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Vegetative Growth, Harvesting Time, Yield and Quality of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) as Influenced by Soil Drench Application of Paclobutrazol

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The experiment was conducted during the fruiting season of 2005-06 to investigate the effects of paclobutrazol in manipulating the harvesting time, increasing yield and quality in mango ( Mangifera indica ) cv. BARI Aam-3 (Amrapali) plants at the BAU Germplasm Centre, FTIP, Department of Horticulture, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh. Paclobutrazol at 2500, 5000, 7500, 10000 ppm, and control (water application) and two times of application (15 October and 15 December) were included in the study as treatments. Soil drench application of paclobutrazol at 10000 ppm and 7500 ppm on 15 October was more effective in suppressing vegetative growth i.e. terminal shoot length, number of leaves and leaf area compared to control. Both 7500 ppm and 10000 ppm paclobutrazol applied as soil drench on 15 October caused earlier panicle emergence by 19 days as well as harvesting by 15 days compared with control. Applying paclobutrazol at 7500 ppm on 15 October produced the highest number of fruits as well as yield per plant and the heaviest fruit compared with the lowest yield in control. Paclobutrazol at 7500 ppm applied on 15 October also resulted in higher edible portion, lower stone pulp ratio and peel pulp ratio, longer shelf life, higher TSS, increased vitamin C, lower titratable acidity, higher dry matter, reducing, non-reducing and total sugar contents as compared to control plants. The present results suggest that the application of paclobutrazol at 7500 ppm in October enhances yield and quality in mango. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/bjar.v37i2.11238 Bangladesh J. Agril. Res. 37(2): 335-348, June 2012
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ISSN 0258-7122
Bangladesh J. Agril. Res. 37(2): 335-348, June 2012
VEGETATIVE GROWTH, HARVESTING TIME, YIELD AND
QUALITY OF MANGO (Mangifera indica L.) AS INFLUENCED BY SOIL
DRENCH APPLICATION OF PACLOBUTRAZOL*
BABUL C. SARKER1 AND M. A. RAHIM2
Abstract
The experiment was conducted during the fruiting season of 2005-06 to
investigate the effects of paclobutrazol in manipulating the harvesting time,
increasing yield and quality in mango (Mangifera indica) cv. BARI Aam-3
(Amrapali) plants at the BAU Germplasm Centre, FTIP, Department of
Horticulture, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh. Paclobutrazol
at 2500, 5000, 7500, 10000 ppm, and control (water application) and two times
of application (15 October and 15 December) were included in the study as
treatments. Soil drench application of paclobutrazol at 10000 ppm and 7500
ppm on 15 October was more effective in suppressing vegetative growth i.e.
terminal shoot length, number of leaves and leaf area compared to control. Both
7500 ppm and 10000 ppm paclobutrazol applied as soil drench on 15 October
caused earlier panicle emergence by 19 days as well as harvesting by 15 days
compared with control. Applying paclobutrazol at 7500 ppm on 15 October
produced the highest number of fruits as well as yield per plant and the heaviest
fruit compared with the lowest yield in control. Paclobutrazol at 7500 ppm
applied on 15 October also resulted in higher edible portion, lower stone pulp
ratio and peel pulp ratio, longer shelf life, higher TSS, increased vitamin C,
lower titratable acidity, higher dry matter, reducing, non-reducing and total
sugar contents as compared to control plants. The present results suggest that the
application of paclobutrazol at 7500 ppm in October enhances yield and quality
in mango.
Keywords: Yield and quality of mango, soil drench application of Paclobutrazol.
Introduction
Mango (Mangifera indica L.) because of its great utility, occupied a pre-eminent
place amongst the fruit crops grown in Bangladesh. Presently, mango is produced
about 242605 tons from an area of 51012 hectares with an average yield of 4.75
tons per hectare in Bangladesh (BBS, 2005), which is very low compared to
other mango growing countries. The existing mango production falls appreciably
short to fulfill the national demand. Irregular or erratic flowering, low fruit set as
well as retention leading to low yield, fruits of poor quality and short availability
period are the major problems in mango production. Extending availability
* a part of Ph. D research work of the first author
1Senior Scientific Officer (Horticulture), Horticulture Research Centre, Regional
Agricultural Research Station, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI),
Jamalpur, 2Professor, Department of Horticulture, BAU, Mymensingh, Bangladesh.
336 SARKER AND RAHIM
period in addition to increasing yield and quality adopting soil drenching of
paclobutrazol in mango cv. BARI Aam -3 (Amrapali) would be very useful for
the mango growers as its cultivation is being expanded rapidly throughout the
country. Soil application of paclobutrazol induced precocious flowering in young
trees and promoted early flowering in bearing trees (Kulkarni, 1988).
Inflorescence becomes visible within 2.5 to 4 months after the application of
paclobutrazol depending on cultivar (Junthasri et al., 2000). Improvement in fruit
set and fruit retention in mango cv. Gulab Khas as well as the highest yields were
recorded under soil application of paclobutrazol (Singh and Singh, 2006).
Applying 10 ml paclobutrazol had the greatest effect increasing all the
parameters (ascorbic acid, total sugar, reducing sugar and TSS, except for
acidity) in harvested fruits from 10 year-old trees of Alphonso mangoes at
Coimbatore, India (Vijayalakshmi and Srinivasan, 2000). Compared with the
control, trees treated with paclobutrazol had higher results for number of panicles
produced, yield as well as quality of the fruit (Yeshitela et al., 2004). The
research regarding regulation of flowering and harvesting time, increasing yield
and quality of mango by using paclobutrazol is almost absent in Bangladesh.
Considering the above facts, the present study was carried out to find out the
effects of paclobutrazol on the manipulation of harvest time and improving yield
as well as quality of mango cv. BARI Aam -3 (Amrapali).
Materials and Method
The experiment was carried out at the Germplasm Centre, Department of
Horticulture, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh which is located
at 240 26/ latitude and 900 15/ longitude with an altitude of 8.3 m above the sea
level during the fruiting season of 2005-06. Investigations related to bio-chemical
analysis were carried out in the Department of Biochemistry of Bangladesh
Agricultural University (BAU), Mymensingh. The 8 years old BARI Aam -3
(Amrapali) plants with a plant spacing of 5x5m were used in the study. The
factorial experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with
3 replications. Paclobutrazol at 2500, 5000, 7500, 10000 ppm and control (water
application) and two times of application (15 October and 15 December) were
included in the study as treatments. The solutions of 2500, 5000, 7500 and 10000
ppm were prepared by dissolving 10, 20, 30 and 40 ml of 25 % paclobutrazol
(Syngenta Chem. Co. Ltd., India) into 1litre of fresh water each respectively.
Paclobutrazol treatments were soil drenched according to Burondkar & Gunjate
(1993), in which 10 small holes (10–15 cm depth) were prepared in the soil
around the collar region of the plants just inside the fertilizer ring. The prepared
solutions of paclobutrazol as per treatment uniformly drenched into the wholes
and the soil was reworked after application of paclobutrazol. Only water was
applied in the control plants. The data of the following parameters were recorded:
length of terminal shoot, number of leaves per terminal shoot, leaf area, length of
MANGO AS INFLUENCED BY SOIL DRENCH APPLICATION 337
panicle, number of secondary branches per panicle, date of first panicle
emergence, total number of panicles, fruit set per panicle, number of fruits
retained per panicle at 10 day intervals starting from pea stage upto harvest, date
of harvest, number of fruits per plant, fruit weight, yield, edible portion, stone
pulp ratio, peel pulp ratio, shelf-life, TSS, titratable acidity, vitamin C, dry
matter, reducing sugar, non reducing sugar and total sugar content. The length
and number leaves of ten randomly selected terminal shoots at flowering stage
were measured and the average was worked out. Leaf area was measured for all
the 50 leaves taking 5 from each of ten above selected shoots by a leaf area meter
and expressed as square centimeter. The length and number of secondary
branches per panicle of 10 randomly tagged panicles covering the whole tree was
recorded and the average was worked out. Ten panicles were randomly selected
from each treatment. The initial number of fruits of each panicle and the fruits to
be retained per panicle at 10 day intervals starting from pea stage up to harvest
were recorded and the average was worked out. After harvest, ten randomly
selected fruits were allowed to ripen at room temperature and fruit quality was
determined using 10 fruits per tree. Total Soluble Solid (TSS) of 10 fully ripened
fruits for each treatment was estimated by a hand refractometer and the average
was worked out. The titratable acidity (Ranganna, 1979), vitamin C (Plummer,
1971), reducing sugar (Miller, 1972) and total sugar content (Jayaraman, 1981) in
mango pulp were determined. The recorded data on different parameters of the
experiment were tabulated and analyzed and the treatment means were separated
by Least Significant Difference (LSD) test at 5 % level of significance.
Results and Discussion
Effect of paclobutrazol on leaf, shoot and panicle characters of mango
Paclobutrazol treatments markedly influenced the terminal shoot length, number
of leaves per terminal shoot, leaf area, panicle length, number of secondary
branches per panicle and number of panicles per plant (Table 1). Regardless of
the concentrations used, paclobutrazol caused a marked reduction in terminal
shoot length, leaf number per terminal shoot and leaf area as compared with the
control and the reduction of above traits was noted the maximum when
paclobutrazol was applied in soil drenched at 10000 ppm which was closely
followed by paclobutrazol at 7500 ppm. Plants received paclobutrazol at 7500
ppm produced the longest panicle, highest number of secondary branches per
panicle and number of panicles per plant. There was significant variation due to
time of application in respect of terminal shoot length and number of leaves as
against no significant variation in leaf area, panicle length, number of secondary
branches per panicle and number of panicles per plant (Table 2). Plants treated
with paclobutrazol on 15 December demonstrated longer terminal shoot, higher
number of leaves and panicles per plant as compared to those of 15 October
338 SARKER AND RAHIM
application. The highest suppression of vegetative growth was manifested when
paclobutrazol was treated at 10000 ppm on 15 October (Table 3). According to
Kurian and Iyer (1992) paclobutrazol can enhance the total phenolic content of
terminal buds and alter the phloem to xylem ratio of the stem, which is important
in restricting the vegetative growth and enhancing flowering by altering
assimilate partitioning and patterns of nutrient supply for new growth.
Suppressed vegetative growth of ‘Tommy Atkins’ mango trees due to soil drench
application of paclobutrazol at 5.50 and 8.25 g a.i. per tree are reported
(Yeshitela et al., 2004). Soil drench applications of Cultar (Paclobutrazol) to
mango cv. Dashehari at Ludhiana prior to flower bud differentiation during the
first week of October affected the vegetative growth and promoted flowering
(Zora et al., 2000). According to Cardenas and Rojas (2003) paclobutrazol
inhibited the vegetative growth and stimulated flower development. Length of
panicle, number of secondary branches per panicle and number of panicles per
plant were noticed to be higher when paclobutrazol was used at 7500 ppm on 15
October (Table 3). The soil-applied paclobutrazol treatments at 7500 ppm had an
impact on reduction of vegetative growth, resulting in a higher intensity of
flowering. Higher total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC) in the shoots of the
paclobutrazol treated trees 2 weeks before flowering compared with the control
have been reported by Yeshitela et al. (2004). He also stated that the increased
number of panicles for paclobutrazol treated plants was due to lower expenditure
of tree reserves to the vegetative growth parameters and consequently no
assimilates limitations, compared with an excessive vegetative growth on the
control trees. A higher accumulation of reserves in the current year shoots before
flowering was also observed by Stassen and Janse Van Vuuren (1997). Either
7500 ppm or 10000 ppm paclobutrazol solution applied as soil drench on 15
October exhibited the earliest panicle emergence by 19 days, compared to control
(Table 3). Flowering earliness in paclobutrazol treated plants was reported by
Kulkarni (1988). He also ascribed that the flower-inductive factor might
commence earlier in the season. It is also probable that the application of
paclobutrazol caused an early reduction of endogenous gibberellins levels within
the shoots as also observed by Anon. (1984), causing them to reach maturity
earlier than those of untreated trees. This finding is similar to that of Tran et al.
(2002), where paclobutrazol induced flowering 85 days after treatment
application. The total activity of auxin-like substances increased the higher starch
reserve, total carbohydrates and higher C: N ratio in the shoots favour flower bud
initiation in mango (Jogdande and Choudhari, 2001). Regular, profuse and early
bearing was also reported to be found due to paclobutrazol application in mango
cv. Banganapalli grown at Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India (Singh and
Ranganath, 2006).
MANGO AS INFLUENCED BY SOIL DRENCH APPLICATION 339
Table 1. Leaf, shoot and panicle characters of mango as influenced by
paclobutrazol.
Paclobutrazol
concentration
Length of
terminal
shoot
(cm)
No. of
leaves/
terminal
shoot
Leaf
area
(cm2)
Length of
panicle
(cm)
No. of
secondary
branches/
panicle
No. of
panicles/
plant
2500 ppm 14.66 9.66 56.49 23.03 24.30 61.67
5000 ppm 11.21 8.91 52.10 23.59 27.55 71.58
7500 ppm 9.87 8.25 48.76 24.03 30.33 115.67
10000 ppm 8.51 7.47 48.30 20.72 23.19 105.17
Control (water
application) 21.12 13.17 59.87 18.95 21.92 55.33
CV(%) 9.94 11.20 7.23 6.97 6.70 8.55
LSD (0.05) 1.58 1.29 4.65 1.87 2.07 8.50
Table 2. Leaf, shoot and panicle characters of mango as influenced by time
of paclobutrazol application.
Time application Length of
terminal
shoot (cm)
No. of
leaves/
terminal
shoot
Leaf area
(cm2)
Length
of
panicle
(cm)
No. of
secondary
branches/
panicle
No. of
panicles/
plant
15 October 11.38 7.78 51.83 22.23 25.80 87.10
15 December 14.77 11.21 54.38 21.90 25.12 76.67
CV(%) 9.94 11.20 7.23 6.97 6.70 8.55
LSD (0.05) 1.00 0.82 - - - 5.37
Table. 3. Leaf, shoot and panicle characters of mango as influenced by the
combined effect of paclobutrazol and its time of application.
Paclobutrazol
concentration Time of
application
Length
of
terminal
shoot
(cm)
No. of
leaves/
terminal
shoot
Leaf
area
(cm2)
Length of
panicle
(cm)
No. of
secondary
branches/
panicle
Date of
first
appearance
of panicle
No. of
panicles/
plant
15 October 11.87 7.66 53.30 23.23 26.11 24.01.06 66.00 2500 ppm 15 December 17.45 11.67 59.67 22.83 22.50 28.01.06 57.33
15 October 9.60 6.61 51.03 23.62 26.55 24.01.06 67.50 5000 ppm 15 December 12.82 11.21 53.17 23.55 28.55 28.01.06 75.67
15 October 8.13 6.17 47.76 24.23 31.22 18.01.06 125.00 7500 ppm 15 December 11.62 10.33 49.77 23.83 29.44 27.01.06 106.33
15 October 6.90 5.67 48.59 21.31 23.44 18.01.06 120.67 10000 ppm 15 December 10.11 9.28 48.01 20.13 22.93 27.01.06 89. 67
15 October 20.40 12.78 58.48 18.75 21.67 06.02.06 56.33 Control (water
application) 15 December 21.85 13.58 61.26 19.15 22.17 06.02.06 54.33
CV (%) 9.94 11.20 7.23 6.97 6.70 - 8.55
LSD (0.05) 2.23 1.82 6.58 2.64 2.92 - 12.01
340 SARKER AND RAHIM
Table 4. Fruit set and number of fruits retained per panicle as influenced by the combined effect of paclobutrazol and
its time of application.
No. of fruits retained per panicle at
Paclobutrazol
concentration Time of
application
Fruit set
per
panicle 22.03.
06 01.04.
06 11.04.
06 21.04.
06 01.05.
06 11.05.06 21.05.0
6 31.05.0
6 Har-
vest
15 October 13.32 3.32 2.53 1.59 1.35 1.35 1.27 1.20 1.13 1.13 2500 ppm
15 December 12.33 2.90 2.12 1.34 1.12 0.96 0.97 0.97 0.87 0.87
15 October 21.83 5.67 3.67 2.33 1.45 1.45 1.45 1.35 1.35 1.35 5000 ppm
15 December 19.64 4.93 2.40 1.83 1.33 1.07 1.07 1.07 0.93 0.93
15 October 28.08 7.37 6.20 3.70 2.32 2.23 2.23 2.23 2.15 2.10 7500 ppm
15 December 24.21 6.22 4. 57 2.58 2.30 1.85 1.78 1.78 1.65 1.65
15 October 20.08 5.23 2.70 2.17 1.57 1.50 1.43 1.30 1.30 1.30 10000 ppm
15 December 15.89 4.10 2.02 1.57 1.55 1.17 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.10
15 October 8.49 2.70 2.03 1.22 1.08 0.83 0.77 0.67 0.67 0.67
Control (water
application) 15 December 9.33 3.13 2.58 1.33 1.10 1.03 0.95 0.87 0.87 0.72
CV (%) 9.89 8.42 4.13 5.01 4.78 7.72 6.19 7.01 7.15 7.83
LSD (0.05) 2.94 0.66 0.22 0.17 0.12 0.18 0.13 0.15 0.14 0.16
MANGO AS INFLUENCED BY SOIL DRENCH APPLICATION 341
Combined effect of paclobutrazol and time of application on fruit set as well
as fruit retention of mango
The combined effect of paclobutrazol concentrations and their time of application
in terms of fruit set as well as number of fruits retained per panicle varied
significantly (Table 4). Plants soil drenched with paclobutrazol at 7500 ppm on
15 October resulted in the highest fruit set as well as fruit retention per panicle up
to harvest. The control plants got the least fruit set and fruit retention per panicle.
Trees soil drenched with paclobutrazol, which had higher reserves enhanced fruit
set compared to the lowest fruit set in the untreated tree with low reserves
because of excessive vegetative growth (Yeshitela et al., 2004) corroborate the
present findings.
Table 5. Number of fruits per plant and fruit characters of mango as
influenced by the effect of paclobutrazol.
Paclobutrazol
concentration No. of fruits
per plant Fruit wt
(g)
Edible
portion
(%)
Stone
pulp ratio
Peel
pulp
ratio
Shelf life
(days)
2500 ppm 43.08 216.02 66.09 0.25 0.25 7.01
5000 ppm 52.17 243.62 66.69 0.24 0.24 7.06
7500 ppm 106.32 330.44 69.18 0.22 0.22 7.25
10000 ppm 73.00 254.65 67.58 0.24 0.23 6.99
Control (water
application) 31.33 200.80 65.19 0.27 0.30 6.58
CV (%) 6.46 4.86 2.42 5.41 5.46 4.80
LSD (0.05) 4.79 14.69 1.96 0.01 0.01 0.41
Table 6. Number of fruits per plant and fruit characters of mango as
influenced by the effect of time of paclobutrazol application.
Time of
application No. of
fruits/ plant Fruit wt
(g)
Edible
portion
(%)
Stone
pulp ratio Peel pulp
ratio Shelf life
(days)
15 October 70.77 250.63 67.54 0.24 0.24 7.15
15 December 51.59 247.59 66.35 0.25 0.25 6.81
CV (%) 6.46 4.86 2.42 5.41 5.46 4.80
LSD (0.05) 3.03 - - - - 0.29
Combined effect of paclobutrazol and time of application on harvest time,
number of fruits, yield and fruit characters
The date of harvest ranged between 10 June 2006 and 25 June 2006 having the
earliest harvest by 15 days in plants treated with paclobutrazol either at 7500
342 SARKER AND RAHIM
ppm or at 10000 ppm on 15 October and the dalayed harvest in control plants
(Table 7). The earlier harvest due to paclobutrazol of the current study is in line
with the result of Xie et al. (1999), where spraying of paclobutrazol in late
August/early September in the southwestern part of Hainan province had
promoted flowering and ripening date by 1-3 months. The advancement of
harvesting by 40-45 days in case of paclobutrazol application in mango cv.
Banganapalli grown at Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India (Singh and
Ranganath, 2006) provides support to the result of the present investigation.
Paclobutrazol irrespective of concentrations exhibited earlier harvest than that of
the control. Number of fruits per plant, fruit weight, edible portion, stone pulp
ratio, peel pulp ratio, shelf-life and yield due to the concentration of
paclobutrazol and the combined effect were noticed to be significant while time
of application had significant effect only on number of fruits, shelf life and yield.
(Table 5-7). Irrespective of concentration, paclobutrazol increased the number of
fruits per plant although the highest number of fresh fruits per plant was
harvested from the plants soil drenching with paclobutrazol at 7500 ppm,
whereas the control plants gave the lowest number of fruits. Applying
paclobutrazol on 15 October noted higher number of fruits per plant. The result
revealed that October application of paclobutrazol exhibited superior
performance in terms of fruit number over December application. The highest
number of fruits per plant was harvested from the plants combinedly treated with
7500 ppm paclobutrazol on 15 October compared to the lowest value in control.
Plants treated with paclobutrazol at 7500 ppm also recorded the heaviest fruit,
highest edible portion, lowest stone pulp and peel pulp ratio and highest shelf-life
when compared with the control (water application). Plants received
paclobutrazol on 15 October produced higher shelf-life. Paclobutrazol at 7500
ppm applied on 15 October attained the heaviest fruit, highest edible portion,
lowest stone pulp and peel pulp ratio and maximum shelf-life. The highest yield
(37.85 kg/plant) was noted in plants which received paclobutrazol at 7500 ppm
as against the very low yield (6.34 kg/plant) in control. Plants treated with
paclobutrazol on 15 October resulted in higher yield as compared to 15
December. The plants soil drenching with paclobutrazol at 7500 ppm on 15
October got the highest yield (48.64 kg/plant), whereas the lowest yield (5.90
kg/plant) was recorded in control plants. A significantly higher fruit set and fruit
retention in the paclobutrazol treated plants had a favourable impact on
culminating higher final fruit number and yield per plant. Paclobutrazol has been
reported to exert influence on partitioning the photosynthates to the sites of
flowering and fruit production consequent to the reduction of vegetative growth.
In this context, Kurian et al. (2001) reported that paclobutrazol appeared to
favourably alter the source sink relationship of mango to support fruit growth
with a reduction in vegetative growth. Plants treated with paclobutrazol at 7.5 g
a.i. per plant of mango cv. Langra in Sabour, Bihar, India produced the highest
MANGO AS INFLUENCED BY SOIL DRENCH APPLICATIONL 343
Table 7. Date of harvest, number of fruits and fruit characters of mango as influenced by the combined effect of
paclobutrazol and its time of application.
Paclobutrazol
concentration Time of
application Date of
harvest No. of fruits/
plant Fruit wt.
(g) Edible
portion (%) Stone pulp
ratio Peel pulp
ratio Shelf life
(days)
15 October 19.06.06 47.33 219.97 66.39 0.25 0.25 7.29 2500 ppm 15 December 19.06.06 38.83 212.08 65.78 0.26 0.26 6.74
15 October 19.06.06 55.67 244.18 67.18 0.24 0.24 7.32 5000 ppm
15 December 19.06.06 48.67 243.07 66.20 0.24 0.24 6.81
15 October 10.06.06 135.47 336.50 70.21 0.22 0.21 7.50 7500 ppm 15 December 15.06.06 77.17 324.39 68.15 0.23 0.23 7.01
15 October 10.06.06 80.33 258.73 68.82 0.23 0.23 7.13 10000 ppm 15 December 15.06.06 65.67 250.58 66.35 0.25 0.24 6.85
15 October 25.06.06 35.07 193.78 65.12 0.27 0.30 6.51 Control (water
application) 15 December 25.06.06 27.60 207.83 65.26 0.27 0.30 6.66
CV (%) - 6.46 4.86 2.42 5.41 5.46 7.10
LSD (0.05) - 6.78 20.78 2.78 0.02 0.02 2.08
344 SARKER AND RAHIM
Table 8. Fruit quality attributes of mango as influenced by the combined effect of paclobutrazol concentration and its
time of application.
Paclobutrazol
concentration Time of application TSS
(%) Titrata-ble
acidity (%)
Vitamin C
(mg/100 g
pulp)
Dry matter
content
(%)
Reduc-ing
sugar
(%)
Non-redu-
cing sugar
(%)
Total sugar
(%)
15 October 25.80 0.22 29.95 19.20 5.07 13.16 18.23 2500 ppm
15 December 25.00 0.23 29.38 19.22 5.00 12.98 17.98
15 October 26.15 0.22 30.98 20.02 5.17 13.41 18.58 5000 ppm
15 December 25.67 0.23 30.22 19.59 5.12 13.27 18.39
15 October 28.55 0.20 34.67 22.90 5.52 14.30 19.82 7500 ppm
15 December 27.80 0.22 32.49 22.02 5.37 13.94 19.31
15 October 26.57 0.19 33.31 21.32 5.36 13.91 19.27 10000 ppm
15 December 24.94 0.20 31.51 20.53 5.26 13.64 18.90
15 October 24.04 0.25 28.10 18.91 4.92 12.87 17.79 Control (water
application) 15 December 24.00 0.25 28.25 18.96 4.94 12.92 17.86
CV (%) 5.56 4.35 3.94 4.57 3.23 2.81 3.22
LSD (0.05) 2.46 0.01 2.08 1.59 0.29 0.65 1.03
MANGO AS INFLUENCED BY SOIL DRENCH APPLICATION 345
number of fruits and yield (Karuna et al., 2007). Yeshitela et al. (2004) in cv.
Tommy Atkins recorded yields ranging from 2-3 folds as compared to control
mostly due to soil drenching of paclobutrazol. The results enumerated as above
are in consonance with the results obtained in the current investigation. He
claimed application of 8.25 g a.i. per tree paclobutrazol increased the weight of
harvested fruit by 152.87% when compared with the control.
Fig. 1. Effect of paclobutrazol concentration on the yield per plant of
mango. Vertical bar represents LSD at 5% level.
0
1
2
3
4
2500pp
m 5000pp
m7500pp
m10000pp
mContro
l
Paclobutrazol
concentration
Yield
(
k
g
/
p
lant
)
Fig. 2. Effect of time of paclobutrazol application on the yield per
plant of mango.
Vertical bar represents LSD at 5% level.
0
5
10
15
20
25
15 October 15 December
Time of paclobutrazol application
Yield (kg/plant)
346 SARKER AND RAHIM
P1 : Paclobutrazol at 2500 ppm D1 : 15 October
P2 : Paclobutrazol at 5000 ppm D2 : 15 December
P3 : Paclobutrazol at 7500 ppm
P4 : Paclobutrazol at 10000 ppm
P0 : Control (water application)
Combined effect of paclobutrazol and time of application on qualitative
characters of mango
The combined effect of paclobutrazol and its time of application manifested
significant variations in respect of TSS, titratable acidity, vitamin C, dry matter
content, reducing sugar, non-reducing sugar and total sugar (Table 8).
Paclobutrazol at 7500 ppm showed superior performances in respect of all above
qualitative characters compared to those of control. Yeshitela et al. (2004)
claimed that paclobutrazol improved fruit quality. Vijayalakshmi and Srinivasan
(2000) indicated that paclobutrazol when applied to 10 year-old trees of
Alphonso mangoes at Coimbatore, India, had the greatest effect enhancing all the
quality parameters (ascorbic acid, total sugar, reducing sugar and TSS, except for
acidity). Early application of paclobutrazol in mango cvs. Dashehari and Langra
was found to increase the quality parameter viz., TSS, acidity, sugar, and
ascorbic acid (Singh et al., 2000). Paclobutrazol at 5, 7.5 and 10g a.i. exhibited
better performance in respect of physico-chemical characteristics (pulp
percentage, stone percentage, peel percentage, total soluble solid, titratable
acidity, ascorbic acid, total reducing and non-reducing sugar) at edible ripe stage
in mango cv. Langra at Bihar, India compared to the control (Karuna et al.,
Fig. 3. Effect of paclobutrazol concentration and its time of
application on the yield per plant of mango.
Vertical bar represents lSD at 5% level.
0
10
20
30
40
50
P1D1 P1D2P2D1P2D2P3D1P3D2P4D1P4D2P0D1P0D2
Paclobutrazol concentration and its time o
f
application
Yield (kg/plant)
MANGO AS INFLUENCED BY SOIL DRENCH APPLICATION 347
2005). Singh and Singh (2006) stated that soil treatment either at 5 or 10 g a.i.
per tree with paclobutrazol improved the fruit quality.
Conclusion
Soil drench application of paclobutrazol at 7500 ppm or 10000 ppm on 15
October caused earlier panicle emergence by 19 days and harvesting by 15 days
in mango cv. BARI Aam -3 (Amrapali) compared with control. Paclobutrazol at
7500 ppm on 15 October gave the highest yield, heaviest fruit and improved the
fruit quality.
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... Suppression of vegetative growth by PBZ could be the enhancement of total phenol content of terminal buds and alters the xylem to phloem ratio of the stem (Kurian and Iyer, 1992) [13] . This results are in confirmation with Sarkar and Rahim (2012) [26] in mango cv. Amrapali and Pal et al. (2017) in mango cv. ...
... The growth inhibitory response of PBZ observed in the study are in line with earlier findings of Teferi et al. (2010) [35] in mango cv. Tommy atkins and Sarkar and Rahim (2012) [26] in mango cv. Amrapali. ...
... Similar confirmational results are recorded with Protacio (2013) in mango cv. Carabao, Sarker and Rahim (2012) [26] in mango cv. Amrapali and Patel et al. (2016) in mango cv. ...
... Both combination treatments reduced vegetative growth compared to the control (Table 1). Our prior study had shown that paclobutrazol, regardless of concentration, caused a marked reduction in terminal shoot length, leaf number per terminal shoot, and leaf area compared to a control, but that reductions were at a maximum at a high concentration (10.0 g/L) [30]. However, the NB combination in this study had a higher paclobutrazol concentration than the BT, but it did not reduce terminal shoot growth more; although leaves per shoot, and leaf length, width, and area, were reduced more. ...
... The response to KNO 3 may be mediated, not by increasing N in the tissue, but by promoting ethylene biosynthesis which affects floral induction in mango [36]. Paclobutrazol also induced earlier flowering and greater panicle production in our earlier study [30]. In contrast, more frequent irrigation caused a slight delay in date of flowering [21]. ...
... In contrast, more frequent irrigation caused a slight delay in date of flowering [21]. Initial fruit set per panicle was similar in both treatments, but the number of fruit retained by BT was greater than by NB from early in the fruiting period until harvest (Table 4), as previously observed for paclobutrazol treatment [30], KNO 3 and urea treatments [19], and in response to irrigation [21]. The same response was noticed to paclobutrazol, and found that treated trees had higher reserves which enhanced fruit set compared to low reserves and low fruit set in untreated trees [17]. ...
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... Excepting S. terebinthifolius and J. mimosifolia, the other tree species analyzed in this study did not flower. This can be attributed to the following factors: (i) existence of interspecific differences in susceptibility to flowering induction (Gardner et al. 2016), (ii) use of insufficient PBZ concentrations (Yuceer et al. 2003), (iii) inadequate timing of PBZ application (Sarker & Rahim 2012, Martínez-Fuentes et al. 2013), (iv) transfer of juvenile hormones from the rootstock to the scion (Gardner et al. 2016), and (v) seedling immaturity, as observed in Populus deltoides (Yuceer et al. 2003) and E. nitens (Gardner et al. 2013). Wil-liams et al. (1999), studying the effect of PBZ on E. nitens flowering, found that the plants have high levels of reproductive inhibitors and few individuals can be induced to flower early, indicating that a complex set of conditions must be met for the onset of reproductive development. ...
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This chapter begins with a description of the principal varieties of fruit and vegetables, classified by their end use rather than according to strict biological definitions (i.e. fruits contain seeds, vegetables do not). This is followed by descriptions of the industrial processes used in the canning, drying and freezing of fruit and vegetable products, together with the specific processes used for products such as tomato paste and sugar. Then a number of particular products are described in some detail.
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