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Maternal Thinking: Toward A Politics of Peace

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... As a consequence, I move my attention in the second section to another of the ways in which care has been used in the theory of the commons, that is, through the framework provided by ethics of care (Gilligan, 1977(Gilligan, , 1982(Gilligan, , 1993Noddings, 1984Noddings, , 1992Noddings, , 2002Noddings, , 2010Ruddick, 1989;Tronto, 1993). Economists Vicente Moreno-Casas and Philipp Bagus (2021), for example, discuss how the ethics of care can serve as a moral guidance to improve commons governance as it leads to the emergence of rules and norms based on the responsibilities, we all have to each other's well-being. ...
... Under such a framework, as noted, masculine caring appears to be unnatural or abnormal. Secondly, Gilligan's ethics of care has been placed in affinity with right-wing maternalist discourses that aim at enforcing a specific model of family, femininity and motherhood (Ruddick, 1989). In this case, Noddings developed the concept of 'maternal instinct' (2010), which has been highly contested by feminist theorists for her apparent commitment to female biological essentialism. ...
... Envisioning moral agents from a 'mother-child dyad' (Noddings, 2010;Ruddick, 1989) does little to challenge the mystification of such a concrete form of care provisioning. Aware of it, it is in the 1990s when authors such as political scientist Joan C. Tronto, who has come to be known as one of the main exponents of the second generation of care theorists, 24 used the framework of ethics of care to rethink some of her predecessors' blind spots: one being the consequences that framing care as a feminine virtue has had in the subjugation of women. ...
Book
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Artists and creative workers have long been attracted to urban environments. Yet the ‘creative city ‘of the 21st century comes with its own pitfalls. From precarity at the level of the worker to gentrification at the level of the city: the creative engine starts to sputter. Therefore, after or even against the creative city, this book highlights the ‘common city’. The Rise of the Common City explores the value of commoning for cultural practices in urban contexts. The volume defends the hypothesis that a common culture offers better guarantees of urban sustainability than a purely market- or government-driven culture. After all, cultural dynamics are only possible by sharing. We understand culture in a broad anthropological sense, as a socially shared sign and meaning system through which urbanites can give meaning to their environment and their lives. Creative labour and artistic practices keep cultural dynamics alive by intervening in such processes of meaning. They can question, redraw or simply confirm meaning-making processes, habits, values and norms. That is why culture is too important to be left to the market and the government alone. Culture belongs to everyone. The Rise of the Common City examines the value of commoning for culture, but also the value of culture for commoning. What is the culture of the commons? And vice versa, what strategies, norms and rituals do commoners use to define a common space between government and market? The book sketches answers to these questions through conceptual and empirical work, ranging from sociology and philosophy over urban and cultural studies to law and policy science. The volume includes contributions by Walter van Andel, Iolanda Bianchi, Gideon Boie, Giuliana Ciancio, Lara García Díaz, Pascal Gielen, Arne Herman, Gökhan Kodalak, Thijs Lijster, Lara van Meeteren, Hanka Otte, Ching Lin Pang, Tian Shi, Stavros Stavrides, Maria Francesca De Tullio, Louis Volont and Bart Wissink. If there is any conclusion to be drawn, it might be this: the future of culture will have to be common, or there will be no culture at all.
... We follow theorists on maternity and care ethics such as MacLellan (2014) and Newnham & Kirkham (2019), as well as theorists of obstetric violence like Shabot (2020) and Chadwick (2018) who have theorized obstetric violence as a problem of relationality rather than autonomy. 2,3,13,16 We build further on fundamental insights of feminist care ethicists concerning relationality, dependency, maternity, and vulnerability, such as Joan Tronto (1993), Sara Ruddick (1989), and Eva Feder Kittay (2019Kittay ( [1999), as well as the scholarship on relational autonomy (MacKenzie & Stoljar 2000; MacKenzie, Rogers & Dodds 2014). [17][18][19][20][21] We aim to illuminate how a discursive tendency of separation continues to inhibit the relationality that is needed for both relational autonomy as well as care ethics in reproductive care. ...
... 2,3,13,16 We build further on fundamental insights of feminist care ethicists concerning relationality, dependency, maternity, and vulnerability, such as Joan Tronto (1993), Sara Ruddick (1989), and Eva Feder Kittay (2019Kittay ( [1999), as well as the scholarship on relational autonomy (MacKenzie & Stoljar 2000; MacKenzie, Rogers & Dodds 2014). [17][18][19][20][21] We aim to illuminate how a discursive tendency of separation continues to inhibit the relationality that is needed for both relational autonomy as well as care ethics in reproductive care. Consequently, we plea for a relational ethics or praxis regarding abortion, pregnancy, and childbirth care through a re-imagination of the reproductive, maternal, and midwifery relationalities that can challenge and interrupt individualized subjectivity-acknowledging that in the current climate we do not yet know what these relationalities could possibly entail. ...
... 3 The seperation of mother and child by the obstetric care provider has its consequences on the relationality between mother and child during pregnancy and birth. 18 . The midwife or obstetrician has the lead in delivering the baby and seems to know not only more about the condition of the child but also about what is best for the child. ...
Article
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Nursing Ethics has published several pleas for care ethics and/or relationality as the most promising ethical foundation for midwifery philosophy and practice. In this article, we stand by these calls, contributing to them with the identification of the structural form of violence that a care ethical relational approach to reproductive care is up against: that of “maternal separation”. Confronted with reproductive and obstetric violence globally, we show that a hegemonic racialized, instrumentalized, and individualized conception of pregnancy is responsible for a severance of relationalities that are essential to safe reproductive care: (1) the relation between the person and their child or reproductive capabilities; and (2) the relation between the pregnant person and their community of care. We pinpoint a separation of the maternal relation in at least two discursive domains, namely, the juridical-political and the ethical-existential. Consequently, we plea for a radical re-imagination of maternal relationality, envisioning what care ethical midwifery, including abortion care, could be.
... This is a complicated subject, and one which I perhaps cannot attend to fully here. However, following Frazer and Hutchings' [7] reading of Sara Ruddick's Maternal Thinking: Towards a Politics of Peace [22], I argue that care ethics, while highly critical of violence, does not inherently assert that violence is always and necessarily unjustifiable. In so doing, I claim that Fanon's political theory and the ethics of care can be productively read together, and I call for a more nuanced and sustained engagement with issues of political violence by care ethicists. ...
... While Ruddick did not use the language of care ethics, she has been linked to the care ethics literature in that her approach to ethics is relational and steeped in maternal thinking, a type of thinking which has as its general organizing principle the key aim of nurturing and socializing (i.e., caring for) the child. For instance, as Ruddick [22] (pp. 18-9) notes, Maternal practice begins with a double vision-seeing the fact of biological vulnerability as socially significant and as demanding care. ...
Article
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According to Frantz Fanon, the psychological and social-political are deeply intertwined in the colonial context. Psychologically, the colonizers perceive the colonized as inferior and the colonized internalize this in an inferiority complex. This psychological reality is co-constitutive of and by material relations of power—the imaginary of inferiority both creates and is created by colonial relations of power. It is also in this context that violence takes on significant political import: violence deployed by the colonized to rebel against these colonial relations and enact a different world will also be violent in its fundamental disruption of this imaginary. The ethics of care, on the other hand, does not seem to sit well with violence, and thus Fanon’s political theory more generally. Care ethics is concerned with everything we do to maintain and repair our worlds as well as reasonably possible. Violence, which ruptures our psycho-affective, material, and social-political realities, seems antithetical to this task. This article seeks to reconsider this apparent antinomy between violence and care via a dialogue between Fanon and the ethics of care. In so doing, this article mobilizes a relational conceptualization of violence that allows for the possibility that certain violences may, in fact, be justifiable from a care ethics perspective. At the same time, I contend that violence in any form will also eventually demand a caring response. Ultimately, this productive reading of Fanon’s political theory and the ethics of care encourages both postcolonial philosophers and care ethicists alike to examine critically the relation between violence and care, and the ways in which we cannot a priori draw lines between the two.
... The authors propose that contemporary theories about the love and laboring of mothering (Lynch, 2007;O'Reilly, 2016;Ruddick, 1995) may have been altered by the women who have shared their stories of mothering and caring as they struggled within the dominant ruling relations of mental health systems. Our findings suggest that theories of discrete mothering practices (Lynch, 2007) have been expanded and transmuted by the mothers' immersion in all aspects of the "love labor" required to maintain their primary relations with their children, along with their secondary or "general care" work, which subsequently began to include "solidarity work" in which they, as experts by experience and profession, began to engage. ...
... We suggest that the women's distinct roles as mothers who perform "noncommodifiable" forms of caring (Lynch, 2007;Ruddick, 1995) have been blurred with their roles and forms of care provided as health professionals, as described by Giles and Williamson (2015) and that this has become a source of distress and strength for them. We also propose their difficult experiences during episodes of post-traumatic growth may have fortified them as mothers and as health professionals. ...
... Since we have been mothering before we were mothers and since we understand motherhood as an identity that cannot simply be turned off or put down, we were drawn to post-human ways of thinking about mothering/scholaring. While the term MotherScholar has been in existence for some time (see Lapayese 2012;Ruddick 1995), we add the -ing in the post-human tradition of emphasizing being and doing all at once. The post human frame also offered what St. Pierre (2015) referred to as 'conceptual practices' (92) for understanding complex phenomena and the people and objects in it. ...
... Mothers may also self-identify when they assume legal and/or emotional responsibilities for others' physical, emotional, and social welfare (Deutsch et al. 1988). We also understood motherhood as unpaid and/or erased labor in public and private spaces (Berniell et al. 2021;Ruddick 1995). Notions of what it means to be a good mother and good worker have been similarly dichotomized as a tension between the needs of the State (public) and the needs of the Estate (private) (Vincent, Ball, and Braun 2010). ...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic brought new tensions in determining how to enact representations of the professional and personal selves alongside digital technologies. In this paper, we explore those tensions as entangled enactments of agencies and identities related to simultaneous mothering and scholaring. Drawing on Barad's agential realist framework, our work acknowledges the inseparability of being and doing in its account for how our teaching, researching, feminist, maternal selves were constantly entangled with the thinking processes that occurred at the intersections of method-theory-data. This project does not adhere to conventional methodology or presentation expectations. We do not present this paper in the typified chronology comprising a clearly defined literature review, methods, and results sections. Instead, we invite readers into our project with a story. Then, we outline how our storytelling method and theoretical knowings emerged as data during our being and becoming in an in/visible pandemic-centered context.
... 4 Although once labeled a "feminine ethic," care ethics was soon redefined as an explicitly feminist project focusing not simply on the gendered distribution of care labor but on the injustice of the patriarchal domination that configured it. Through this revision, care became a value for critical feminist projects rather than a natural good (Noddings, 1984, Tong, 1995. 5 A key portion of this early work centered on the moral relevance of motherhood: Nel Noddings made the more foundational claim that meeting another ethically requires assuming the position of the "one-caring" naturally exhibited by the mother (Noddings, 1984, p. 17-18;see also;Ruddick, 1989). Others like Joan Tronto (1987) distanced themselves from specific acts of care and instead elaborated the forms of reasoning shaped by gendered experience into a moral and political theory. ...
... 33 Early comments about care ethics as a practical ethics can be found in Ruddick (1989). Here I thank Naomi Scheman, whose 2021 CERC presentation crystallized this point for me. ...
Article
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In a moment where needs for care are acute and their provision precarious, feminist care ethics has gained new relevance as a framework for understanding and responding to necessary interdependence. This article reviews and evaluates two long‐standing critiques of care ethics in light of this recent research. First, I assess what I call the pluralist feminist critique, or the dispute over the ability of care ethics to address the needs and histories of a range of marginalized subjects. I identify two forms of this critique: the first disputes the biased starting points shaping the development of the theory, and the second concerns the weaponization of care in support of domination. Although these critiques are well‐established, I draw attention to recent responses that move care theory in generative directions. I argue that the pluralist feminist critique demands both self‐critical transformation in dialog with other feminist schools of thought and a robust account of care ethics' normative authority. I then take up critiques those levied by mainstream ethicists concerned with care theory's adequacy as an ethical approach. I show that recent work on normative authority, conceptual uniqueness, and the grounding of responsibility must be engaged before care theory can be dismissed as “under‐theorized.” In articulating these two sets of critiques and evaluating recent rebuttals to them, I argue for a pluralist feminist theory of care within which strands informed by varying philosophical schools and methods can coexist.
... Highlighting the intense load that comes with mothering, Ayesha's case reflects earlier work conducted by Ruddick who proposed mothers are required to exert considerable mental efforts and thinking practices whilst nurturing and protecting their children. 36 The issue of protection is a serious issue for Ayesha. As Collins found that African-American mothers constantly found themselves negotiating power structures not only to foster individual and collective identities but also to instill survival instincts in their children. ...
Article
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This paper presents a feminist ethnographic account of the gendered struggle for belonging in “multicultural” Korea through an in-depth case study of a Korean Muslim woman convert and her family. Centering the informant and her family’s narratives, I explore the gendered implications linked to her conversion to Islam, her sense of belonging and how her inter-ethnic marriage challenges existing notions of labelled “multicultural families” in Korean society. This paper sheds light on the penalties associated with the case study’s religious conversion and marriage choice, demonstrating how she experiences exclusion from mainstream society and her own ethnic community. Far from being an isolated case, I will further convey how it is linked to several others in the literature, highlighting the urgent need for further field research.
... Suas definições de cuidado natural e cuidado ético foram igualmente importantes. Sara Ruddick (1989) e Virginia Held (1987), por sua vez, trabalharam com a ideia de cuidado como atividade (um tipo de trabalho ou um conjunto de práticas) envolvendo relações humanas desiguais e pessoas interdependentes. Rudick defendeu que há um tipo de raciocínio por trás das práticas de cuidado que envolve a preservação da vida, a manutenção e o desenvolvimento físico, intelectual e emocional da pessoa cuidada, assim como o seu treino para viver em sociedade. ...
... As Sara Ruddick puts it, "Even before a baby is born, a mother is likely to daydream about the kind of person her child will become." (Ruddick, 1990: 105) For care theorists, this kind of thinking represents a form of paternalism that, while they acknowledge its role, they find somewhat distasteful and in tension with the essentially responsive and receptive ethical stance of caring (see Goodman, 2008: 237) As Goodman notes, their solution to this perceived tension is to argue that parental assessments of needs are acceptable if reflected through the prism of attentive love. But as Goodman comments on Ruddick's above-quoted remark, "such dreams are not irrelevant to parenting; they spur the process" (2008: 237). ...
Chapter
The discussion in this extract is illustrative of the approach we adopted in our initial conversations that led to the preparation of the book proposal, and later throughout the whole process of writing the book. In collecting material throughout this process, we often found ourselves sharing examples of descriptions of parenting (for example, in magazines and websites aimed at parents, in parenting guides and self-help books, or in policy documents and media reports on the role of parents), and expressing our frustration at the sweeping generalisations that seemed typical of such accounts (e.g. the tendency to make statements beginning with ‘Children are...’, ‘Parents should...’ or ‘Research shows that...’). In trying to express this frustration, we found ourselves reaching towards an articulation of what it was that these kinds of accounts left out in their depiction of the experience of being a parent, and how they seemed to be failing to do justice to the complexities of the daily lived experience of being a parent. At the same time, we found ourselves drawn to first-person accounts of the experience of being a parent that we encountered in novels, magazines, or simply in the process of talking to other parents and to each other about our own experiences. Our actual writing process, then, often began with simply describing such experiences and sending our descriptions to each other so that we could comment on what we thought was significant or valuable in them, and then seeing how they fitted in with the general critical view we were in the process of developing. So, for example, in the above extract, imagining the scene of a mother with a screaming toddler in the supermarket, which we describe in everyday language, allowed us to make the conceptual points about the irreducibly ethical significance of parents’ daily interactions with their children, and the impossibility of imposing any definitive model of choice or closure on the ways in which parents respond to such situations, in a concrete and accessible manner.
... We understand this semantic choice as an act of maintenance, both of his dignity but also of the legitimacy of their kinship connection (Borneman, 2001). It provides a defence from her becoming her husband's mother, which is taken as the paradigm of one person (the mother) being instrumentalised into the other (baby) (Ruddick, 1989; see also Chodorow, 1978;Baraitser, 2009). Their mutually contingent lives are further attested to by the spontaneous decline of Donna's health amidst Mickey's increasingly rapid decline of cognition and motor function. ...
Chapter
When bodies and minds cease to function in silence, everyday lives get disrupted and self-understandings unsettled. We wonder whether we are ill, what ails us, and how it will affect the immediate or long-term future. Through the theoretical lens of liminality, experiences of illness have been described in terms of uncertainty and affective destabilization. In the context of healthcare, liminality is countered by a search for causal explanations, diagnoses, and effective treatment. Little attention has been directed towards how the liminality of illness/disease is managed as patients and medical professionals interact.
... Основной характеристикой этого типа мышления является негативное отношение женщин-матерей к насилию и войнам, а потому женщины более способны к превентивной дипломатии и миротворчеству. Согласно С. Руддик, «материнское мышление» в своей основе строится на инстинкте сохранения жизни, что в итоге и способствует формированию концептуальных позиций отрицания насилия и сохранения мира (Ruddick, 1995). ...
Article
The article discusses the specificity of the influence of the gender factor on the education of students in the fields of international relations and international regional studies. The topicality of the research results mainly from the contemporary feminization of higher education, as well as the growing professional interest of women in international relations. The research and teaching activity of modern universities is extremely important in the context of the development of the “knowledge society”, for the effective functioning of which it is necessary to actively engage the intellectual capital of both men and women. Therefore, universities should not only become “factories of knowledge”, but also shape the gender culture of students. The problem of the gender characteristics of the scientific and educational community of universities is extremely important. The authors present the topic on the one hand on the basis of contemporary gender studies in the field of international relations, both Russian and Western scientists, and on the other – on the basis of the analysis of specific data on the feminization of study programs in the field of international subjects of Russian universities in the context of the perspectives of building gender parity in practice international relations and world politics.
... Community participation serves as an avenue for women to negotiate their gender roles and identities while also relying on their moral authorities as mothers (Abrahams 1996;Naples 1998;Pardo 1990). Naples (1992) coined "activist mothering," as opposed to the essentialist interpretations of "maternal practice" and "maternal work" (Ruddick 1989), in describing how women expanded their mothering practices beyond their kinship group and in all actions to address the needs of their communities. Motherhood then serves as a catalyst for participatory democracy -the traditional role of a "mother" transformed beyond the confines of domesticity and used as a social agent to draw members into the "political" arena (Pardo 1990). ...
Article
This article highlights the case of the Ronda ng Kababaihan, a women's volunteer organization established to conduct night patrols in their neighborhood after witnessing drug-related killings in Pateros. Guided by the political motherhood framework, this study argues that the members use their traditional roles as mothers to legitimize their presence in the streets and the public sphere, and they practice mothering to maintain good relations with the community, police, and local authorities. Data are drawn from in-depth interviews with mothers and participant observation of nightly patrols of the organization. This study problematizes the debate between the essentialist and constructivist views on motherhood-in understanding motherhood in political terms either as an emotionally motivated and apolitical extension of the domestic duties or as an avenue for the reconstruction of gendered roles and collective identities.
... It was as Thacher (2015, p. 328) puts it: "our description already contains the seeds of our ethical conclusion about it." However, as the project progressed, we stumbled upon a counterpoint to this pejorative application of DEPENDENCY in literature on the ethics of care (Held, 1993;Ruddick, 1989;Tronto, 1993), which challenged the Ministry's use of the concept. In a repudiation of the political hostility toward "dependency," some feminist scholars have sought to reconsider "dependency" by casting it as central aspect of the human condition. ...
Article
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Thick concepts are concepts that describe and evaluate at once. Academic discussion on thick concepts originated in meta-ethics, but thick concepts increasingly draw attention from qualitative researchers working in the social sciences, too. However, these scholars work in relative isolation from each other, and an overview of their ideas is missing. This article has two aims. The first is to provide such an overview, by bringing together these disparate voices on why thick concepts matter for the social sciences and how to work with them in qualitative social research. The second aim is to reflect on the methodological difficulties of working with thick concepts, by thinking through the example of my research on a specific thick concept—the concept of dependency. The article argues that thick concepts are invoked by social researchers for either epistemological or methodological purposes. It then goes on to claim that if we want to take thick concepts as our sensitizing concepts or as our objects of research, these two purposes really ought to be considered in unison: any methodological approach involving thick concepts must factor in the epistemological challenge thick concepts pose to social-scientific research. To show why—and to consider what this requires from qualitative researchers—I draw on insights acquired during my study on dependency. I end with practical recommendations for working with thick concepts in social research.
... An ethic of care focuses on attentiveness, trust, responsiveness to need, narrative nuance, and cultivating caring relations" (2006, p. 15). The ethics of care is rooted in feminism (Gilligan, 1982;Noddings, 2013;Ruddick, 1995). The founding scholars of the ethics of care perspective perceived the predominant ethical perspectives based on abstract and universal principles (Kohlberg, 1981) as being overly male-oriented and instead emphasized an alternative moral orientation, traditionally applied by (female) caregivers-one that is contextual and relational and that values connections over autonomy (Gilligan, 1982). ...
Article
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Research studying the efects of non-fnancial goals on stakeholder relationships remains inconclusive, with scholars disagreeing on which goals increase or decrease a firm’s proactive stakeholder engagement (PSE). Instead of examining which goals act as forces for good or evil, we shift the focus of recent discussions by emphasizing the mechanisms that can explain the positive and negative stakeholder outcomes of non-fnancial goals under the umbrella of one theoretical lens. We do so by introducing an ethics of care perspective. Specifcally, we frst show that four of the fve most distinctive non-fnancial goals of family owners jointly stipulate care-based morality, which likely enhances PSE. However, we subsequently argue that one goal, namely, the wish to exert power and infuence, interacts with other goals and related care-based morality to lower PSE. Finally, we show how female family directors temper these interactions. Our insights into the additive and interactive efects of non-fnancial goals on PSE contribute to corporate social responsibility research, to the organizational goal literature, to family business studies and to work drawing on care ethics in management studies.
... We understand this semantic choice as an act of maintenance, both of his dignity but also of the legitimacy of their kinship connection (Borneman, 2001). It provides a defence from her becoming her husband's mother, which is taken as the paradigm of one person (the mother) being instrumentalised into the other (baby) (Ruddick, 1989; see also Chodorow, 1978;Baraitser, 2009). Their mutually contingent lives are further attested to by the spontaneous decline of Donna's health amidst Mickey's increasingly rapid decline of cognition and motor function. ...
Chapter
Paul Stenner offers a refreshingly new vision of liminality power by deep empiricism and decoupled from rites of passage that which makes it responsive to the spontaneous precariousness of the present day. Taking up Stenner’s call to apply his concept of liminality to empirical research, this chapter draws on three specific case studies drawn from a year of longitudinal narrative interviews and observations with 17 older couples grappling with terminal illness. The first section of this chapter considers the ways “uh oh” moments can be triggered by seemingly mundane moments which catalyse older spouses’ reinterpretation of their situation and self. We will argue that such moments of disappointed expectations are inseparable from the wider “uh oh” moment of the biopolitical order itself. The second section compares and contrasts older caregiving spouses’ use of what Stenner coins “affective liminal technologies” to pursue—albeit not always successfully—“ah ha” moments that complete liminal passages. We will draw on intersectional theory to further illuminate how people’s specific social location can explain why some carers remain stuck in the liminal. The concluding remarks will offer a critical reflection of the utility and indeed possible expansion of his concept for the social sciences.
... As Metz and Miller hold, feminist ethics has been a 'consistent home' for relationalism (Metz & Miller, 2016, p. 6), as has healthcare ethics and environmental ethics (Metz & Miller, 2016, p. 3). Carol Gilligan (1982), Sara Ruddick (1989) and Nel Noddings (2013) are well-known proponents of this approach. Noddings argues that "taking relation as ontologically basic simply means that we recognize human encounter and affective response as a basic fact of human existence" (2013, p. 4). ...
Article
In South Africa, there is currently no legislation that addresses animal experimentation directly. There is, however, a complex framework that consists of laws, national standards, and institutional guidelines governing the use of animals in scientific settings. Consequently, this paper starts by unpacking this framework, both legal and voluntary, in the South African context. Thereafter, it examines some criticisms against this framework. It subsequently proposes that an African ethic could respond to these criticisms, and so unpacks the central tenets of an African ethic in order to demonstrate how it may do this. Finally, it will argue that there are convincing moral reasons, from within an African framework, to significantly reduce, and even abolish, the use of animals in research, and that it should be enacted in legal regulations.
... In the case of migrant care workers, who are also mothers, they face multiple care responsibilities to several care receivers in different locations as they continue to perform mother-care work for their children. Philosopher Sara Ruddick (1995) refers to mothering as a practice performed in order to ensure the preservation, growth and social acceptability of children. One of the strategies transnational mothers employ in mothering from afar is the transfer of direct and indirect care activities to other members of the family, relatives, or paid help, forming a "global care chain" (Hochschild 2000). ...
Article
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Growing research revolving around the plight of (Philippine) migrant domestic workers is noteworthy. However, the focus is largely on their role, capacity and identity as caregivers, meaning as labour migrants and transnational mothers engaged in both paid and unpaid care work. Building on the “care circulation” framework of Baldassar and Merla that conceptualises care as given and received in varying degrees by all family members across time and distance, this paper takes up the task of recognising migrant domestic workers as care receivers. In a particular way, this paper conceptualises care for migrant caregivers-transnational mothers that is based on a qualitative empirical study on the lived realities of Philippine migrant workers, who are also transnational mothers. An analysis of the participants’ narratives using the constructivist grounded theory approach reveals that their experience of God’s presence is central to how they navigate transnational mothering as labour migrants. This paper then proposes that their faith stories, significant as they are, be taken as a resource in providing them with spiritual care that takes their concerns into account.
... Macleod identifies the antinatalist challenge, which states that people should bear full responsibility for children they bring into the world, and it also identifies the counterargument that children are public goods. A consideration bearing on parental competency that is overlooked in this essay is the way that the practice of mothering includes a rich and complex set of regulative ideals and competencies (Ruddick 1989). An acknowledgment of the role of gender in relation to parental competency, and of men's relative incompetence resulting from the inadequacies of typical masculine socialization, should be included in any discussion of parental competency. ...
... This work has drawn on the corpus of the theoretical work of Sara Ruddick (1983), Carol Gilligan (1982), andNel Noddings (1984). Ruddick (1995) used the term 'maternal thinking' to explore the rationality of care rejecting a contract model of relationships, focusing instead on the kind of relationships seen in parenting where care is between unequal individuals with very different and amorphous strengths and weaknesses. Maternal thinking practices reflect a desire for preservation, growth, and acceptability or socialization. ...
... We discussed elsewhere (Bektas et al., 2020) that parents appeared to weigh-up different kinds of knowledge in their attempts to help instil their child with "good practices": experiential knowledge, intuitive knowledge, scientific and theoretical knowledge, and knowledge that derives from social and cultural norms and practices (Bektas et al., 2020). Another consideration that parents must make when raising their child pertains to the influence of social and cultural norms and practices, and their attempts to raise a child who will be accepted as a "member of the society" in which they live (Ruddick, 1995). If healthcare professionals are able to recognize and acknowledge these ongoing considerations of parents, then this can aid their attempts to provide customized support and attune their recommendations to the lifeworld of parents. ...
Article
Purpose: The first two years of a child's life have been found to be crucial for optimal growth and development. Support from healthcare professionals is especially important during this period. This study explored the perspectives of parents with children aged 0-2 years and healthcare professionals concerning parental needs and support provided by healthcare professionals. Methods: A qualitative research approach was adopted, which comprised semi-structured interviews with parents (N = 25) and focus group discussions with parents (N = 4) and healthcare professionals (N = 3). The data was analysed using the principles of inductive thematic analysis. Results: Overall, we found that parents preferred support that was tailored to their personal needs and practices. Building a trusting relationship between healthcare professionals and parents was also found to be important. The healthcare professionals recognized many of the parents' experiences. Some expressed that they felt bound to adhere to professional guidelines, which hindered them to provide customized support. Conclusions: Recommendation for establishing tailored support and trust are self-disclosure by professionals, addressing possible misconceptions openly, and showing interest in someone's considerations or family and cultural customs. Further research into how professional support for parents can be improved is recommended.
... Lo que podemos considerar una cierta «cultura de lactancia» contemporánea, a saber, el lactivismo, valora el hecho lactante por razones tanto biológicas como culturales (desde una perspectiva analítica de la lactancia como biocultural, siguiendo a Dettwyler y Stuar-Macadam, 1995). En los últimos tiempos viene sucediendo con ella lo que podríamos denominar el rescate de una epistemología silenciada, en la estela de los estudios poscoloniales de Maldonado-Torres (2009), Mignolo (2010, etc. En mi propia investigación sobre lactancia humana (Massó Guijarro, 2013a y b, 2014 y 2015a y b), la abordo como movimiento social, y generadora de valores intangibles desde los siguientes enfoques pluridisciplinares: la ética del cuidado (Amorós, 1995;Benhabib, 1990;Gilligan, 1985) y la perspectiva de la noción filosófica de la alteridad (Escuela de Frankfurt; Lévinas, 1995), la heteronomía y la interdependencia (Guzmán y Toboso, 2010); la cultura de paz y estudios sobre la paz (Matas Morell, 2010;Ruddick, 1989), para analizar la generación de prácticas e individuos más cooperativos y emocionalmente estables 3 , así como de prácticas de paz mismas a través del intenso activismo social en relación a la lactancia materna y la crianza con apego; la perspectiva del decrecimiento (Latouche, 2008;Riechmann, 2006;Sampedro 2009;Taibo, 2009), que permite analizar la dimensión de sostenibilidad en la lactancia materna en relación a su vertiente económica y ecológica: su aspecto de autogestión, de gratuidad, de práctica relacional no mercantil (Massó Guijarro, 2015a); los estudios sobre la sexualidad para analizar la lactancia materna en tanto que práctica sexual del cuerpo femenino y como parte del ciclo sexual de la mujer (Massó Guijarro, 2013b), siguiendo los análisis obstétricos de Odent (2007) o Leboyer (1989). ...
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El presente artículo constituye un estudio de caso de la asociación Mamilactancia (Granada, España), referencial en promoción de lactancia humana de esta región. Se aborda, desde ahí, la lactancia como objeto de estudio fundamental, considerando el asociacionismo prolactancia materna como un movimiento sociopolítico de alcance internacional y creciente predicamento en España. Así, se pretende reflexionar sobre la lactancia humana como nueva gramática de la dignidad que no ha sido considerada tal a lo largo de la historia, ni por el preponderante discurso patriarcal ni, sobre todo, por el movimiento feminista de cuño más ilustrado. El estudio de caso de la asociación granadina servirá a modo de ejemplo significativo de cómo funciona la agencia social de este movimiento, encabezado principalmente por grupos de madres con criaturas de diversas edades, que pretenden, a través de su actividad diaria, dar sentido a la proclama «piensa globalmente y actúa localmente» de una singular manera.
... Doucet, building on a definition of parental care from Ruddick (1989) as well as Tronto's seminal work on care (1993), establishes a framework encompassing three types of parenting responsibilities: emotional, community and moral (2017, p.15). Emotional parenting responsibilities 'are skills and practices' of attentiveness and responsiveness (2017, p.16), comprising 'knowledge about others' needs' and 'attentiveness to the needs of others' (Tronto, 1993, pp.176-8). ...
Thesis
Fathers’ use of parental leave is a crucial policy issue in relation to gender equality and at the root of gendered caring norms and unequal divisions of labour throughout the life course. Using comparative mixed methods and a framework that conceptualises parenting as gendered and performative (Butler, 1999), this research contributes knowledge of the influence on fathers’ parental leave decisions of three dimensions of norms: policy, discourse and cultural norms; workplace cultures; and peer and family group norms. I compare the effect of social norms on the decisions made by fathers working for the same multinational firm in three countries: the UK, Sweden and Portugal. I argue that a Butlerian understanding can help answer the question frequently posed in the literature: why, when we know couples have egalitarian intentions prior to the birth of a first child, do couples slip back into conservative gender roles once the child has arrived (Fox, 2019; Grunow and Veltkamp, 2016; Miller, 2011)? I provide a comparative backdrop to the three focus countries, to contextualise the path dependencies underpinning the enabling parental leave policy and culture in Sweden and the contradictory and ambiguous parental leave policies and cultures in the UK and Portugal. I use data from the 2017 wave of the European Values Study to demonstrate the differences in attitudes towards gender roles between the three countries. I find that overall, Sweden holds the most egalitarian values, followed by the UK, and then Portugal, where the data reflects ‘normative ambiguity’ (Wall, 2015). I then theorise the extent to which each of the three domains of norms shaped fathers’ use of leave in the three countries, through analysis of qualitative data collected in 45 interviews with fathers. I argue that the widespread normative support for gender equality embedded in Swedish culture, alongside the enabling policy framework first introduced in 1974, contributed to the existence of a robust ‘citation’ (Butler, 1993) for fathers’ use of parental leave entitlements, which cannot fully exist in Portugal and the UK under the current discursive and material conditions. My argument, via a Butlerian critique of regulation that posits parental leave policy frameworks as both regulated by and regulating gender, thus contributes to the body of work foregrounding the centrality of non-transferable leave entitlements to fathers’ use of leave. At work, despite conducting interviews with fathers at the same firm in each country, organisational culture was highly divergent between the nations. Bringing organisational culture studies together with Butler’s performative ontology of gender, I thus theorise organisational culture as gender regulation and conceptualise the ‘performative breadwinner’, articulating the inability of many of the fathers to cease reproducing the masculine ‘ideal worker’ norm. The micro-level insights documented demonstrate how fathers’ everyday experiences are shaped by cultural backdrop, peer behaviour and forms of social constraint that form the choice architecture that shapes individual decisions. The research offers an original, granular account of the iterative process through which ‘father-friendly’ leave entitlements, combined with discursive changes, contribute to wider uptake of leave entitlements, and how shifts in norms over time are made possible – or not – through citationality.
... This love labour has offered models of what a more compassionate society might look like, were such work to be better recognised and rewarded. As Ruddick [72]) showed, care for children is not just a thoughtless instinct but an alternative way of thinking. This alternative would seem to be more necessary than ever as 'the values of love and care which women 'held' as best they could on behalf of society through the turbulent period of industrialisation are in danger of going AWOL altogether in the post-feminist era' [73]. ...
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This paper places the pedagogies of love and care which typify the early years of practice in the context of evolution, arguing that, during an optimum window of development, young children are predisposed physiologically to benefit from the attention of multiple alloparents. This anthropological model of community stands in stark contrast to the individualistic and privatised notion of love in neoliberal cultures, indicating reasons why practitioners may be ambivalent about it. Moreover, it is argued that, whilst the notion of care is easily commoditised, the deeper concept of love, contextualised within wisdom and faith paths, is resistant to the money culture. In looking beyond neoliberalism at counter-cultural alternatives, alloparenting traditions suggest a way in which ECEC settings can establish themselves as models of social sustainability rooted in ‘philia’ and mutuality.
... Stereotypical masculine traits largely reflect agentic or instrumental attributions, such as assertiveness, forcefulness, and self-reliance, while stereotypical feminine traits mostly reflect communion or expressiveness, such as sympathy, affectionateness, and warmth (Bem, 1981;Judd et al., 2005;Wood & Eagly, 2015). As Goldstein (2001) suggests, we believe that gender differences in traits, roles, and values, whether partially resulting from biological determinism or not (see Caprioli, 2000;Elshtain, 1995;Gilligan, 1982;Ruddick, 1989), are heavily influenced by social construction. ...
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The question of whether women are more oriented towards peace has been debated in the research literature for several decades but has not been systematically tested in conflict‐driven areas. The aim of our article is twofold: (1) to suggest a conceptual framework regarding gender differences in support for peace in intractable conflict and test it in a prominent case study; and (2) to examine whether major events leading to conflict reescalation have differential effects on women and men. Across 145 polls carried out on a monthly basis among nationally representative samples of Jewish‐Israelis between 1995 and 2006, we found only marginally higher levels of support for the Oslo Accords among women versus men, while conflict‐related worldviews—political ideology and religiosity—had a much larger effect. Furthermore, violent reescalation in the conflict had a stronger effect on reducing men's levels of support for the Oslo Accords than those of women. Robustness analysis of 196 monthly surveys from 2002 until 2018 examining the effect of gender on support for negotiation provided further support for our findings. Overall, our analyses indicate that sex‐based differences play a minor role in explaining attitudes towards peace in situations of protracted violent conflicts at different stages, compared to the prominent effects of political ideology and religiosity.
... Much more than the gap between discourse and practice, these findings reveal men as inescapably relationally embedded and interdependent despite the dictates and constraints of the discourse of masculine autonomy. This speaks to feminist conceptualizations of care and autonomy that stress everyone is enmeshed in interdependent, relational networks (e.g., Gilligan, 1982;Kittay, 1999;Ruddick, 1989;Tronto, 1993) and even that there exists a "necessity of having relationships in order to see oneself as autonomous" (Verkerk, 2001, p. 29). Gilligan's (1982) now classic thesis was that women's moral perspective is based on care and relationships, and men's on justice, rights, autonomy and independence. ...
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Masculinities scholarship tends toward describing autonomy as bound up with hegemonic masculine ideals such as independence, atomization, and self‐sufficiency, without fully delving into the concept of autonomy. This article offers a more in‐depth conceptual treatment of autonomy, compared to its more simplified rendering in the literature on the dominant relational conceptualizations of masculinities. In doing so, we follow recent calls to avoid categorizing men according to typologies of masculinity, drawing instead on feminist theorizations of masculine autonomy and relationality to explore how both manifest in men's lives. We draw on a study of men's drinking practices, with our data coming from focus groups with 101 men in metropolitan and regional/rural Victoria, Australia; but the issues we attend to have relevance, and can be an impetus, for further scholarly thinking about autonomy in men's lives well beyond drinking practices, and in other similar industrialized nations. We explore how masculine autonomy remains an influential and harmful discourse, often impeding possibilities for men's greater intimacy, connection and care and reproducing gendered hierarchies. However, we simultaneously highlight how men are inescapably relationally situated, exposing masculine autonomy as a discursive ideal of valorized forms of masculinity rather than an achievable state in practice. We argue that acknowledging how men are relationally embedded and interdependent in practice offers potential avenues for further fostering men's care, intimacy and relationality, and might work toward ameliorating gendered inequalities that see care work and the work of sustaining relational networks disproportionately falling to women and marginalized men.
... Hartsock explored how images of the warrior shaped conceptions of citizenship (Hartsock 1983;. Ruddick examined the neglected insights that practices of mothering could provide that are highly relevant to working toward peace and nonviolence (Ruddick 1989). Enloe provided powerful examples of linkages between militarism and cultural images of masculinity (Enloe 1983). ...
Thesis
p>The central aim of this work is to examine the significance that has been attributed to the construction of authoriality in contemporary poetics. The thesis examines the author in the text as a site upon which literary critics have been able to debate the political significance of the literary itself. The thesis examines the differing strategies which three American women poets have formulated for negotiating one specific instance of this controversy, and in doing so examines the problems attending the connection of feminist literary production with notions of political agency. The three poets examined in the thesis have been most readily allied with the school of avant-garde American poetry that has come to be known as 'Language' writing. One of Langauge writing's foundational tenets has been that its textual 'difficulty' demands an active or sceptical reading practice, which allows the reader to become oppostionally engaged. I contend that this principle assumes that reading, without the intervention of the 'difficult' text, is a passive act, and suggest that an account of cultural consumption, which emphasises the complex dynamics between reading and writing positions, is in danger of being overlooked. The thesis centrally aims to explore such a dynamic by emphasising the politics of the various subject positions created in this writing, and examining what they imply for a reading practice. My methodology involves critically analysing the readings hitherto provided for these poets and making apparent the limiting assumptions that they rely upon. I then propose an alternative reading of each poet's relationship to cultural authority, as it is mediated through the constructions of selfhood and writing.</p
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The Resolution "Women, Peace and Security" unanimously adopted by the United Nations Security Council in 2000 fundamentally transformed discursive practices of gender equality into the fields of security, post-conflict reconstruction and peace. The twentieth anniversary was an opportunity to critically examine its impact on the gender mainstreaming of conflict, security and peace. This special issue contributes to the feminist security studies by discussing the shortcomings in the implementation of UNSCR 1325 from several research fields, including intersectionality and masculinity perspectives. After presenting the rationale and scope of the special issue, this article discusses the gender and security policy framing of the WPS Agenda, intending to conceptualise gender equality through three perspectives: the perspective of equal treatment, the women's perspective, and the gender perspective. In conclusion , the article summarises the key contributions of this special issue and suggests some avenues for further research.
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En el contexto griego clásico, Deméter era venerada como diosa de la agricultura y protectora de la fertilidad. Asimismo, la relación entre esta deidad y su hija Koré-Perséfone representaba la fortaleza del vínculo maternal. Este artículo explora las dimensiones simbólicas de esta figura mitológica, poniendo de relieve sus conexiones con un modelo ético de maternidad asociado al cuidado y a la resistencia frente a las injusticias. Además, se aborda una lectura de este mito desde la perspectiva de la teoría feminista contemporánea, mostrando su cercanía con los planteamientos del ecofeminismo.
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In this thesis I have analysed the theories of distributive justice from a feminist and relational egalitarian perspective. I have presented the main liberal theories of distributive justice, the numerous feminist critiques targeting them as well as the alternative proposals advanced by relational egalitarians. The thesis consists of six chapters which can be read as independent articles.
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While feminist and profeminist scholars are in agreement with the thesis that hegemonic and destructive forms of masculinity are the source of current environmental crises, there is less agreement on how to address this issue or on the way forward for ecologically conscious and profeminist men. Some forms of ecofeminism essentialise women as being closer to nature than men, while arguing that men are closer to culture. There seems little capacity for men to change in this view. In a parallel development, some ecomasculinity theorists argue that the problem is not with the nature of masculinity per se but with the separation of men’s natural maleness from forms of masculinity that suppress their infinite capacity to care. Such latter approaches espouse an ecomasculinist perspective rather than a materialist ecofeminist view. This chapter explores the implications of the materialist ecofeminist critique for what men can do to address current environmental crises.
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Pravna regulativa (pored socijalne i kulturne konstrukcije očinstva) u značajnoj mjeri utječe ne samo na ostvarivanje roditeljske uloge oca, već i na razvoj njegova identiteta. Ipak, pravni okvir kojima se uređuje ova pro-blematika umnogome ovisi o teorijskom pristupu od kojeg se polazi prilikom kreiranja normi. Zbog toga je u radu dan osvrt na različite teorijske pristupe u ostvarivanju roditeljskih prava, od kojih neki polaze od patrijarhalne podje-le uloga između oca i majke, koje su roditeljstvo izjednačivale s majčinstvom i negirale značaj oca u odgoju djeteta. S druge strane, teorije modernizacije polaze od promjena roditeljskih obrazaca, koji su uzrokovani promjenama na globalnoj razini, ekonomskom emancipacijom žena, koji su doveli do promje-ne vrijednosnoga sustava koji se temelji na slobodama pojedinca. Novi vri-jednosni sustav imao je za rezultat promjene u obiteljskim odnosima, odnosno doveo je do rodne simetrije i uspostavljanja fenomena »novoga očinstva«, koji podrazumijeva ravnomjerno uključivanje oca u sve aspekte odgajanja djeteta. Rad također upućuje na pravne akte Europske unije koji reguliraju uskla-đivanje profesionalnih i obiteljskih obaveza očeva, imajući u vidu da je rav-nopravnost muškaraca i žena u ostvarivanju prava jedno od temeljnih načela Europske unije koje je navedeno u aktima primarnoga zakonodavstva i u akti-ma sekundarnoga zakonodavstva. Međutim, Direktiva 2010/18 nije osigurala potpunu ravnopravnost oca i majke s obzirom na usklađivanje profesionalnih i obiteljskih obaveza, što je bio razlog za usvajanje nove Direktive 2019/1158, koja sadrži odredbe usmjerene na uspostavljanje ravnoteže između radnih i obiteljskih obveza. Nova je direktiva usvojena 20. lipnja 2019., a države čla-nice imaju rok za usklađivanje tri godine od njezina stupanja na snagu. Posebna se pozornost u radu pridaje karakteristikama prava na roditelj-ski dopust i očinsko odsustvo u državama EU-a. Rad sadrži usporedni pregled duljine prava na roditeljski dopust, mogućnost prijenosa prava na drugoga roditelja i njegovu plaćenost. Isto tako, napravljen je usporedni pregled du-ljine i plaćenosti očinskoga dopusta u državama EU-a te usporedba rješenja koja se odnose na roditeljski i očinski dopust s rješenjima sadržanima u novoj Direktivi.
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The objective of this introduction is twofold: firstly, to illustrate the state of Malaysian Anglophone literature, and secondly, to elucidate the aims, structure, and scope of the book. In the first section, I will provide an outline of the inception and evolution of the tradition, explain its failures and achievements, and expound on the sociopolitical and cultural factors that challenge writers. In the second section, I will introduce the chapters, explain my rationale for putting together this book, and recount the book’s design as well as some of its recurring themes: ethnicity, gender, diaspora, and nationalism
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Resumo O artigo propõe analisar o ativismo político de mães de vítimas da letalidade da ação policial nas periferias brasileiras a partir da perspectiva dos movimentos sociais. Inicia-se pela apresentação dessa forma de ação coletiva, marcada pela condição de maternidade e pela vulnerabilidade, para, então, observá-lo a partir de categorias frequentemente destacadas na teoria dos movimentos sociais. Neste empenho, são delineadas as suas principais características, destacando-se entre elas a relevância do aspecto emotivo. Dor, raiva e ultraje, tanto quanto amor, acolhimento e solidariedade são afetos fundamentais para uma compreensão aprofundada das mães em luta. A análise é baseada em entrevistas de profundidade com ativistas do movimento, na participação da pesquisadora em atos e em revisão bibliográfica. Conclui-se que estamos diante de um movimento social singular e salienta-se a imprescindibilidade de uma perspectiva atenta às emoções nesse campo de estudos, fundamental para a compreensão de um movimento como este.
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This chapter establishes the centrality of care in Winnicott’s thinking and positions him in relation to contemporary debates about care. It explores the relevance of his ideas for understanding the crisis of care and his place in care theory, as well as contrasting his understanding of subjectivity with other influential models. The chapter also establishes the theoretical and methodological framework for the book.
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Research question/problem definition This thesis is a philosophical study into the nature of the practice of supervisory boards in care institutions in The Netherlands. I do so from the perspective of ‘practical wisdom’ (phronesis) as coined by Aristotle. The main question of this thesis is: what is wise supervision? What will become apparent is that albeit this is a thesis on supervisory practice, it has a much wider scope. As supervisory practice is oriented to so many organizational and societal aspects, it is also a thesis on governance, institutions, management and ordinary caring practices in civil society in general. The question is explorative: what happens if we reconceptualize supervision as practical wisdom? I have no hypothesis that is tested in the ‘real world’, but rather I install a specific interpretation that sheds light on the practice that has remained in the background in previous research on supervisory work. Relevance The role and position of the supervisory board in Dutch civil society organizations, such as in health care or education, has been discussed intensively but narrowly in the past decade. This narrow view consists of a focus on quality and risk management, corporate governance, professionalization and value-oriented approaches. In this narrow view there is a permanent quest for certainty, unambiguity, clarity and simpleness. This quest paralyzes the debate and practice of governance, and possibly also that of care itself. We need a perspective on supervisory boards and governance that takes ambiguity and equivocality of care and organizing as a point of departure. Theoretical framework The theoretical perspectives in this thesis vary widely. The first overarching theory is from Schön on the reflective practitioner and the difference he makes between the ‘safe high grounds’ and the ‘swampy lowlands’. A second overarching theory is about the difference between system world and lifeworld, and the quest for ‘purpose’. The specific theoretical perspectives that are worked out are from care ethics, critical management studies, hermeneutic-phenomenology, critical modernity analyses and post-foundational political philosophy. These perspectives integrate questions of ambiguity, politics and democracy. Method It is a theoretical philosophical dissertation that does not assume representation, but rather precisely interprets the practice from a particular angle. In order to do so, I have analyzed the practice of supervisory boards in a sensitizing way: I interpreted cases, analyzed popular books on governance and had dialogues with two supervisory boards. Arguments It is argued that care is a political category, and that this is usually denied in practices of quality management. Care, especially institutional care, reflects to some greater or lesser extent our attempts to live together in a decent way. This implies that the question of ‘good care’ is not a mere technical matter, but rather also a moral and political question. The technical approach to care, mainly by quality management, hides the paradoxes that flow from its applications. From this angle, also governance is a political and caring activity. Supervisory board members need to understand their work as being ‘relational’, i.e., between boards and the organization. The supervisory board is on the boundary of concrete everyday care and its political context, the institutional framework, in which care is nested. Conclusion I conceptualize wise supervision as practical wisdom as a form of knowledge that is not a mere individual trait but has a practice aspect and an institutional aspect as well. Supervisory practice is not only about the behavior of its practice members, but also about the interplay between society, supervision, management and organization – as well as the way in which this is institutionally embedded: who has a say, who may take decisions and who can counteract.
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Since the refugee crisis in 2015 the political landscape in Sweden has changed. There has been a discursive shift from hospitality to hostility. There is now a stronger tendency in Sweden to depict refugees as ‘problems’ in conflict with welfare society. This chapter explores how some Swedish parents who became deeply involved in the reception practices responded to the urgent political and demographic changes. I specifically focus on parents’ hospitable work among refugees in the intimate arena of everyday life. My discussion concentrates on questions of ‘belonging’ and ‘othering’ (Ahmed 2004), and I approach parents’ care work in terms of ‘kinning’ (Howell 2006) and ‘mothering’ (Ruddick 2002) within a context of (un)conditional hospitality (Derrida 2000). Why did these parents commit themselves to supporting refugees? What kinds of social and emotional bonds were shaped? How was their support connected to their mothering? How did they prepare their children for multicultural conviviality in a society in the midst of a political and cultural transformation? The analysis is based on parents’ narratives and demonstrates the impact of everyday life and its close connection to the larger societal and political context of (forced) migration. Even though these parents were involved in ‘kinning’ and mothering processes and certainly demonstrated their political resistance against the discursive shift towards hostility, power inequalities between ‘host’ and ‘guest’ were still present and hard to overcome.
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Green criminological scholarship has often said little about the subject of gender. Yet, gender clearly impacts how environmental harms are felt. As Lynch notes, around the world‚ women are disproportionately affected by pollution-related crime and regulatory offences relative to men (Lynch, 2016). There is certainly good reason for scholarship to look more deeply at green criminology through the lens of gender. Lynch argues that we need to integrate feminist criminological views with green criminology in order to better understand how differently situated people are differentially affected by environmental crime (Lynch, 2016). As Walklate (1990) comments, women’s material reality as generally economically and socially subordinate to men worldwide too often renders women disproportionately vulnerable to victimization resulting from the impacts of environmental crime. Certainly, as a gender, women experience different harms and different victimization from men in terms of when toxic pollutants are released into the environment. Further, of course, intersectionally, women who are differently situated in terms of geography, race, and socioeconomic status, among other factors, experience this differently from each other.
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H OW DOES POLITICAL POWER—in its multiple forms—con�strain or enable mothers’ agency? How do mothers engage with consolidated and traditional political spaces, or challenge them to modify how they work and create new ones? What types of political solidarity does mothering forge? What kinds of “col�lective action” problems (Olson) do mothers need to overcome in order to put their “repertoires of contention” (Tilly) in motion? What sorts of political claims do they put forward, and how do they (re)define what political is? Drawing on distinct research traditions across a variety of disciplines, this volume aims at adding a “matricentric” perspec�tive (O’Reilly, Matricentric) to the study of political power in its different configurations. Its chapters’ common thread is the analysis of mothers’ claim-making capacity and activity both inside and outside of arenas of political power. The ultimate goal is to understand how formal as well as informal political institutions limit or catalyze mothers’ ability to contribute to the res publica, or “the public affairs,” and to have their otherwise unacknowledged claims noticed and addressed by the political system and society at large.
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pesar de que se ha estableci�do legalmente la paridad electoral en los congresos locales de México, en el Congreso del Estado de Oaxaca aún no podemos hablar de una represen�tación sustantiva al interior del mismo, ya que aunque los partidos políticos postulan mujeres más jóvenes, con mayor escolaridad y con amplia trayec�toria en sus partidos políticos, no acceden a puestos clave: coordinacio�nes de las bancadas, órganos de decisión (Junta de Coordinación Política) ni comisiones estratégicas, pues no obstante que las diputadas generan más iniciativas, son los diputados quienes logran mayor aprobación de las mismas; además persisten conductas culturales de discriminación, prácticas de violencia política y trato diferenciado entre diputadas y diputados. En este capítulo se abordan los efectos de la ley electoral de paridad de género en la participación y el desempeño legislativo de las mujeres en la LXIV Legislatura del Congreso del Estado de Oaxaca, 2018-2021, en el primer año legislativo (2018-2019) y sus efectos en los logros en términos de repre�sentación política descriptiva y sustantiva. Retomando el enfoque teórico de Pitkin (1985), el análisis comprende la revisión de: a) los perfiles de las y los legisladores, particularmente edad, nivel educativo y experiencia política; b) la distribución de poder; y c) la gestión legislativa.
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Hannah Arendt stand der Frauenbewegung und dem Feminismus zurückhaltend, wenn nicht gar ablehnend gegenüber. Sie war, schreibt ihre Biographin Elisabeth Young-Bruehl, »skeptisch in der Frage, ob Frauen politische Führungsrollen spielen sollten, und sie opponierte standhaft gegen die sozialen Dimensionen der Frauenbewegung« (Young-Bruehl 1986, 336). In der Tat galt Arendt die ›Frauenfrage‹ sui generis als nicht politisch, ja mehr noch als Frage, deren Politisierung das Politische bzw. die politische Sphäre existentiell gefährden würde.
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Critically acclaimed for her works in educational philosophy and theory, Nel Noddings is hailed worldwide. The academician turned feminist is received with applauses in not only the west, but has also become a major area of study in the Asian countries in the recent times. Noddings sheds light and provides a new dimension on the abstract concept of 'care'. Our paper is a sober attempt to disclose the life, works and theory of Nel Noddings. This appraisal is an honest approach to Noddings' views and relation to care and preference. While doing this we have elaborated with instances the ethics of care, its significance and problems arising out of one-care.
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