest time for production was determined to be 42 DAT.
... The Artemisia genus, family Compositae, consists of over 400 species, of which approximately 40 are found in Korea [10]. The genus has long been used in traditional medicine for treatment of cancer, malaria, inflammation, blood disease, and viral infection [11]. ...
... The genus has long been used in traditional medicine for treatment of cancer, malaria, inflammation, blood disease, and viral infection [11]. In particular, A. montana Pampan (AMP) has been used in folk medicine and has various properties, including antipyretic, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, and antioxidant effects, which may be induced by its components, such as essential oil, volatile components, caffeic acid, and catechol [10][11][12]. However, the question of whether AMP, particularly the essential oil from the flower (AMPEO), can affect skin regeneration and wound healing has not been investigated. ...
Article
Artemisia montana Pampan (Compositae) (AMP) contains various compounds, including phenolic acids, alkaloids, and essential oil. It has been widely used in oriental medicine due to a variety of biological effects. However, the biological activity of the essential oil from AMP (AMPEO) on skin has not been investigated. In the present study, AMPEO was evaluated for its composition and its effect on cellular events (migration and proliferation) related to skin regeneration using normal human keratinocytes (HaCats). AMPEO, which was extracted by steam distillation, contained 42 components. AMPEO increased proliferation in HaCats in a dose-dependent manner (EC 50, 8.5 ng/mL) and did not affect migration. AMPEO also enhanced the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK 1/2 and induced the synthesis of type IV collagen, but not type I collagen in HaCats. In addition, AMPEO promoted wound closure in the dorsal side skin of rat tail. These results demonstrated that AMPEO extracted by steam distillation induced proliferation and synthesis of type IV collagen in human skin keratinocytes, and may thereby exert positive effects on skin regeneration and wound healing in human skin.
... And the in vivo contribution of polyphenols might be lower than expected from the in vitro tests. 19,20 An USDA study (EA Brisibe op.cit.) has made probably the most complete analysis of constituents of Artemisia annua. The concentration in vitamins in the different tissues of the sundried plant materials was investigated. ...
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... Jaceosidin, which is present in A. argyi and leaves of A. montana, blocks the phosphorylation of ERK-1 and ERK-2 (Jeong, Lee, Yoon, & Lee, 2007;. Similarly, eupatilin, derived from A. asiatica and leaves of A. montana, was shown to inhibit the activation of Akt, as well as ERK-1 and ERK-2 (Kim et al., 2005;Kim et al., 2013). The combination of numerous compounds present in Artemisia extracts would result in anti-inflammatory activity through diverse molecular mechanisms. ...
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Artemisia is one of the largest genera of the family Asteraceae or Compositae, consisting of 500 species. Some Artemisia species, such as Artemisia afra, A. sacrorum, and A. annua, have been widely used as traditional medicine to treat inflammatory and malarial diseases. However, the biological activity of A. montana has not been broadly studied. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of A. montana leaf extract (ALE) and its molecular mechanisms in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW 264.7 cells. Non-cytotoxic concentrations of ALE significantly reduced the expression of inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, resulting in the decrease in NO and prostaglandin E2. Moreover, ALE inhibited the production of tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6. We also observed that ALE treatment repressed mitogen-activated kinase pathways by inhibiting the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38, suggesting that ALE is a therapeutic candidate to treat inflammatory diseases.
... Ekstrak heksana daun A. nilagirica menunjukkan aktivitas antibakteri terhadap berbagai bakteri gram positif dan gram negatif (Ahameethunisa dan Hopper, 2010). Fraksi air A. indica menunjukkan maksimum aktivitas terhadap B. subtilis ((Bibi et al., 2011 Beberapa Artemisia telah diketahui memiliki potensi sebagai bahan antibakteri antara lain A. dracunculus L., A. absinthium, A. santonicum, dan A. spicigera (Kordali et al. 2005;Jazani et al. 2011;Raeisi et al. 2012;Habibipour & Rajabi 2015 ), (Kim et al. 2013). Sejauh ini belum dilaporkan potensi aktivitas khususnya Artemisia cina yang merupakan salah satu jenis Artemisia yang banyak tumbuh di Indonesia. ...
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p>The objectives of this reserch were to determine the antibacterial activity of hexane-petroleum ether (1 : 1 v/v) extract of Artemisia cinaBerg. ex Poljakov on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and its compounds. The design of the research was using completely Randomized Design in five concentration of extract that were 0, 50, 75, 100, 150, dan 200 mg/ml with four repliceted. Ethanol 60% was used as negative control and tetracycline as positive control. There were three steps of research. First step was extracted the plant using soxhlet method with hexane-petroleum ether (1:1 v/v). Second step was determined the antibacterial activity of hexane-petroleum ether (1:1 v/v) extract in various concentration of that extracts on E. Coli and S. aureus using agar diffusion method. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and was used to determined the significan different of diameter of inhibition between the treatments. Thirdsteps was phytochemical analysis of extract. The highest antibactrial activity on E. Coli was at 100 mg/ml whereas on S. Aureus at 150 mg/ml. That extract was contained flavonoid, alkaloid, essential oils, saponin, sterol, tritepene, hydrolized tannin, and coumarin.</p
... Nevertheless, it is not always possible to indicate the optimum harvest date which determines the best herbage yield in quantitative and qualitative terms. Kim et al. [2013] show the optimum harvest time for Artemisia montana in the period between September and October, though a higher level of total flavonoids was found in plants harvested in June. In the present study, the content of flavonoids in leaves of plants from the second harvest was 0.25% and almost twice higher than their content in leaves of plants from the first harvest (0.13%). ...
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Artichoke is valued as a vegetable and medicinal plant. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of irrigation and leaf harvest date of artichoke grown in southeastern Poland on total yield and marketable fresh leaf yield, its structure and the content of biologically active substances: total phenolic acids, flavonoids and tannins. Irrigation contributed to an increase in fresh leaf yield, percentage of marketable yield in total yield, as well as the increase in tannin content, decrease in total phenolic acid content, and no effect on the change in total flavonoid content. The plant material harvested in September was characterized by a higher content of phenolic acids and a lower content of flavonoids compared to the raw material obtained in October.
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This study is part of research to develop the technology for managing major medicinal crops after harvest. We studied the optimal germination conditions of (Maxim.) Hemsl. The mean germination time (MGT) of seeds was higher after soaking for 4 days after storage at for 8 weeks, than with germination at (3 days). However, the germinative energy (GE) decreased as the number of days soaking increased. The greatest germination rate () was at with no soaking of seeds stored at for 8 weeks. Based on these results, we characterized the germination conditions of a major medicinal crop.
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of plant growth at several different growing periods on antioxidant activities and zeatin and ABA contents of Artemisia iwayomogi. Measurements of antioxidant activities, lipid peroxidation inhibition, and superoxide radical scavenging activity were done using PMS, NBT and lipid auto-oxidation analysis, respectively. The results show that activities of antioxidants from Artemisia iwayomogi had much higher than BHT. DPPH free radical scavenging effect of Artemisia leaf extract was increased from in April to in October. Activities of superoxide radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition were and in April and then increased to and in October, respectively. An ELISA technique has been developed for the determination of zeatin and ABA in Artemisia leaves. By this method, the content changes of zeatin and ABA from Artemisia during the growth were investigated. The zeatin content in leaf was measured to be pmol/g dry weight in April, however, decreased to pmol in October. The ABA content in leaf increased from nmol in April to nmol in October. Relationship between antioxidant activities and plant hormone contents was indicated that antioxidant activity may depend on decreasing zeatin content or increasing ABA content.
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The profile and concentration of monoterpene metabolites in the leaf and stem of Artemisia princeps var. orientalis were quantified, and seasonal variation in monoterpenes of Artemisia plant was investigated. Samples were taken from five sites at the campus of Kyungnam University during maturing season. Monoterpenes in leaf and stem were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The major constituents of A. princeps var. orientalis in both the leaf and stem were 21 monoterpenes., dl-limonene, naphthalene and unknown monoterpenes with 5.49 and 16.27 of retenstion time were present in high concentrations of compounds identified on the leaf and stem of A. princeps var. orientalis. The cmounts of total monoterpenes of leaf were from two to five times higher than stem and rapidly decreased with the time, while that of stem was constnat except early spring. Most of the high percentage of monoterpenes in the leaf were those with later retention time. These results indicated that monoterpenes yields are considered to be more variable than monoterpene composition in responding to the time in both the leaf and stem.
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This experiment was conducted to study the effect of growth characteristics and yield by different planting density on Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.Number of stem, leaf and branch on main stem were plant reduced by increasing the plant density. Stem height was showed the highest at planting density, but diameter did not show significant difference at different planting density. Stem number in of field area showed negative correlation with leaf number and branch number on main stem. The height of first branched node became longer by increasing stem number, leaf number and branch number on stem in of field area. Rhizome yield showed negative correlation with stem number and leaf number per plant, but showed positive with stem number in of field area leaf number and branch number of main stem. Root and rhizome weight per plant decreased by increasing planting density, but root and rhizome yield in of field area were increased by high planting density.
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We investigated the changes of growth characteristics and major components according to harvesting times in Artemisia capillaris. Flower buds farmed on July 30 and flowers were all open on August 30 and seeds were mature in September, As the growth by harvesting time was the best on August 30 so fresh weight and dry weight were the highest. Especially, in this time, plants had no leaves and fresh weight was investigated as 243.7 g composed of 109.6 g capitulum and 134.1 g stem. Scoparone content, a major component, was the highest as 6.50 mg/g DW in capitulum on August 30. Also capillarisin appeared in both leaf and capitulum except stem and capitulum was shown the most capillarisin content as 1.65 mg/g DW on July 30.
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This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of planting density on the growth characteristics and root yield of Achyranthes japonica N. from 1995 to 1996. Stem diameter, no. of branch and fresh weight of above-ground parts per plant were reduced by increasing the planting density, but stem length, length and diameter of main root increased at high density, . The heighest percent of large roots was 71 % at planting density. The dry root yield per 10a at planting density was 7% higher than 306kg of planting density, but root yields were lower in other planting density compared to planting density. The root dry weight showed negative correlation with stem diameter, no. of branch and fresh weight of above-ground parts per plant but showed positive correlation with stem length, length and diameter of main root.