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History of infrageneric classification, typification of supraspecific names and outstanding transfers in Curcuma (Zingiberaceae)

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  • Plant Science and Biodiversity Centre, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava & Charles University, Prague

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In this paper we provide a thorough overview of past attempts at infrageneric classification of the genus Curcuma (Zingiberaceae). As the recent results of phylogenetic analysis of the genus confirmed that previous infrageneric classifications are not tenable, we provide a revised circumscription of Curcuma with an outline of new infrageneric classification into three subgenera, C. subg. Curcuma, C. subg. Ecomatae and C. subg. Hitcheniopsis including lists of species to be included in each subgenus. Three previously recognized genera, Laosanthus, Smithatris and Stahlianthus, are sunk to Curcuma and two species previously recognized in the genus Hitchenia, H. caulina and H. glauca, are transferred/re-recognized to Curcuma. The previously proposed transfers of the monospecific genus Paracautleya, Hedychium scaposum (Kaempferia scaposa, Monolophus scaposus) and Kaempferia candida, to Curcuma are also confirmed. All connected nomenclatural innovations, corrections and outstanding typifications, inclusive those of infrageneric names, are effected in this paper. A list of excluded names originally described as members of Curcuma, but now accepted as members of other genera is also included.
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... Curcuma L. (Zingiberaceae: Zingibereae) is widely distributed in South and Southeast Asia, and South China, with a few species extending to northern Australia and the South Pacific (Záveská et al. 2012). Although the exact number of Curcuma species remains unknown, it certainly exceeds the 120 species projected by Leong-Škorničková et al. (2007Leong-Škorničková et al. ( , 2015, making it one of the largest genera in the family. Curcuma is well defined in molecular terms, however, a morphological delimitation of Curcuma in tribe Zingibereae is challenging because this large genus contains numerous highly specialized and morphologically derived species. ...
... The descriptions below are based mainly on living flowering material from multiple plants and specimens from the type collections. The style of description follows the recent works of Leong-Škorničková et al. (2007Leong-Škorničková et al. ( , 2013Leong-Škorničková et al. ( , 2015Leong-Škorničková et al. ( , 2017Leong-Škorničková et al. ( , 2020. The general plant terminology follows Beentje (2016). ...
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Four new Curcuma species ( Zingiberaceae ) from Thailand are described here. Curcuma fimbriata , C. micrantha and C. spathulata belong to C. subg. Hitcheniopsis , while C. globulifera belongs to the nominal C. subg. Curcuma . Each species is compared to the morphologically closest species and detailed descriptions, colour plates and information on their distribution, ecology, phenology and uses are provided. A preliminary IUCN conservation assessment of each of these species is proposed.
... Curcuma L. belongs to the family Zingiberaceae and is divided into three subgenera namely subgen. Curcuma, Hitcheniopsis, and Ecomatae (Záveská et al. 2012;Leong-Škorničková et al. 2015) with more than 130 species of Curcuma in the world were recognized (http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/). ...
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Saensouk S, Boonma T, Saensouk P. 2021. A new species and a new record of Curcuma subgen. Curcuma (Zingiberaceae) from Northern Thailand. Biodiversitas 22: 3661-3670. Recent fieldwork to study the species diversity of the Zingiberaceae family in Thailand and preparing a revision of the Curcuma genus for the Flora of Thailand, an undescribed species of Curcuma uses as traditional medicinal for more than two decades well known in the Thai vernacular name "Rang-Jued" was found, this vernacular name is also used to call the other two medicinal plants belonging to different families which are Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl. (Acanthaceae), and Crotalaria spectabilis Roth (Fabaceae), thus some villagers are named Curcuma rangjued as "Rang-Jued-Khamin" to communicate specifically identify species in order to use correct species for each utilization. While Thunbergia laurifolia was called "Rang-Jued-Thao", which "Thao" means "vine" refers to its habit and Crotalaria spectabilis was called "Rang-Jued-Ton" which "Ton" means "stem" refers to its erect stems. After comparing this undescribed species of Curcuma with its allies species, we found that this species did not match with any existing taxa, thus described with detailed illustrations, photographs, summaries for its distribution, ecology in the name of Curcuma rangjued Saensouk & Boonma and followed by a new record of C. cordata Wall. for Thailand which in the past has been determined as a synonym of C. petiolata Roxb. but now it is back to a recognized name once again. Both species in this study were found distributed in the northern region of Thailand and belong to Curcuma subgenus Curcuma, their description along with ecology, phenology, and a revised key to 28 species of Curcuma subgenus Curcuma in Thailand are also present for facilitating identification.
... The study of Záveská et al. (2012) supports the recognition of two subgenera within genus Curcuma namely subgenus Curcuma and Hitcheniopsis. They also suggest the recognition of a new subgenus Ecomata (Leong-Škorničková et al. 2015), proposed a new classification of subgenus, and also included some genera and species under the Curcuma, due to that the number of species of genus Curcuma in Thailand significantly increased. ...
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Saensouk S, Boonma T, Thomudtha A, Thomudtha P, Saensouk P. 2021. Short Communication: Curcuma wanenlueanga (Zingiberaceae), a new species of subgenus Curcuma from Thailand. Biodiversitas 22: 2988-2994. Curcuma wanenlueanga Saensouk, Thomudtha & Boonma, a new species of Curcuma subgenus Curcuma (Zingiberaceae) from Thailand was described with detailed illustrations, and photographs. The dominant morphological description is terminal inflorescence, leaf adaxially green with reddish-purple along the midrib, leaf-sheath with reddish-brown tinge. Moreover, the color and smell rhizome of C. wanenlueanga has yellow with a darker core internally. It is distributed in Mae Hong Son Province, Northern Thailand, and cultivated throughout the country, i.e. Nakhon Nayok, Maha Sarakham, Chiang Mai, Tak, Chantaburi, Suratthani, and Kanchanaburi Provinces. It is used as Thai traditional medicinal. It grows in in sandy loam soil and well-drained in the mixed-deciduous forest, at elevation 700-900 m asl. It is accompanied by a revised key to 26 species of Curcuma subgenus Curcuma from Thailand.
... Within the Curcuma clade, Stahlianthus is closely related to Curcuma at the molecular level, supporting the idea of merging it into Curcuma [9]. Our results confirmed the monophyly of Curcuma and the infrageneric classification proposed by Záveská et al. (2012) in which C. subg. ...
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Zingibereae is a large tribe in the family Zingiberaceae, which contains plants with important medicinal, edible, and ornamental values. Although tribes of Zingiberaceae are well circumscribed, the circumscription of many genera within Zingibereae and the relationships among them remain elusive, especially for the genera of Boesenbergia, Curcuma, Kaempferia and Pyrgophyllum. In this study, we investigated the plastome variation in nine species representing five genera of Zingibereae. All plastomes showed a typical quadripartite structure with lengths ranging from 162,042 bp to 163,539 bp and contained 132–134 genes, consisting of 86–88 coding genes, 38 transfer RNA genes and eight ribosomal RNA genes. Moreover, the characteristics of the long repeats sequences and simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected. In addition, we conducted phylogenomic analyses of the Zingibereae and related taxa with plastomes data from additional 32 species from Genbank. Our results confirmed that Stahlianthus is closely related to Curcuma, supporting the idea of merging it into Curcuma. Kaempferia, Boesenbergia and Zingiber were confirmed as close relatives and grouped together as the Kaempferia group. Pyrgophyllum is not allied with the Curcuma clade but instead is embedded within the Hedychium clade. Our results demonstrate the power of plastid phylogenomics in improving the phylogenetic relationships within Zingibereae and provide a new insight into plastome evolution in Zingibereceae.
... Numerous new species of Curcuma have been described in recent years (Chen and Xia 2013, Leong-Škorničková and Lưu 2013, Leong-Škorničková and Trằn 2013, Leong-Škorničková et al. 2014a, b, Chen et al. 2015, Lưu et al. 2017, Chen et al. 2019, Soonthornkalump et al. 2020. The most recent phylogeny of the genus (Záveská et al. 2012, Leong-Škorničková et al. 2015 retained two previously accepted subgenera and proposed one subgenus mainly based on spur types: 1) subg. Curcuma L., characterized by conspicuous coma bracts, epigynous glands and two forward-facing anther spurs; 2) subg. ...
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A new species of Curcuma L. subg. Curcuma (Zingiberaceae) from China, C. ruiliensis N. H. Xia & Juan Chen, is described and illustrated. The chromosome number (2n = 84) is reported here. The new species is most similar to C. kwangsiensis S. G. Lee & C. F. Liang, but distinguished by pale yellow rhizomes, obovate tubers, longer ligule, lanceolate, obliquely spreading coma bracts, apex attenuate never obtuse, not reflexed, densely imbricated, lanceolate to ovate, obliquely spreading fertile bracts, apex narrowly acute never obtuse, not reflexed or slightly reflexed, larger flowers, longer calyx and fan‐shaped labellum.
... (Schumann, 1904). Our previous publications provide a more detailed introduction to the genus (Leong-Škorničková et al., 2015(Leong-Škorničková et al., , 2021 and list many species recently described in Thailand Leong-Škorničková et al., 2020Leong-Škorničková et al., , 2021 and the information is therefore not repeated here. ...
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