ArticlePDF Available

Interoperable Data Management Using Personal and Infrastructure Clouds


Abstract and Figures

Cloud computing has reached a level of maturity and high level of popularity such that various cloud services have become a part of our lives. Mobile devices also benefit from cloud services. The huge amount of data that users produce with these devices is continuously posted to online services, which require the use of several cloud providers at the same time to efficiently store these data. The Internet of Things (IoT) provides a way to improve social networking by interdisciplinary efforts that can be effectively supported by cloud computing solutions. This article proposes an approach for composing and interoperating cloud solutions to support IoT functionality. The author unites separate personal clouds in an autonomous way to cope with the enormous amount of data users produce and share in social networks. He also demonstrates how to manage, share, and process user data produced by mobile devices in different infrastructure-as-a-service (IaaS) clouds. Link:
Content may be subject to copyright.
Interoperable Data Management
by Utilizing Personal and Infrastructure Clouds
Attila Kertesz
Abstract—Cloud computing has reached a maturity state and
high level of popularity that various cloud services have become
a part of our lives. Mobile devices also benefit from cloud
services. The huge data users produce with these devices
are continuously posted to online services, which require the
use of several cloud providers at the same time to efficiently
store these data. The Internet of Things provides a way to
improve social networking by interdisciplinary efforts that can be
effectively supported by cloud computing solutions. In this article
we propose novel approaches for composing and interoperating
cloud solutions to support IoT functionality. We provide a novel
way to unite separate personal clouds in an autonomous way to
cope with the enormous data users produce and share in social
networks. We also exemplify how to manage, share and process
user data produced by mobile devices in different IaaS clouds.
Keywords—Cloud Computing; Data Interoperability; Personal
Clouds; IoT
NOWADAYS the cloud computing paradigm
has reached a maturity state that various
cloud services have become a part of our lives.
These services are offered at different cloud
deployment models ranging from the lowest
infrastructure level to the highest software or
application level. Within Infrastructure as a
Service (IaaS) solutions we can differentiate
public, private, hybrid and community clouds
according to recent reports of standardization
bodies [7]. The previous two types may utilize
more than one cloud system, which is also
called as a cloud federation [8]. One of the open
issues of such federations is the interoperable
management of data among the participating
A. Kertesz is with the University of Szeged and MTA SZTAKI,
Hungary. E-mail:
This research was supported by the European Union and the State of
Hungary, co-financed by the European Social Fund in the frame-
work of TAMOP 4.2.4. A/2-11-1-2012-0001 ’National Excellence
systems. Another popular family of cloud ser-
vices is called cloud storage services or per-
sonal clouds. With the help of such solutions,
user data can be stored in a remote location
and can be accessed from anywhere. Mobile
devices can also benefit from these cloud ser-
vices. The enormous data users produce with
these devices are continuously posted to online
services, which may require the use of several
cloud providers at the same time to efficiently
store and retrieve these data. The aim of our
research is to develop a solution that unites
and manages separate personal clouds in an
autonomous way to provide a suitable solution
for these user needs.
The Cluster of European Research Projects
on the Internet of Things (CERP-IoT) considers
the Internet of Things (IoT) as a vital part of
Future Internet. They defined it as a dynamic
global network infrastructure with self config-
uring capabilities based on standard and inter-
operable communication protocols. Things in
this network interact and communicate among
themselves and with the environment by ex-
changing data and information sensed. They
react autonomously to events and influence
them by triggering actions with or without
direct human intervention [1]. Gubbi et al. [2]
have identified that to support the IoT vision,
the current computing paradigm need to go
beyond traditional mobile computing scenarios
and to evolve into connecting everyday exist-
ing objects by embedding intelligence. Cloud
computing has the potential to address these
needs, and it is able to hide data generation,
processing and visualization tasks in order to
tap the full potential of the Internet of Things
in various application domains.
In this article we propose novel solutions
for interoperable personal data management in
clouds to partly contribute to the evolution of
the Internet of Things. Our approaches enable
to share user data among cloud providers in
an autonomous way, and to manage and pro-
cess this data produced by mobile devices in
different clouds transparently.
Regarding related works, the need for data
interoperability and the extensive use of cloud
storage services have been identified by vari-
ous research and expert groups (eg. [7], [5], [3]).
Dillon et. al [4] gathered several interoperabil-
ity issues that need to be considered in cloud
research, and named a new category called
Data Storage as a Service to draw attention to
the problem of data management in clouds.
Garcia-Tinedo et al. [6] have also addressed
performance issues of personal clouds. They
developed a tool for actively measuring three
providers: Dropbox, and SugarSync.
They performed measurements for two months
with various data transfer load models to
search for interdependency among data sizes,
transfer quality and speed. They published
their measurement data and concluded that
these providers have different service levels,
and they often limit the speed of downloading.
This work also served as a motivation for our
research, but we decided to develop a more
lightweight and easily extendible measuring
tool to support our further research goal of au-
tonomous data sharing among these providers.
Research towards integrating the mobile
world and clouds has been surveyed by Fer-
nando et al. [11]. They argue that exploiting the
full potential of mobile computing is difficult
due to its inherent problems such as resource
scarcity, frequent disconnections, and mobility.
On the other hand, mobile cloud computing
can address these problems by executing mo-
bile applications on resource providers external
to the mobile device. The integration of IoT
and clouds has been envisioned by Botta et
al. [9] by summarizing their main properties,
features, underlying technologies, and open is-
sues. A solution for merging IoT and clouds
is proposed by Nastic et al. [10]. They argue
that system designers and operations managers
face numerous challenges to realize IoT cloud
systems in practice, due to the complexity and
diversity of their requirements in terms of
IoT resources consumption, customization and
runtime governance. With this work we plan
to make a step forward in this field by com-
bining cloud computational and data services
with capabilities of mobile devices. This vision
brings these technologies closer to users, and
provides a simple way to use heterogeneous
cloud services in order to ease their lives.
The largest amount of user provided data is
stored at cloud storage services also called as
personal clouds, which services are also rel-
evant for IoT. Their popularity is accounted
for easy access and sharing through various
interfaces and devices, synchronization, ver-
sion control and backup functionalities. The
freemium nature of these services maintain a
growing user community, and their high num-
ber of users also implies the development of
other higher level services that make use of
their cloud functionalities. To overcome the
limits of freely granted storage, users may
sign up to services of different providers, and
distribute their data manually among them,
which situation leads to a provider selection
problem. In this situation tracking the amount
and location of the already uploaded files and
splitting larger files can be a difficult task for
everyday users, which leads to the problem of
cloud provider selection – not to mention their
different capabilities concerning data transfer
speeds. These facts serve as a motivation for
our research, and one of the main goals of
this work is to propose a higher level service
that helps users to better manage their data by
providing transparent and automated access to
a unified storage over these clouds.
In order to exemplify our approach we ad-
dress four providers, namely Dropbox [14],
Google Drive [13], SugarSync [15] and
[16]. Drew Houston founded Dropbox Inc in
2007, and by 2011 it reached 14% market share
by having 50 million registered users, while
in 2013 it exceeded 200 million. Its freemium
model grants 2 GBs storage for a new registra-
tion that can be extended up to 8 GBs by invit-
ing others or performing certain tasks. Google
Drive is a personal cloud solution of Google.
It was initiated in 2012, but it has several
predecessors such as Google Docs since 2006.
It also serves as an in-house data store for sev-
eral other Google services, therefore it provides
15 GBs freely for a new user. Thanks to the
coupled services of Google, its web interface is
capable of previewing numerous file formats
in a browser. SugarSync was launched in 2009,
but its predecessor Sharpcast Photos dates back
to 2006. It provided 5 GBs free storage for
a newly registered user till December 2013,
when the owners announced to close freemium
services till February 2014. Since then its free
service is only valid for 30 days trial period. was founded as a startup company in
2005. Since 2010 it has a built-in file preview
functionality. It provides 10 GBs of free storage
for a new user.
Our proposed application to group these
clouds consists of three components:
the MeasureTool component for perform-
ing monitoring processes,
the DistributeTool component for splitting
and distributing files,
and the CollectTool component for retriev-
ing splitted parts of a required file.
The MeasureTool component implements
three basic functions: connecting to a user
account at a certain provider, uploading and
downloading certain files to and from the stor-
age of this account. It has a plugin-based struc-
ture to separate methods for different providers
and to enable further provider support. A mon-
itoring process for measuring the performance
of a provider consists of generating a file of
a predefined size with randomized content,
uploading this file to the provider’s storage
under a given user account, then downloading
this file back to the host of the application.
The main task of the DistributeTool compo-
nent is to apply certain policies for splitting up
and packaging files to be distributed among
the participating cloud providers in an efficient
way. The file to be uploaded to the providers’
storages is first split to a predefined number
Fig. 1. The proposed solution for autonomous
data management
of files, what we call chunks, with equal sizes.
The second step decides where to upload these
file chunks. Once it has been determined and a
chunk is uploaded, the DistributeTool compo-
nent stores chunk identifiers (e.g. name, user
token, file ID) to a local meta-data cache file.
By using this meta-data file, the CollectTool
component can later fetch the required chunk
files from the different providers.
The provider selection in the second step
is made upon the information gathered by
the MeasureTool component. Historical perfor-
mance values are also stored and taken into
account, and it is the role of the application
administrator to set the relevance (i.e. ratio)
of historical and latest performance results for
provider selection. The measured performance
values are converted to the following format
(denoting percentage shares – the sum of these
values represent 100%) taking into account the
aggregated historical performance values (h),
the latest performance values (l) and their ratio
(r) by evaluating (h+lr), e.g.:
{”googledrive” : 5392, ”dropbox” : 1615, ”box”
: 1085, ”sugarsync” : 292 }
According to these configuration numbers,
the DistributeTool component takes the sum
of these values (sum) and generates a random
number independently drawn from the range
{0, sum}for each chunk by using Gaussian
distribution. The CollectTool component is able
to collect the previously uploaded user files
from the cloud providers by using the meta-
data description file. Once the chunks of a
required file are retrieved, they are unified with
an optimized buffering technique.
We have performed our evaluations on a
private IaaS cloud based on OpenNebula. It
has been developed by a national project called
SZTAKI Cloud [12], which was initiated in
2012 to perform research in clouds, and to
create an institutional cloud infrastructure for
the Computer and Automation Research Insti-
tute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
Since 2014 it is in production state available for
all researchers associated with the institute. It
runs OpenNebula 4.4 with KVM, and controls
over 440 CPU cores, 1790 GBs of RAM, 66 TBs
shared and 35 TBs local storage for serving an
average of 250 Virtual Machines (VM) per day
for the last month. The application consisting of
the previously discussed components has been
deployed in a VM started at SZTAKI Cloud.
For users, the most important metric for
measuring provider performance is the data
transfer speed. Therefore we used this metric
to monitor the providers, and to use as a base
for autonomous file sharing. To perform an
evaluation of the MeasureTool component, we
up- and downloaded files to each personal
cloud considering the following scenarios: (i)
transferring two 5 MBs file or a 10 MBs file, (ii)
transferring five 10 MBs file or a 50 MBs file,
and (iii) transferring ten 10 MBs file or a 100
MBs file. In this way we arrived to 6 different
cases, and we could also measure data transfer
performance for handling many small and few
big files. We went through all cases systemat-
ically, and performed the same measurements
several times. Once the limit of the freemium
storage of a provider got exceeded, we halted
the measurement and deleted all files on that
storage to start following tests. We performed
the same measurements on different periods of
a week, i.e. on weekdays and at weekends.
This evaluation showed that Google Drive
has the best performance values followed by
Dropbox and, while SugarSync has
the worst values. While the difference between
Google Drive and SugarSync is slight, it is
not easy to compare and Dropbox.
Many small files are better handled by Drop-
box, while bigger files are transferred faster by Based on the results of the evalua-
tion of the MeasureTool component, our initial
hypothesis that service quality levels differ for
various cloud providers has been proven.
We evaluated our proposed solution with 4
different configurations (i.e. r= 0,0.1,0.5,0.9)
for user data distribution over the intercon-
nected personal clouds. During these mea-
surements the DistributeTool component per-
formed the splitting and packaging of the user
files, selecting providers for the created file
chunks based on the performance values and
configurations, and uploading the files to these
providers. The retrieval of the files was per-
formed by the CollectTool component by using
the meta-data description file created by the
DistributeTool component.
Fig. 2. Evaluation results for the proposed data
distributor application with different configura-
The evaluation results for the different con-
figurations are shown in Figure 2. As we can
see on this diagram, slight modifications on the
ratio of historical and latest performance values
(e.g. changing rfrom 0to 0.1) do not imply
big differences, but relying more on the latest
performance values (i.e. using r= 0.5) results
in faster up- and downloading times for the
overall user data.
Mobile devices, which play an important role
in IoT, can also benefit from cloud services.
The enormous data users produce with these
devices are continuously posted to online ser-
vices, which may require the modification
of these data. Next we introduce a scenario
that requires interoperable data management
among cloud infrastructures to manage user
data produced by mobile devices. Though
the computing capacity of mobile devices has
rapidly increased recently, there are still nu-
merous applications that cannot be solved with
them in reasonable time. Our approach is to
utilize cloud infrastructure services to execute
such applications on mobile data stored in per-
sonal clouds. The basic concept of our solution
is the following: services for data management
are running in one or more IaaS systems that
keep tracking the cloud storage of a user, and
execute data manipulation processes when new
files appear in the storage (see Figure 3).
Fig. 3. Enhancing data management of mobile
devices by interoperating clouds
The service running in the IaaS cloud can
download the user data files from the cloud
storage, execute the necessary application on
these files, and upload the modified data to the
storage service. Such files can be for example a
photo or video made by the user with his/her
mobile phone to be processed by an application
unsuitable for mobile devices. In our solution
currently developed for Android devices, there
is a possibility to configure the processes to be
performed on the data with a separate config-
uration file. This file is automatically created
and managed by a mobile application running
on the users device. The application is also
responsible for communicating with the cloud
storage, which is Dropbox in our case. The file
manipulation applications have been created as
a virtual appliance, and have been predeployed
in our SZTAKI cloud infrastructure based on
OpenNebula, to perform our evaluations.
The mobile application
In order to exemplify the usability of this
generic approach, we have developed an An-
droid application called FolderImage. It can be
used to manipulate pictures produced by mo-
bile devices. This program creates thumbnails
of each image of the appropriate folder then
ensembles them into a single image (called as
folder image). This generated image represents
the folder and gives an overview of its contents
to the user. This app can be really useful by
providing a glimpse of a directory, when a
user has thousands of pictures spread over
numerous directories, and she is looking for a
specific one.
It can be used in two modes: (i) in local
operation, when the folder image is generated
by using the computing resources of the actual
device, and (ii) in cloud operation, when the
application communicates directly with Drop-
box. In this case the pictures can be uploaded
on demand, or synchronized continuously, and
the folder image is generated in the cloud,
which is downloaded to the device after com-
pletion. These modes can be triggered by click-
ing on the appropriate button in its graphical
interface. In the FolderImage application, click-
ing on the first button, it will automatically
log in to Dropbox. After a successful login,
the name of the account holder is displayed
above the button. The second button can be
used to trigger a folder image creation in the
cloud, and the third one to perform the folder
image generation locally. This generated image
is also shown in the application GUI, under the
buttons. Status messages and updates on image
up-, downloads and generation are also shown
between the buttons and the folder image.
Though this GUI is relatively simple, it is not
an easy task to show proper look on devices
having different display resolutions.
As we mentioned, the second and third but-
tons can be used to generate the folder image,
this task has five similar steps:
1) list: to generate a list of the images the
actual folder contains;
2) download: to access the images of the
3) resize: to generate thumbnails of the im-
4) create: to ensemble the thumbnails;
5) upload: to save the created folder image.
Image generation in the cloud
As we have depicted in Figure 3, the idea of
our scenario is to move computation-intensive
tasks from a mobile device to the cloud. There-
fore we have also created a Java application
called ImageConverter that is capable of per-
forming the previous discussed 5 steps. We
have encapsulated this application to a Virtual
Appliance (VA), deployed, and started it as a
web service running in a local cloud. It also
has a direct connection with the user’s Dropbox
storage. It can continuously synchronize the
image directory, and perform the folder image
generation once a new image is added to the
folder. It can also be set to listen to a specific
configuration file that instructs it to execute
certain methods (eg. performing different kinds
of image manipulation processes). Once the
image generator method is called from the
Android application, the configuration file is
refreshed. Then the web service running in
the cloud is notified about this change, which
triggers the folder image generating and up-
loading processes.
Performance evaluation
We conducted a performance evaluation with
the SZTAKI Cloud [12], where we deployed
the ImageConverter VA in two different types of
virtual images: one having one processor and
one GB memory (VM1), and the other 4 proces-
sors with 4 GBs of memory (VM2). Meanwhile
we have also tested the FolderImage application
on two different Android devices: on a phone
(Samsung Galaxy Mini with Android v2.2, 600
MHz CPU and 384 MBs RAM) and a tablet
(Asus Slider SL101 with Android v4.0, 1 GHz
(dual-core) CPU and 1 GB RAM).
The evaluation results incorporating the 5
steps of the executed methods for a folder
containing 900 images are the following:
Android phone: 430596 ms,
Android tablet: 143010 ms,
Cloud VM1: 1841 ms,
Cloud VM2: 1068 ms.
These results clearly show the differences
among the different types of executions. Re-
garding the Android devices, the tablet per-
formed the generation 3 times faster then the
phone in both rounds of experiments. The web
service running in VM2 type virtual machine
performed two times faster then the other de-
ployment at VM1. The local execution on the
Android devices are significantly slower (more
then 100 times) then the image generations
performed in the cloud. These results prove
that it is worth moving computation-intensive
tasks to clouds from mobile devices.
Next we show a scenario when academic
and commercial IaaS clouds are interoperated
through a personal cloud. To increase hetero-
geneity, we performed another evaluation by
using Dropbox, OpenNebula and Amazon. For
this scenario we ported a biochemical applica-
tion to this environment. It generates conform-
ers by unconstrained molecular dynamics at
high temperature to overcome conformational
bias, then finishes each conformer by simulated
annealing and energy minimization to obtain
reliable structures. The end users of this app
are biologists or chemists, who need to exam-
ine molecular modeling for drug development.
The execution of the whole application in a
single PC takes around 5-8 days.
We used three scripts managed by a Java web
application to execute our app in a VM. The
master script performs the initial conformer
generation and the worker script performs ad-
ditional conformer finishing methods for 1000
conformers at a time. Finally the uploading
script compresses the subresults to a single re-
sult file. In this way the execution of the ported
app consists of the execution of a master task in
the first phase, followed by running 50 worker
tasks for processing the 50000 conformers in
the second phase, finally calling the uploading
script to create the final result in the third
Following our approach users only need to
make available their data in a personal cloud,
and to specify with a configuration file the or-
der of data processing (by linking VM methods
to data). Once this configuration file is available
and at least one VM (executing the necessary
service for processing user data) is running in
an IaaS cloud, the autonomous data processing
starts and goes on till all data is processed.
We used the same template configuration for
OpenNebula each having 4 virtual CPUs and
4 GBs of memory to start 3 VMs in SZTAKI
Cloud (denoted by ONe in the figure), and
for Amazon (denoted by AM) we also started
3 VMs with Linux Micro instances. It took
around 10 minutes to perform the initial input
data transfers and to deploy the IaaS VMs to
start with Phase 1 of our biochemical applica-
tion. The total execution took around 16 hours.
Detailed measurement results for Phase 2 of
this experiment is depicted in Figure 4. In these
diagrams we can see how the VMs of different
IaaS systems competed for tasks, and how long
it took them to compute these tasks in total (the
curve marks the start time of task computations
by VMs – except for the first task, which started
at 0:00).
The enormous data users produce with mo-
bile devices are continuously posted to online
services, which may require the use of sev-
eral cloud providers at the same time to effi-
ciently store, process and retrieve these data.
The aim of our research in this article was
to introduce cloud-based approaches that con-
tribute to the evolution and proliferation of
the Internet of Things. Our proposed solutions
store, process and share user data produced
by mobile devices by managing separate IaaS
and personal clouds in an interoperable and
autonomous way. Our future work aims at
extending the functionalities of the designed
services to widen interoperability and provider
Fig. 4. Detailed evaluation results for Phase 2
[1] H. Sundmaeker, P. Guillemin, P. Friess, S. Woelffle. Vi-
sion and challenges for realising the Internet of Things.
CERP IoT – Cluster of European Research Projects on
the Internet of Things, CN: KK-31-10-323-EN-C, March
[2] J. Gubbi, R. Buyya, S. Marusic, M. Palaniswami. Internet
of Things (IoT): A vision, architectural elements, and
future directions. Future Generation Computer Systems,
Volume 29, Issue 7, pp. 1645-1660, September 2013.
[3] J. Bozman. Cloud Computing: The Need for Portability
and Interoperability. IDC Executive Insights, August
[4] T. Dillon, C. Wu, and E. Chang. Cloud Computing:
Issues and Challenges. In proc. of the 24th IEEE Interna-
tional Conference on Advanced Information Networking
and Applications, pp. 27–33, 2010.
[5] Fraunhofer Institute for Secure Information
Technology. On THE Security of Cloud Storage
Services, SIT Technical reports, March 2012. Online:
cuments/Cloud-Storage-Security a4.pdf
[6] R. Garcia-Tinedo, M. Sanchez-Artigas, A. Moreno-
Martinez, C. Cotes s P. Garcia-Lopez. Actively Measur-
ing Personal Cloud Storage. The 6th IEEE International
Conference on Cloud Computing (Cloud’13), pp. 301–
308, 2013.
[7] K. Jeffery, and B. Neidecker-Lutz. The Future of Cloud
Computing, Opportunities for European Cloud Comput-
ing beyond 2010. Expert Group Report, Jan. 2010.
[8] A. Kertesz. Characterizing Cloud Federation Ap-
proaches. In book: Cloud Computing - Challenges,
Limitations and R&D Solutions, Zaigham Mahmood
(Ed.), Springer Series on Computer Communications and
Networks, pp. 277-296, 2014.
[9] A. Botta, W. de Donato, V. Persico, A. Pescape. On the
Integration of Cloud Computing and Internet of Things.
The 2nd International Conference on Future Internet of
Things and Cloud (FiCloud-2014), August 2014.
[10] S. Nastic, S. Sehic, D. Le, H. Truong, and S. Dustdar. Pro-
visioning Software-defined IoT Cloud Systems. The 2nd
International Conference on Future Internet of Things
and Cloud (FiCloud-2014), August 2014.
[11] N. Fernando, S. W. Loke, W. Rahayu. Mobile cloud
computing: A survey. Future Generation Computer
Systems, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 84-106, January 2013.
[12] The SZTAKI Cloud project website., May 2014.
[13] Google Drive., May 2014.
[14] Dropbox., May 2014.
[15] SugarSync., May 2014.
[16], May 2014.
... There is a recent work [11] which takes care of inter operating cloud solutions. This approach in [11] tried to accommodate huge data in mobile devices exploring several IoT characteristics. ...
... There is a recent work [11] which takes care of inter operating cloud solutions. This approach in [11] tried to accommodate huge data in mobile devices exploring several IoT characteristics. This scenario invites some performance related concerns. ...
Full-text available
Abstract Cloud federation is an aggregation of services from different providers in a single pool supporting interoperability and resource migration. In federation, Services are assigned to the consumer’s service access pool as per their specific functional and associated Quality level requirements. The said assignment is based on the advertised features of services. Sometimes, the selected provider fails to provide the committed service or, it fails to fulfill the expected QoS level. As a result, the consumer is being deprived of getting the services at required quality levels, in spite of subscribing and paying. Re-federation i.e. the inclusion of new services from different providers in the resource pool is a solution. This costly and time consuming re-federation process harms the overall harmony, reputation and performance of the existing federation. In this paper, the necessary strategies to make a federation autonomic is proposed. It helps federation to work in a self-adaptive manner by delaying the re-federation process through replacement and negotiation mechanisms. This allows the federation to keep a balanced state in case of failures. The proposed methods are simulated and the claims are substantiated by the preliminary experimental outcomes.
Full-text available
Cloud computing and Internet of Things (IoT), two very different technologies, are both already part of our life. Their massive adoption and use is expected to increase further, making them important components of the Future Internet. A novel paradigm where Cloud and IoT are merged together is foreseen as disruptive and an enabler of a large number of application scenarios. In this paper we focus our attention on the integration of Cloud and IoT, which we call the CloudIoT paradigm. Many works in literature have surveyed Cloud and IoT separately: their main properties, features, underlying technologies, and open issues. However, to the best of our knowledge, these works lack a detailed analysis of the CloudIoT paradigm. To bridge this gap, in this paper we review the literature about the integration of Cloud and IoT. We start analyzing and discussing the need for integrating them, the challenges deriving from such integration, and how these issues have been tackled in literature. We then describe application scenarios that have been presented in literature, as well as platforms-both commercial and open source-and projects implementing the CloudIoT paradigm. Finally, we identify open issues, main challenges and future directions in this promising field.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Cloud computing is ever stronger converging with the Internet of Things (IoT) offering novel techniques for IoT infrastructure virtualization and its management on the cloud. However, system designers and operations managers face numerous challenges to realize IoT cloud systems in practice, mainly due to the complexity involved with provisioning large-scale IoT cloud systems and diversity of their requirements in terms of IoT resources consumption, customization of IoT capabilities and runtime governance. In this paper, we introduce the concept of software-defined IoT units-a novel approach to IoT cloud computing that encapsulates fine-grained IoT resources and IoT capabilities in well-defined APIs in order to provide a unified view on accessing, configuring and operating IoT cloud systems. Our software-defined IoT units are the fundamental building blocks of software-defined IoT cloud systems. We present our framework for dynamic, on-demand provisioning and deploying such software-defined IoT cloud systems. By automating provisioning processes and supporting managed configuration models, our framework simplifies provisioning and enables flexible runtime customizations of software-defined IoT cloud systems. We demonstrate its advantages on a real-world IoT cloud system for managing electric fleet vehicles.
Full-text available
Cloud Computing offers on-demand access to computational, infrastructure and data resources operated from a remote source. This novel technology has opened new ways of flexible resource provisions for businesses to manage IT applications and data responding to new demands from customers. In this chapter, we provide a general insight to the formation and interoperability issues of Cloud Federations that envisage a distributed, heterogeneous environment consisting of various cloud infrastructures by aggregating different Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) provider capabilities coming from both the commercial and academic area. These multi-cloud infrastructures are also used to avoid provider lock-in issues for users that frequently utilize different clouds. We characterize and classify recent solutions that arose from both research projects and individual research groups, and show how they attempt to hide the diversity of multiple clouds and form a unified federation on top of them. As they still need to cope with several open issues concerning interoperability; we also provide guidelines to address related topics such as service monitoring, data protection and privacy, data management and energy efficiency.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Personal Cloud model is a mainstream service that meets the growing demand of millions of users for reliable off-site storage. However, despite their broad adoption, very little is known about the quality of service (QoS) of Personal Clouds. In this paper, we present a measurement study of three major Personal Clouds: DropBox, Box and SugarSync. Actively accessing to free accounts through their REST APIs, we analyzed important aspects to characterize their QoS, such as transfer speed, variability and failure rate. Our measurement, conducted during two months, is the first to deeply analyze many facets of these popular services and reveals new insights, such as important performance differences among providers, the existence of transfer speed daily patterns or sudden service breakdowns. We believe that the present analysis of Personal Clouds is of interest to researchers and developers with diverse concerns about Cloud storage, since our observations can help them to understand and characterize the nature of these services.
Full-text available
Foreword by Peter Friess & Gérald Santuci: It goes without saying that we are very content to publish this Clusterbook and to leave it today to your hands. The Cluster of European Research projects on the Internet of Things – CERP-IoT – comprises around 30 major research initiatives, platforms and networks work-ing in the field of identification technologies such as Radio Frequency Identification and in what could become tomorrow an Internet-connected and inter-connected world of objects. The book in front of you reports to you about the research and innovation issues at stake and demonstrates approaches and examples of possible solutions. If you take a closer look you will realise that the Cluster reflects exactly the ongoing developments towards a future Internet of Things – growing use of Identification technologies, massive deployment of simple and smart devices, increasing connection between objects and systems. Of course, many developments are less directly derived from the core research area but contribute significantly in creating the “big picture” and the paradigm change. We are also conscious to maintain Europe’s strong position in these fields and the result being achieved, but at the same time to understand the challenges ahead as a global endeavour with our international partners. As it regards international co-operation, the cluster is committed to increasing the number of common activities with the existing international partners and to looking for various stakeholders in other countries. However, we are just at the beginning and, following the prognostics which predict 50 to 100 billion devices to be connected by 2020, the true research work starts now. The European Commission is decided to implement its Internet of Things policy for supporting an economic revival and providing better life to its citizens, and it has just selected from the last call for proposals several new Internet of Things research projects as part of the 7th Framework Programme on European Research. We wish you now a pleasant and enjoyable reading and would ask you to stay connected with us for the future. Special thanks are expressed to Harald Sundmaeker and his team who did a remarkable effort in assembling this Clusterbook.
Ubiquitous sensing enabled by Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) technologies cuts across many areas of modern day living. This offers the ability to measure, infer and understand environmental indicators, from delicate ecologies and natural resources to urban environments. The proliferation of these devices in a communicating-actuating network creates the Internet of Things (IoT), wherein, sensors and actuators blend seamlessly with the environment around us, and the information is shared across platforms in order to develop a common operating picture (COP). Fuelled by the recent adaptation of a variety of enabling device technologies such as RFID tags and readers, near field communication (NFC) devices and embedded sensor and actuator nodes, the IoT has stepped out of its infancy and is the the next revolutionary technology in transforming the Internet into a fully integrated Future Internet. As we move from www (static pages web) to web2 (social networking web) to web3 (ubiquitous computing web), the need for data-on-demand using sophisticated intuitive queries increases significantly. This paper presents a cloud centric vision for worldwide implementation of Internet of Things. The key enabling technologies and application domains that are likely to drive IoT research in the near future are discussed. A cloud implementation using Aneka, which is based on interaction of private and public clouds is presented. We conclude our IoT vision by expanding on the need for convergence of WSN, the Internet and distributed computing directed at technological research community.
Conference Paper
Many believe that Cloud will reshape the entire ICT industry as a revolution. In this paper, we aim to pinpoint the challenges and issues of Cloud computing. We first discuss two related computing paradigms - Service-Oriented Computing and Grid computing, and their relationships with Cloud computing. We then identify several challenges from the Cloud computing adoption perspective. Last, we will highlight the Cloud interoperability issue that deserves substantial further research and development.
Vision and challenges for realising the Internet of Things. CERP IoT-Cluster of European Research Projects on the Internet of Things
  • H Sundmaeker
  • P Guillemin
  • P Friess
  • S Woelffle
H. Sundmaeker, P. Guillemin, P. Friess, S. Woelffle. Vision and challenges for realising the Internet of Things. CERP IoT-Cluster of European Research Projects on the Internet of Things, CN: KK-31-10-323-EN-C, March 2010.