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The Handbook of Language and Ethnic Identity

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... Most research on immigrant bilingualism and heritage languages was informed by applied, psycholinguistic, and educational agendas, focusing on L1/L2 acquisition, proficiency, and multilingual pedagogies (Fishman 1999;Coupland 2010;Leeman 2015;Muchnik et al. 2016). Sociolinguists examined the role of the host language ideology and policy, as well as family-level language practices (Spolsky 2012;Forlot and Lucchini 2019;Lanza and Lomeu Gomes 2020). ...
... The ongoing language shift is accompanied by identity transformations and expanding cultural repertoires. These tendencies among children raised by immigrants have been observed in the US (Portes and Schauffler 1994;Fishman 1999;Bale 2010;Oppenheim 2019), UK (Dewaele and Van Oudenhoven 2009;Coupland 2010), continental Europe (Bayram and Wright 2018 ;Protassova 2018;Czapka, Topaj, andGagarina 2021), andIsrael (Golan-Cook andOlshtain 2011;Niznik 2011;Altman et al. 2021). ...
... The remnants of spoken Russian, homeland holidays, and some domestic customs form the content of this symbolic ethnicity, resembling Yiddishkeit legacies among American Jews (Gans 1994). Similar dynamic of thinning ethnic identity manifests among different resident minorities in Europe (Dewaele and Van Oudenhoven 2009;Isurin and Riehl 2017;Bayram and Wright 2018) and the US (Fishman 1999;Bale 2010). The destiny of Russian cultural legacies in Israel's mosaic ethnoscape will probably engage sociolinguists in the foreseeable future. ...
... Özellikle de İngilizcenin küresel akademik iletişimin kalesi olması işlevinin kendini Genişleyen Çeperde de üreterek sağlamlaştırmaya devam ettiği düşünülünce bu sözü edilen gerçekliğin yalnızca önümüzdeki yıllarda yoğunlaşması mümkündür. Ancak gelgitin yön değiştirebileceğinin bir örneğini bize Fishman (1999) tarihten örnek göstererek verir. Küreselleşmenin yerel dilleri önemsiz kıldığı fikrini açıkça reddeden Fishman (1999), İngilizce tekdillilik dayatmasının küresel iş ve ticaret uygulamalarını olumsuz etkilediğini savunur. ...
... Ancak gelgitin yön değiştirebileceğinin bir örneğini bize Fishman (1999) tarihten örnek göstererek verir. Küreselleşmenin yerel dilleri önemsiz kıldığı fikrini açıkça reddeden Fishman (1999), İngilizce tekdillilik dayatmasının küresel iş ve ticaret uygulamalarını olumsuz etkilediğini savunur. Tam bu noktada ilginç ve beklenmedik bir gelişme olabileceğini Latince örneği üzerinden öne sürer. ...
... The extinction of a language is not only tragic, but also extinguishes any insights that the language carries as well as the medium for cultural maintenance and renewal (Fromkin et al., 2007). In a way, language and ethnicity in Africa are like Siamese twins, especially when notions of history, kinship and ancestry are involved (Fishman, 1999). Harries (1988) writes about the culpability of colonial missionaries who, on being confronted by a world that was completely novel and outside the bound of their experiences, reacted by re-ordering it according to their own worldview through the imposition of their own intellectual grid to the unfamiliar detail that surrounded them. ...
... Worby cited in Ndlovu-Gatsheni (2008) avers that ethnic mapping was deployed by colonial establishments to invent rigid ethnic boundaries and present the relations of power over social space, making it possible for colonial establishments to affix ethnic names to discreet territories. Fishman (1999) argues that this was aimed at creating ethnic co-operations and illusory ethnic communities based on individualism, capitalism and the state. Therefore, as an important identity marker, language became an important tool for ethnic differentiation. ...
... Özellikle de İngilizcenin küresel akademik iletişimin kalesi olması işlevinin kendini Genişleyen Çeperde de üreterek sağlamlaştırmaya devam ettiği düşünülünce bu sözü edilen gerçekliğin yalnızca önümüzdeki yıllarda yoğunlaşması mümkündür. Ancak gelgitin yön değiştirebileceğinin bir örneğini bize Fishman (1999) tarihten örnek göstererek verir. Küreselleşmenin yerel dilleri önemsiz kıldığı fikrini açıkça reddeden Fishman (1999), İngilizce tekdillilik dayatmasının küresel iş ve ticaret uygulamalarını olumsuz etkilediğini savunur. ...
... Ancak gelgitin yön değiştirebileceğinin bir örneğini bize Fishman (1999) tarihten örnek göstererek verir. Küreselleşmenin yerel dilleri önemsiz kıldığı fikrini açıkça reddeden Fishman (1999), İngilizce tekdillilik dayatmasının küresel iş ve ticaret uygulamalarını olumsuz etkilediğini savunur. Tam bu noktada ilginç ve beklenmedik bir gelişme olabileceğini Latince örneği üzerinden öne sürer. ...
... Research on ethnic identity, especially in multilingual contexts (Rampton, 1995(Rampton, , 1999Fishman, 1999;Hewitt, 1986;Heller, 1982), has indicated that the use of different linguistic varieties, or even the code-switching from one variety to the other, is connected to the ethnic positioning individuals want to take. Extending that, research among youth has indicated that different linguistic forms can be used as a form of resistance to dominant discourse, and as expression of newly emerged, often socially subordinate ethnic identities. ...
Thesis
p>This thesis explores the links between language and ethnic identity among a group of Greek Cypriot primary school students, using an ethnographic approach. Language is examined through students' language use and language attitudes and ethnic identity through their ethnic identification, awareness and attitudes. The principal question addressed is whether the students connect the Standard Modern Greek and the Cypriot Dialect with their preferred (or rejected) ethnic identities. In addition the role of English and Turkish are examined to some extent. This and other questions are explored taking into consideration theoretical principles from sociolinguistics, sociology and social psychology, as well as the specific socio-cultural context in which the students were situated. Furthermore, the formal educational policy making on language and ethnic identity in the Greek Cypriot context is examined for drawing some comparisons with the data from the students. The major findings are first that the use of the Standard in the class was connected with appropriateness and formality, and the students valued the Standard in term of prestige and aesthetics. In contrast, the Dialect although predominantly used in the classroom, was connected to low prestige, but at the same time appeared very strong in matters of identity and solidarity. Secondly, there was a relationship between language and ethnic identity. However this was not linear but multileveled and multi-layered, incorporating different elements and linguistic attitudes in which the Dialect played a central role. A multileveled, multi-layered model is proposed for explaining and understanding these complexities. The thesis concludes by outlining some implications for the current policy making in Cyprus.</p
... Patterns of language maintenance and shift that are driven by both social and cultural factors have been noted by many authors (Dorian, 1989;Gal, 1979;Giles et al., 1977). Minority languages are identified not to serve only as a means of communication; they are essential tools for expressing cultural heritage and ethnic identity (Auer, 1998;Crystal, 2000;Fishman, 1989Fishman, , 1991Fishman, , 1999Lanca et al., 1994;Padilla, 1999;Spolsky, 1999). Fishman (1989) revealed three consequences of language contact. ...
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ABSTRACT Migration contributes significantly to the occurrence of language contact and language changes. Migrant communities as diaspora are always faced with choices whether maintaining the use of mother tongue in interacting, switching to using the word of the host, or using ethnic languages side by side with the host language in a new place. This research is intended to provide evidence of the phenomena of communication and social identity focusing on the language use and attitude of diaspora communities in Bali. It is a sociolinguistic study using descriptive qualitative methods on the Muslim community in three regencies that had lived in Bali for more than a generation. The data were collected through questionnaires, in-depth interviews, and direct observation. The result shows that most diaspora communities see the mother tongue as an essential means of maintaining their social identity. From language choice and attitude perspective, the diaspora community leads to three categories, namely (1) the population that identifies themselves as more diaspora than Balinese; (2) the community claiming themselves as more Balinese than diaspora and (3) the community considering themselves as diaspora and Balinese (dual identity). Keywords: Diaspora community, language attitude, language choice, social identity
... Much research has already shown how youth identity and participation is formed by a range of factors, including language use (Bettie, 2014;Fishman, 1999;Phinney, Romero, Nava, & Huang, 2001). I look at Yurok language access as an indicator of culturally sensitive and diverse curriculum in the formal education sector. ...
Preprint
This article explores repertoires of Indigenous survivance practices in Northern California in the face of historic and ongoing culturecide, meaning cultural genocide, or the intentional destruction of the culture of a specific group of people. The central research question is: how, why, and under what conditions does Indigenous cultural survival happen in public, institutionalized spaces outside of Indigenous control? Specifically, how have white-majority/Indigenous minority agreements in public domains bolstered Indigenous cultural autonomy and strengthening in Northern California? In other words, in what ways can white majority arenas of control, particularly off-reservation spaces like public schools and local government policies, can be included in tribal projects of cultural resilience and restoration?
... The former president's official statement concerns the desire to modernize the country, making it more competitive in the world arena also through a latinisation of the alphabet. Language is recognized as a fundamental tool in the process of establishing the national identity (Fishman 1999), as an element transversely present in the cultural, political and social life of a nation, which allows the creation of a com- ...
Book
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The series Eurasiatica. Quaderni di Studi su Balcani, Anatolia, Iran, Caucaso e Asia Centrale was born to deal specifically with a wide area, composite but interrelated that, in addition to the traditional historical and cultural significance, is taking on an increasing political and economic value. The placement of this series within Edizioni Ca’ Foscari originates at the same time from a strong tradition of studies on the Balkans, Caucasus and Central Asia in our University, where the main languages of these regions are taught - Albanian, Bulgarian, modern Greek, Romanian, Serbian-Croatian, Russian, Persian, Turkish, Armenian and Georgian. The studies published in this series are intended to provide a tool for high scientific and multidisciplinary research in different fields (archaeology, art, anthropology, ethnology and ethnomusicology, linguistics, philology, folklore, religion, history, geopolitics).
... The former president's official statement concerns the desire to modernize the country, making it more competitive in the world arena also through a latinisation of the alphabet. Language is recognized as a fundamental tool in the process of establishing the national identity (Fishman 1999), as an element transversely present in the cultural, political and social life of a nation, which allows the creation of a com-munity through the transfer of its history and traditions from generation to generation. As a matter of fact, it is possible to note that in recent years the country has increasingly entered the international arena, and has been included in the Chinese project Belt and Road Initiative (BRI); in parallel, in recent years has started an unofficial movement, which uses Latin characters for writing Kazakh words. ...
Chapter
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The series Eurasiatica. Quaderni di Studi su Balcani, Anatolia, Iran, Caucaso e Asia Centrale was born to deal specifically with a wide area, composite but interrelated that, in addition to the traditional historical and cultural significance, is taking on an increasing political and economic value. The placement of this series within Edizioni Ca’ Foscari originates at the same time from a strong tradition of studies on the Balkans, Caucasus and Central Asia in our University, where the main languages of these regions are taught - Albanian, Bulgarian, modern Greek, Romanian, Serbian-Croatian, Russian, Persian, Turkish, Armenian and Georgian. The studies published in this series are intended to provide a tool for high scientific and multidisciplinary research in different fields (archaeology, art, anthropology, ethnology and ethnomusicology, linguistics, philology, folklore, religion, history, geopolitics).
... Most countries and autonomous regions in the world have legislation regulating the use of languages at some level (Leclerc 2019), for example stating which language(s) can be used in official institutions. However, not all countries acknowledge the linguistic rights of speakers of its indigenous, colonial, and/or immigrant (minority) languages (Fishman 1999). The language of schooling as well as languages taught within formal education have a recognised and profound impact on the maintenance and revitalisation of languages all around the world (e.g., Liddicoat 2008; Annamalai and Skuttnabb-Kangas this vol.). ...
... Pennycook (1998) writes for example that it is important for educational and linguistic planners to take the view of community into account in planning for educational use of language even if these views seem erroneous in the light of current linguistic theory. Established writers in applied linguistics such as Fishman (1999) Dorian (1999) and Tollefson (1991) have long espoused the importance of conducting language surveys as part of language planning and the writing of language policies in a nation state. Recent research suggests that such language use surveys even with the use of authentic and real life data (as against structured interviews and questionnaire use) by using audio and video taped data may not be enough for charting long term and longitudinal information on how children use the languages they know for learning and for internal processing. ...
Conference Paper
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Multilingual education systems are characterised by the presence of more than two languages or language varieties in the community it serves. The languages will have status differences and will be functionally differentiated in the ways they are used. There will be situations where it is possible to predict which language or variety will be chosen and how it will be used. A study of these patterns and some knowledge of the possible proficiencies in each language will help language planners plan sound educational programmes, which use the linguistic resources of the community to best advantage. With the wide range of competencies present in the community, it is expected that language attitudes towards the use of these languages, particularly in education, will vary. Language attitudes shape linguistic behaviour and are often affirmed or otherwise by people who have the power to make policy decisions such as permanent secretaries, school headteachers and curriculum advisors. Pacific nations need to move beyond the status quo and towards implementing educational programmes that reflect the changing roles of the languages and which affirm and value all the languages and varieties in their communities.
... These examples are also valid for Algerian and Moroccan dialects. • Code-switching Defined as the "alternate use of two or more languages in the same utterance of conversation" (Fishman 1999), Code-switching is a result of multilingualism. In the Maghreb, code-switching is frequent and represents a feature of the local way of speech. ...
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Diglossia is one of the main characteristics of Arabic language. In Arab countries, there are three forms of Arabic that co-exist: Classical Arabic (CA) which is mainly used in the Quran and in several classical literary texts, Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) that descends from CA and used as official language, and various regional colloquial varieties of Arabic that are usually referred to as Arabic dialects (AD). Deemed to be amongst low-resource languages, these dialects have aroused increased interest among the NLP community in recent years. Indeed, the various Arabic dialects are increasingly used on the social web and may be transcribed in both the Arabic and the Latin script. The latter is known as Arabizi and seems to be more frequently used for some of them. The AD NLP raises many challenges and requires the availability of large and appropriate language resources. In this study, we focus, in particular, on the Maghrebi Arabic dialects (MADs). We propose a thorough review of the language resources (LRs) that have been generated by the various work carried out on the MAD language processing. A survey of the currently online available MAD NLP dedicated-LRs is also compiled and discussed. LRs investigated in this work are essentially data-resources such as primary and annotated corpora, lexica, dictionaries, ontologies, etc.
... Within a large body of scholarship on heritage language and ethnic identity, some of the major works have generated conclusive findings including that (1) heritage language fluency becomes an essential component of the ethnic identity for immigrant youth (Fishman, 1999;Kim & Chao, 2010), (2) minority languages are worth preserving because they represent unique and valuable national resource (Montrul, 2010), (3) two-way relationship is constantly found between heritage language and identity construction in which such a language often leads the process of identity construction and identity frequently helps heritage language maintenance (Mu, 2015), and (4) heritage language has served as a symbol of cultural solidarity that embodies group feelings (Aida & Gurin, 1995). These works, once again, paid most attention to migrant communities in which our study is projected to fill this gap in order to better understand a multilayer connection between heritage language and ethnic identity formation. ...
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The rise of a pan-Indonesian national identity and the global significance of English have weakened heritage languages in Indonesia’s various ethnolinguistic communities. Focusing on the case of Javanese, the largest ethnic group, this study examines the role of the HL as an ethnic marker and its interplay with factors such as ethnic self-identification, proficiency, and usage frequency. The data were collected via parental surveys of 183 primary school children in East Java. The findings indicate that the Javanese language is still highly valued as ethnic marker and that Javanese people view its maintenance as central to their identity construction. However, inconsistencies are identified between attitudes and practices, with use of Javanese as a home language decreasing, and children’s production showing extensive influence from Indonesian. Taken together, positive attitudes regarding the Javanese as identity marker and the apparent ethnolinguistic vitality of Javanese is not necessarily translated into intergenerational transmission.
... A few participants stated that the question of language and identity should not be viewed straightforwardly. Coulombe (1995), Fishman (1999) and Skutnabb-Kangas (2000) have suggested that language, culture and identity may not always exhibit a one-to-one relationship, as there are also discussions on the importance of using languages for diverse knowledge and sustainability. In this study, these participants claim that one's Malay identity cannot be presented solely through language, but factors such as cultural practices, appearances and attitudes can also make one a true Malay. ...
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This paper highlights the findings of a study into the language use, identity and attitudes of some Bruneian Malay government officers and students living in London. It is found that their allegiance towards the Malay language and Bruneian culture remains strong, despite their living in a largely Anglophone metropolis which requires them to communicate predominantly in English. As highly proficient bilingual speakers, the respondents are highly aware of the importance of maintaining their vernacular Brunei Malay as a marker of their identity. Through the use of observation and semi-structured interview methods, it emerges that predicted patterns of language shift towards the global language do not occur, and there is evidence of maintenance of strong Malay identity precisely because of their requirement to use more English in out-group communication contexts. The 'zero-sum game' notion, of more English equalling less Malay, is not applicable. This paper includes vignettes which show the participants negotiating between their languages in work and study contexts. It also demonstrates the need to consider how English interconnects with the other languages that are found in the repertoire of globally mobile SouthEast Asians.
... Studien undersöker konstruktioner av identiteter kopplade till symboliskt kapital, ideologi och makt och visar att språk tillsammans med 2 Heritage language är en term som började användas i den kanadensiska kontexten och som refererade till andra språk än engelska och franska (Cummins, 1991). Men termen har tillämpats vidare och fått en bredare definition (Fishman, 1999(Fishman, , 2001, och i föreliggande avhandling används termen för att definiera det språk som vanligtvis i den svenska kontexten definieras som hemspråk. Men eftersom samtliga deltagare inte talar språket hemma blir det lämpligare i föreliggande avhandling att använda denna term. ...
Thesis
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Based on three separate studies, this thesis explores diaspora identities among young adult Assyrians/Syrians in Sweden, mediated through language. The focus is on how multilingual young adults use their languages and reflect on their use of language. The young adults’ experiences of, and perceptions of, languages are studied in two different socio-geographic locations in Sweden. The theoretical concepts applied in this thesis pave the way for nuanced conceptions of diaspora. Foucault’s understandings of concepts such as resistance, power and discourse have been applied, as have Bourdieu’s notions of field, capital and habitus. With these concepts, the thesis investigates and highlights subject positions and power relations that emerged in the young adults’ language practices and meta-reflections on their use of language. Furthermore, concepts from linguistic anthropology and sociolinguistics have been applied as important complements to Bourdieu and Foucault. This theoretical and conceptual combination clarifies how the young adults’ perceived linguistic opportunities and limitations are closely linked to status and power, habitus and language ideologies. Study I deals with the construction and positioning of native and non-native speaker of a language and illuminates ideological beliefs that come with language. Highly fluent multilinguals provide key data on notions of nativelikeness and near-nativelikeness that are of value for understanding processes of acquisition and use. The study shows that relative judgments of nativelikeness are interactionally accomplished (membership) categorizations made on the basis of specific linguistic features relative to particular linguistic markets. This suggests the necessity of revisiting notions of nativelikeness and account for the phenomenon in terms of register, voice, and identity relative to different symbolic and linguistic markets. Study II examines under what conditions the minority language Suryoyo can be connected to symbolic power and become linguistic capital for young Assyrian/Syrian adults. Fieldwork in two different socio-geographic places made it possible to identify some general tendencies in the data. In order to understand the complexity of linguistic and social strategies that are developed among the young adults two notions are introduced, peripheral centre and context-specific repertoire, that combine individual- and space bound repertoires. Study III, finally, deals with social categorization experienced, reproduced, and resisted in everyday life, by observing and analyzing an interaction between one of the participants and his classmates. By applying intersectionality as the key notion in the analysis, the study indicates that valued capitals are never just about one single category. The study shows how everyday linguistic and cultural practices and various forms of capital, such as ethnicity and language, together locate individuals, according to their representations of everyday encounters across difference. In conclusion, the present thesis provides insight into the circumstances under which different languages are used and developed, and make visible some of the conditions for integration in today’s Swedish society. Thereby, it contributes to increasing our knowledge of the relationships between language, diaspora and power.
... 257 Therefore, the development of nationalist feelings has endowed language with a certain political importance: politics may be used to confirm and enhance the status of a language; in turn, language may be exploited to achieve political goals. 258 Hobsbawm describes standard languages as the "result of compulsory education and the spread of mass media, which are products of conscious public policy, and it is in that sense that national languages (...) are artefacts of a politicized community." 259 Likewise, Gellner attributes to the political elite the responsibility for the legitimisation, upgrading and restructuration of a folk language in order to turn it into a "proper vehicle for the expression of a national sentiment that is capable of being politicized." ...
Thesis
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My final dissertation deals with Catalan nationalism and the impact of the language policies adopted in Catalonia after the entry into force of the Spanish Constitution in 1978. In the first chapter I illustrate the contemporary debate on nationalism, comparing different theories and focusing on the social-constructivist approach. I conclude the chapter by stressing the relationship between language and nationalism thus mentioning the case of peripheral nationalisms. In the second chapter I introduce the historical premises that led Catalonia to adopt a concrete political strategy in the linguistic field. Precisely, I draw attention to the Francoist period and the cultural repression suffered by Catalonia during the years of dictatorship. I conclude by explaining the reasons that allowed linguistic minorities to survive, despite the persecutions perpetrated by the regime. Finally, in the third chapter I approach the issue of Catalan language within the new democratic framework. I introduce the topic by comparing some articles of the two legal instruments that has enabled to start a process of language revitalisation: the Spanish Constitution and the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia. Therefore, I present the linguistic normalisation plan implemented by the Spanish region and the consequent social repercussions. I conclude by considering the implications of such linguistic policies for the Catalan national identity.
... As a consequence, Requirements Engineering has become more and more involved with linguistic considerations. Furthermore, it should be kept in mind that language conveys culture and knowledge (Nettle & Romaine, 2000;Fishman, 1999). Thereby, the terminology of clients and users holds application domain knowledge. ...
Chapter
It is a usual practice to use natural language in any document intended for clients and users in the requirements engineering process of a software development. This facilitates the comprehension of the requirements engineer's proposals to clients and users. However, natural language introduces some drawbacks, such as ambiguity and incompleteness, which attempt a good comprehension of those documents. Glossaries help by reducing ambiguity, though they introduce their own linguistic weaknesses. The nominalization of verbs is one of them. There are sometimes appreciable differences between using a verb form or its nominal form, while in other cases they may be synonyms. Therefore, the requirements engineer must be aware of the precise meaning of each term used in the application domain in order to correctly define them and properly use them in every document. In this chapter, guidelines about treatment of verb nominalization are given when constructing a specific glossary called Language Extended Lexicon.
... Lo Bianco (2021) notes the imperfection of language policy, that is, policies are often not enacted or received as planned, stating that "[w]hile some level of policy failure is common in all areas of policy activity, making language an object of policy attention does contain some special characteristics that mark language policy as wicked and especially challenging" (2021, n.p). The wickedness of language policy planning may lie in the intent of policymakers to shape individual and societal attitudes towards languages, language use, and language users, and to confer status to language(s) as inferior or superior (Cooper, 1989;Fishman, 1999). These two frameworks together offer a clearer lens through which language policies and planning can be viewed across an ecological system. ...
Article
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Castañeda v. Pickard (648 F.2d 989, [5th Cir. 1981]) was a significant legal case in the history of educational policy for non-native English-speaking students in the United States. The case established a three prong ‘test’ for programs for those students, including the right for students to have an educational program based on sound educational theory; resources and personnel to properly implement the program; and evaluation of the effectiveness of the program. After 40 years of interpretation of the Castañeda case, the issue of language rights for non-native English speakers in United States public schools continues to be debated by scholars and interpreted through various legal statutes and case holdings. This article examines the Castañeda case and its recent interpretations in the literature as applied to non-native English-speaking students. We use a theoretical lens of orientations in language planning (Ruíz 1984) and language policy text as reported by Lo Bianco and Aliani (Language planning and student experiences: Intention, rhetoric, and implementation, Multilingual Matters, 2013). We then discuss the socio-historical context of the case and position it with respect to the 1974 seminal case of Lau v. Nichols. Using the state of Florida as an example, we next describe the complex language ecology of local and state language policies and how those relate to Castañeda and inhibit progress for bilingual students in Florida. We conclude with caution to academics and advocates who work on behalf of language minoritized students in the United States, with implications for international scholars.
... And they know in which 'domain of language use', they use certain code or variety. Fishman (1999) categorized language use into five domains, i.e. family, friendship, religion, education, and employment. Using Fishman's five domains, these are the codes Bagus (not his real name) uses in his communication. ...
Article
The co-existence of languages in a speech community prompts language users to do code-switching in communication. They do it for certain reasons. This paper is to report language awareness among language users and the reasons why people do code-switching in their speech communities. Using an open-ended questionnaire, this research involved 50 participants. They were asked to identify the languages they had in their repertoire, the language they used when they communicate with certain people, and the reasons why they did code-switching in communication. The results showed that, first, the participants had awareness of languages in their repertoire, namely Indonesian, a local language, and English. Second, they admitted that they did code-switching in communication. Thirdly, the reasons for code-switching were to discuss a particular topic, to signal a change of dimension, to signal group membership, and to show affective functions.DOI: doi.org/10.24071/llt.2020.230109
... Uistinu, u mnogim je istraživanjima jezika i identiteta u lingvističkoj antropologiji opisano snažno formiranje društveno značajnih identiteta u kontekstu (zamijećene) heterogenosti umjesto (zamijećene) homogenosti. Etnički identitet, na primjer, najčešće se pojavljuje u uvjetima gdje dolazi do kontakta, bilo kao način konkretiziranja razlika između ljudi koji žive u suprotnosti jedni s drugima (Barth 1986(Barth [1972 ;Urciuoli 1995), bilo kao način da kulturne grupe ostanu, dobrovoljno ili ne, podalje od brisanja etničkoga identiteta u procesu dobivanja državljanstva u državi-naciji (Fishman 1999). Prethodni tip situacije otkriva kako je sama homogenost sporno ideološko postignuće koje nastoji izbrisati ključne različitosti u identitetu. ...
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Croatian translation of Bucholtz & Hall 2004. Trans. Lorena Čačković. Na mnoge je načine proučavanje lingvističke antropologije ustvari proučavanje jezika i identiteta. Bavljenje jezičnom proizvodnjom kulture povlači sa sobom zanimanje za broj-ne kulturalno specifične subjektne pozicije koje govornici utjelovljuju kroz jezik. Stoga klasična lingvističko-antropo-loška proučavanja izvedbi i rituala te socijalizacije i statu-sa opisuju ne samo vrste govora, već i vrste govornika koji proizvode i reproduciraju pojedine identitete kroz svoje korištenje jezika. Iako se donedavno ovo područje nije često oslanjalo na sam pojam identiteta, ovaj je koncept sada zauzeo središnje mjesto u lingvističkoj antropologiji te je manje korišten kao kontekst za druge vrste istraživanja, a sve više kao samostalna tema vrijedna proučavanja. U ovome će poglavlju biti iznesen prikaz nekih od najznačaj-nijih i najnovijih promjena u novoj antropološkoj istraživačkoj tradiciji koja se bavi jezikom i identitetom.
... In other words, what is your identity? In psychology, identity refers to a person's self-esteem, self-image, or the individual's subjective sense of self, while in social sciences; identity refers to how people are identified as members of a certain community (Fishman, 1999). There are different types of identity; social identity, gender identity, religious identity, national identity, and many other identities, but concerning our topic, we will be focusing more on cultural identity, which refers to the shared beliefs, practices, customs, and histories that define a particular culture and have a significant impact on how a person behaves, thinks, and perceives the world. ...
Article
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As our society evolves into a global community, better understanding and communication among individuals of many cultures will become particularly crucial. This paper attempts to determine the conflicts that translation can produce, and also the effect of mistranslation on cross-cultural communication. The process of conveying a message from the source language (SL) to the target language (TL) is known as translation (TL). In light of this description, translation has always been a means of sharing ideas between individuals of various backgrounds, languages, and cultures. This study uses a quantitative method since the research deals with numbers and statistics gathered from social media users through the use of the questionnaire.
... The language-and-ethnicity link has been of constant interest to sociologists since the commencement of the research field (Fishman, 1985(Fishman, , 1989(Fishman, , 1997(Fishman, , 1999Haarmann, 1986). For the social scientists, as human aggregations are unlikely to be a result of natural groupings, language often entails symbolic significance for the groupings (Barth, 1969;Fishman, 1997). ...
... El resultado es por todos conocido: el catalán, el gallego, el euskera y, más recientemente, el aranés (julio de 2010) alcanzaron la oficialidad lingüística en las regiones españolas que así las declararon no solo lenguas oficiales, sino también lenguas propias del territorio. 2 Pese a todo, como han indicado diversos investigadores (Bastardas y Boix-Fuster 1994, Lebsanft 2008, López-García 2012, 2020, una gran parte de los españoles que reside en las regiones monolingües, en las cuales solo se emplea el español como lengua habitual en el uso privado y en el uso público, vive ajena a la diversidad lingüística del país. Asimismo, no existe un interés manifiesto por parte de las instituciones públicas estatales de concienciar a la población de la riqueza que supone el multilingüismo español, 3 y esto quizás viene motivado por el peso que tradicionalmente se le ha dado a la lengua como eje configurador de la identidad nacional (Fishman 1999, Zimmerman 2008, Woolard 2016. Desde esta perspectiva, si la lengua identifica a la nación, una pluralidad de lenguas en un mismo Estado supondría una pluralidad de naciones, lo cual contradiría el primer punto del Preámbulo de la Constitución de 1978, donde se alude expresamente a la «Nación española». ...
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RESUMEN El objetivo de este artículo es realizar un análisis léxico-semántico y discursivo de un corpus de trescientos titulares procedentes de prensa digital en los que se caracterizan a través de metáforas bélicas las discrepancias surgidas en Cataluña, la Comunidad Valenciana y las Islas Baleares por la aplicación de políticas lingüísticas educativas que, supuestamente, privilegian al catalán en detrimento del español. En esta investigación se pretendía comprobar, asimismo, si los resultados del análisis del corpus se pueden interrelacionar con cuestiones ideológicas como la jerarquización de lenguas en España y el nacionalismo lingüístico. La conclusión a la que se ha llegado es que se produce una confluencia de intereses políticos, a los que la prensa contribuye, con el objetivo de caracterizar de forma conflictiva las políticas lingüísticas en las comunidades autónomas en las que el catalán es lengua cooficial. PALABRAS CLAVE: Análisis Crítico del Discurso, catalán, español, ideologías lingüísticas, metáforas, titulares.
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Who Defines Me: Negotiating Identity in Language and Literature is a collection of insightful articles that represent an interdisciplinary study of identity. The articles start from the premise that identity is, and always has been, unstable and mutable; which is to say that identity is constructed and de constructed and reconstructed-only to be deconstructed and reconstructed again, in turn to be deconstructed and reconstructed (and so on ad infinitum). Time and place are variables. So, too-as Who Defines Me underscores-are ethnicity, religion, politics and power, race and color, nationality, gender, culture, language, and socio-economic status. With all of these variables in mind, Who Defines Me focuses on language and literature as the portal through which identity is explored. The overarching rubrics under which the explorations are conducted are Arabs and Muslims, race identity in America, and language identity.
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En este artículo se presentan resultados de un proyecto de investigación1 cuyo objetivo es examinar de qué modo se expresan y reproducen las identidades, diferencias, conflictos y desigualdades genéricas, étnicas y lingüísticas en el discurso de las mujeres wayuu bilingües. Se realizó una entrevista semi-estructurada que permitió reconstruir la historia de vida de una estudiante wayuu. La entrevistada se presenta como mujer hablante del wayuunaiki y semihablante del español y manifiesta en su discurso que sus identidades étnica, genérica y lingüística están en conflicto. La identidad étnica está vinculada con la lengua materna, pues la entrevistada valora el papel de las mujeres como transmisoras de la lengua y la cultura nativas.
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ABSTRAK Aspek kebahasaan dan konteks sosial diluar kebahasaan memiliki keterkaitan yang mempengaruhi situasi kebahasaan suatu kelompok masyarakat. Proses pemilihan bahasa khususnya dikalangan remaja sasak sangat dipengaruhi oleh keadaan sosial dan keberagaman masyarakat kota mataram. Remaja sasak sebagai penutur bahasa Sasak belajar bahasa Indonesia ketika mulai mengenyam pendidikan. Pemerolehan bahasa kedua di ranah pendidikan sangat mempengaruhi proses pemilihan bahasa dikalangan remaja Sasak khususnya. Keadaan ini menjadi topik yang menarik untuk dikaji dalam suatu penelitian dengan menggunakan kerangka kajian Sosiolinguistik. Penelitian ini mengindentifikasi faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi pemilihan bahasa oleh remaja Sasak kota Mataram dalam suatu peristiwa tutur. Penelitian ini adalah penelitian kualitatif dengan menggunakan metode dan teknik penyediaan data : Metode Survei, wawancara dan observasi. Sampel yang digunakan adalah remaja sasak kota Mataram yang berumur 18 – 20 tahun yang tinggal dikota Mataram dan pelajar. Penelitian ini menghasilkan temuan sebagai berikut. Pertama : situasi kebahasaan masyarakat kota Mataram melatarbelakangi terjadinya proses pemilihan Bahasa. Kedua : Penelitian ini melakukan pengamatan di empat ranah penggunaan bahasa yaitu ranah keluarga, ketetanggaan, pendidikan dan agama. Ketiga : Penelitian ini menghasilkan temuan empat faktor utama sebagai yang mempengaruhi pemilihan bahasa penutur dalam interkasi sosial, yaitu (1) latar (waktu dan tempat) dan situasi; (2) partisipan dalam interkasi, (3) topik percakapan, dan (4) fungsi interaksi. Kata Kunci : Pemilihan bahasa, faktor, ranah, sosiolinguistik ABSTRACT The language aspects and social context outside of the language which are related effect the linguistic situation of a multilingual society. The process of language choice especially among sasak teens is strongly influenced by the social and diversity of the Mataram city society. Teen's of Sasak as sasak speakers learn Bahasa when they started education. Second language acquisition in education domain influence the language choice among teen’s of Sasak. This situation are very interesting topic to reviewed by using contextual sociolinguistics approach. The research is aimed to identify the language choice factors among teen’s of sasak in speech event. This research is qualitative research used the data were collected using the methods of observation, recording, and interview. The sample used is the teen's of Sasak age 18 - 23 years old who live in Mataram city and a student. This results of the research are as follows. First : The language situation of Mataram city society is the background of the Language selection process. Second : This research do observations in four domains of language, family, neighbors, education and religion. Third : This research findings four major factors as affecting the speaker language in social interactions, (1) the setting (time and place) and the situation; (2) participants in the interaction, (3) the topic of conversation, and (4) the interaction function. Keyword :Language choice, factors, domain and sosiolinguistik
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This report was prepared to provide the Māori Development Education Commission with a succinct but authoritative and realistic review and commentary on local developments, policies and issues impacting on Māori language revitalization at the time it was written, with reference to what could profitably be learned from some overseas experience in promoting the protection, maintenance or revitalization of indigenous and minority languages. The review and commentary concentrates on the ways in which educational initiatives could support, facilitate, influence, enhance or strengthen the regenesis of a language in a community setting, along with the inherent limitations of such initiatives, and external constraints on their success or effectiveness. When the Commission was disbanded by the incoming government after the 1999 General Election, the report was embargoed. Copies secured by individuals under the Official Information Act were widely circulated, however, and the embargo was later removed, but the report was never distributed officially. This file is a copy of the final draft as submitted by the authors to the Commission.
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Cultural diversities, histories, communities and nations are intricately intertwined with experiencing old age. Individual and/or household culture, norms and expectations precede the decision-making process for health-seeking behaviour that influences elderly people’s choice and use of health-care services. This study addresses the understanding of this issue among migrant Bangladeshi elderly women from culturally and linguistically diverse background, residing in North 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India. Accordingly, data were collected through purposive sampling from 104 elderly women, all aged above 65. Processed data highlighted inconvenience – related to (language) pronunciation, socio-economic status, traditional health beliefs, understandings and practices, and reliance on alternative medical amenities.
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The purpose of this article is to show the changing dynamics of attitudes toward indigenous languages in the USSR and the Russian Federation. Since language attitudes have rarely become a special object of investigation in Russian sociolinguistics, the article dwells on theoretical issues of language attitudes studies. Then the author briefly describes attitudes to indigenous languages in the USSR and in the Russian Federation and their close correlation with the state language policy. As an argument confirming the change in language attitudes, the author brings results of a psychosociolinguistic experiment conducted in the Republic of Buryatia in 2013. More explicit and detailed argumentation is provided using the case of languages of peoples of the North focusing on boarding schools for northern peoples in Russia and Finland. The author comes to the conclusion that Finland has switched to practical measures to preserve and develop the Sámi language, while in Russia the corresponding changes can be observed only at the level of attitudes to indigenous languages, and the majority of languages of the peoples of the North are in different stages of language shift. Generally, the article concludes about two opposite trends in Russia: one towards the policy of centralization and support of the state (Russian) language, another one is seen in the gradual change of language attitudes towards greater tolerance and appreciation of linguistic diversity and in the increase in language activism
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In this introduction, we offer an overview of language revitalisation (LR) as a transdisciplinary field and its connections to related disciplines. We outline its evolution from its origins, current directions, and possible future moves. In the last section, we introduce each of the articles in the special issue as they relate to three current developments in the field of LR: the role of the researcher in LR, the causes of language endangerment, and the impact of globalisation.
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Birbiriyle iç içe geçmiş, yakından ilişkili kavramlar olarak Dil, Kimlik ve Kültür neredeyse tüm sosyal bilimlerin ortak çalışma alanı olmuştur. İsmimiz, ırkımız, memleketimiz ve ben olmamızı sağlayan daha birçok şey bizi biz yapan faktörlerdendir. Kimliği sembolize etmesi yönüyle dil konuşanın ait olduğu toplumun göstergesi ve dolayısıyla belli gruplara ayrılmasını sağlayan araçtır. Millet bilincinin yansıması olarak da kabul edilen dil çoğu durumda ulusal olarak tek bir ülkeye has olsa da bazı durumlarda birden çok ülkeye aidiyet sergiler. Üretimsel bir sistem olması yönüyle de kullanan birey ya da toplumdan izler taşır. Kullanış şeklimiz, ifade tarzımızla o dile yakınlık ya da yabancılığımızı sergileriz ki tam da sebeple kullandığımız yabancı dile yapısal olarak her ne kadar hâkim olursak olalım o dilin ait olduğu topraklarda ona yabancılığımızın anlaşılması hiç de zor olmaz. Asırlardır insanoğlunun elde ettiği en büyük başarılardan biri olarak kabul edilebilecek, yüklenen anlamlarla şeye değer kazandıran, karşılıklı anlam alışverişini mümkün kılan kültür ise biz denilen kimliğimizdir. Yeme-içme şeklimizden, oturup-kalkmamıza, hal ve hareketlerimizden olayları ele alış şeklimize kadar her şey kültürümüzü oluşturur ve “ben kimliği”den sıyrılıp “biz kimliği”ne bürünür. Değer atfedip sembolleştirdiğimiz her şey de dilimizde yerini alır ve böylece kültürümüz dolayısıyla kimliğimiz dilimizle kendini belli eder. Yok olmaktan korunan her dil ait olduğu kültürün, toplumun devamlılığını sağlar. Tüm bu özellikler düşünüldüğünde “Dil ve Kimlik” hem birey hem de toplum boyutunda taşıdıkları önem mahiyetiyle ayrı ayrı ele alınması gereken olgulardır. Bu nedenle kavramları öncelikle ayrı başlıklar altında ele alacağız:
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This research studies the discursive ways in which male student graffiti at Midlands State University reveal ethnic tensions between the Shona and Ndebele of Zimbabwe. The study is carried out in a sociopolitical environment in which spaces for openly discussing issues of ethnicity have been greatly limited, especially in conventional media. Any discussion of ethnicity is quickly labelled as fanning tribalism and is therefore suppressed or criticised. This does not, however, mean ethnicity is not engaged with outside of conventional platforms. Graffiti is one such alternative platform appropriated by male university students to discuss ethnicity issues. It emerges that such discussions are predominantly violent in nature with each group trying to prove or assert its dominance over the other. The analysis of this data is couched in Wodak and Meyer’s discourse-historical approach as it gives precedence to the historical context in which the discursive ‘events’ are embedded.
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While discussing the legal framework for the „linguistic rights” of ethnic/linguistic minorities, the Georgian authorities should first consider the position of the ‘fathers’ of the „European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages“ concerning the difference between the autochthonous (historical) and new minorities; However, full realization of the linguistic rights of the Georgian state language, autochthonous minorities or migrant minorities on the territory of Georgia is impossible until the complete de-occupation of Georgia. Academic, depoliticized descriptions and qualifications of the linguistic and ethnic situation of Georgia should be given essential importance in the process of Georgia’s integration with the civilized world. It is desirable to be timely balanced Russian imperial ideologies and qualifications in the field of Kartvelology at the international scientific or information field. -=- ეთნიკურ/ენობრივ უმცირესობათა „ენობრივი უფლებების“ დამცავ საკანონმდებლო ბაზაზე მსჯელობისას, საქართველოს ხელისუფლების მიერ პირველ რიგში გასათვალისწინებელია „რეგიონული ან უმცირესობის ენების ევროპული ქარტიის“ მამების პოზიცია ავტოქთონი (ისტორიული) უმცირესობებისა და ახალი უმცირესობების განსხვავების აუცილებლობის შესახებ; თუმცა, საქართველოს ტერიტორიაზე საქართველოს სახელმწიფო ენის, ავტოქთონი უმცირესობებისა თუ მიგრანტი უმცირესობების ლინგვისტური უფლებების სრული რეალიზაცია შეუძლებელია საქართველოს სრულ დეოკუპაციამდე. ცივილიზებულ სამყაროსთან საქართველოს ინტეგრაციის პროცესში არსებითი მნიშვნელობა უნდა მიენიჭოს საქართველოს ენობრივეთნიკური სიტუაციის აკადემიურ, დეპოლიტიზებულ აღწერებსა და კვალიფიკაციებს. საშურია, საერთაშორისო სამეცნიერო თუ საინფორმაციო ველში დროულად დაბალანსდეს ქართველოლოგიის სფეროში არსებული რუსულ-იმპერიული იდეოლოგემები და კვალიფიკაციები.
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Aims and objectives Code-switching, the spontaneous switching from one language to another within a single speech event, is often performed by bilinguals who have mastered a communicative competence in two languages. It is also a social strategy – using linguistic cues as a means to index social categories and group solidarity. Code-switching is, therefore, linked to attitudes, seen as a reflection of the speaker and their values and identities. Traditionally perceived negatively, attitudes toward code-switching have been shown to be acceptable in certain cases, such as in multilingual contexts. However, it has yet to be determined empirically whether attitudes toward code-switching are associated with individual social characteristics, including cultural identity and identity negotiation. Adopting the bidimensional model of acculturation, the goal of the study was to investigate the relationships among cultural identity and code-switching attitudes. Specifically, we sought to examine whether the bidimensional framework can be used to characterize and distinguish biculturals and whether such distinctions result in differences in code-switching attitudes and other related factors. Data and analysis Cantonese-English bilinguals ( n = 67) reported their language background and completed questionnaires relating to identity and code-switching. Findings The findings suggest the bidimensional model was successful in classifying biculturals versus non-biculturals and, additionally, that biculturals could be differentiated according to their strength of cultural identification, which we designated as strong biculturals, Canadian-oriented biculturals, Chinese-oriented biculturals, and weak biculturals. Findings also revealed significant group differences in code-switching attitudes and other factors, such as code-switching comfort and preference, among the bicultural subgroups. Implications The study supports the hypothesis that code-switching is linked to bicultural identity. The results conclude that a more nuanced classification of biculturals is meaningful, as individual differences in cultural identification among biculturals are linked to significant differences in code-switching comfort, code-switching preference, code-switching attitudes, and multicultural attitudes.
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p class="AbstractText">This research examines the representations of African-American stereotype and the struggle of Black American girl in National Spelling Bee contest in Hollywood movie entitled Akeelah and the Bee (2006). The use of African-American English (AAVE) is one of the stereotype often depicted in Hollywood movie. Race theories are used to examine the relationship between race, racism and power. Meanwhile, Roland Barthes’s theory and semiotic film theory are used to examine the meaning portrayed in the movie. Findings show that the representation of Akeelah as a successful participant in the spelling bee competition challenges the stereotype of African American as academic underclass, and as associated with crime, failure and frustration. Akeelah is represented as a successful African American girl as she assimilates (adopts) American values of change/mobility, time and its importance, action and work orientation. The assimilation is achieved through a mentoring process and support from African American community. Keywords : African-American, African American Vernacular English (AAVE), Stereotype, Spelling Bee</p
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Language is part of one's identity. Many a research has been conducted to prove that there is a strong relationship between language and identity. Nelson Mandela in his appease quotes once said, “If you talk to a man in a language he understands, that goes to his head. If you talk to him in his mother tonguage, that goes to his heart.” We all acknowledge, language is a means of communication, words establish meanings within the discourses and discourse vary in power. Language is having one of the powerful objects which completely shape one’s personal Identity. Without language, no culture can maintain its existence. Language is one of the primary and powerful means to explain us what we want, expect, and convey to the counterpart. In this changing world language is the one which identifies total ins and out of a speaker and listener. Today’s world is based on multilingualism; however, the scope of the mother tongue cannot be undermined. It is the mother tongue which established our identity, who we are, and from where we come from. It is the mother tongue which reveals about me and my location in macro and micro level. This paper discusses about how our language related to our identity, and the impact of cultural identity in teaching English as a foreign language.
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Linguists are exploring identity, the central issue in the field of linguistics. It becomes the point of discussion in sociolinguistic phenomena as a social process (Gafaranga, 2000). “Identity as speech producer” in linguistic anthropology (Buchltz and Hall, 2004). Identity becomes a part of discussion in the extensive theory of social/linguistic identities, the language learner in the language learning environment (Block. David, 2013 i.e., Applied Linguistics). The discussion of topic is analyzedthrough generating themes related to English language hegemony as well national language controversy in Pakistani Context. Majhanovich (2014); Rassool (2013) said English as ‘Dominant language’; and a ‘Global language’, largely due to colonialization and globalization. English is an official language and significant part of Instruction in many Asian states including Pakistan’ (Haidar, 2019; Mansoor, 2003; Mohanty, Panda, & Pal, 2010). Themes further enumerates the identity in shape of Gender difference’ that how language is to be differentiated for male and female identity by adding specific words/ symbols for them. For data collection the participants answers are filled in questionnaire. It carries open and closed ended questions generated from themes subtitles and research questions.
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The Catalan secessionist parties, if added together, have won all the elections to the Parliament of Catalonia from 2010 to 2021. Their voters have been increasingly mobilized since the start of the controversial reform process of the Statute of Autonomy (2004–2010). The aim of this article is twofold. First, it intends to test whether language is the strongest predictor in preferring independence in two separate and distinct moments, 1996 and 2020. And second, to assess whether its strength has changed—and how—between both years. Only the most exogenous variables to the dependent variable are used in each of two logistic regressions to avoid problems of endogeneity: sex, age, size of town of residence, place of birth of the individual and of their parents, first language (L1), and educational level. Among them, L1 was—and still is—the most powerful predictor, although it is not entirely determinative. The secessionist movement not only gathers a plurality of Catalan native speakers, but it receives a not insignificant level of support among those who have Spanish as their L1. Conversely, the unionist group, despite being composed primarily by people who have Spanish as their L1 and have their family origins outside Catalonia, has a native Catalan-speaking minority inside. This imperfect division, which is based on ethnolinguistic alignments—and whose relevance cannot be neglected—alleviates the likelihood of an ethnic-based conflict.
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This study explored the role played by economic, cultural, and political power and influence when a particular dialect was elevated to the status of an official standard language. This was a qualitative study that employed text analysis where journal articles, dissertations, theses, academic books and Parliamentary Joint Constitutional Review minutes were considered for data collection and analysis. In order to supplement the above-mentioned method, 267 research participants involving students (undergraduate and postgraduate) and lecturers from the selected five South African universities, including members of the language authorities, were also invited to participate in the study. Self-administered survey questionnaires and face-to-face interviews were chosen as qualitative methods for data collection. From a dialectal point of view, this study indicated that all official standard languages were dialects before. However, these dialects were considered superior and elevated to the status of official languages because of socio-economic power and political influence. This article further recorded that the status type of language planning in the South African context is quite political in nature, not less linguistic. It was against this background that the researchers claim that there is no official standard language that was not a dialect before.
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