ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

In recent times, bee venom (BV) from honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) has become the focus of interest as a form of alternative and preventive medicine for the treatment of a number of clinical cases such as arthritis, rheumatism, pain, cancer and a vast range of other conditions. BV contains several biochemically and pharmacologically active substances. Some of these compounds are well studied and their mechanisms of action established, despite the fact that few are undergoing clinical trials. Scientists are now performing intensive research work especially human clinical trials to improve the potential use of BV and its chemical constituents as the next drugs generation in the treatment of chronic disorders. Nevertheless, the dual effect of some bee venom components is also important in the design of future therapeutic goals. This paper gives recent evidences on the chemical and biological properties of the major components of bee venom, their underlying molecular action mechanism, and reasons of its consideration as a promising alternative medicine. - See more at: http://www.eurekaselect.com/129654/article#sthash.n9sXPfKk.dpuf
A schematic drawing of proposed underlying mechanisms of the bee venom induced nociception and hyperalgesia to heat and mechanical stimuli applied in the periphery. melittin, MCD peptide, apamin and tertiapin bind directly to the membrane of a nociceptor cell leading to activation of it. Meanwhile, melittin, MCD peptide, bv PLA 2 , and hyaluronidase cause tissue damage and release ATP and H+ that activate P2X3/P2Y, TRPV1 and ASIC. Indirect actions of melittin, MCD peptide and bv PLA 2 cause degranulation of mast cells and release histamine, BK and 5-HT that activate H1 receptor, 5-HT3 receptor and BK1/2 receptors. The firing of nociceptor terminals will be mediated by voltage-dependent sodium channels (TTXr Nav1.8/1.9), VDCC, VDPC, Kir and Ca 2 +–K+. Dorsal root reflex and axon reflex may cause release of glutamate and neuropeptides (SP and CGRP) that further activate their autoreceptors on the nociceptor terminals or blood vessels causing inflammatory extravasation (neurogenic) with infiltration of macrophage, immune cells and platelets and many cytokines (TNFalpha, IL1beta, PAF, etc.). The syringe indicates transcutaneous injection of bee venom. Abbreviations: 5-HT3, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3; 12-HETE, 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids; AA, arachidonic acid; ASIC, acidsensing ionic channel; ATP, adenosine triphosphate; BK1/2, bradykinin receptors 1/2; bv PLA2, bee venom phospholipase A2; Ca2+–K+, calcium-dependent potassium channel; CGRP, calcitonin-gene related peptide; COX-1/2, cyclooxygenases1/2; Glu, glutamate; H1, histamine receptor type 1; iGluRs, ionotropic glutamate receptors; IL1β, interleukin 1β; IL6, interleukin 6; Kir, inward-rectifier potassium channel, LOXs, lipoxygenases; MAPKs, mitogen-activated protein kinases; MCD peptide, mast cell degranulating peptide; MCL peptide, mastocytolyitic peptide; NK1, neurokinin 1; NOS, notric oxide synthase; P2X3, P2-purinoreceptor X3; P2Y, P2-purinoreceptor Y; PAF, plateletactivated factor; PGs, prostaglandins; PKA, protein kinase A; protein kinase C; protein kinase G; SP, substance P; TNFα, tumor-necrosis factor α; TRPV1, transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1; TTXr, tetrodotoxin-resistant; VDCC, voltage dependent calcium channel, VDPC, voltage-dependent potassium channel [20].
… 
Content may be subject to copyright.
Send Orders for Reprints to reprints@benthamscience.ae
Anti-Infective Agents, 2015, 13, 000-000 1
2211-3525/15 $58.00+.00 © 2015 Bentham Science Publishers
Bee Venom: Its Potential Use in Alternative Medicine
Yuva Bellik1,2,*
1Laboratory of Research on Local Animal Products, Ibn-Kh aldoun University of Tiaret, 14000, Alge-
ria; 2Department of Biology, Faculty of Life and Nature Sciences, Mohamed El Bachir El Ibrahimi
University, Bordj Bou Arreridj, 34000, Algeria
Abstract: In recent times, bee venom (BV) from honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) has become the focus
of interest as a form of alternative and preventive medicine for the treatment of a number of clinical
cases such as arthritis, rheumatism, pain, cancer and a vast range of other conditions. BV contains sev-
eral biochemically and pharmacologically active substances. Some of these compounds are well stud-
ied and th eir mechanisms of action established, despite the fact that few are undergoing clinical trials.
Scientists are now performing intensive research work especially human clinical trials to improve the
potential use of BV and its chemical constituents as the next drugs generation in the treatment of chronic disorders. N ever-
theless, the dual effect of some bee venom components is also impo rtant in the design of future therapeutic goals. This pa-
per gives recent evidences on the chemical and biological properties of the major components of bee venom, their under-
lying molecular action mechanism, and reasons of its consideration as a promising alternative medicine.
Keywords: Alternative medicine, Bee venom, biological properties, clinical trials, chronic disorders, molecular mechanism.
INTRODUCTION
Many products based on traditional knowledge are im-
portant sources of income, food and health care for large
populations throughout the world. Since ancient times, tradi-
tional medicines and natural products are being used for the
treatment of many disorders. Bee venom from honey bee
(Apis mellifera L.), also known as apitoxin, has traditionally
been used in folk medicine to relieve pain and to treat in-
flammatory diseases such as arthritis and rheumatism [1-4].
BV still continues to be used in a similar way until the cur-
rent time. The first scientific work on BV was published in
the late 19th century where rheumatic patients of the Austrian
physician, Philip Terc, were improved following bee stings
treatment [5]. Undoubtedly, BV is in no way a new d iscov-
ery since its use dated back to ancient times more than 6000
years (medicine in ancient Egypt). The Greeks and Romans
also used bee products for medicinal purposes. Hippocrates
(460-370 BC), Aristotle (384-332 BC) and Galen (130-200
AD), prescribed the use of honey and bee venom as a cure
for baldness [6].
Bee venom has been shown to contain several biochemi-
cally or pharmacologically active substances including poly-
peptides (melittin, apamin, and mast cell degranulating pep-
tide), amines (histamine, serotonin, dopamine, and norepi-
nephrine), and enzymes (phospholipase, hyaluronidase, his-
tidine decarboxylase) [7-10]. These substances were claimed
to directly or indirectly express its potency and medical effi-
cacy. Bee venom has been suggested as an effective healing
agent for alleviating persistent pain and treating several
*Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Biology, Fac-
ulty of Life and Nature Sciences, Mohamed El Bachir El Ibrahimi Univer-
sity, Bordj Bou Arreridj, 34000, Algeria; Tel: +213 34 293 442;
E-mails: byouba@gmail.com; bellik_youva@yahoo.fr
ailments including different rheumatic disorders involving
inflammation and degeneration of connective tissue (differ-
ent types of arthritis) [1, 11-13], neurological disorder [14],
related-immune syndrome (multiple sclerosis) [5] and der-
matological conditions (eczema, psoriasis, herpes virus in-
fections) [3]. BV was revealed to be effective in the reduc-
tion of tumors of many different types of malignant d iseases
[15, 16], as it was found to stimulate natural immunity
through activation of the pituitary and adrenal glands and to
stimulate the body to produce natural cortisone [17]. Un-
questionably, BV has become the focus of interest as a form
of alternative and preventive medicine. Scientific works are
especially focusing on human clinical trials to improve the
potential use of BV and its chemical constituents as the next
drugs generation in the treatment of chronic disorders. This
review aims to summarize the evidence to date elucidating
the most salient biological properties of BV. It also revealed
prominent knowledge on the responsible underlying action
mechanism of bee venom constituents and how BV and/or its
components support its potential use as an alternative therapy.
BIOACTIVE COMPONENTS OF BEE VENOM
Among the several bee products, BV has been high-
lighted due to its chemical composition [18]. BV is toxic,
contains 88 % water and only 0.1µg dry venom. The dry
venom is known to be a very complex mixture of peptides
including melittin, apamin, adolapin, and the MCD peptide.
It also contains enzymes (e.g., PLA2), biologically active
amines (e.g., histamine and epinephrine) and nonpeptide
components (including lipids, carbohydrates and free amino
acids. Table 1 summarizes the major components of bee
venom, their biochemical characteristics and their main
therapeutical and pharmacological properties.
Y. Bellik
2 Anti-Infective Agents, 2015, Vol. 13, No. 1 Yuva Bellik
Table 1. Components of bee venom and their major biological properties [4, 19-21].
Class of
Molecules
Component
Molecular
Weight
Contents
(% dry weight)
Melittin
2840
40-50
Apamin
2036
2-3
Peptides
MCD peptide
2588
2-3
Adolapin
11500
1
Protease inhibitor
9000
<0.8
Minimine
Procamine A, B
6000
500
2-3
1.4
Secarpin
2600
0.5
Tertiapin
2000
0.1
Melittin F
Cardiopep
2840
0.01
<0.7
Enzymes
Phosph olipase A2
19000
10-12
Phosph olipase B
22000
1
Hyaluronidase
38000
1.5-2
Glucosidase
170000
0.6
Acid phosphomonoesterase
55000
1
Amines
Histamines
307.14
1.5
Dopamine
189.64
0.13-1
Noradrenaline
169.18
0.1-0.7
Other molecules
Volatiles
(pheromones)
Complex ethers
4-8
Carbohydrates
Glucose, Fructose
2-4
Amino acids
r-Aminobutyric acid,
B-Aminoisobutyric acid
1
Minerals
P, Ca, Mg
3-4
Bee Venom: Its Potential Use in Alternative Medicine Anti-Infective Agents, 2015, Vol. 13, No. 1 3
Melittin
Melittin, a 26-residue peptide [22], present as the prevail-
ing toxic component of the BV, accounts for 50% of its
composition [23]. The sequence of melittin is Gly-Ile-Gly-
Ala-Val-Leu-Lys-Val-Leu-Thr-Thr-Gly-Leu-Pro-Ala-Leu-
Ile-Ser-Trp-Ile-Lys-Arg-Lys-Arg-Gln-Gln [24], in which the
amino-terminal region (residues 120) is predominantly hy-
drophobic with no lytic activity whereas the carboxy-
terminal region (residues 2126) is hydrophilic and respon-
sible for the lytic action [25]. The amphipathic property of
melittin makes it water-soluble as a monomer or as a
tetramer [26-28]. This polypeptide readily inserts into mem-
branes and disrupts both natural and synthetic phospholipid
bilayers [29] (Fig. 1). In fact, the affinity of melittin for
membranes, composed of negatively charged lipids, has been
shown to be about 100-fold greater than for zwitterionic lip-
ids [30]. The action of melittin in membranes is mediated
through pore formation, wh ich causes membrane permeation
[31] and lyses both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells in a non-
selective manner [32]. This mode of action is responsible for
hemolytic [33], anti-microbial [34, 35], anti-fungal [36],
anti-tumor [37] and leishmanicidal [38] activities of melittin .
Melittin also enhances the activity of PLA2 by the mediation
of enhanced influx of calcium ions [39]. In addition, melittin
is a potent inhibitor of Na+K+-ATPase [40], and Ca2+-
ATPase [41] as well as H+K+-ATPase [42]. Melittin exerts
several other biological properties such as inhibiting replica-
tion of HIV-1 by suppressing viral gene expression; melittin
reduces levels of intracellular Gag and viral mRNAs, and
decreases HIV long terminal repeat (LTR) activity [43], anti-
transformation effect by specifically eliminating cells that
express the oncoprotein [44], and mediation of signal trans-
duction through stimulating nucleotide exchange by hetero-
trimeric GTP-binding proteins [45]. Alternatively, erythro-
cyte membrane represents the prime target for the action of
melittin; the latter binds rapidly to erythrocytes, reduces the
rotational mobility of band 3 protein in human erythrocyte,
and induces the release of hemog lobin [33].
Apamin
The structural and pharmacological properties of apamin
might have a central role in its cytotoxic effects on cancer
cells and its nociceptive activity [4]. Apamin is a small bee
venom polypeptide that corresponds to less than 2% of
venom dry weight and consists of 18 amino acids containing
2 disulfide bridges. Arg-13 and Arg-14 are in the active site
of the toxin [46]. It is the only polypeptide neurotoxin that
passes the blood-brain barrier and induces hyperexcitability
[47]. Apamin blocks the Ca2+-activated K+ channels [48] in
several cells and does not present lytic properties. As for
other potent venom neurotoxins, apamin binds with high
affinity to specific receptors of a post-synaptic membrane
and blocks many inhibitory or hyper-polarization effects,
including α-adrenergic, cholinergic, purinerg ic, and relaxes
the neurotensin-induced effects [49].
Adolapin
Adolapin is a basic polypeptide with 103 amino acids
residues and comprising 1% of dry bee venom [20]. It has
been reported to possess anti-nociceptive, anti-inflammatory
and antipyretic effects [50]. Adolapin can inhibit prostaglan-
din synthesis via inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity [50].
It also inhibits the lipoxygenase from human platelets. In
addition, adolapin has been shown to have an analgesic ef-
fect [4].
MCD Peptide
The mast cell degranulation peptide (MCDP) is chemi-
cally similar to apamin and accounts for 22 amino acid resi-
dues. It is rich in α -helix, and presents two disulfide bonds
in its structure between Cys3,15 and Cys5,19. The sequence of
Fig. (1). Melittin makes channels into phospholipids vesicle membranes.
4 Anti-Infective Agents, 2015, Vol. 13, No. 1 Yuva Bellik
MCDP is lle-Lys-Cys-Asn-Cys-Lys-Arg-His-Val-lle-Lys-
Pro-His-lle-Cys-Arg-Lys-lle-Cys-Gly-Lys-Asn [51]. This
peptide possesses striking immunological and pharmacologi-
cal activities. At higher concentrations, it has anti-
inflammatory properties, but at low concentrations, it is a
strong mediator of mast cell degranulation and histamine
release [52]. It was suggested that at high doses, disulfide
exchange between IgE and the MCDP on the mast cell sur-
face might inhibit the release of histamine, which would al-
low the MCDP to act as an anti-allergic agent [53]. MCDP is
also an epileptogenic neurotoxin, an avid blocker of the po-
tassium channels and can cause a significant lowering of the
blood pressure in rats [52].
Phopholipase A2
Bee venom phospholipase A2 (BV-PLA2) is the most
lethal bee venom peptide. It consists of a single chain of 128
amino acid residues and contains four disulphide bridges
[54]. BV-PLA2 comprises 12-15% of the dry weight of bee
venom and it is extremely alkaline. It is a hydrolytic enzyme
that specifically cleaves the sn-2 acyl bond of phospholipids
at the lipid/water interface [55]. Its activity can be enhanced
by melittin. Many studies have reported a synergistic action
of BV-PLA2 with melittin during erythrocyte lysis process
[56]. It has been demonstrated that melittin helps in the ex-
posure of membrane phospholipids to the catalytic site of the
enzyme, by opening melittin-induced channels [57]. BV-
PLA2 exerts many other pharmacological activities including
anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activity, neuro-
toxicity , myotoxicity, and neurite out growth induction [58,
59].
Hyaluronidase
Hyaluronidase is the enzyme responsible for hyaluronic
acid hydrolysis and condroitin sulfate, and to a small extent,
dermatan sulfate. Hyaluronidase isolated from bee venom, a
potent allergen originally described as a "spreading factor",
specifically degrades hyaluronic acid in the extracellular
matrix of skin, thereby facilitating the diffusion of other
venom constituents into the body. Hyaluronidase from bee
venom is a single polypeptide composed of 350 residues. It
is secreted as a basic glycoprotein with a carbohydrate that
accounts for 7% the protein mass [60], and contains two di-
sulfide bridges and four potential glycosylation sites.
Hyaluronidase shares a 50% sequence identity with
hyaluronidases from other hymenoptera and, also with sev-
eral mammalian enzymes (as much as 30 % identity) [61].
In fact, bee venom contains an arsenal of biologically
active molecules, in addition to those aforementioned, it of-
fers a great hope as an important source in the development
of potential therapeutic agents and their application for treat-
ing comp lex diseases.
COLLECTION OF BEE VENOM
Collecting bee venom requires careful work with the
highest degree of cleanliness, since the venom is injected
directly without further processing or sterilization. The
venom collector must ensure safety against the disturbed
bees to obtain dry venom. Early collection method of bee
venom required surgical removal of the venom gland or
squeezing each individual bee until a droplet could be col-
lected from the tip of the sting [62]. Since the early 1960's,
extraction by the electro-shock method has continuously
improved and is at present the standard procedure [62]. Dif-
ferent extraction or collection methods result in different
compositions of the final products. Venom co llected under
water to avoid evaporation of very volatile compounds
seems to yield the most potent venom [63]. Venom collected
from surgically removed venom sacs showed different pro-
tein contents from that collected with the electroshock
method [64]. The standard electro-shock method cannot be
recommended for venom collection from African honeybees
or the more defensive races [62]. Colony arousal can become
so overwhelming that bees start killing each other and alert
other colonies or attack the beekeeper and bystanders. The
mass reaction of African honeybees may also result in con-
tamination of the collected venom. Nevertheless, venom is
collected by this method in Brazil and Argentina, with only
minor modifications. Even European colonies remain dis-
turbed for up to a week after collection and it is stated by
Mitev [65] that colonies from which venom has been col-
lected, every three days they produce 14% less honey.
Meanwhile, Morse and Benton [66] found no such evidence
for reduced productivity. Galuszka [67] found that when
using electro-shock treatment, the most efficient collection
cycle was three 15-minute stimulations at intervals of three
days, repeated after 2-3 weeks. An Argentinean beekeeper
found that by modifying the electric stimulus, his collection
efficiency greatly increased and the bees remained disturbed
for less time [62].
Various trap designs stimulate bees by applying a mild
electric shock through wires above the collecting tray. The
most widely used designs are modifications of the one first
presented by Benton and coworkers [68]. A review by Mraz
[69] discusses further developments. The trays are placed
either between the bottom board and brood chamber at the
hive entrance or in a special box between supers and the hive
cover [70]. It is unlikely that a bee will eject all the contents
of its venom sac, even after repeated stinging [62]. There-
fore, typically, only 0.5 to 1.0 jil (0.2 j£l) of venom can be
collected per bee, with an average of ten stings per bee [62].
This results in less than 0.1 ijg (0.11 jig) of dry venom per
bee. Consequently, at least 1 million stings are required to
make one gram of dry bee venom. Dotimas and Hider [71]
reported that 1 g of venom can be collected from twenty
hives over a two hour period. Exact production figure is un-
available. The main venom producer in the USA had pro-
duced about 3000 grams of venom over 30 years [69].
BEE VENOM: AN ALTERNATIVE MEDECINE
The use of bee products as a medicine dates back to the
most ancient written records. They have continued to be used
in modern folk medicine ever since. In addition to the other
bee products, bee venom and its chemical components have
been actively studied in many countries including the United
States, China, Russia, and Northern European countries and
received scientific endorsement. Evidences suggested that
BV can be useful in a wide variety of medical situations such
as arthritis and rheumatism, pain and cancer. The literature
of bee venom therapy is very extensive. Below are described
most studied and well-known BV constituents including
Bee Venom: Its Potential Use in Alternative Medicine Anti-Infective Agents, 2015, Vol. 13, No. 1 5
their major biological properties as well as their mode of
action.
Anti-inflammatory and Anti-nociceptive Properties
Different cytokines are extremely associated with in-
flammatory disorders, especially, tumor necrosis factor-α
(TNF-α) and inter leukin-1β (IL-1β), which are major con-
tributors to chronic inflammatory diseases [72]. In recent
years, many of the inflammatory disorders are becoming
frequent in aging society. Rheumatoid arthritis and os-
teoarthritis are the major inflammatory disorders affecting
people worldwide. Unfortunately, the current clinically used
anti-inflammatory medications have the inconveniences of
adverse effects, partial efficacy and high cost of drug [73].
This has highlighted the need for safer and more effective
treatments [74, 75]. Accordingly, the discovery of drugs that
can be used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases is
important in human health [76]. Bee venom anti-
inflammatory activity is one of the most extensively investi-
gated biological actions [12, 77-81]. Many research works
have demonstrated that bee venom injection can reduce the
inflammation process in arthritis and rheumatism [1, 13, 19,
82-84]. Bee venom (0.5, 1, and 5 µg/ml) and melittin (5 and
10 µg/ml) were reported to decrease LPS-induced production
of PGE2, TNF-α, and sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced
NF-κB activation by preventing p50 translocation through
interaction of melittin and sulfhydryl residue of p50 and/or
IκB kinases (IKKα and IKKβ) [80, 85]. Son and colleagues
[4] proposed the anti-arthritic mechanism of BV in prevent-
ing RA (Fig. 2). In addition, BV inhibited the production of
nitric oxide (NO), expression of COX-2, inducible NOS
(iNOS), and cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2) [86, 87]. The decrease
in COX-2 and PLA2 expression, and the decrease in the lev-
els of TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, NO, ROS, and intracellular calcium
were reported to be associated with the anti-inflammatory
effect. Moreover, the inhibition of PLA2 activity by BV has
an important role in suppressing the progression of RA. Re-
ports from clinical trials have showed that bee venom acu-
puncture (BVA) treatment was very effective in arthritic
patients [88]. Likewise, patients treated with BVA therapy
twice a week for 3 months showed a significant decrease in
tender joint, swollen joint and duration of morning stiffness
[89]. In addition, BVA was clinically effective in knee arthri-
tis patien ts [90]. Collective evidence from in vitro and in
vivo experiments showed that BVA may become a promising
treatment for both rheumatoid arthritis [3, 83] and os-
teoarthritis [91].
Recently, it has been reported that some calcium channel
blockers can decrease areas of atherosclerotic lesions, ROS
production and expression of inflammatory cytokines [92].
Apamin has long been known as a highly selective blocker
of Ca2+-activated K+ channels [48]. Apamin exhibited anti-
inflammatory effects on serotonin and dextran oedemas pro-
voked in the rat paw. It also inhibited the elevation of the
haptoglobin and seromucoid content in the sera of rats and
haptoglobin content in the sera of rabbits with model in-
flammation [93]. Apamin (0.05$mg/kg) reduced expression
of TNF-α, lipids, Ca2+ levels, vascular cell adhesion mole-
cule (VCAM)-1, intracellular cell adhesion molecule
(ICAM)-1, TGF-β1, and fibronectin as well as the nuclear
factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway [94, 95]. Another
study showed that the anti-atherosclerotic effect of apamin is
displayed by decreasing the apoptotic macrophages through
reducing the expression of pro-apoptotic genes (Bax,
caspase-3 and poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) pro-
tein) levels, as well as through increasing expression of anti-
apoptotic genes (Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL) [96]. Likewise, BV in-
hibited the proliferation of rheumatoid synovial cells by in-
ducing apoptosis through decreasing the expression of B-cell
leukaemia/lymphoma-2 (BCL2) and the activation of BCL2-
associated X protein (BAX) and caspase-3 [4].
The MCD peptide, a strong mast cell degranulating factor
from bee venom, has potent anti-inflammatory activity (at
doses as low as 0.1 mg/kg) in a variety of animal models
[77]. It was proposed that the peptide might be a useful
therapeutic agent in some arthritic conditions [78]. As for the
anti-inflammatory (anti-arthritis) effects of adolapin, it is
presumably due to its ability to inhibit the PG synthesis sys-
tem [97].
Interestingly, other pre-clinical studies on several animal
models have demonstrated that bee venom can be used not
only as an anti-inflammatory therapeutic agent but also for
safe anti-nociceptive purposes [12, 73, 98-100]. In addition,
BV injection can cause an initial nociceptive action as well
as a prolonged anti-nociceptive effect. Following the subcu-
taneous injection of melittin, MCD peptide and PLA
2-
related, it has been noticed that the three peptides were able
to produce distinct nociceptive paw flinches through the re-
lease of proinflammatory or inflammatory mediators and/or
endogenous algogenic substances [101]. Among the studied
polypeptides, melittin was found to be responsible for the
prolonged painful stimulation of BV injection, leading to
both tonic nociception and hypersensitivity, while the other
polypeptides contributed only to the early nociceptive re-
sponses. Recent evidences in rodents have highlighted the
action of ERKs, p38 and JNK in generating nociceptive sen-
sitivity and neural plasticity in the pain sensory system, par-
ticularly in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord [102-104]. Bee
venom induced nociceptive processing through direct and
indirect actions of BV components. Nociceptors can be acti-
vated through activation of membrane-bound pain sensors
that cause an increase of intracellular Ca2+ concentration and
phosphorylation of various subtypes of MAPKs and PKs
(PKC and PKA), that hypersensitize ionic nociceptor mole-
cules (TRPV1, P2X3, ASICs, and 5-HT3) and G-protein
coupled receptors (P2Y1, H1, BK1 and BK2), leading to up-
regulation of TTX-resistant voltage-dependent sodium chan-
nels (Fig. 3) [20].
Anti-tumor Therapy
Bee venom has been reported to exhibit anti-tumor activ-
ity both in vitro and in vivo [105]. One of the most impli-
cated facts in tumorigenesis and anti-tumor therapy is apop-
tosis, a process of central importan ce implicated in the
pathogenesis and pathophysiology of several human diseases
[106]. Apoptotic cell death process is regulated by the ex-
pression of several proteins. The main involved are members
of bcl-2 family [107] and cysteine proteases caspases [108].
Nonetheless, evidences from various studies have stated that
apoptosis, necrosis and lysis of tumor cells were proposed as
possible mechanisms by which BV inhibited tumor growth
6 Anti-Infective Agents, 2015, Vol. 13, No. 1 Yuva Bellik
Fig. (2). Proposed anti-arthritic effect of BV (melittin). BV (melittin) inhibits the release of IκB through the inhibition of IKKs. This inhibi-
tion might be due to an interaction between the sulfhydryl (SH) group of IKKα and IKKβ with BV (melittin) molecule, which results in
NF-κB inactivation, and thus reduces the generation of inflammatory mediators. BV (melittin) may also interact directly with p50 of NF-κB
and thereby inhibits the translocation of p50 into the nucleus.
Abbreviations: P, phosphorus; Ub, ubiquitin; NF-κB, nuclear factor-κB; IκB, inhibitor of NF-κB; IKK, IκB kinase; NEMO, NF-κB essential
modulator [4].
[15, 16, 109-111]. Many reports have shown that BV can
induce cell cycle arrest, growth inhibition, and apoptosis in
various tumor cells including ovary, renal, lung, liver, pros-
trate, bladder, mammary and cancer leukemia cells as well as
breast cells. Bee venom was reported to exert anti-tumor
activity through induction of apoptosis and inhibition of
COX-2 mRNA expression and PGE2 synthesis in human
lung cancer NCI-H1299 cells [112]. A more recent study
evidenced that BV (15 µg/ml) inhibited the growth of lung
cancer cells by induction of apoptosis through increase of
death receptor 3 expression and inactivation of NF-κB in
lung cancer cell lines A549 and NCI-H460 [113]. BV (10
µg/ml) also induced apoptosis of human RA proliferated
synovial fibroblasts through decrease in BcL2 expression and
an increase in Bax and caspase-3 expression [13]. Likewise,
it has been demonstrated that BV induced apoptosis in hu-
man leukemic U937 cells through downregulation of the
ERK and Akt signal pathway, which is followed by down-
regulation of Bcl-2, activation of caspase-3, p38 MAPK and
JNK [114]. BV has been shown to induce apoptosis in hu-
man osteosarcoma MG-63 cells [115], and mammary carci-
noma cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo
[16]. BV and melittin (approximately 0.4-0.8 µg/ml) inhib-
ited the proliferation of v ascular smooth muscle cells
through induction of apoptosis via suppression of NF-ƙB and
Akt activation, and downregulation of Bcl-2 [109]. It (1.0,
3.0, 9.0 mg/kg) also inhibited K1735M2 mouse melanoma
cells in vitro and the growth of murine B16 melanomas in
vivo [15]. BV treatment protected against ethanol-induced
hepatocyte apoptosis through the regulation of Bcl-2 with the
subsequent inactivation of the caspase and poly-(ADP-
ribose) polymerase (PARP) [116]. Recent study on structure-
activity relationship showed that melittin can initiate an
apoptotic machinery that depends on calcium influx and ac-
tivation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase
(CaMKII), transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase 1
(TAK1), and JNK/p38 signaling pathway. In addition, melit-
tin can sensitize hepatocellular carcinoma cells to tumor ne-
crosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL-
induced apoptosis) by activating CaMKII-TAK1-JNK/ p38
and inhibiting IKK-NFƙB pathways [37]. Moreover, melittin
could inhibit the growth and angiogenesis of human hepato-
cellular carcinoma BEL-7402 cell [117, 118]. BV also in-
duced cytotoxic effects on TSGH-8301 human bladder can-
cer cells through intracellular Ca2+-modulated intrinsic death
pathway [119]. Furthermore, melittin-loaded perfluorocar-
bon nanoparticles possessed the ability to safely deliver im-
portant payloads via intravenous ways, which target and kill
tumor cells [120].
Bee Venom: Its Potential Use in Alternative Medicine Anti-Infective Agents, 2015, Vol. 13, No. 1 7
Fig. (3). A schematic drawing of proposed underlying mechanisms of the bee venom induced nociception and hyperalgesia to heat and me-
chanical stimuli applied in the periphery. melittin, MCD pept ide, apamin and tertiapin bind directly to the membrane of a nociceptor cell lead-
ing to activation of it. Meanwhile, melittin, MCD peptide, bv PLA2, and hyaluronidase cause tissue damage and release ATP and H+ that
activate P2X3/P2Y, TRPV1 and ASIC. Indirect actions of melittin, MCD peptide and bv PLA2 cause degranulation of mast cells and release
histamine, BK and 5-HT that activate H1 receptor, 5-HT3 receptor and BK1/2 receptors. The firing of nociceptor terminals will be mediated
by voltage-dependent sodium channels (TTXr Nav1.8/1.9), VDCC, VDPC, Kir and Ca2+–K+. Dorsal root reflex and axon reflex may cause
release of glutamate and neuropeptides (SP and CGRP) that further activate their autoreceptors on the nociceptor terminals or blood vessels
causing inflammatory extravasation (neurogenic) with infiltration of macrophage, immune cells and platelets and many cytokines (TNFalpha,
IL1beta, PAF, etc.). The syringe indicates transcutaneous injection of bee venom.
Abbreviations: 5-HT3, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3; 12-HETE, 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids; AA, arachidonic acid; ASIC, acid-
sensing ionic channel; ATP, adenosine triphosphate; BK1/2, bradykinin receptors 1/2; bv PLA2, bee venom phospholipase A2; Ca2+K+,
calcium-dependent potassium channel; CGRP, calcitonin-gene related peptide; COX-1/2, cyclooxygenases1/2; Glu, glutamate; H1, histamine
receptor type 1; iGluRs, ionotropic glutamate receptors; IL1β, interleukin 1β; IL6, interleukin 6; Kir, inward-rectifier potassium channel,
LOXs, lipoxygenases; MAPKs, mitogen-activated protein kinases; MCD peptide, mast cell degranulating peptide; MCL peptide, mastocy-
tolyitic peptide; NK1, neurokinin 1; NOS, notric oxide synthase; P2X3, P2-purinoreceptor X3; P2Y, P2- purinoreceptor Y; PAF, platelet-
activated factor; PGs, prostaglandins; PKA, protein kinase A; protein kinase C; protein kinase G; SP, substance P; TNFα, tumor-necrosis
factor α; TRPV1, transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1; TTXr, tetrodotoxin-resistant; VDCC, voltage dependent calcium channel,
VDPC, voltage-dependent potassium channel [20].
Interestingly, it has been shown recently that BV induced
cell cycle arrest and apoptosis both in human breast cancer
MCF7 cells [121] and human cervical epidermoid carcinoma
Ca Ski cells [122] via a mitochondria-dependent pathway.
More recently, it has been demonstr ated that BV
(1-10g/ml) and melittin (0.5-2.5g/ml) inhibited prostate
cancer cells in vitro and in vivo through induction of apop-
totic cell death mediated by the suppression of constitutively
activated NF-κB [123]. The molecular mechanism underly-
ing apoptotic effect of BV is now well established and de-
scribed. Several authors have proposed the mode of action of
bee venom and/or melittin in anti-tumor th erapy depending
on the cancer cell type [119, 121-124].
Multiple Sclerosis Improvement
Recently, there has been considerable interest in the psy-
choneurological approach of bee venom therapy (BVT), es-
pecially in the context of its mode of action as neuroprotec-
tive agents in progressive neurodegenerative disorders such
as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson, and Alzheimer diseases.
Since multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological dis-
order characterized by inflammation, demyelination, and
8 Anti-Infective Agents, 2015, Vol. 13, No. 1 Yuva Bellik
axonal degeneration in the central nervous system (CNS)
that has a negative consequential impact on the lives of pa-
tients and their families, MS can cause motor, sensory, or
visual impairment; fatigue; bowel, bladder, and sexual dys-
function; cognitive impairment; and depression [125]. Re-
cently, many surveys have showed that people with MS, in
addition to the conventional medications, frequently used
complementary and alternative medicine treatments includ-
ing bee venom therapy [126-130]. Nonetheless, bee sting
therapy has been used by a small number of MS patien ts
[125]. Almost no animal or human substantial studies have
so far showed significant effect of BV for patients with pro-
gressive forms of MS. The most randomized investigations
conducted on MS patients have demonstrated that no signifi-
cant reduction in the number of lesions, relapse rate, disabil-
ity, fatigue, and quality of life was detected after application
of the bee sting therapy [131-133], despite the highly anti-
inflammatory properties of BV constituents including melit-
tin and adolapin. Authors deemed that the inefficiency of BV
in the improvement of MS was due to the PLA2 present in
BV. As it was reported that PLA2 is expressed in abundance
in the lesions of MS animal model [134], thus, inhibiting
PLA2 may prevent both the onset and the progression of MS
[135]. Others believed that BV may be an effective treatment
for patients with multiple sclerosis. An extensive study has
been carried out by Krivopalov-Moskvin and colleagues
(http://www.api-centre.ru). They concluded that over 2000
MS patients, only 5-7% of MS patients showed no improve-
ment following the BVT. In addition, Hauser and coworkers
[5] revealed improvement rates between 50 to 60 %.
Other Biological Properties of BV
Antibacterial and Antifungal
Bee venom has long been known to have a n atural antim-
icrobial effect [136-139]. The antibacterial properties of BV
are due to the potential action of melittin [34], which has
very low cell selectivity and acts strongly on the cell mem-
brane lipid through pores forming channels. BV has been
referred to as the natural penicillin [140] and has been re-
ported to kill both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria
[140, 141-143]. It has been also shown that melittin com-
pletely dissolved gram-positive as well as gram-negative
bacteria [144]. Recently, a comparative antifungal study re-
vealed that BV exhibited prominent antifungal activities
[145].
Interestingly, Nermine and colleagues [17] assessed the
immunological effects of BV in mice with intracerebral can-
didiasis and demonstrated that BV enhanced the host’s im-
mune response, manifested by significant decrease in the
fungal load in the brain and significant increase in TNF-α m-
RNA expression. Park and Lee [36] found that melittin ex-
erted its antifungal effect via apoptosis.
It is worthnoting however, that one of the most widely
known and extensively tested properties of bee products is
the antimicrobial activity of honey. Many scientific tests
have been conducted with a variety of bacteria, fungi, viruses
and other microorganisms. Table 2 summarizes the suscepti-
bility of the most frequently studied and well-known bacte-
rial strains to honey especially manuka honey. It should be
noted that other reports demonstrating similar results are not
represented here.
Antioxidant
Oxidative stress is considered to play a pivotal role in the
pathogenesis of aging and several degenerative diseases.
Studies have highlighted the ability of BV (0, 1, 2.5, 5 or 10
µg/kg) to remove the deleterious effects of reactive oxygen
species (ROS) [162]. BV potently inhibited the production of
superoxide (O2
-) and hydrogen peroxide in human neutrophil
[163]. In addition, it was assumed that BV acupuncture de-
creased the level of ROS induced oxidative injury to syno-
vial fluid proteins [80]. Reports from animal and human ex-
periments revealed that BV may protect against sequel of
oxidative stress induced by rheumatoid arthritis [78, 80, 162,
164, 165]. Importantly, BV is endowed of radioprotective
effects [166-168] and protected against the deleterious ef-
fects of ionizing radiations in terms of reduction of chromo-
somes aberrations in bone marrow cells of Wistar rats in vivo
[169].
Antiallergic
Bee venom immunotherapy (BVI) has been reported to
be highly valuable in healing, capable of improving health
related quality of life [170, 171]. BVI is effective for reduc-
ing local and systemic allergic reactions. It has been revealed
that up to 95% of people susceptible to bee sting w ere pro-
tected from the risk of systemic reactions [172]. However,
BVI can assure a co mplete protection against adverse (aller-
gic) reactions from stings [173]. In fact, BVI uses much
lower amounts of BV when compared to those used in treat-
ing arthritic patients. Sublingual immunotherapy with the
introduction of BV under the tongue is safe [174], and can
significantly reduce reactions in people allergic to bee stings
[173, 175].
Antiparasite
Although few research works were done on the antipara-
sitic properties of BV and BV constituents. Recently, an im-
portant genetic investigation demonstrated that expression of
the honey bee PLA2 gene in the midgut of transgenic mos-
quitoes severely reduced their ability to sustain plasmodium
development and the transmission of the parasite to other
vertebrate hosts [176]. In addition, it has been shown that
cecropin A-melittin hybrid peptides show remarkable
leishmanicidal activity [177-179], which involves targeting
of the plasma membrane of Leishmania donavani promas-
tigote. Further, N-terminal fatty acylation has been shown to
increase the leishmanicidal activity of the hybrid peptides
[178].
BEE VENOM THERAPY LIMITATIONS
Although the promise of BV application in alternative
medicine for the evidences discussed above, the use of BV in
conventional medicine has languished, and the foregoing BV
therapy is often painful. Human and animal toxicity cases
have been shown for BV following bee stings [180, 181].
Understandably, there is no doubt that BV and its chemical
components are not without cytotoxic effects. Bee stings are
Bee Venom: Its Potential Use in Alternative Medicine Anti-Infective Agents, 2015, Vol. 13, No. 1 9
Table 2. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of honey against various bac-
terial strains.
Gram negative
Antimicrobial activity of
honey
References
Gram positive
Antimicrobial activity of
honey
References
MIC
MBC
MIC
MBC
Escherichia coli
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Klebsiella pneumoniae
Helicobacter pylori
Proteus vulgaris
Proteus mirabilis
Salmonella typhimurium
Enterobacter cloacae
6.25
12.5
17.5
20
6.25
12.5
12.5
14
12
0.117-0.938
6.25
7.3
6
12
20!
6.25
12.5
17.5
25
7.5
12.5
20
16
-
0.366-2.965
12.5
-
-
-
>25
[146-148]
[149, 150]
[151]
[152]
[146]
[149, 150, 153]
[152]
[154, 155]
[147, 150]
[156]
[157]
[158]
[158]
[150]
[151]!
Staphylococcus aureus
Bacillus cereus
Bacillus subtilis
Streptococcus pyogenes
Listeria monocytogenes
Enterococcus faecalis
Clostridium difficile
2.89
5
6.25
8
11.25
20.83-33.33
10
8
20
8
12.5
8
6.25!
-
7
6.25
-
25
37.92-45.83
12.5
-
45
-
12.5
-
6.25!
[158]
[154, 155]
[146, 147, 157]
[150]
[151]
[159]
[152]
[150]
[160]
[150]
[157]
[150]
[161]
indeed unsafe for allergic people. A recent study revealed
that about 1 to 5 % of the people worldw ide are hypersensi-
tive to BV or other insects like wasps and hornets [182]. In
addition, it has been referred that both hyaluronidase and
phospholipase A2 are the main allergens since they can cause
pathogenic reactions in the majority of patients susceptible to
BV where it has been observed that 71% of patients had spe-
cific serum IgE to recombinant Hya and 78% to recombinant
phospholipase A2 [183]. Moreover, it has been found that
constituents of, and whole bee venom cause cell membrane
instability, especially severe disruption of red blood cell
membranes and apoptosis and necrosis of several cell types.
Stuhlmeier [184] showed that BV and melittin considerably
raise mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory genes including
COX-2, TNF-α and IL-8 in dermal fibroblasts and mononu-
clear cells from healthy persons and cultured human fibro-
blast-like synoviocytes from rheumatoid arthritis patients.
Furthermore, it has been recognized that the nociceptive ef-
fect caused both in the peripheral and central nervous sys-
tems follow ing bee venom injection significantly increases
the risk of development of prolonged pathological pain con-
ditions [20].
PERSPECTIVE
Bee venom has long been a remedy and considered to be
highly important traditional and alternative medicine for the
treatment of various illnesses. A significant number of in
vitro and in vivo as well as clinical studies provided substan-
tial evidences that BV and its chemical constituents are ef-
fective inhibitors of the inflammatory and several other
chronic processes. The mechanisms of the protective effects
may be several fold including effects on cellular growth (dif-
ferentiation or cell cycle), apoptosis, anti-inflammatory, anti-
nociceptive immunosuppressive effects, antitumor and anti-
cancer activities. The$inhibitory$ability$of$BV$and$ its$con4
stituents$on$the$expression$of$inflammatory$genes$such$as$
COX42$and$PLA2$expression,$as$well$ as$on$the$generation$
of$mediators$such$as$TNF4α,$IL41,$IL46,$NO$and$ROS$could$
be$important$to$understand$the$anti4arthritis$effect$of$BV$
and$its$components. Despite these considerations, there is a
resistance in Western medical circles either to accept these
results or to test bee venom treatments according to the
Western medical standards. In addition, the existing scien-
tific research works are replete with non-randomized and
uncontrolled investigations, and there is a real paucity of
well-intended human clinical trials evaluating the therapeutic
effectiveness of BV, as well as the lack of standard-
ized BV formulations and restricted protocols for BV appli-
cation. Accordingly, more experiments on single BV con-
stituents as well as whole bee venom are necessary. Further
detailed studies at cellular and molecular levels, appropriate
animal models and human clinical investigations are needed.
In view of the foregoing, future researches should ideally
10 Anti-Infective Agents, 2015, Vol. 13, No. 1 Yuva Bellik
conduct human intervention trials with large sample sizes
and adequate design to prove the clinical efficacy and safety
profile of BV, establish what, if any, adverse effects are ob-
served, and assess effects on relapse levels and disease pro-
gression. The goal of prospect BV therapy efforts will be
purely pharmacological aspects including several relevant
concerns such as standardized preparations, method for ad-
ministering BV, applications forms, dose, toxicity, bioavail-
ability and delivery system.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
The author confirms that this article content has no con-
flict of interest.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Declared none.
REFERENCES
[1] Kwon, Y. B.; Lee, J. D.; Lee, H. J.; Han, H. J.; Mar, W. C.; Kang,
S. K.; Beitz, A.J.; Lee, J.H. Be e veno m injection into an acupunc-
ture point reduces arthritis associated edema and nociceptive re-
sponses. Pain. 2001, 90, 271-280.
[2] Cui, X.; Lu, Y . Bee venom protein and gene encoding same. U.S.
Patent 6,395,306, May 28, 2002.
[3] Kim C.C. Bee venom treatment without the sting. U.S. Patent
0,081,702, April 29, 2004.
[4] Son, D.J.; Lee, J .W.; Lee, Y.H.; Song, H.S.; Lee, C.K.; Hong, J.T.
Therapeutic application of anti-arthritis, pain releasing, and anti-
cancer effects of bee venom and its constituent compounds. Phar-
macol. Ther., 2007, 115, 246-270.
[5] Hauser, R. A.; Daguio, M.; Wester, D.; Hauser, M.; Kirchman, A.;
Skinkis, C. Bee-Venom therapy for treating multiple sclerosis: a
clinical trial. Altern. Complem. Ther., 2001, 7, 37-45.
[6] Hellner, M.; Winter, D.; von Georgi, R.; Münstedt, K. Apitherapy:
usage and experience in German beekeepers. eCAM, 2008, 5, 475-
479.
[7] Gauldie, J.; Hanson, J.M.; Rumjanek, F.D.; Shipolini, R.A;
Vernon, C.A. The peptide components of bee venom. Eur. J. Bio-
chem., 1976, 61, 369-376.
[8] Gauldie, J.; Hanson, J.M.; Shipolini, R.A; Vernon, C.A. The struc-
tures of some peptides from bee venom. Eur. J. Biochem., 1978,
83, 405-410.
[9] Argiolas, A.; Pisano, J.J. Facilitation of phospholipase A2 activity
by mastoparans, a new class of mast cell degranulating peptides
from wasp venom. J. Biol. Chem., 1983, 258, 13697-13 702.
[10] Lariviere, W.R.; Melzack, R. The bee venom test: a new ton ic-pain
test. Pain, 1996, 66, 271277.
[11] Lee, J.A.; Son, M.J.; Choi, J.; Yun, K.J.; Jun, J.H.; Lee, M.S. Bee
venom acupuncture for rheumatoid arthritis: A systematic review
protocol. BMJ Open, 2014, 4:e004602.
[12] Kwon, Y.B.; Lee, H.J.; Han, H.J.; Mar, W.C.; Kang, S.K.; Yoon,
O.B.; Beitz, A.J.; Lee, J.H. The water-soluble fraction of bee
venom produces antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects on
rheumatoid arthritis in rats. Life Sci., 2002, 71, 191-204.
[13] Hong, S. J.; Rim, G. S.; Yang, H. I.; Yin, C. S.; Koh, H. G.; Jang,
M. H.; Kim, C. J.; Choe, B. K.; Chung, J. H. Bee venom induces
apoptosis through caspase-3 activation in synovial fibroblasts of
patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Toxicon, 2005, 46, 39-45.
[14] Roh, D.H.; K won, Y.B.; Kim, H.W.; Ham , T.W.; Yoon, S.Y.;
Kang, S.Y.; Han, H.J.; Lee, H.J.; Beitz, A.J.; Lee, J.H. Acupoint
stimulation with diluted bee venom (api-puncture) alleviates ther-
mal hyperalgesia in a rodent neuropathic pain model: involvement
of spinal alpha 2-adrenoceptors. J. Pain, 2004, 5, 297-303.
[15] Liu, X.; Chen, D.W.; Xie, L.P.; Rongqing, Z. Effect of honey b ee
venom on proliferation of K1735M2 mouse melanoma cells in-
vitro and growth of murine B 16 melanomas in-vivo. J. Pharm.
Pharmacol., 2002, 54, 1083-1089.
[16] Oršolić, N.; Šver, L.; Verstovšek, S.; Terzić, S.; Bašic, I. Inhibition
of mammary carcinoma cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth
in vivo by bee venom. Toxicon, 2003, 41, 861-87 0.
[17] Nermine, K.M.S.; Abeer, A.E. Immunological effects of honey bee
venom in mice with intracerebral candidiasis. J. Med. Sci., 2009, 9,
227-233.
[18] Qiu, Y.; Choo, Y.M.; Yoon, H.J.; Jia, J.; Cui, Z.; Wang, D.; Kim,
D.H.; Sohn, H.D.; Jin, B .R. Fibrin(ogen)olytic activity of bumble-
bee venom serine protease. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 2011, 255,
207-213.
[19] Abbadi, A.S. Process for production of bee venom as pharmaceuti-
cal product which can be used effectively in the treatment of
rheumatoid arthritis and viral diseases. U.S. Patent 0,118,597, June
26, 2003.
[20] Chen, J.; Lariviere, W.L. The nociceptive and anti-nociceptive
effects of bee venom injection and therapy: A double-edged sword.
Prog. Neuro biol., 2010, 92, 151-183.
[21] Bogdanov, S. Bee venom: composition, health, medicine: a review.
Bee Prod. Sci., 2012, 1-17.
[22] Habermann, E.; Jentsch, J. Sequenzanalyse des melittins aus den
tryptischen und peptischen Spaltstuick en. Hoppe Seyler's Z.
Physiol. Chem., 1967, 348, 37-50.
[23] Owen, M.D.; Pfaff, L.A. Melittin synthesis in the venom system of
the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.). Toxicon, 1995, 33, 1181-1188.
[24] Gevod, V.S.; Birdi, K.S. Melittin and the 8-26 fragment. Differ-
ences in ionophoric properties as measured by monolayer method.
Biophys. J., 1984, 45, 1079-1083.
[25] Schroder, E.; Lubke, K.; Lehmann, M.; Beetz, I. Haemolytic activ-
ity and action on the surface tension of aqueous solutions of syn-
thetic melittins and their derivatives. Experientia, 1971, 27, 764-
765.
[26] Brown, L.R.; Lauterwein, J.; Wuthrich, K. High-resolution 1H-
NMR studies of self-aggregation of melittin in aqueous solution.
Biochim Biophys. Acta., 1980, 622, 231-244.
[27] Vogel, H.; Jähnig, F. The structure of melittin in membranes. Bio-
phys. J., 1986, 50, 573-582
[28] Hristova, K.; Dempsey, C.E.; White, S.H. Structure, location, and
lipid perturbations of melittin at the membrane interface. Biophys.
J., 2001, 80, 801811.
[29] Wessman, P.; Strömstedt, A.A.; Malmsten, M.; Edwards, K. Melit-
tin-lipid bilayer in teractions and the role of cholesterol. Biophys. J.,
2008, 95, 4324-4336.
[30] Lee, T.H. ; Mozsolits, H.; Aguilar, M .I. Measurement of the affinity
of melittin for zwitterionic and anionic membranes using immobi-
lized lipid biosensors. J. Pept. Res., 2001, 58, 464-476.
[31] Matsuzaki, K.; Yoneyama, S.; Miyajima, K. Pore formation and
translocation of melittin. Biophys. J., 1997, 73, 831- 838.
[32] Papo, N.; Shai, Y.; New ly tic peptides based on the D,L-
amphipathic helix motif preferentially kill tumor cells compared to
normal cells. Biochemistry, 2003, 42, 9346-9354.
[33] Raghuraman, H.; Chattopadhyay, A. Melittin: a membrane-active
peptide with diverse functions. Biosci. Rep., 2007, 27, 189-223.
[34] Asthana, N.; Yadav S.P.; Ghosh, J.K. Dissection of antibacterial
and toxic activity of melittin. J. Biol. Chem., 2004, 279, 55042-
55050.
[35] Hanulová, M.; Andrä, J.; Garidel, P.; Olak, C.; Howe, J.; Funari,
S.S.; Gutsmann T.; Brandenburg, K. Interaction of melittin with
phospholipid- and lipopolysaccharide-containing model mem-
branes. Anti-Infective Agents Med. Chem., 2009, 8, 17-27.
[36] Park, C.; Lee, D.G. Melittin induces apoptotic features in Candida
albicans. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 2010, 394, 170-172.
[37] Wang, C.; Chen, T.; Zhang, N.; Yang, M.; Li, B.; Lü, X.; Cao, X.;
Ling, C. Meli ttin, a major component of bee venom, sensitizes hu-
man hepatocellular carcinoma cells to tumor necrosis factor-related
apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis by activat-
ing CaMKII-TAK1-JNK/p38 and inhibiting IƙBα Kinase-NFƙB. J.
Biol. Chem., 2009, 284, 3 804-3813.
[38] Marr, A.K .; McGwire, B.S. McMaster, W.R. Modes of action of
leishmanicidal antimicrobial peptides. Fut. Microbiol., 2012, 7,
1047-1059.
[39] Sharma, S.V. Melittin-induced hyperactivation of phospholipase A2
activity and calcium influx in ras-transformed cells. Oncogene,
1993, 8, 939-947.
[40] Cuppoletti, J.; Abbott, A.J. Interaction of melittin with the (Na+ +
K+)ATPase: evidence for a melittin-induced conformational
change. Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 1990, 283, 249-257.
[41] Mahaney, J.E.; Thomas, D.D. Effects of melittin on molecular
dynamics and Ca-ATPase activity in sarcoplasmic reticulum mem-
Bee Venom: Its Potential Use in Alternative Medicine Anti-Infective Agents, 2015, Vol. 13, No. 1 11
branes: electron paramagnetic resonance. Biochemistry, 1991, 30,
7171-7180.
[42] Cuppoletti, J.; Blumenthal, K.E.; Malinowska, D.H. Melittin inhi-
bition of the gastric (H+ + K+) ATPase and photoaffinity labeling
with [125I]azidosalicylyl melittin. Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 1989,
275, 263-270.
[43] Wachinger, M.; Kleinschmidt, A.; Winder, D.; von Pechmann, N.;
Ludvigsen, A.; Neumann, M.; Holle, R.; Salmons, B.; Erfle, V.;
Brack-Werner, R. Antimicrobial peptides melittin and cecropin in-
hibit replication of human immunodeficiency virus 1 by suppress-
ing viral gene expression. J. Gen. Virol., 1998, 79, 731-740.
[44] Sharma, S.V. Melitt in resistance: a counterselection for ras trans-
formation. Oncogene, 1992, 7, 193-201.
[45] Ross, E.M.; Higashijima, T. Regulation of G-protein activation by
mastoparans and other cationic peptides. Methods Enzymo l., 1994,
237, 26-37.
[46] Hugues, M.; Romey, G.; Duval, D.; Vincent, J.P.; Lazdunski, M.
Apamin as a selective blocker of the calcium-dependent potassium
channel in neuroblastoma cells: Voltage-clamp and biochemical
characterization of the toxin receptor. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA,
1982, 79, 1308-131 2.
[47] Habermann, E. Bee and wasp venoms. Science, 1972, 177, 314-
322.
[48] Banks, B.E.C.; Brown, C.; Burgess, G.M.; Burnstock, G.; Claret,
M.; Cocks, T.M.; Jenkinson, D.H. Apamin blocks certain neuro-
transmitter-induced increases in potassium permeability. Nature,
1979, 282, 415-417.
[49] de Lima; P.R.; Brochetto-Braga M.R. Hymenoptera venom review
focusing on Apis mellifera. J. Venom. An im. Toxins incl. Trop. Dis.,
2003, 9.
[50] Shkenderov, S.; Koburova, K. Adolapin-a newly isolated analgetic
and anti-inflammatory polypeptide from bee venom. Toxicon,
1982, 20, 317-321.
[51] Buku, A.; Mendlowitz, M.; Condie, B.A.; Price, J.A. Partial alanine
scan of mast cell degranulating peptide (MCD): importance of the
histidine and arginine-residues. J. Pept. Sci., 2004, 10, 313-317.
[52] Ziai, M.R.; Russek, S.; Wang, H.C.; Beer, B.; Blume, A.J. Mast
cell degranulating peptide: a multi-functional neurotoxin. J. Pharm.
Pharmacol., 1990, 42, 457-461.
[53] Buku, A. Mast cell degranulating peptide: a prototypic peptide in
allergy and inflammation. Peptides, 1999, 20, 415-420.
[54] Shipolini, R.A.; Doonan, S.; Vernon C.A. The disulphide bridges
of phospholipase A2 from bee venom E. J. Biochem., 1974, 48,
477-483.
[55] Dudler, T.; Chen, W.Q.; Wang, S.; Schn eider, T.; Annand, R.R.;
Dempcy, R.O.; Crameri, R.; Gmachl, M.; Suter, M.; Gelb, M.H.
High-level expression in Escherichia coli and rapid purification of
enzymatically active honey bee venom phospholipase A2. Biochim.
Biophys. Acta ., 1992, 1165, 201-210 .
[56] Watala, C.; Gwozdzinski, K. Melittin-induced alterations in dy-
namic properties of human red blood cell membranes. Chem. Biol.
Interact., 1992, 82,135-149.
[57] Bernheimer, A.W.; Ruby, B. Interactions between membranes and
cytolytic peptides. Biochim. Biophys. Acta., 1986, 864, 123-141.
[58] Fenard, D.; Lambeau, G.; Valentin, E.; Lefebvre, J.C.; Lazdunski,
M.; Doglio, A. Secreted phospholipases A2, a new class of HIV in-
hibitors that block virus entry into host cells. J. Clin. Invest., 1999,
104, 611-618.
[59] Nakashima, S.; Kitamoto, K.; Arioka, M. The catalytic activity, but
not receptor binding, of PLA2s plays a critical role for neurite out-
growth induction in PC12 cells. Brain Res., 2004, 1015, 207-211.
[60] Kemeny, D.M.; Dalton, N.; Lawrence, A.J.; Pearce, F.L.; Vernon,
C.A. The purification and characterisation of hyaluronidase from
the veno m of the honey bee, Apis mellifera. Eur. J. Biochem., 1984,
139, 217-223.
[61] Markovic-Housley, Z.; Miglierini, G.; Soldatova, L.; Rizkallah,
P.J.; Müller, U .; Schirmer, T. Crystal structure of hyaluronidase, a
major allergen of bee venom. Structure, 2000, 8, 1025-1035.
[62] Krell, R. Value-added products from beekeeping. SAO Agricultural
Services Bulle tin. Food and Agriculture Organization of th e United
Nation, Rome, 1996.
[63] Pence, R.J. Methods for producing and bio-assaying intact honey-
bee venom for medical use. Amer. Bee J., 1981, 121, 726-731.
[64] Hsiang, H.K.; Elliott, W.B. Differences in honeybee (Apis mellif-
era) venom obtained by venom sac extraction and electrical milk-
ing. Toxicon, 1975, 13, 145-148.
[65] Mitev, B. Co llection of bee v enom u sing a weak electric current -
its effect on the condition and the performance of the colony.
Zhivot. Nauki., 1971, 8, 103 -108.
[66] Morse, R.A., Benton, A.W. Mass collection of bee venom. Glean.
Bee Cult., 1964, 92, 42-45,54.
[67] Galuszka, H. The research on a most effective method of the col-
lection of bee venom by means of electric current. Zoologica Pol.,
1972, 22, 53-69.
[68] Benton, A.W.; Morse, R.A.; Stewart, J.D. Venom collection from
honeybees. Science, 1963, 142, 22 8-230.
[69] Mraz, C. Method s of collecting bee venom and its utilization.
Apiacta, 198, 18, 33-34, 54.
[70] Palmer, D.J. Ex traction of bee ven om for research. Bee World,
1961, 42, 225-226.
[71] Dotimas, E.M. Hider, R.C. Honeybee venom. Bee World, 1987, 68,
51-70.
[72] Bingham, C.O.III. The pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis: pivotal
cytokines involved in bone degradation and inflammation. J. Rheu-
matol., 2002, 65, 3-9.
[73] Gautam, R.; Jachak, S.M. Recent developments in anti-
infammatory natural products. Med. Res. Rev., 2009, 29, 767-820.
[74] Baumrucker, S.J. Complementary medicine and the scientific
method: mainstreaming proven “alternative” therapies. Am. J.
Hosp. Palliat. Care, 2002, 19, 369-371.
[75] Zochling, J.; March, L.; Lapsley, H.; Cross, M.; Tribe, K.; Brooks,
P. Use of complementary medicines for osteoarthritis-a prospective
study. Ann. Rheum. Dis., 2004, 63, 549-554.
[76] Bellik, Y.; Hammoudi, Si M.; Abdellah, F.; Iguer-Ouada, M.; Bou-
kraâ, L. Phytochemicals to prevent inflammation and allergy. Re-
cent Pat. Inflamm. Allergy Drug Disc., 2012, 6,147-158.
[77] Billingham, M.E.; Morley, J.; Hanson, J.M.; Shipolini, R.A.;
Vernon, C.A. Letter: an anti-inflammatory peptide from bee
venom. Nature, 1973, 245, 163-164.
[78] Banks, B.E.; Dempsey, C.E.; Vernon, C.A.; Warner, J.A.; Yamey,
J. Anti-inflammatory activity of bee venom peptide 401 (mast cell
degranulating peptide) and compound 48/80 results from ma st cell
degranulation in vivo. Br. J. Pharmacol., 1990, 99, 35 0-354.
[79] Kwon, Y.B.; Kim, H.W.; Ham, T.W.; Yoon, S.Y.; Roh, D.H.; Han,
H.J.; Beitz, A.J.; Yang, I.S.; Lee, J.H. The anti-inflammato ry effect o f
bee venom stimulation in a mouse air pouch model is mediated by
adrenal medullary activity. J. Neuroendocrin ol., 2003, 15, 93-96.
[80] Jang, H.S.; Kim, S.K.; Han, J.B.; Ahn, H.J.; Bae, H.; Min, B.I.
Effects of bee venom on the pro-inflammatory responses in
RAW264.7 macrophage cell line. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2005, 99,
157-160.
[81] Baek, Y.H.; Huh, J.E.; Lee, J.D.; Choi, D.Y.; Park, D.S. Antinoci-
ceptive effect and the mechanism of bee venom acupuncture
(Apipuncture) on inflammatory pain in the rat model of collagen-
induced arthritis: mediation by alpha2-adrenoceptors. Brain Res.,
2006, 1073-1074, 305-310.
[82] Lee, J.D.; Park, H.J.; Chae, Y.; Lim, S. An ov erview of bee venom
acupuncture in the treatment of arthritis. Evid. Based Complement.
Alternat. Med., 2005, 2, 79-84.
[83] Lee, J.Y.; Kang, S.S.; Kim, J.H.; Bae, C.S.; Choi, S.H. Inhibitory
effect of whole bee venom in adjuvant-induced arthritis. In Vivo,
2005, 19, 801-805.
[84] Suh, S.J.; Kim, K.S .; Kim, M.J .; Chan g, Y.C.; Lee, S.D.; Kim,
M.S.; Kwon, D.Y .; Kim, C.H. Effects of bee venom on protease ac-
tivities and free radical damages in synovial fluid from type II col-
lagen-ind uced rheumatoid arthritis rats. Toxicol. In Vitro, 2006, 20,
1465-1471.
[85] Park, H.J.; Lee, S.H.; Son, D.J.; Oh, K.W.; Kim , K.H.; Song, H.S.;
Kim, G.J.; Oh, G .T.; Yoon, D.Y.; Hong, J.T. Antiarthritic effect of
bee venom: inhibition of inflammation mediator generation by sup-
pression of NF-kappaB through interaction with the p50 subunit.
Arthritis Rheum., 2004, 50, 3504-3515.
[86] Han, S.; Lee, K.; Yeo, J.; Kweon, H.; Woo, S.; Lee, M.; Baek, H.;
Kim, S.; Park, K. Effect of honey bee venom on microglial cells ni-
tric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production stimulated by
LPS. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2007, 111,176-181.
[87] Lee, K.G.; Cho, H.J.; Bae, Y.S.; Park, K.K.; Choe, J.Y.; Chung,
I.K.; Kim, M.; Yeo, J.H.; Park, K.H.; Lee, Y.S.; Kim, C.H.; Chang,
Y.C. Bee venom suppresses LPS-mediated NO/iNOS induction
through inhibition of PKC-alpha expression. J. Ethnopharmacol.,
2009, 123, 15-21.
12 Anti-Infective Agents, 2015, Vol. 13, No. 1 Yuva Bellik
[88] Kwon, G.R. Clinical study on treatment of rheumatoid arthritis by
bee venom therapy. Proc. Congress Kor. Med., 1998, pp. 130-13 1.
[89] Lee, S.H .; Lee, H.J.; Baek , Y.H.; Kim, S.Y .; Park, J.K.; Hong, S.J.;
Yang, H.I.; Kim, K.S. Lee, J.D.; Choi, D.Y.; Lee, D.I.; Lee, Y.H.
Effects of bee venom on the pain, edema, and acute inflammatory
reactant of rheumatoid arthritis patients. J. Kor. Acu. Mox. Soc.,
2003, 20, 77-84.
[90] Wang, O.H.; Ahn, K.B.; Lim, J.K.; Jang, H.S. Clinical study on
effectiveness of bee venom therapy on degenerative knee arthritis.
J. Kor. Acu. Mox. Soc., 2001, 18, 35-47.
[91] Berman, B.M.; Singh, B.B.; Lao, L.; Langenberg, P.; Li, H.; Had-
hazy, V.; Bareta, J.; Hochberg, M. A randomized trial of acupunc-
ture as an adjunctive therapy in osteoarthritis of the knee. Rheuma-
tology, 1999, 38, 346-54.
[92] Toba, H.; Shimizu, T.; Miki, S.; Inoue, R.; Yoshimura, A.; Tsuka-
moto, R.; Sawai, N.; Kobara, M.; Nakata, T. Calcium channel
blockers reduce angiotensin II-induced superoxide generation and
inhibit lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 ex-
pression in endothelial cells Hypertens. Res., 2006, 29, 105-116.
[93] Ovcharov, R.; Shkenderov, S.; Mihailova, S. Anti inflammatory
effects of apamin. Toxicon, 1976, 14, 441-447.
[94] Park, K.K.; Park, J.H.; Kim, K.H.; Kim, S.J.; Lee, W.R. ; Lee, K.G.;
Han, S.M.; Chang, Y.C.; Choe, J.Y.; Kim, K.S. Composition com-
prising bee venom for the treatment of atherosclerosis. U.S. Patent
0,166,878, July 01, 2010.
[95] Kim, S.J.; Park, J.H.; Kim, K.H.; Lee, W.R.; Pak, S.C.; Han, S.M.;
Park, K.K. The protective effect of apamin on LPS/Fat-induced
atherosclerotic mice. Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med.,
2012, 1-10.
[96] Kim, S.J.; Park, J.H.; Kim, K.H.; Lee, W.R.; An, H.J.; Min, B.K.;
Han, S.M.; Kim, K.S.; Park, K.K. Apamin inhibits THP-1-
derived macrophage apoptosis via mitochondria-related apoptotic
pathway. Exp. Mol. Pathol., 2012, 93, 129-134.
[97] Shkenderov, S.; Koburova, K. Adolapin--a newly isolated analgetic
and anti-inflammatory polypeptide from bee venom. Toxicon,
1982, 20, 317-321.
[98] Kwon, Y.B.; Kang, M.S.; Kim, H.W.; Ham, T.W.; Yim, Y.K.;
Jeong, S.H.; Park, D.S.; Choi, D.Y.; Han, H.J.; Beitz, A.J.; Lee,
J.H. Antinociceptive effects of bee venom acupuncture (apipunc-
ture) in rodent animal models: a comparative study of acupoint ver-
sus non-acupoint stimulation. Acupunct. Electrother. Res., 2001,
26, 59-68.
[99] Lee, J.H.; Kwon, Y.B.; Han, H.J.; Mar, W.C.; Lee, H.J.; Yang, I.S.;
Beitz, A.J.; Kang, S.K. Bee venom pretreatment has both an anti-
nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect on carrageenan-induced
inflammation. J. Vet. Med. Sci., 2001, 63, 251-259.
[100] Kim, H.W.; Kwon, Y.B.; Han, H.J.; Yang, I.S.; Beitz, A.J.; Lee,
J.H. Antinociceptive mechanisms associated with diluted bee
venom acupuncture (apipuncture) in the rat formalin test: involve-
ment of descending adrenergic and serotonergic pathways. Phar-
macol. Res., 2005, 51, 183-188.
[101] Chen, Y.N.; Li, K.C.; Li, Z.; Shang, G.W.; Liu, D.N.; Lu, Z.M.;
Zhang, J.W.; Ji, Y.H.; Gao, G.D.; Chen, J. Effects of bee venom
peptidergic components on rat pain-related behaviors and inflam-
mation. Neuroscience, 2006, 138, 631-640.
[102] Ji, R.R. Peripheral and central mechanisms of inflammatory pain,
with emphasis on MAP kinases. Curr. Drug Targets Inflamm. Al-
lergy, 2004, 3, 299-303.
[103] Cui, X.Y.; Dai, Y.; Wang, S.L.; Yamanaka, H.; Kobayashi, K.;
Obata, K.; Chen, J.; Noguchi, K. Differential activation of p38 and
extracellular signal-regulated kinase in spinal cord in a model of
bee venom induced inflammation and hyperalgesia. Mol. Pain,
2008, 4, 17.
[104] Ji, R.R.; Gereau, R.T.; Malcangio, M.; Strichartz, G.R. MAP kinase
and pain. Brain Res. Rev., 2009, 60, 135-148.
[105] Soman, N.R.; Baldwin, S.L.; Hu, G.; Marsh, J.N.; Lanza, G.M.;
Heuser, J.E.; Arbeit, J.M.; Wickline, S.A.; and Schlesinger, P.H.
Molecularly targeted nanocarriers delver the cytoltic peptde melit-
tin specifically to tumor cells in mice, reducing tumor growth. J.
Clin. Invest., 2009, 119, 2830-2842.
[106] Thompson, C.B. Apoptosis in the pathogenesis and treatment of
disease. Science, 1995, 267, 1456-1462.
[107] Korsmeyer, S.J. Bcl-2 gene family and the regulation of pro-
grammed cell death. Cancer Res., 1999, 59, 1693s -1700s.
[108] Cohen, G.M. Caspases: the executioners of apoptosis. Biochem. J.,
1997, 326, 1-16.
[109] Son, D.J.; Ha, S.J.; Son g, H.S.; Lim, Y.; Yun, Y.P.; Lee, J.W.;
Moon, D.C.; Park, Y.H.; Park, B.S.; Song, M.J.; Hong, J.T. Melit-
tin inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation through in-
duction of apoptosis via suppression of nuclear factorkappaB and
Akt activation and enhancement of apoptotic protein expression. J.
Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 2006, 317, 627-634.
[110] Hu, H.; Chen, D.; Li, Y.; Zhang, X. Effect of polypeptides in bee
venom on growth inhibition and apoptosis induction of the human
hepatoma cell line SMMC-7721 in-vitro and Balb/c nude mice in-
vivo. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 2006, 58, 83-89.
[111] Putz, T.; Ramoner, R.; Gander, H.; Rahm, A.; Bartsch, G.; Thurn-
her, M. Antitumor action and immune activation through coopera-
tion of bee venom secretory phospholipase A2 and phosphatidyli-
nositol-(3,4)-bisphosphate. Cancer Immunol. Immunother., 2006,
55, 1374-1383.
[112] Jang, M.H.; Shin, M.C.; Lim, S.; Han, S.M.; Park, H.J.; Shin, I.;
Lee, J.S.; Kim, K.A.; Kim, E.H.; Kim, C.J. Bee venom induces
apoptosis and inhibits expression of cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA in
human lung cancer cell line NCI-H1299. J. Pharmacol. Sci., 2003,
91, 95-104.
[113] Choi, K.E.; Hwang, C.J.; Gu, S.M.; Park, M.H.; Kim, J.H.; Park,
J.H.; Ahn, Y.J.; Kim, J.Y.; Song, M.J.; Song, H.S.; Han, S.-B.;
Hong, J.T. Cancer cell growth inhibitory effect of bee venom via
increase of death receptor 3 expression and inactivation of NF-
kappa B in NSCLC cells. Toxins 2014, 6, 2210-2228.
[114] Moon, D.O.; Park, S.Y.; Heo, M.S.; Kim, K.C.; Park, C.; Ko, W.S.;
Choi, Y.H.; Kim, G.Y. Key regulators in bee venom-induced apop-
tosis are Bcl-2 and caspase-3 in human leukemic U937 cells
through downregulation of ERK and Akt. Int. Immunopharmacol.,
2006, 6, 1796-1807.
[115] Hwang, D.Y.; Kim, H.H.; Kim, C.J.; Kim E.H. Bee venom induces
apoptosis and inhibits COX-2 in human osteosarcoma cell line
MG-63. J. Kor. Acup. Mox. Soc., 2003, 20, 63-74.
[116] Kim, K.H.; Kum, Y.S.; Park, Y.Y.; Park, J.H.; Kim, S.J.; Lee,
W.R.; Lee, K.G.; Han, S.M.; Park, K.K. The protective effect of
bee venom against ethanol-induced hepatic injury via regulation of
the mitochondria-related apoptotic pathway. Basic Clin. Pharma-
col. Toxicol., 2010, 107, 619-24.
[117] Li, B.; Gu, W.; Zhang, C.; Huang, X.Q.; Han, K.Q.; Ling, C.Q.
Growth arrest and apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma
cell line BEL-7402 induced by melittin. Onkologie, 2006, 29, 367-
371.
[118] Song, C.C.; Lu, X.; Cheng, B.B.; Du, J.; Li, B .; Ling , C.Q. Effect
of melittin on growth and angiogenesis of human hepatocellular
carcinoma BEL-7402 cell xinografts in nude mice. Ai. Zheng.,
2007, 26, 1315-1322.
[119] Ip, S.W.; Chu, Y.L.; Yu, C.S.; Chen, P.Y.; Ho, H.C.; Yang, J.S.;
Huang, H.Y.; Chueh, F.S.; Lai, T.Y.; Chung, J.G. Bee venom in-
duces apoptosis through intracellular Ca2+-modulated in trinsic
death pathway in human bladder cancer cells. Int. J. Urol., 2012,
19, 61-70.
[120] Pan, H.; Soman, N.R.; Schlesinger, P.H.; Lanza, G.M.; Wicklin e,
S.A. Cytolytic peptide nanoparticles ('NanoBees') for cancer ther-
apy. Wiley Interdiscip. Rev. Nanomed. Nanobiotechnol., 2011, 3,
318-327.
[121] Ip, S.W.; Liao, S.S.; Lin, S.Y.; Lin, J.P.; Yang, J.S.; Lin, M.L.;
Chen, G.W.; Lu, H .F.; Lin, M.W.; Han, S.M.; Chung, J.G. The role
of mitochondria in bee venom-induced apoptosis in human breast
cancer MCF7 cells. In Vivo, 2008, 2, 237 -245.
[122] Ip, S.W.; Wei, H.C.; Lin, J.P.; Kuo, H.M.; Liu, K.C.; Hsu, S.C.;
Yang, J.S.; Yang, M.D.; Chiu, T.H.; Han, S.M.; Chung, J.G. Bee
venom induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human cervical
epidermoid carcinoma Ca Ski cells. Anticancer Res., 2008, 28, 833-
842.
[123] Park, M.H.; Choi, M.S.; Kwak, D.H.; Oh, K. W.; Yoon do, Y.; Han,
S.B.; Song, H.S.; Song, M.J.; Hong, J.T. Anti-cancer effect of bee
venom in prostate cancer cells through activation of caspase path-
way via inactivation of NF-kappaB. Pro state, 2011, 71, 801-812.
[124] Kim, S.K.; Park, K.Y.; Yoon, W.C.; Park, S.H.; Park, K.K.; Yoo,
D.H.; Choe, J.Y. Melittin enhances apoptosis through suppression
of IL-6/sIL-6R complex-induced NF-κB and STAT3 activation and
Bcl-2 expression for human fibroblast-lik e synoviocytes in rheuma-
toid arthritis. Joint Bone Spine, 2011, 78, 471-477.
[125] Yadav, V.; Bourdette, D. Complementary and alternative medicine:
is there a role in multiple sclerosis? Curr. Neurol. Neurosci. Rep.,
2006, 6, 259-267.
Bee Venom: Its Potential Use in Alternative Medicine Anti-Infective Agents, 2015, Vol. 13, No. 1 13
[126] Marrie, R.A.; Hadjimichael, O.; Vollmer, T. Predictors of alterna-
tive medicine use b y multip le sclerosis patients. Mult. Scler., 2003,
9, 461-466.
[127] Page, S.A.; Verhoef, M.J.; Stebbin s, R.A.; Metz, L.M.; Levy, J.C.
The use of complementary and alternative therapies by people with
multiple sclerosis. Chronic. Dis. Can., 2003, 24, 75-79.
[128] Shinto, L.; Calabrese, C.; Morris, C.; Sinsheimer, S.; B.A.; Bour-
dette, D. Complementary and alternative medicine in multiple scle-
rosis: survey of licensed naturopaths. J. Altern.Complem. Med.,
2004, 10, 891-897.
[129] Nayak, S.; Matheis, R.J.; Schoenberger, N.E.; Shiflett, S.C. Use of
unconventional therapies by individuals with multiple sclerosis.
Clin. Rehabil., 2003, 17, 181-191 .
[130] Stuifbergen , A.K.; Harrison, T.C.; Complementary and alternative
therapy use in persons with multiple sclerosis. Rehabil. Nurs.,
2003, 28, 141-147.
[131] Castro, H.J.; Mendez-Lnocencio, J.I.; Omidvar, B.; Omidvar,
J.; Santilli, J.; Nielsen, H.S.Jr.; Pavot A.P.; Richert, J.R.; Bellanti,
J.A. A phase I study of the safety of honeybee venom extract as a
possible treatment for patients with progressive forms of multiple
sclerosis. Allergy Asthma. Proc., 2005, 26, 470-476.
[132] Wesselius, T.; Heersema, D.J.; Mostert, J.P.; Heerings,
M.; Admiraal-Behloul, F.; Talebian, A.; van Buchem, M.A.; De
Keyser, J. A randomized crossover study of bee sting therapy for
multiple sclerosis. Neurology, 2005, 13, 1764-1768.
[133] Namaka, M.; Crook, A.; Doupe, A.; Kler, K.; Vasconcelos, M.;
Klowak, M.; Gong, Y.; Wojewnik-Smith, A.; Melanson, M. Exam-
ining the evidence: complementary adjunctive therapies for multi-
ple sclerosis. Neurol. Res., 2008, 30, 71 0-719.
[134] Cunningham, T.J.; Yao, L.; Oetinger, M.; Cort, L.; Blankenhorn,
E.P.; Greenstein, J.I. Secreted phospholipase A2 activity in ex-
perimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis.
J. Neuroinflammation., 2006, 3, 26 .
[135] Adibhatla, R.M.; Hatcher, J.F. Phospholipase A2, reactive oxygen
species, and lipid peroxidation in CNS pathologies. BMB Rep.,
2008, 41, 560-567.
[136] Fennell, J.F.; Shipman, W.H.; Cole, L.J. Antibacterial action of
melittin, a polypeptide from bee venom. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol.
Med., 1968, 127, 707 -710.
[137] Benton, A.W.; Mulfinger, L. Methods and compositions for the
treatment of mammalian infections employing medicaments com-
prising Hymenoptera venom or proteinaceous or polypeptide com-
ponents thereof U.S. Patent 4,822,608, April18, 1989.
[138] Blondelle, S.E.; Houghten, R.A. Hemolytic and antimicrobial ac-
tivities of twenty-four individual omission analogues of melittin.
Biochemistry, 1991, 30, 4671-4678.
[139] Bechinger, B. Structure and functions of channel-forming peptides:
magainins, cecropins, melittin and alamethicin. J. Membr. Biol.,
1997, 156, 197-211.
[140] Steiner, H. ; Hultmark, D.; Engström, A.; Bennich, H.; Boman,
H.G. Sequence and specificity of two antibacterial proteins in-
volved in insect immunity. Nature, 1981, 292, 246-248.
[141] Stocker, J.F.; Traynor, J.R. The action of variou s venoms on Es-
cherichia coli. J. Appl. Bacteriol., 1986, 61, 383-388.
[142] Kim, S.T.; Hwang, J.Y.; Sung, M.S.; Je, S.Y.; Bae, D.R.; Han,
S.M.; Lee, S.H. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of
bee venom against bacteria isolated from pigs and chickens. Ko-
rean J. Vet. Serv., 2006, 29, 19-26.
[143] Perumal Samy, R.; Gopalakrishnakone, P.; Thwin, M.M.; Chow,
T.K.; Bow, H.; Yap, E.H.; Thong, T.W.J. Antibacterial activity of
snake, scorpion and bee venoms: A comparison with purified
venom phospholipase A2 enzymes. J. Appl. Bacteriol., 2007, 102,
650-659.
[144] Oren, Z, Shai, Y. Selective lysis of bacteria but not mammalian
cells by diastereomers of melittin : structure-fraction study. Bio-
chemistry, 1997, 36, 1826-1835.
[145] Yu, A.R.; Kim, J.J.; Park, G.S.; Oh, S.M.; Han, C.S.; Lee, M.Y.
The Antifungal activity of bee venom against dermatophytes. J.
Appl. Biol. Chem., 2012, 55, 7-11.
[146] Mulu, A.; Tessema, B.; Fetene Derbie, F. In vitro assessment of the
antimicrobial potential of honey on common human pathogens.
Ethiop. J. Health Dev., 2004, 18, 107-112.
[147] Ewnetu, Y.; Lemma, W.; Birhane, N. Antibacterial effects of Apis
mellifera and stingless bees honeys on susceptible and resistant
strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella
pneumoniae in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. BMC Complement. Al-
tern. Med., 2013, 13, 269.
[148] Brudzynski, K.; Sjaarda, C. Antibacterial compounds of Canadian
honeys target bacterial cell wall inducing phenotype changes,
growth inhibition and cell lysis that resemble action of β-lactam an-
tibiotics. Plos One, 2014, 9(9): e106967.
[149] Sherlock, O.; Dolan , A.; Athman, R.; Power, A .; Gethin, G.; Cow-
man, S.; Humphreys H. Comparison of the antimicrobial activity of
Ulmo honey from Chile and Manuka honey against methicillin-
resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudo-
monas aeruginosa. BMC Complement. Altern. Med., 2010, 10, 47.
[150] Boorn, K.L. ;. Khor, Y.-Y.; Sweetman, E.; Tan, F.; Heard, T.A.;
Hammer, K.A. Antimicrobial activity of honey from the stingless
bee Trigo na carbona ria determined by agar diffusion, agar dilu-
tion, broth microdilution and time-kill methodology. J. Appl. Mi-
crobiol., 2010, 108, 15341543.
[151] Tan, H.T.; Rahman, R.A.; Gan, S.H.; Halim, A.S.; Hassan, S.A.;
Sulaiman, S.A.; Kirnpal-Kaur, B.S. The antibacterial properties of
Malaysian tualang honey against wound and enteric microorgan-
isms in comparison to manuka honey. BMC Complement. Altern.
Med., 2009, 9, 34.
[152] Zainol, M.I.; Yusoff K.M.; Yusof M.Y.M. Antibacterial activity of
selected Malaysian honey. BMC Complement. Altern. Med., 2013,
13,129.
[153] Roberts, A.E. L.; Maddocks, S.E.; Cooper R.A. Manuka honey is
bactericidal against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and results in differ-
ential expression of oprF and algD. Microbio logy, 2012, 158,
3005-3013.
[154] Alzahrani, H.A.; Alsabehi, R.; Boukraâ, L.; Abdellah, F.; Bellik,
Y.; Bakhotmah, B.A. Antibacterial and antioxidant potency of flo-
ral honeys from different botanical and geographical origins. Mole-
cules, 2012, 17, 10540-10549 .
[155] Blair S.E.; Cokcetin N.N.; Harry E.J.; Carter D.A. The unusual
antibacterial activity of medical-grade Leptospermum honey: anti-
bacterial spectrum, resistance and transcriptome analysis. Eur. J.
Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis., 2009, doi:10.1007/s10096-009-0763-z.
[156] Ndip, R.N. Malange Takang, A.E.; Echakachi, C.M.; Malongue,
A.; Akoachere, J.F.T.K.; Ndip, L.M.; Luma Henry N. In vitro an-
timicrobial activity of selected honeys on clinical isolates of Heli-
cobacter pylori Afr. Health Sci., 2007, 7, 228-231.
[157] Andualem, B. Combined antibacterial activity of stingless bee
(Apis mellipodae) honey and garlic (Allium sativum) extracts
against standard and clinical pathogenic bacteria. Asian Pac. J.
Trop. Biomed., 2013, 3, 725-731.
[158] Cooper, R.A. Molan, P.C.; Harding, K.G. Antibacterial activity of
honey against strains of Staphylococcus aureus from infected
wounds. J. R. Soc. Med., 1999, 92, 283-285.
[159] Aamer, A.A.; Abdul-Hafeez, M.M.; Sayed, S.M. Minimum inhibi-
tory and bactericidal concentrations (MIC and MBC) of honey and
bee propolis against multi-drug resistant (MDR) Staphylococcus
sp. isolated from bovine clinical mastitis. Altern. Integ. Med., 2014,
3:4.
[160] Maddocks, S.E.; Lopez, M.S.; Rowlands, R. S.; Cooper, R.A.
Manuka honey inhibits the development of Streptococcus pyogenes
biofilms and causes reduced expression of two fibronectin binding.
Microb iolog y, 2012, 158, 781790.
[161] Hammond, E.N.; Donkor, E.S. Antibacterial effect of Manuka
honey on Clostridium difficile. BMC Res. Notes., 2013, 6,188.
[162] Hassanein N.M.A.; Hegab, A.M. Bee venom - lead acetate toxicity
interaction. Aust. J. Basic. Appl. Sci., 2010, 4, 2206-2221.
[163] Somerfield, S.D.; Stach, J.L.; Mraz, C.; Gervais, F.; Skamene, E.
Bee venom melittin blocks neutrophil O2
-production. Inflammation,
1986, 10, 175-182.
[164] Kim, K.W.; Shin, Y.S.; Kim, K.S.; Chang, Y.C.; Park, K.K.; Park,
J.B.; Choe, J.Y.; Lee, K.G.; Kang, M.S.; Park, Y.G.; Kim, C.H.
Suppressive effects of bee venom on the immune responses in col-
lagen induced arthritis in rats. Phytomedicine, 2008, 15, 1099-
1107.
[165] Nah, S.S.; Ha, E.; Mun, S.H; Won, H.J.; Chung, J.H. Effects of
melittin on the production of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and -3
inrheumtoid arthritic fibroblast-like synoiocytes. J Pharmacol Sci.,
2008, 106, 162-166.
[166] Ginsberg, N.G.; Dauer, M.; Slotta, K.H. Melittin used as a protec-
tive agent against X-irradiation. Nature, 1968, 220, 1334.
14 Anti-Infective Agents, 2015, Vol. 13, No. 1 Yuva Bellik
[167] Peck, M.L.; O’Co nnor, R. Pro camine and other basic peptides in
the venom of the honeybee (Apis mellifera). J. Agric. Food Chem.,
1974, 22, 51.
[168] Gajski, G.; Garaj-Vrhovac, V. Radioprotective effects of honeybee
venom (Apis mellifera) against 915-MHz microwave radiation-
induced DNA damage in Wistar rat lymphocytes: in vitro study.
Int. J. Toxicol. 2009, 28, 8898.
[169] Varanda, E.A.; Takahashi, C.S.; Soares, A.E.E.; Barreto, S.A.J.
Effect of Apis mellifera bee venom and gamma radiation on bone
morrow cells of Wistar rats treated in vivo. Brazil. J. Genetics,
1992, 14, 807-819.
[170] Spertini, F. Bee venom polypeptides and methods of use thereof.
U.S. Patent 6,878,376, April,12, 2005
[171] Bil, B.M.; Bnifazi , F. Advancs in hymenptera venom immunother-
apy. Curr. Opin. Allergy Clin. Immunol., 2007, 7, 567-573.
[172] Moffitt, J.E.; Golden, D.B.K.; Reisman, R.E.; Lee, R.; Nicklas, R.;
Freeman , T.; deShazo, R.; Tracy, J.; Bernstein, I.L.; Blessing-
Moore, J.; Khan, D.A.; Lang, D.M.; Portnoy, J.M.; Schuller, D.E.;
Spector, S.L.; Tilles, S.A. Stingin g insect hypersensitivity: A prac-
tice parameter update. J. Allergy Clinic. Immunol., 2004, 114, 869.
[173] Severino, M.G. ; Cortell ini, G.; Bonadonna, P.; Francescato, E.;
Panzini, I.; Macch ia, D.; Campi, P.; Spadolini, I.; Canonica, G.W.
Passalacqua, G. Sublingual immunotherapy for large local reac-
tions caused by honeybee sting: A double-blind, placebo-controlled
trial. J. Allergy Clinic. Immunol., 2008, 122, 44-48.
[174] Cox, L.S.; Linnemann, D.L.; Nolte, H.; Weldon, D.; Finegold, I.;
Nelson, H.S. Sublingual immunotherapy: A comprehensive review.
J. Allergy Clinic. Immunol., 2006, 117, 1021.
[175] Passalacqua, G.; Severino, M.G.; Cortellini, G.; Bonadonna, P.;
Francescato, E.; Panzini, I.; Macchia, D.; Campi, P.; Spadolini, I .;
Canonica, G.W. Sublingual immunotherapy with honeybee venom
is effective in patients with large local reactions due to bee sting. A
randomised, double blind placebo controlled trial. J. Allergy Clinic.
Immunol., 2008, 121, LB11.
[176] Moreira, L.A.; Ito, J.; Ghosh, A.; Devenport, M.; Zieler, H .; Abra-
ham, E.G.; Crisanti, A.; Nolan, T.; Catteruccia, F.; Jacobs-Lorena,
M. Bee v enom phospholipase inhibits malaria parasite development
in transgenic mosquitoes* J. Biol. Chem., 2002, 277, 40839-40843.
[177] Diaz-Achirica, P.; Ubach, J.; Guinea, A.; Andreu, D.; Rivas, L. The
plasma membrane of Leishmania donovani promastigotes is the
main target for CA(1-8)M(1-18), a synthetic cecropin A-melittin
hybrid peptide. Biochem. J., 1998, 330, 453-460.
[178] Chicharro, C.; Granata, C.; Lozano, R.; Andreu, D.; Rivas, L. N-
terminal fatty acid substitution in creases the leishmanicidal activity
of CA(1-7)M(2-9), a cecropinmelittin hybrid peptide. Antimicrob.
Agents Chemother., 2001, 45, 2441-2449.
[179] Luque-Ortega, J.R.; Saugar, J.M.; Chiva, C.; Andreu, D.; Rivas, L.
Identification of new leishmanicidal peptide lead structures by
automated real-time monitoring of changes in intracellular ATP.
Biochem. J., 2003, 375, 221-230 .
[180] Eich-Wanger, C.; Müller, U.R. Bee sting allergy in beekepers. Clin.
Exp. Allergy, 1998, 28, 1292-1298.
[181] Sánchez-Velasco, P.; Antón, E.; Muñoz, D.; Martínez-Quesada, J.;
Ruíz de Alegría, C.; López-Hoyos, M.; García-Martín , A.; Jiménez,
I.; Alonso, S.T.; Duque, S.; Suárez, A.; Jerez, J.; Leyva-Cobián, F.
Sensitivity to bee ven om antigen ph ospholipase A2: association
with specifi c HLA class I and class II alleles and haplotypes in
beekeepers and allergic patients. Hum. Immunology, 2005, 66, 818-
825.
[182] Müller, U.R. Hymenoptera venom protein s and peptides for diag-
nosis and treatment of venom allergic patients. Inflamm. Allergy
Drug Targets, 2011, 10, 420-428.
[183] Müller, U.R.; Crameri, R.; Soldatova, L. Diagnostik mit rekom-
binenten/synthetischen Bienengiftallergenen. Allergologie, 1999,
22, 51-52.
[184] Stuhlmeier, K.M. Apis mellifera venom and melittin block neither
NF-kappa B-p50-DNA interactions nor the activation of NF-kappa
B, instead they activate the transcription of proinflammatory genes
and the release of reactive oxygen intermediates. J. Immunol.,
2007, 179, 655-664.
Received: October 09, 2014 Revised: Ja nua ry 28, 2015 Accepted: February 19, 2015
DISCLAIMER: The above article has been published in Epub (ahead of print) on the basis of the m aterials provided by the author. The Edito-
rial Department reserves the right to make minor modifications for further improvement of the manuscrip t.
... It is a polypeptide of 103 amino acids that accounts for around 1% of dried BV. Adolapin has anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive, and antipyretic activities by reducing cyclooxygenase activity and blocking prostaglandin synthesis (Bellik, 2015; Cherniack & Govorushko, 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Apitherapy is defined as “the use of Apis mellifera L. products such as royal jelly, pollen, honey, propolis, beeswax, and bee venom in the treatment of ailments”. Although honey is the primary product acquired, other bee products are also obtained in Turkey. These commodities, in addition to being utilized as nutrition, have been employed to promote human health since ancient times owing to the biologically active compounds they contain. Bee venom is increasingly commonly used in apitherapy and has a wide range of biological effects including antiviral, antidiabetic, anticancer, antirheumatic, anticoagulant, antibacterial, anti-cancer, anti-aging, neuroprotective, analgesic, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and anti-asthmatic properties. According to the literature, bee venom has promising biological implications for human health, which constitutes the topic of this review.
... yüzyılın sonlarında Avusturyalı hekim Philip Terc'in romatizma hastalarının arı sokması tedavisinden sonra iyileştirildiği bildirdiği çalışmadır. 40 Arı zehirinin romatoid artrit, lupus eritematozis, skleroderma, multiple sklerozis (MS) ve kronik bel ağrısı tedavisinde arı zehiri akupunkturu olarak kullanıldığını bil-diren çalışmalar bulunmaktadır. [41][42][43] Ayrıca arı zehiri serumunun yaşlanan cilt üzerinde yararlı etkilerini değerlendirmek üzere yapılmış klinik çalışmalar da bulunmaktadır. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Apiterapinin tarihi antik çağlara kadar dayanmaktadır ve günümüzde halen halk tıbbında sıklıkla tercih edilmektedir. Apiterapi, bal arısı Apis mellifera L.’nın ürünleri olan bal, propolis, polen, arı ekmeği, arı sütü, arı zehiri ve bal mumunun, hastalıklara karşı koruyucu veya terapötik amaçla kullanılmasıdır. Geçmiş yıllarda sadece balın besleyiciliği ve takviye edici gıda olarak kullanılması bilinmekteyken, artık günümüzde apiterapi ürünleri ve bu ürünlerle yapılan bilimsel araştırmalar çeşitlilik göstermiştir. Yüksek oranda polifenolik bileşik içeren apiterapi ürünlerinin vücutta çeşitli hastalıklar üzerinde etkili olduğu ve sağlık için faydalı olduğu kabul görmektedir. Apiterapi ürünleri, ürünün türüne, kullanım şekli ve dozuna bağlı olarak birçok farmakolojik etkiye sahiptir. Bu ürünlerin içerdiği biyoaktif moleküller sayesinde antimikrobiyal, antikanserojen, antiinflamatuvar etkilerini konu alan yapılmış preklinik ve klinik araştırmalar bulunmaktadır. Sahip olduğu farmakolojik etkileri sebebiyle apiterapi ürünlerinin geliştirilmesinin toplum sağlığı açısından önemli olduğu ve uygun klinik araştırmaların arttırılmasına ihtiyaç duyulduğu anlaşılmaktadır. Bu derlemede apiterapi ürünlerinin farmakolojik özellikleri ve insan sağlığına etkileri üzerinde durulmuştur.
... Apitoxin is responsible for toxic or allergic reactions, which are often triggered by molecules with a low molecular weight. As an immediate reaction, these compounds may cause significant pain, local inflammation, itching, and irritation that decreases after several hours (Bellik, 2015;Al-Ameri and Alhasan, 2020). Melittin is the primary component that causes allergic responses. ...
Article
Full-text available
One of the most important insects in the world is Apis mellifera, which shows a critical role in different environmental conditions. For thousands of years, diverse honeybee products have been used to cure human ailments in many civilizations, and their curative effects have been mentioned in several holy books. The worker bees and queen produce an apitoxin, which is a cytotoxic and colorless liquid of hemotoxic bitter. The bee venom or apitoxin contains different sugars, volatile pheromones, phospholipids, enzymes, peptides, amino acids, minerals, proteins, and other bioactive compounds. The present review aims to collect more information about the history of honeybee venom and its medicinal uses. The apitoxin or bee venom is medicinally utilized to control different human diseases such as cancer, fibrotic disease, liver fibrosis, Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease, arthritis, HIV, and Lyme disease. The first report on the application of bee venom to treat human ailments was published in 1888, when European clinical research was conducted to determine the efficacy of honeybee venom in treating rheumatic disorders. According to several studies published in different scientific journals, honeybee venom has been applied to control different human diseases for several centuries. Thus, it can be decided that bee venom can be a potential future biomedicine to control different diseases such as cancer.
... It is synthesized by the glands located in the abdomen of female worker bees (7). The medicinal application of bee venom, also known as bee venom therapy, has been used as an alternative medicine since ancient times (8). The application could be either indirectly by extracting bee venom with an electrical stimulus or directly via bee stings (7). ...
Article
Bee venom from honey bees (Apis Mellifera L.) is known to have many pharmacological and biological properties. Melittin, a peptide consisting of 26 amino acids, is known as the main component of bee venom. The study aims to develop a rapid capillary electrophoresis method for separating and quantifying melittin in honeybee venom. Since melittin is a basic peptide, it will adhere to the capillary wall during separation. Two different methods were developed in this study for the capillary electrophoretic separation of melittin. As a first approach, a low pH buffer system was used. For the second approach, the capillary column was coated with a positively charged polymer (PEI). With both methods developed, the migration of melittin in the capillary was achieved by preventing wall adsorption. Melittin migrated in 6 min when the low-pH buffer system was applied, whereas its migration time is longer than 10 min in the PEI-coated capillary column. Thus, a low-pH buffer system was preferred for the analysis of the actual bee-venom sample. 100 mmol L-1 phosphoric acid/sodium dihydrogen phosphate system at pH 1.55 was chosen as separation buffer. As a conclusion, a fast and reliable method was developed for the determination of melittin in honeybee venom. The method was applied to an Anatolian bee venom sample to highlight the melittin amount. The melittin amount was found as 24.5 ± 3.4 g 100 g-1 in the bee venom sample.
... A novel protein with 42,388 Da from oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), contained 17 amino acids (215). BV is a liquid mixture that contains 88% water and only 0.1 g dry weight of a complex mixture of enzymes, peptides, and non-peptide components in one drop (241). Among them, peptides are the main components in BV (242). ...
Article
Full-text available
Increased demand for a more balanced, healthy, and safe diet has accelerated studies on natural bee products (including honey, bee bread, bee collected pollen royal jelly, propolis, beeswax, and bee venom) over the past decade. Advanced food processing techniques, such as ultrasonication and microwave and infrared (IR) irradiation, either has gained popularity as alternatives or combined with conventional processing techniques for diverse applications in apiculture products at laboratory or industrial scale. The processing techniques used for each bee products have comprehensively summarized in this review, including drying (traditional drying, infrared drying, microwave-assisted traditional drying or vacuum drying, and low temperature high velocity-assisted fluidized bed drying), storage, extraction, isolation, and identification; the assessment methods related to the quality control of bee products are also fully mentioned. The different processing techniques applied in bee products aim to provide more healthy active ingredients largely and effectively. Furthermore, improved the product quality with a shorter processing time and reduced operational cost are achieved using conventional or emerging processing techniques. This review will increase the positive ratings of the combined new processing techniques according to the needs of the bee products. The importance of the models for process optimization on a large scale is also emphasized in the future.
Chapter
Bee products such as honey, propolis, bee pollen, royal jelly, beeswax, and bee venom constitute important pharmaceutical and cosmetic components. Each bee product is characterized by the content of the active substance, which differentiates one bee product from another, and causes that each of them is worth using for a different skin problem. In addition, flavonoids and phenolic acids play a crucial role in influencing those products on the skin. For example, honey, propolis, and pollen are used to heal burn wounds. Moreover, bee venom called apitoxin contains active peptides and amines used in the wound’s healing process. Therefore, findings connected with wound dressing containing honey, propolis, or bee venom can be applied during wound healing therapy. Furthermore, the advantages of pharmaceuticals and cosmetics based on bee products are high effectiveness with minimal side effects. Therefore, bee products may become a new strategy in skin therapy.
Article
Full-text available
Honeybee products consist of many substances, which have long been known for their medicinal and health-promoting properties. This study set out to appraise the protective potential of Egyptian propolis (EP) and bee venom (BV) separately or combined against total body irradiation (TBI) induced oxidative injury in rats. Besides, we assessed the bioactive components in EP and BV using HPLC and UPLC/ ESI–MS analysis in the positive ion mode. The animals were subjected to a source of gamma ionizing radiation at a dose of 6 Gy. Propolis and BV were administered independently and in combination before 14 days of γ-irradiation. Liver and kidney functions were estimated besides, DNA damage index (8- OHdG) by ELISA. Antioxidants, including glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were detected. Gene expression technique investigated for BAX, BCL2, and in plasma also miR125b expression in serum of rats. Besides, the histopathological for the brain, liver, kidney, and heart were investigated. In addition, lipid peroxidation was investigated in plasma and in the previous organs. The present results provide opportunities to advance the use of bee products as promising medicinal sources.
Article
The aim of this study was to assess the inhibitory effect of whole bee venom (BV) on adjuvant-induced arthritis in the rat. Rats were divided into pre-apitherapy, post-apitherapy and control experimental groups. The pre-apitherapy group was subcutaneously stung with a honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) and the control group was subcutaneously injected with 0.1 ml of physiological saline solution one day prior to complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) injection. The post-apitherapy group was subcutaneously stung with a honeybee on day 14 after CFA injection. When arthritis had developed in the rat, the post-apitherapy group was subcutaneously administered whole BV every other day for a further 14 days. Clinical signs, hematological values and radioglogical features were observed during the entire experimental period. In the pre-apitherapy group, the development of inflammatory edema and polyarthritis was inhibited. Significant differences in lameness score, hind paw edema volume and radiological features were observed between control and pre-apitherapy rats. White blood cell counts indicated that the degree of leucocytosis was significantly different between the pre-apitherapy and control groups (p < 0.01). Inflammatory edema, polyarthritis and bone change into the tight hind paw were effectively inhibited in preapitherapy rats during the two-week period post-CFA injection. In conclusion, whole BV was found to inhibit arthritic inflammation and bone changes in the rat. This may be an alternative treatment for arthritis in humans.
Article
The method of venom collection referred to here is illustrated and described briefly on page 68. It was designed for bulk collection, and yields a gram of dried venom in five minutes' ‘milking’ of each, of 20 hives. It is in principle similar to the delicate method described by D. J. Palmer in Bee World in 1961. But its high yields themselves introduce complications, because of the large amounts of ‘alarm odour’ released at the same time as the venom. These complications are discussed here.
Article
Proinflammatory cytokines, notably interleukin 1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-γ), play an important role in initiating and perpetuating inflammatory and destructive processes in the rheumatoid joint. These cytokines regulate many nuclear factor κB inducible genes that control expression of other cytokines, cell adhesion molecules, immunoregulatory molecules, and proin-flammatory mediators. The expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and thereby production of prostaglandins (PG) and NO are regulated by cytokines. PGE2 and NO further promote inflammation and likely participate in destructive mechanisms in the rheumatoid joint. In some experimental systems, the effects of IL-1 and TFN-α appear synergistic, and correspondingly, concomitant inhibition of both cytokines provides greater than additive antiarthritic effects. Although the actions of IL-1 and TFN-α show a large degree of overlap, some differences have been observed in animal models. However, in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis, blockade of either cytokine results in clinical improvement and less radiographic progression.