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Heightened test anxiety among young children: Elementary school students’ anxious responses to high-stakes testing

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Abstract

This study explored differences in test anxiety on high-stakes standardized achievement testing and low-stakes testing among elementary school children. This is the first study to directly examine differences in young students’ reported test anxiety between No Child Left Behind (NCLB) achievement testing and classroom testing. Three hundred and thirty-five students in grades three through five participated in the study. Students completed assessments of test anxiety following NCLB testing and typical classroom testing. Students reported significantly more overall test anxiety in relation to high-stakes testing versus classroom testing on two measures of test anxiety, effect sizes r = -.21 and r = -.10. Students also reported significantly more cognitive (r = -.20) and physiological (r = -.24) symptoms of test anxiety in relation to high-stakes testing. This study adds to the test anxiety literature by demonstrating that students experience heightened anxiety in response to NCLB testing.

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... Higher exposure to an increased testing frequency may affect students differently compared to less intensive exposure (Yang et al., 2021). Earlier findings indicate that females are more likely to experience and report higher levels of testing anxiety than males (DordiNejad et al., 2011;OECD, 2017;Segool et al., 2013;von der Embse et al., 2017). We will examine potential heterogeneity using subject, grade level, type of test, the duration of the intervention, and gender as moderators. ...
... High-stakes tests have more potential to strengthen extrinsic motivation, and therefore to amplify both beneficial and harmful effects of such motivation. Some studies show that students report significantly higher anxiety levels on standardised high-stakes (summative) tests versus classroom (formative) tests (Segool et al., 2013). ...
... Finally, earlier findings indicate that females are more likely to experience and report higher levels of testing anxiety than males (DordiNejad et al., 2011;OECD, 2017;Segool et al., 2013;von der Embse et al., 2017). In this regard, PISA has found a large gender imbalance of 17 percentage points, with 64% of girls compared to 47% of boys reported to be 'very anxious before a test, even when they are well prepared' (OECD, 2017). ...
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This is the protocol for a Campbell review. Our primary research question is: What are the effects of different testing frequencies on student achievement? Our secondary research question is: What are the effects of different testing frequencies on measures of students' testing anxiety? Our third research question is: How are the effects of different testing frequencies on student achievement and testing anxiety moderated by subject, grade, type of test, duration of the intervention, and gender?
... Although psychologists acknowledge that test anxiety among school-age children is a prominent issue, estimates of exactly how many students are affected may vary. Most estimates fall in the range of 10%-40% of elementary and middle school students (Segool, Carlson, Goforth, von der Embse & Barterian, 2013;Von der Embse & Hasson, 2012). Some research indicates that these numbers may be higher among minorities (Tempel & Neumann, 2014;Turner, Beidel, Hughes & Turner, 1993). ...
... A majority of past research has been conducted with college students. Given the rise in the amount of standardised testing required for kindergarten-12th grade students, researchers are beginning to focus more on younger students' test anxiety (Larson, El Ramahi, Conn, Estes & Ghibellini, 2010;Segool et al., 2013;Weems et al., 2015;Yeo, Goh & Liem, 2016). ...
... This cyclical pattern of failure further reinforces test anxiety. If effective interventions are not implemented to stop repeated failures in early elementary grades, the increasing pressure of high-stakes testing will result in heightened test anxiety in struggling students (Segool, Carlson, Goforth, Von Der Embse & Barterian, 2013). ...
Article
Test anxiety has long been an issue with students, parents and in schools on a global level. Many students are becoming overwhelmed with the increased demands placed on test preparation and test performance. Accountability measures have become a major priority, with school children enduring standardized testing annually from grades three through eight, and once more in high school. This article will explore the many facets of test anxiety, what some schools are doing to try to reduce the anxiety and interventions counselors can use in their work with students. Keywords: Test anxiety; schools; children; anxiety
... Students from both classes were quite adamant that visuals, particularly videos, were a suitable alternative to traditional textbooks. They noted that videos such as BrainPop (2015) and Science Court (Scholastic, 2015) had characteristics of being quick, engaging, humorous, and valuable because, according to the students, they allow more time for " interactive " science activities. Chloe, a fourth grader in a focus group, explained why she liked BrainPop (2015) videos saying, " Those are nice because it's the 21 st century and nobody likes to read out of a textbook anymore. ...
... Stephen held an additional view saying the videos were " funny " which led to students paying more attention to them. Science Court (Scholastic, 2015) is a multimedia computer software program created to " introduce core science topics and model scientific processes in the classroom—while fully engaging students with the humor of the Science Court " (Scholastic, 2015). The program, as it was implemented in Ms. Tyson's class, consisted of a series of cartoon animation sequences followed by worksheets completed in cooperative teams which were then reviewed as a whole class activity. ...
... Stephen held an additional view saying the videos were " funny " which led to students paying more attention to them. Science Court (Scholastic, 2015) is a multimedia computer software program created to " introduce core science topics and model scientific processes in the classroom—while fully engaging students with the humor of the Science Court " (Scholastic, 2015). The program, as it was implemented in Ms. Tyson's class, consisted of a series of cartoon animation sequences followed by worksheets completed in cooperative teams which were then reviewed as a whole class activity. ...
Article
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This study explored two elementary teachers and their students' perceptions of multiliteracies in science. The technological components of multiliteracies, including online communication tools, were of particular interest for this paper. The multiple case study included: two teachers and their students. One teacher taught a fourth grade classroom and the other a fifth grade classroom located in the same elementary school. Data collection included field observations, semi-structured teacher interviews, student focus groups, and semi-structured student interviews. Through extensive data analysis, we have constructed cases that represent the multiliteracies framework of a Modern Classroom defined by characteristics that include: 1) increasing and evolving access and use of technology, and 2) a lingering shroud of accountability to factors such as testing performance, state standards, and time limitations. Specifically, students voiced perceptions of technology as an effective tool for learning science and communicating in and out of the classroom. Teachers, though aware of the value of technology in science education, expressed concerns with logistical and pedagogical issues of implementation (e.g., grading online assignments and access to the internet). Teachers also noted time limitations and the breadth of standards as barriers to teaching science through inquiry. Whereas some students imagined the modern science classrooms as engaging with meaningful " projects, " other students demonstrated an enculturation to the common process of " schooling " involving reading then testing.
... concerning for educators given the high prevalence of debilitating levels of test anxiety among students within typical academic settings. Recent investigations have revealed that approximately 10% to 40% of students report experiencing some degree of test anxiety (Ergene, 2003;Segool, Carlson, Goforth, von der Embse, & Barterian, 2013), whereas approximately 15% of students report experiencing debilitating levels of test anxiety within assessment contexts (Putwain & Daly, 2014). Given the prevalence of test anxiety within traditional academic contexts, those responsible for overseeing the academic progress of students have called for the identification of methods that can be used to reliably identify learners with the greatest potential to experience debilitating test anxiety (von der Embse, Kilgus, Segool, & Putwain, 2013). ...
... For instance, promising work by Tsianos and colleagues (2009) revealed that students demonstrated increased performance on experimental tasks when the presentation of task-relevant materials was personalized to account for characteristics of the learner (e.g., levels of test anxiety). If the field is to realize a meaningful step toward identification and treatment as proposed by leaders within the discipline ( Segool et al., 2013;von der Embse et al., 2014), steps must be taken toward the identification of a simple and reliable method for identifying at-risk learners. ...
... In addition, given that the primary goal for identifying severity standards is to identify the high-test anxious group, there was no noted benefit to the additional classes generated in the 4 and 5-class solutions. Finally, a 3-class model is consistent with previous research on test anxiety profiles and conforms to the focus on serving the most at-risk learners ( Segool et al., 2013;von der Embse et al., 2014). Class and item probabilities for the preferred 3-class solution are provided in Table 3. ...
Article
The purpose of the current examination was to preliminarily suggest severity standards for the recently revised Cognitive Test Anxiety Scale–Second Edition (CTAS-2). Participants responded to the CTAS-2, Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ), and FRIEDBEN Test Anxiety Scale. Using both latent class and cluster analyses, we were able to classify participants as belonging to one of the three distinct cognitive test anxiety profiles—low, moderate, and high. Comparison of the identified test anxiety profiles allowed us to generate a set of severity standards for the CTAS-2 that can be used to differentiate between individuals with differing levels of cognitive test anxiety. The validity of the severity standards was established through group comparisons of test-anxious students on the MSLQ–Text Anxiety, FRIEDBEN–Cognitive Obstruction, FRIEDBEN–Social Derogation, and FRIEDBEN–Physiological Tenseness scales. Discussion concerns the practical implications of establishing CTAS-2 severity standards for educators, student support staff, and learners.
... This fact is significant since test anxiety can impair performance on assessments, increase stress, and decrease motivation (Segool, Carlson, Goforth, Von Der Embse, & Barterian, 2013). The model to define and understand test anxiety has changed throughout the years. ...
... Prior experiences can affect test anxiety with negative experiences possibly leading to test anxiety (Segool et al., 2013). "Test anxiety, broadly speaking, refers to the set of cognitive, affective, and behavioral reactions that accompany concern over possible negative consequences contingent upon performance in a test or evaluative situation" (Zeidner, 1998, p. 25). ...
... year ahead of the national average on standardized tests . Malpass, O'Neil and Hocevar (1996) and Segool et al. (2013) claim a correlation exists between high levels of anxiety and low cognitive performance. Segool et al. (2013) found Caucasians exhibited lower anxiety levels than African Americans prior to testing. ...
Article
Reliance on standardized testing has increased over the past 50 years. As a tool to measure student and school performance, high-stakes tests are a focal point of accountability systems in place through state reform and federal legislation. This study explored Allegheny County Counselor Association (ACCA) members’ perceptions on the impact high-stakes testing has on the psychological and emotional well-being (motivation, stress, and test anxiety) of students, as well as their perceptions of how high-stakes testing has impacted the role and work environment of professional school counselors. Current ACCA members completed a survey consisting of open and closed-ended questions. Although the results from this study show the impact on the school counselor’s role and work environment have not changed dramatically; it appears students are experiencing higher levels of stress and test anxiety associated with the use of high-stakes tests. School counselors stated there is less time available to spend with students due to changes to their role, such as acting as the test coordinator or proctor for high-stakes tests, but high-stakes testing has not impacted the amount of time counselors spend conducting classroom lessons, small group lessons, and individual counseling sessions in the areas of test preparation skills, college and career readiness, personal and social skills, and academic goals that are not test preparation based. Data show the accountability system in place seems to impact student motivation positively, but has increased the amount of stress and test anxiety students’ experience, along with negatively impacting student morale. Differences observed among the subgroups studied, Education-Challenge and AYP-Status, may be significant since research has shown high-stakes testing widens the educational gap between whites and minorities, and affluent and impoverished. Further exploration may find the differences that exist between the subgroups may negatively impact student performance and play a role in widening the existing educational gap. Although the sample size is relatively small and the findings cannot be generalized, data from this study may provide insight to school counselors, teachers, administrators, and policymakers when considering any future changes to high-stakes testing programs.
... Unfortunately, a large number of learners experience troublesome phy- siological, cognitive, and emotional reactions during test preparation and test performance that undermine their ability to perform at an optimal level. These trou- blesome reactions are collectively referred to as test anxiety (Bodas, Ollendick, & Sovani, 2008;Segool, Carlson, Goforth, von der Embse, & Barterian, 2013). Given the importance of classroom testing to the cur- rent educational zeitgeist, there is a substantial need to establish valid, theoretically aligned methods of identifying students who would most benefit from evi- denced-based intervention programs designed to reduce test anxiety and enhance performance ( Segool et al., 2013;von der Embse, Kilgus, Segool, & Putwain, 2013). ...
... These trou- blesome reactions are collectively referred to as test anxiety (Bodas, Ollendick, & Sovani, 2008;Segool, Carlson, Goforth, von der Embse, & Barterian, 2013). Given the importance of classroom testing to the cur- rent educational zeitgeist, there is a substantial need to establish valid, theoretically aligned methods of identifying students who would most benefit from evi- denced-based intervention programs designed to reduce test anxiety and enhance performance ( Segool et al., 2013;von der Embse, Kilgus, Segool, & Putwain, 2013). ...
Article
Test anxiety has been identified as a substantial barrier to student success at all educational levels. Given the ubiquitous presence of test anxiety, there have been many attempts to provide readily available measures of test anxiety to help identify learners at-risk for adverse academic outcomes. The purpose of the current study was to test the structural validity of the FRIEDBEN Test Anxiety Scale within a university population (N = 577; extending beyond the traditional adolescent population). Using exploratory structural equation modeling techniques, we determined that a five-factor solution, including Cognitive Obstruction, Tenseness, Social Derogation–Instructor Focused, Social Derogation–General, and Test Confidence, demonstrated a superior fit to the observed data compared to alternative factorial representations. Our results highlight the benefit of increased attention to the agents of attention in socially focused concerns that are believed to contribute to the experience of test anxiety. Further, our results add to the growing body of literature demonstrating that “reverse-coded” items on test anxiety instruments often are measuring a distinct factor related to perceptions of competence (i.e., test confidence).
... It is argued that this "transition shock" (Newman-Ford, 2018, p. 55) can be challenging physically, intellectually, emotionally, developmentally, and socio-culturally and lead to anxiety amongst other negative outcomes. Indeed, high levels of anxiety may also lead to poor academic outcomes (Segool et al., 2013) and lower psychological wellbeing outcomes (Jenkins et al., 2020). Therefore, the final year of an undergraduate programme, can be particularly stressful, as students need to complete challenging (harder) academic assignments as well as navigate and prepare for their imminent transition towards a postgraduate career. ...
... This is problematic, considering the importance of identifying and remediating difficulties with anxiety. Indeed, such anxiety has potential repercussions on the psychological wellbeing, academic performance, and future career prospects of students (e.g., Jenkins et al., 2020;Segool et al., 2013). To fill the gap, the present study explores the experiences of five final year undergraduate (UG) students with anxiety, who were interviewed about the factors that give rise to their anxiety, and the consequences of this, from their perspective, for those involved. ...
Article
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The transition from undergraduate study to a postgraduate career can be an anxiety provoking experience for many students. In this study, we explore the shared experience of five ‘anxious’ undergraduate students as they transition from higher education towards their postgraduate careers. Using a qualitative methodology, semi-structured interviews were conducted with five female undergraduate students from different courses at a UK university. A thematic analysis revealed two overarching themes: perceived pressure without sufficient support, and concerns about next steps. The findings suggested that the final year is emotionally demanding, and students felt as though there was a lack of provision to manage their transition to postgraduate work or study. Possible implications for policymakers are detailed and areas of research discussed.
... Test anxiety can negatively affect education, as test-anxious students "do not approach a task such as a test with a positive outlook or expectation of success, but with dread regarding the potential for negative evaluation or failure" (Cizek & Burg, 2006, p. 17), and often feel tense and worried in evaluative situations (Gierl & Rogers, 1996). For this reason, it is very likely that students with high levels of test anxiety exhibit diminished or poor performance (Cassady & Johnson, 2002;Chapell et al., 2005;Segool, Carlson, Goforth, von der Embse, & Barterian, 2013) and, in some cases, school attrition (Cizek & Burg, 2006). Several models have focused on the impact of test anxiety in performance evaluations. ...
... Performance anxiety has been recognized as a variable that can negatively affect not only isolated performance but also broader educational processes (Cassady & Johnson, 2002;Chapell et al., 2005;Cizek & Burg, 2006;Segool et al., 2013). Thus, measuring test anxiety in students should be seen as an important issue. ...
Article
Since test performance is increasingly relevant in educational and occupational circles, the assessment of test anxiety—the phenomenological, physiological, and behavioral responses to the negative consequences that often emerge in evaluative situations—has become increasingly important to scholars and practitioners. One of the most widely employed scales to measure test anxiety in adolescents is the German Test Anxiety Inventory (in German: Prufungsangstfragebogen, PAF). The current study investigated the psychometric properties of the PAF when administered to Italian students. Our research found evidence of validity, supported the five-factor structure, and demonstrated the test’s good internal consistency. Moreover, the invariance of the dimensional structure across genders was examined. Overall, this study provides evidence for the reliability and validity of the PAF among Italian students.
... Despite the increasingly high incidence of anxiety among school students in pressurised systems of high-stakes accountability ( Segool et al. 2013), school violence (Shapiro 2018), school closures, and the prevalence of bullying, victimisation, and aggression (Rigby and Smith 2011), there remains a dearth of educational research on humour and laughter in schooling to counter the multiple threats to emotional well-being, academic performance and social health. As Tierney (2017,45) suggests, 'there is important social work taking place in the backstage talk and laughter of classrooms, ' and it is work from which we can learn. ...
Article
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While humour and laughter create conditions that are conducive for learning, different forms of children’s humour have been given little attention in research on digital media, literacy learning, and multimodal design. Applying a Bakhtinian lens, we analyse carnivalesque videos created by elementary students as part of the formal curriculum. We argue that they functioned as playful, spoofing counter narratives within the serious context of schooling. Three key findings emerge from analysis that show different forms of carnivalesque humour in their texts: (i) Clowning in children’s carnivalesque performances was used to break perceived tensions; (ii) Grotesque humour arose spontaneously, subverting the seriousness of films by drawing attention to lower, bodily functions; and (iii) Ambivalent laughter was instantiated in the video texts as a carnivalesque view of the world. We argue that the deliberate curation, editing, and selecting of these funny moments for an intended audience enabled spaces for digital play in film making within the remit of the formal curriculum.
... In terms of gender, it has been shown that females have higher levels of test anxiety than males (Arnold, 2002;Núñez-Peñaa, Suárez-Pellicioni, & Bono, 2016;Ely & Jastrowski-Mano, 2019;Danthony, Mascret, & Cury, 2019). A study conducted among elementary school children concluded that central exams are more anxiety-provoking than classroom testing (Segool, Carlson, Goforth, von der Embse, & Barterian, 2013). In addition to these, test anxiety was found to be a significant negative predictor for life satisfaction, self-esteem, and optimism among Turkish high school students (Çıkrıkçı, Erzen, & Akistanbullu-Yeniçeri, 2019). ...
... The environment of high stakes testing is also related to levels of anxiety experienced by children. Segool, Carlson, Goforth, Von Der Embse, and Barterian (2013) concluded that the higher the stakes were for testing, the greater the possibility for test anxiety to manifest. While not addressed by the research team, the authors of this work noted that a variety of interventions, including CCPT, may have the potential for reducing test anxiety. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study of normal functioning first graders examined the effectiveness of child-centered play therapy (CCPT) on performance anxiety and academic achievement. The experimental group received biweekly, 30-minute play therapy sessions for eight weeks. Findings indicated that the first grade students participating in this study (n = 29) demonstrated a statistically significant increase on the Early Achievement Composite of the Young Children’s Achievement Test (Hresko, Peak, Herron, & Bridges, 2000) when compared with children in the waitlist control group (n = 30). No significant difference was found for the Woodcock Johnson III Total Brief Achievement between groups. Additional findings of the analysis indicated that from pretest to posttest the play therapy (PT) group and the waitlist control (WC) group scored statically significantly lower mean scores on the performance anxiety cluster of the Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale, Second Edition (Reynolds & Richmond, 2008). Results support the use of CCPT as an intervention for academic achievement.
... The environment of high stakes testing is also related to levels of anxiety experienced by children. Segool, Carlson, Goforth, Von Der Embse, and Barterian (2013) concluded that the higher the stakes were for testing, the greater the possibility for test anxiety to manifest. While not addressed by the research team, the authors of this work noted that a variety of interventions, including CCPT, may have the potential for reducing test anxiety. ...
Article
Method ResultsClinical SignificanceDiscussionRecommendations for Further Research
... A survey project of multiple school stakeholders, including over 400 third-through fifth graders, teachers, parents, and administrators in a small urban school district in Arkansas concluded that testing anxiety was negligible; in fact, a large percentage of students said they enjoyed test taking (Mulvenon, Stegman, & Ritter, 2005). A study comparing standardized testing with classroom testing found that children experienced more test anxiety with high-stakes NCLB testing than with typical low-stakes classroom testing (Segool, Carlson, Goforth, Von Der Embse, & Barternab, 2013). In all these studies, some researchers disaggregated data by race or ethnicity and eligibility for free or reduced lunch, but none did so on the basis of ELL status. ...
Article
This study is a phenomenological study that examines the No Child Left Behind testing experience of middle school English language learners (ELLs) through their journal writing. Thirteen students in a seventh/eighth-grade self-contained Chinese bilingual classroom wrote journal entries in response to a prompt asking their opinion of standardized testing; students responded in either Chinese or English. The author found that students had many incisive critiques of testing and test preparation, articulated reasons for not performing well, expressed their psychological or emotional reactions, and offered recommendations for improving the experience. Some students used their knowledge of the Chinese educational system to compare and contrast their testing experiences. The students' overall negative experience was due to overtesting, the ineffectiveness of remedial computer programs, "luck" as an unpredictable factor in multiple-choice tests, or their status as second language learners. Reactions of anxiety and fear of doing poorly also mattered. The author relates the concept of student voice to counter-narratives, identity construction, and resistance to dominant discourses about immigrant ELL students. She discusses how these "student voices" disrupt essentialized views of ELLs and recent immigrant students and urges educators to make the voices of immigrant and ELL students more prominent in classrooms.
... Students suffering from test anxiety do not feel confident about their abilities, and this is reflected in their performance and examination results ( Peleg, 2009;Trifoni & Shahini, 2011). Those with high test anxiety levels report lower performance on tests and lower academic achievement ( Putain, 2008;Segool, Carlson, Goforth, von der Embse, & Barterian, 2013). Test anxiety interferes with learning and functioning in school, often beginning when children are first introduced into the education system ( Segal & Shimony, 2000;Spielberger & Vagg, 1995) but typically increasing in high school ( Peleg, 2009) and college ( Trifoni & Shahini, 2011), when grades become a permanent part of student records and impact their educational and professional future ( Aron, 2012). ...
Article
Test anxiety has become a serious problem in modern society (e.g., Peleg, 2004). Studies have found it to be associated with parenting and family patterns (e.g., Peleg et al., 2003) and specifically with differentiation of self (Peleg, 2004; Peleg et al., 2003). Additional studies reported that parents' academic expectations may play a particularly important role in offspring's test anxiety (e.g., Fox, Henderson, Marshall, Nichols, & Ghera, 2005; Peleg-Popko & Klingman, 2002). The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationships between differentiation of self, perceptions of parents' academic expectations and test anxiety among college students. Specifically we examined whether the correlation between differentiation of self (exogenous variable) and test anxiety (endogenous variable) was mediated by perceived parental academic expectations. Participants were 392 female college students (ages 19–36, mean age 23.6, SD = 2.8). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was conducted using the AMOS program (Arbuckle, 2007) to test this mediation effect with respect to all subscales. Results showed that students' perceptions of their parents' academic expectations served as a partial mediator between fusion with others (differentiation of self subscale) and emotionality (test anxiety subscale) and between emotional cutoff (differentiation of self subscale) and worry (test anxiety subscale). Students with higher levels of fusion with others or emotional cutoff reported higher perceived parental academic expectations and higher levels of test anxiety. Teachers and school counselors can use the results to create profiles that will help identify which students are likely to develop excessive test anxiety.
... This review of the effects of standardised testing regimes is not to suggest, however, that students' experiences of standardised testing are uniform; findings are equivocal ( Segool et al. 2013). Students' reported experiences of standardised testing are as diverse as stu- dents themselves; students experience standardised tests in distinct matrices of personal, social, cultural and economic contexts that interrelate with the particularities of the event of the test day itself. ...
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Standardised testing regimes, including the National Assessment Program Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) in Australia, have impacted on relationships between and within schools, and on teachers’ work and on pedagogies. Previous analyses of the effects of NAPLAN have been generated outside of the test situation: frequently through attitudinal surveys and qualitative interviews. This article takes as its point of departure two intensely affective events associated with the NAPLAN test day itself. These events erupted in two qualitative studies of students’ schooling experiences: a study of students’ experiences of NAPLAN and a study of students’ experiences of student voice at school. We ask, after Deleuze and Guattari, What can a NAPLAN test do? Exploring the entangled corporeal (physical and embodied) and incorporeal (psychic and subjectivating) wounds effected in and through these events, we analyse the dynamic constitution and re-constitutions of ‘at risk’ categorisations. While the NAPLAN test is not claimed to cause physical and psychical injury, we argue that standardised test conditions, in these singular events, are inextricably entwined with the formation of particular students’ schooled subjectivities.
... Nonethe- less, it is possible that effects may be moderated by cur- rently excluded factors. For example, the intervention may work better for those who are more adversely affected under evaluative versus non-evaluative situ- ations, or for tasks requiring oral versus written presen- tations ( Diaz et al., 2001), or in actual high-stakes versus simulated low-stakes testing situations (Segool, Carlson, Goforth, von der Embse, & Barterian, 2013). ...
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A pre-test/post-test, intervention-versus-control experimental design was used to examine the effects, mechanisms and moderators of deep breathing on state anxiety and test performance in 122 Primary 5 students. Taking deep breaths before a timed math test significantly reduced self-reported feelings of anxiety and improved test performance. There was a statistical trend towards greater effectiveness in reducing state anxiety for boys compared to girls, and in enhancing test performance for students with higher autonomic reactivity in test-like situations. The latter moderation was significant when comparing high-versus-low autonomic reactivity groups. Mediation analyses suggest that deep breathing reduces state anxiety in test-like situations, creating a better state-of-mind by enhancing the regulation of adaptive-maladaptive thoughts during the test, allowing for better performance. The quick and simple technique can be easily learnt and effectively applied by most children to immediately alleviate some of the adverse effects of test anxiety on psychological well-being and academic performance. Access eprint here: http://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/xRzFv5SA4sBmsh4z4jx3/full
... Por otro lado, la AE constituye un factor de riesgo para el bienestar y desarrollo personal, social y académico de niños y adolescentes (Servera, Llabrés & Bornás, 1996;La Greca, Siegel, Wallander, & Walker, 1992), debido a que genera alteraciones específicas en los distintos ámbitos del sujeto, por lo que la ansiedad parece afectar de modo directo a la salud mental en determinadas etapas de la vida, especialmente durante la adolescencia (Axelsson & Ejlertsson, 2002;Bagley & Mallick, 2001). En estudios recientes se advierte sobre la importancia de la AE en relación al bienestar emocional en la infancia y la necesidad de desarrollar acciones que ayuden a prevenirla y mitigarla (Carsley & Heath, 2019;Segool, Carlson, Goforth, von der Embse, & Barterian, 2013; Von der Embse, . ...
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Se adaptó al español la Children’s Test Anxiety Scale (CTAS; Wren & Benson, 2004) para su empleo en adolescentes argentinos de entre 12 y 17 años. La CTAS es un autoinforme con 30 ítems agrupados en 3 dimensiones: comportamiento fuera de la tarea, pensamientos y reacciones autonómicas. Se realizó la traducción directa de los ítems y el análisis de equivalencia en una muestra bilingüe. Mediante análisis factorial exploratorio (N = 360 estudiantes,de ambos sexos, de escuelas secundarias públicas y privadas, de 11 a 13 años, M =12.77, DE = .72) se obtuvieron dos soluciones alternativas para su estructura, una con las tres dimensiones originales y otra de cuatro factores, diferenciando pensamientos de preocupación y autocríticos. Se evaluó el ajuste de ambos modelos con análisis factorial confirmatorio (N = 501 estudiantes, de ambos sexos, de escuelas secundarias públicas y privadas, de 12 a 17 años, M= 13.98, DE: .87), obteniendo el de cuatro dimensiones los índices más aceptables (?2/df = 1.92, CFI = .90, TLI = .09, RMSEA = 0.043, AIC = 410, BIC = 414), aunque dos ítems se eliminaron por resultar problemáticos. La consistencia de las escalas fue adecuada (?= .68 - .79). Se constataron diferencias de género y correlaciones con el rendimiento académico similares a las informadas con otras escalas de ansiedad frente a los exámenes. Se recomienda el empleo de la adaptación obtenida con algunos recaudos.
... As a result we planned to complete this study with adolescents. The aim of the study was to research the variables mediating the correlation between test anxiety, a universal phenomenon in adolescence (Beidel, Turner, & Taylor-Ferreira, 1999;Erzen & Odacı, 2016;Segool, Carlson, Goforth, Von Der Embse, & Barterian, 2013) and life satisfaction. In this way, the mediating role of self-esteem and optimism was researched. ...
Article
The aim of this research was to assess the mediating role of self-esteem and optimism in the correlation between test anxiety and life satisfaction. The study group comprised 201 females (50.6%), 185 males (46.6%) and 11 students without stated gender (2.8%) for a total of 397 high school students. The ages of adolescents included in the study group varied from 14 to 19, with a mean age of 16.09 ( SD = 1.09). The research used the Test Anxiety Inventory, Satisfaction with Life Scale, Self-Esteem Scale, Life Orientation Test and a personal information form developed by the researchers as data collection tools. According to the results of correlation analysis, there were significant correlations between test anxiety, self-esteem, optimism and life satisfaction. According to the mediation test results, self-esteem and optimism have full mediating roles in the correlation between test anxiety and life satisfaction. The results obtained are discussed with reference to the literature.
... Regarding effects of personality variables on cognitive test results, neither effects of test anxiety nor of risk propensity revealed significant differences, even though interactions between these characteristics and response format have been suggested by earlier research (e.g., Rowley, 1974;Benjamin et al., 1981;Crocker and Schmitt, 1987;Alnabhan, 2002;Rubio et al., 2010). As previous studies revealed effects of subjects' test anxiety and risk propensity on test scores particularly within high-stakes assessments ( Segool et al., 2013;Knekta, 2017;Stenlund et al., 2018), aspects of the test situation (low-stakes) could have contributed to this finding. Given the small personal relevance of the test outcome for the pupils in the current study, test anxiety and risk propensity may not have influenced the subjects substantially in this test situation. ...
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... These inefficiencies and interferences lead to negative outcomes in performance, exacerbate feelings of anxiety, and may be the avenue for students' increased levels of depressive symptoms ( Zunhammer et al., 2013). Estimates of the rates of incidence of test anxiety have varied over the years-but recent estimates from valid resources suggest that ∼40-60% of students likely experience test anxiety (Ergene, 2003;Segool et al., 2013) but only ∼15% experience test anxiety to a debilitating degree (Putwain and Daly, 2014). ...
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Universities are increasingly cognizant of the importance of attending to the psychological and emotional needs of undergraduate learners, recognizing that anxiety and depression have significant negative impacts on student retention and success. The focus of the current study was to evaluate the connections among various forms of anxiety and examine the relationships these indicators of anxiety have with depression. The results demonstrated that a broad measure of neuroticism was a meaningful predictor for depression. However, precision in detecting depressive symptoms was improved when examining an additional measure specifically focused on academic anxiety. The results provide support for a nested model of anxiety, which suggests that broad neuroticism, then academic anxiety, and finally test anxiety are progressively more specific manifestations of anxiety in university students. The collection of these findings provide early indication of avenues that may support learners who are beginning to exhibit signs of emotional distress, potentially reducing the tendency to progress from a contextual anxiety response to more serious mental health concerns.
... As such, test anxiety has been suggested to occur along a continuum, and rather than some individuals indicating that test anxiety is always present, students may differ in their expe- riences of test anxiety (McDonald, 2001). Test anxiety is associ- ated with a number of negative outcomes such as overanxious disorder and other types of anxiety disorders (e.g., social pho- bia), and mental health difficulties (e.g., specific phobia, depres- sion; King, Mietz, Tinney, & Ollendick, 1995;LeBeau et al., 2010), low self-esteem (Pekrun, 2000), lower grades and aca- demic performance (Eum & Rice, 2011;Segool, Carlson, Goforth, Von der Embse, & Barterian, 2013), grade retention (Hembree, 1988), and dropout ( Chapell et al., 2005;Tobias, 1979). Furthermore, effects of test anxiety can increase in sever- ity if not treated at a young age (Swanson & Howell, 1996). ...
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The authors investigated the effectiveness of a mindfulness art activity compared with a free draw/coloring activity on test anxiety in children. The sample consisted of 152 students (50% female; Mage = 10.38 years, SD = 0.88 years) randomly assigned to a mindful (n = 76) or free (n = 76) group. Participants completed a standardized measure of anxiety and state mindfulness before and after the coloring activity, immediately before a spelling test, as well as a measure of dispositional mindfulness. Results revealed an overall significant decrease in test anxiety and an overall significant increase in state mindfulness following the interventions. Furthermore, although a significant negative correlation was found between dispositional mindfulness and change in state mindfulness pre- and post-coloring intervention, a significant positive correlation was found between dispositional mindfulness and pre-intervention state mindfulness, suggesting a possible ceiling effect. Explanations for these findings and implications for school personnel and future research are discussed.
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The Test Anxiety Inventory for Children and Adolescents (TAICA) is a new multidimensional measure used to assess test anxiety in elementary and secondary school students. The TAICA is a 45-item self-report measure consisting of a Total Test Anxiety scale, four debilitating test anxiety subscales (Cognitive Obstruction/Inattention, Physiological Hyperarousal, Social Humiliation, and Worry), a facilitating test anxiety scale (Performance Enhancement/ Facilitation Anxiety), and a Lie scale. In the present study, the psychometric properties of the TAICA scores are examined with a volunteer sample of 206 children and adolescents. Results of the study indicate that the TAICA scores have strong to very strong internal consistency reliability and temporal stability (1- to 3-week test-retest interval). Evidence supporting the construct validity of the TAICA scores was found.
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This article discusses teachers' views on state-mandated testing programs. An overview of the literature is presented, as well as results from a nationwide survey of teachers. Findings from both suggest that high-stakes state-mandated testing programs can lead to instruction that contradicts teachers' views of sound educational practice. In particular, teachers frequently report that the pressure to raise test scores encourages them to emphasize instructional and assessment strategies that mirror the content and format of the state test, and to devote large amounts of classroom time to test preparation activities. The article concludes that serious reconsideration must be given to the use of high-stakes consequences in current statewide testing programs.
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Examined the prevalence of test anxiety in 168 African-American 3rd–6th grade students in an urban and primarily lower socioeconomic school district. In addition, the relationship of test anxiety to non-test-related fears, academic achievement, and self-concept was assessed. Ss completed self-report inventories in small group settings. The overall prevalence of test anxiety was 41%, and the academic achievement of test-anxious Ss was significantly lower than their non-test-anxious Ss. Test-anxious Ss perceived themselves to be less cognitively and socially competent, expressed more negative feelings of general self-worth, and reported significantly more non-test-related fears. Data suggest test anxiety among African-American school children in an urban and lower socioeconomic school district is not significantly different from that reported by D. C. Beidel (unpublished manuscript) for school districts with different demographic profiles. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This study investigated the effects of a novel, classroom-based emotion self-regulation program (TestEdge) on measures of test anxiety, socioemotional function, test performance, and heart rate variability (HRV) in high school students. The program teaches students how to self-generate a specific psychophysiological state--psychophysiological coherence--which has been shown to improve nervous system function, emotional stability, and cognitive performance. Implemented as part of a larger study investigating the population of tenth grade students in two California high schools (N = 980), the research reported here was conducted as a controlled pre- and post-intervention laboratory experiment, using electrophysiological measures, on a random stratified sample of students from the intervention and control schools (N = 136). The Stroop color-word conflict test was used as the experiment's stimulus to simulate the stress of taking a high-stakes test, while continuous HRV recordings were gathered. The post-intervention electrophysiological results showed a pattern of improvement across all HRV measures, indicating that students who received the intervention program had learned how to better manage their emotions and to self-activate the psychophysiological coherence state under stressful conditions. Moreover, students with high test anxiety exhibited increased HRV and heart rhythm coherence even during a resting baseline condition (without conscious use of the program's techniques), suggesting that they had internalized the benefits of the intervention. Consistent with these results, students exhibited reduced test anxiety and reduced negative affect after the intervention. Finally, there is suggestive evidence from a matched-pairs analysis that reduced test anxiety and increased psychophysiological coherence appear to be directly associated with improved test performance--a finding consistent with evidence from the larger study.
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Children evince specific fears and anxieties that may impede social and academic development at school. Following a brief discussion of normal fears and epidemiological issues, we note the basic features and methodological requirements of a cognitive-behavioral perspective. Clinical and empirical classifications of childhood anxiety disorders are examined, from which the complexity of these disorders is evident. Assessment is viewed as a multimethod, problem-solving approach. Thus, a range of specific assessment procedures is examined, including the interview, self-report instruments, other-report measures, behavioral observations, self-monitoring, and physiological assessment. In reviewing the cognitive-behavioral treatment of childhood fears and anxiety disorders, we stress the need for flexibility and integrative programs in the school setting. Although research findings on the efficacy of fear reduction procedures are encouraging, there are a number of conceptual and methodological limitations. Also, the role of teachers in identifying and managing anxious children awaits full articulation.
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Results of 562 studies were integrated by meta-analysis to show the nature, effects, and treatment of academic test anxiety. Effect sizes were computed through the method invented by Glass (Glass, McGaw, & Smith, 1981). Correlations and effect-size groups were tested for consistency and significance with inferential statistics by Hedges and Olkin (1985). Test anxiety (TA) causes poor performance. It relates inversely to students’ self-esteem and directly to their fears of negative evaluation, defensiveness, and other forms of anxiety. Conditions (causes) giving rise to differential TA levels include ability, gender, and school grade level. A variety of treatments are effective in reducing test anxiety. Contrary to prior perceptions, improved test performance and grade point average (GPA) consistently accompany TA reduction.
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This study examined elementary students' perceptions of high-stakes testing through the use of drawings and writings. On the day after students completed their high-stakes tests in the spring, 225 students were asked to “draw a picture about your recent testing experience.” The same students then responded in writing to the prompt “tell me about your picture.” During data analysis, nine categories were constructed from the themes in students' drawings and written descriptions: Emotions, Easy, Content Areas, Teacher Role, Student Metaphors, Fire, Power/Politics, Adult Language, and Culture of Testing. Each of these categories was supported by drawings and written descriptions. Two additional categories were compelling because of their prevalence in students' drawings: Accoutrements of Testing and Isolation. The researchers examine the prevailing negativity in students' responses and suggest ways to decrease students' overall test anxiety, including making changes in the overall testing culture and changing the role teachers play in test preparation.
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This research investigated factors affecting examination anxiety and aimed to increase schools’ understanding of this topic. The study was a school-based initiative, evaluating intervention strategies to help secondary pupils with the self-management of their examination anxiety. The study compared the effects of a range of approaches on participants’ performance in the GCSE (General Certificate of Secondary Education) examinations, on their self-reported examination anxiety and on their behaviour. Intervention strategies had previously been trialled in a smaller group pilot study. Data suggest that interventions using cognitive behavioural approaches combined with relaxation helped pupils to improve their examination performance in Maths. Findings also suggest an interaction between pre-anxiety level and performance, suggesting that it is not minimal, but optimal anxiety which leads to better examination performance. Results encourage the view that school-based programmes using mixed interventions may be effective in the prevention of excessive examination anxiety and in the improvement of examination performance if compared to single interventions, but show variations depending on the curriculum subject. There is evidence from the literature that Maths anxiety in particular may have considerable life impact, and that levels of Maths anxiety have been shown to predict later career choices in American adolescents.
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The passage of "No Child Left Behind" (NCLB) legislation has led to an increased awareness of testing and assessment in public school systems and its impact. A cursory review of the academic literature and national news sources on the impact of standardized testing revealed a plethora of anecdotal cases of students experiencing illness, anxiety, and heightened levels of stress all attributed to the administration of these examinations. Furthermore, numerous studies have surveyed teachers regarding the impact of standardized tests, producing similar overviews that low performance on these examinations is correlated with increased levels of anxiety and stress. An element glaring by its omission is a formal study that surveys all stakeholders surrounding public school systems, including students, parents, teachers, principals, and counselors to gain a comprehensive understanding of the perceptions of standardized testing. Furthermore, a unique aspect of this study is the linking of student, parent, and teacher responses directly to student performance on a criterion-referenced state examination and a national norm-referenced examination. The results from these studies suggest that most of the "dangers" of standardized testing are overstated and misrepresented and that most students, parents, principals, and counselors value these tests and do not report increased levels of stress or anxiety. However, teachers as a group do present strong misgivings about standardized testing.
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Given the increased testing of school-aged children in the United States there is a need for a current and valid scale to measure the effects of test anxiety in children. The domain of children's test anxiety was theorized to be comprised of three dimensions: thoughts, autonomic reactions, and off-task behaviors. Four stages are described in the evolution of the Children's Test Anxiety Scale (CTAS): planning, construction, quantitative evaluation, and validation. A 50-item scale was administered to a development sample (N=230) of children in grades 3–6 to obtain item analysis and reliability estimates which resulted in a refined 30-item scale. The reduced scale was administered to a validation sample (N=261) to obtain construct validity evidence. A three-factor structure fit the data reasonably well. Recommendations for future research with the scale are described.
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The study reported here aimed to establish whether the stakes of examinations taken by students in the final two years of compulsory education in the UK were associated with degree of self‐reported examination anxiety, and whether examination stakes moderated the anxiety–examination grade relationship. Data were collected from 615 students who were due to take examinations conceptualised as high stakes (a terminal examination), mid stakes (a modular examination), or low stakes (a mock examination). Findings suggested that students reported the lowest levels of anxiety and attained the highest grades in the mid stakes examination. Regression analysis suggested that examination stakes do moderate the inverse anxiety–grade relationship, but the effect for high stakes examinations was not in the expected direction. Results are interpreted in the context of limitations to this study’s design. Factors associated with the different timing of the examinations may have influenced results. Due to design limitations, these findings should only be considered provisional and an attempt should be made to replicate the findings using a more robust design. This study highlights the difficulties with designing studies and collecting data in an applied educational context.
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Autonomic (skin conductance and resistance, heart rate, and heart rate variability), self-report (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and causal attributions of task performance), and performance (modified Stroop Color–Word Test and 8 difficult anagrams) measures of anxiety were collected from 36 test-anxious and 36 non-test-anxious (Test Anxiety Scale) female undergraduates in an analog testing situation under 3 experimental conditions. High-test-anxious (HTA) Ss performed more poorly and reported higher levels of anxious arousal and worry in the analog testing situation than low-test-anxious (LTA) Ss. Also, self-evaluations of test performance made by HTA Ss differed from those made by LTA Ss in being more negative and unrelated to actual test performance. However, HTA and LTA Ss showed virtually identical changes in electrodermal activity and heart rate in response to the stress of the testing situation. Only heart rate variability, which appeared to reflect differences in the cognitive and attentional responses of the test anxiety groups, successfully differentiated HTA and LTA Ss. Results support cognitive formulations of test anxiety and indicate that deficits in information processing associated with test anxiety do not result from maladaptive levels of autonomic arousal. (56 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Chapter
The Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC–2; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2004) is a multimethod, multidimensional system used to evaluate the behavior and self-perceptions of children, adolescents, and young adults aged 2 through 25 years. The BASC–2 is multimethod in that it has the following components, which may be used individually or in any combination: (1) two rating scales, one for teachers (Teacher Rating Scales, or TRS) and one for parents (Parent Rating Scales, or PRS), which gather descriptions of the child's observable behavior, each divided into age-appropriate forms; (2) a self-report scale (Self-Report of Personality, or SRP), on which the child or young adult can describe his or her emotions and self-perceptions; (3) a Structured Developmental History (SDH) form; (4) a form for recording and classifying directly observed classroom behavior (Student Observation System, or SOS), which is also available for PDA applications as an electronic version known as the BASC–2 POP or Portable Observation Program; and (5) a self-report for parents of children ages 2–18 years, designed to capture a parent's perspective on the parent-child relationship in such domains as communication, disciplinary styles, attachment, involvement, and others. Keywords: diagnosis; behavior; behavioral assessment; psychopathology
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Researchers disagree whether the correlation between cognitive test anxiety and test performance is causal or explainable by skill deficits, which lead to both cognitive test anxiety and lower test performance. Most causal theories of test anxiety assume that individual differences in cognitive test anxiety originate from differences in self-perceived competence. Accordingly, in the present research, we sought to temporarily heighten perceptions of competence using a priming intervention. Two studies with secondary- and vocational-school students (Ns = 219 and 232, respectively) contrasted this intervention with a no-priming control condition. Priming competence diminished the association between cognitive test anxiety and test performance by heightening the performance of cognitively test-anxious students and by lowering the performance of students with low levels of cognitive test anxiety. The findings suggest that cognitively test-anxious persons have greater abilities than they commonly show. Competency priming may offer a way to improve the situation of people with cognitive test anxiety.
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-This smdy examined the relationship between rwo aspects of the TAQ, identified as "worry" and "emotionslity," and performance expectancies on a college examination. For this purpose, a short Pre-examination Questionnaire was developed. As predicted, worry (W) was inversely related to performance expectancy. No relationship between expectancy and emotionality (E) was found. The components of Mandler and Sarason's Test Anxiety Questionnaire have typically been examined by various factor-analytic techniques (e.g., Gorsuch, 1966; Sassenrath, 1964; Sassenrath, Kight, 8: Kaiser, 1965). Two cla~ses of factors seem to emerge: cognitive factors which might be labelled "worry" or "lack of confidence" and Zactors which refer to various indices of autonomic arousal or "emotionality." The present study examined a specific hypothesized relationship between these two aspecrs of anxiety and performance expectancy on a college examination. "Worry" (W) was conceptually identified as any cognitive expression of concern about one's own performance, while "emotionality" (E) referred ro autonomic reactions which tend to occur under examination suess. It was hypothesized that worry would be inversely related to performance expectancy. This relationship was predicted on the basis of the following reasoning. Worry is primarily cognitive concern about the consequences of failing, the ability of others relative to one's own, etc. Thus, in situations where persons expect success, considerations of worry should be minimized. In contrast, when poor performance is expected they should be maximal. On the other hand, indices of anxiety which are primarily autonomic or emotional in nature were hypothesized to reflect the immediate uncertainty of the test-taking situation. Thus, emotionality should be highest when one's own performance is least certain (i.e., when expectancy is nearest .5). This prediction is in accord with Atkinson and Feather's (1966) risk-taking model, in which test anxiety is assumed to be an indication of the strength of the motive to avoid failure. This motive, and the anxiety associated with it, is held to be highest at the point of maximum uncertainty (Atkinson & Litwin, 1960). It is pertinent, however, that when Feather (1963) asked persons how "worried rhey were during a problem-solving task in which expectancies were manipulated, an inverse relationship between expectancy and worry was obtained. The purpose of this study was to corroborate the posited inverse relationship between expectancy aod worry and to demonstrate that this relationship does not parallel the relationship between expectancy and emotionality.
Addressing test anxiety in a high-stakes environment: Strategies for classrooms and schools
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Cizek, G. J., & Burg, S. S. (2006). Addressing test anxiety in a high-stakes environment: Strategies for classrooms and schools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Looking through different lenses: Teachers' and administrators' views of accountability Retrieved from http://www.pdkintl.org/kappan/k_v87/k0606toc The impact of highstakes testing on teachers and students in North Carolina
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Impact of accountability and school testing on students: Is there evidence of anxiety? Paper presented at the 30th Annual Meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Association
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Mulvenon, S. W., Connors, J. V., & Lenares, D. (2001, November). Impact of accountability and school testing on students: Is there evidence of anxiety? Paper presented at the 30th Annual Meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Association, Little Rock, AR.
What research says about test anxiety in elementary school children
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Sarason, S. B. (1959). What research says about test anxiety in elementary school children. NEA Journal, 48, 26 -27.
Test anxiety: The state of the art
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Zeidner, M. (1998). Test anxiety: The state of the art. New York, NY: Plenum Press.
Effects of systematic desensitisation (SD) therapy on the reduction of test anxiety among adolescents in Nigerian schools
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Egbochuku, E., & Obodo, B. (2005). Effects of systematic desensitisation (SD) therapy on the reduction of test anxiety among adolescents in Nigerian schools. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 32, 298 -304.
Reducing test anxiety among third grade students through the implementation of relaxation techniques Retrieved from http://www.jsc.montana Cognitive and emotional components of test anxiety: A distinction and some initial data
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Larson, H., Ramahi, M., Conn, S., Estes, L., & Gibellini, A. (2010). Reducing test anxiety among third grade students through the implementation of relaxation techniques. Journal of School Counseling, 8, 1 – 19. Retrieved from http://www.jsc.montana.edu/articles/v8n19.pdf Liebert, R. M., & Morris, L. W. (1967). Cognitive and emotional components of test anxiety: A distinction and some initial data. Psychological Reports, 20, 975 – 978. doi:10.2466/PR0.20.3.975-978
The Test Anxiety Inventory for Children and Adolescents (TAICA): Examination of the psychometric properties of a new multidimensional measure of test anxiety among elementary and secondary school students
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Impact of accountability and school testing on students: Is there evidence of anxiety?
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Mulvenon, S. W., Connors, J. V., & Lenares, D. (2001, November). Impact of accountability and school testing on students: Is there evidence of anxiety? Paper presented at the 30th Annual Meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Association, Little Rock, AR.
Public Law 107-110. No Child Left Behind Act of
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