Article

The effect of high-intensity circuit training on physical fitness

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a high-intensity circuit training regimen, using only body weight as resistance, on physical fitness. Ninety-six recreationally active college aged subjects (53 female, 43 male) completed the study. Following baseline testing for height and weight, body composition, aerobic fitness, muscle strength and muscle endurance, subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups: 7-minute circuit training (CT-7), 14-minute circuit training (CT-14), and a non-training control group (C). Subjects in the CT-7 group (females, n=17; males, n=15) were asked to complete a seven minute circuit training workout for eight weeks (three workouts per week). The CT-14 group (females, n=15; males, n=13) followed the same protocol as CT-7 through the first four weeks. For the second four weeks they increased exercise time to 14 minutes with the same 7 minute circuit performed twice consecutively. Subjects in group C (females, n=21; males, n=15) maintained their normal activity levels throughout the course of the study. RESULTS : There were no significant differences between the groups for any variables tested prior to the exercise intervention. A repeated measures analysis of variance revealed statistically significant improvements in muscular endurance (push-ups) for both male and female subjects in the CT-7 and CT-14 groups. Males in the two exercising groups also showed improvement in muscular strength while aerobic capacity increased for females in the CT-14 group. CONCLUSION : These results suggest that short duration, high intensity circuit training may improve muscle endurance in moderately fit populations. Slight improvements that are gender specific may also be observed in muscle strength as well as aerobic fitness.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Among the nineteen studies included in the meta-analysis, sixteen investigated the impact of WB-HIIT in healthy participants [11][12][13][14][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31] and three in populations with physical limitations or metabolic risk factors [32][33][34] (two in obese adults and one in women with sarcopenia). Eleven studies [11,12,21,22,24,[28][29][30][31][32][33] compared WB-HIIT to a no exercise control group only, seven studies [13,14,20,23,26,27,34] had a traditional aerobic training comparator group, and one study [25] included both. ...
... Among the nineteen studies included in the meta-analysis, sixteen investigated the impact of WB-HIIT in healthy participants [11][12][13][14][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31] and three in populations with physical limitations or metabolic risk factors [32][33][34] (two in obese adults and one in women with sarcopenia). Eleven studies [11,12,21,22,24,[28][29][30][31][32][33] compared WB-HIIT to a no exercise control group only, seven studies [13,14,20,23,26,27,34] had a traditional aerobic training comparator group, and one study [25] included both. Thirteen studies [12,13,20,[24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32]34] assessed CRF, twelve [13,21,22,[26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34] assessed fat mass, ten [21,23,[26][27][28][29][31][32][33][34] assessed fat-free mass, and twelve [11,14,[21][22][23][24][25][26][27][30][31][32] assessed musculoskeletal fitness. ...
... Eleven studies [11,12,21,22,24,[28][29][30][31][32][33] compared WB-HIIT to a no exercise control group only, seven studies [13,14,20,23,26,27,34] had a traditional aerobic training comparator group, and one study [25] included both. Thirteen studies [12,13,20,[24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32]34] assessed CRF, twelve [13,21,22,[26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34] assessed fat mass, ten [21,23,[26][27][28][29][31][32][33][34] assessed fat-free mass, and twelve [11,14,[21][22][23][24][25][26][27][30][31][32] assessed musculoskeletal fitness. ...
Article
Full-text available
Due to its versatility, whole-body high-intensity interval training (WB-HIIT) can be proposed to the general population and patients to improve health-related fitness. However, its effectiveness compared to traditional aerobic continuous or interval trainings has yet to be determined. A search of four electronic databases was conducted. Studies reporting the effects of WB-HIIT on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), fat mass, fat-free mass, musculoskeletal fitness and metabolic risk factors were included. Standardized mean differences (SMD) between WB-HIIT and no exercise or traditional aerobic trainings were calculated. A meta-regression assessed the effect of total training time on the different outcomes. Twenty-two studies were included in the systematic review and nineteen in the meta-analysis. Compared to no exercise, WB-HIIT improves CRF (SMD: 0.75; 95%CI: 0.28, 1.23; p < 0.001), fat-free mass (SMD: 0.38; 95%CI: 0.11, 0.65; p < 0.001), fat mass (SMD: 0.40; 95%CI: 0.09, 0.72; p < 0.001) and musculoskeletal fitness (SMD: 0.84; 95%CI: 0.61, 1.08; p < 0.001). Compared to other aerobic trainings, WB-HIIT has a lower effect on CRF (SMD: −0.40; 95%CI: −0.70, −0.11; p = 0.007), a similar effect on fat-free mass (SMD: −0.04; 95%CI: −0.44, 0.35; p = 0.8) and fat mass (SMD: −0.07; 95%CI: −0.39, 0.25; p = 0.7), and a larger effect on musculoskeletal fitness (SMD: 0.42; 95%CI: 0.14, 0.71; p = 0.003). WB-HIIT overall effect and specific effect on CRF and fat mass were associated with total training time. The systematic review did not provide evidence of metabolic risk improvement. Despite a slightly lower effect on CRF, WB-HIIT is equally effective as traditional aerobic trainings to improve body composition and more effective to enhance musculoskeletal fitness, which is essential for execution of daily tasks.
... It is well documented that HICT BW is an accessible and applicable training modality to promote healthrelated physical fitness for untrained individuals. For example, Schmidt et al.(2016) 12 designed an 8-week HICT BW program (3 times per week, 7 min per session) for recreationally active young men and women and reported improvement of muscle strength in men, whereas aerobic fitness was improved only in active women. In addition, our previous study found that a 4week HICT BW program (3 times per week with the volume gradually increasing from 1 circuit in week-1, 2 circuits in weeks 2 and 3, and 3 circuits in week-4, respectively) could improve cardiorespiratory fitness in sedentary women 13 . ...
... It is well documented that HICT BW is an accessible and applicable training modality to promote healthrelated physical fitness for untrained individuals. For example, Schmidt et al.(2016) 12 designed an 8-week HICT BW program (3 times per week, 7 min per session) for recreationally active young men and women and reported improvement of muscle strength in men, whereas aerobic fitness was improved only in active women. In addition, our previous study found that a 4week HICT BW program (3 times per week with the volume gradually increasing from 1 circuit in week-1, 2 circuits in weeks 2 and 3, and 3 circuits in week-4, respectively) could improve cardiorespiratory fitness in sedentary women 13 . ...
... knee and hip osteoarthritis) and consequently improve quality of life in obese women. However, for grip strength, the present study is consistent with that of previous studies 12,26 which showed that HICT BW had no effect. It is possible that the pose of HICT BW might not be intense enough to generate meaningful muscle recruitment of hand muscles, especially in female participants 12 . ...
Article
We examined the effects of an 8-week modified high-intensity circuit training using body weight as resistance (HICTBW) on health-related physical fitness in sedentary obese women. Methods: Twenty-four sedentary obese women were allocated into the HICTBW or a non-training control group (CG). The modified HICTBW was performed for 8 weeks (3 times per week). Training consisted of a 30-second workout and 10-second rest for 12 exercise poses per 1 circuit (1 circuit in the first week), with an increase of 1 circuit every 2 weeks. Body weight and body composition included skeletal muscle mass (SMM), body fat mass (BFM), body fat percentage (BF%), visceral fat area (VFA), and skeletal muscle mass to visceral fat area ratio (MFR) were measured. Physical fitness included flexibility of the lower back and hamstrings (FlexLH), and leg and handgrip muscle strength (StrengthLeg, StrengthHG). Cardiovascular endurance included the Åstrand-Rhyming heart rate (HRÅstrand), relative maximum oxygen uptake (relative V̇ O2max), and workload. Results: All variables were obtained at baseline, week-4, and week-8. The HICTBW improved FlexLH, StrengthLeg, and relative V̇ O2max from baseline to week-4 (All P<0.05). Improvements from baseline to week-8 were observed for SMM, BFM, BF%, VFA and MFR, FlexLH, StrengthLeg, HRÅstrand, relative V̇ O2max, and workload (All p<0.05). Furthermore, the HICTBW elicited a higher change in SMM (+2.9%), BFM (-3.4%), BF% (-3.2%), MFR (+9.5%), FlexLH (+145.7%) and relative V̇ O2max (+32.3%) than the CG at week-8 (All P<0.05). Conclusions: An 8-week modified HICTBW program thrice a week is an effective training modality to influence health-related physical fitness in sedentary obese women.
... However, it differs vs. traditional HIIE, as it uses various body weight exercises rather than cycling, and there is no need for any specialized equipment. One study in active men and women (29) showed that 24 sessions of 7Min led to significant increases in muscle endurance, but no changes in V _ O 2 max or body fat were dem- onstrated. Another study requiring healthy individuals to complete 7Min daily for 6 weeks showed small reductions in body fat and waist circumference (23). ...
... We advised participants to exercise maximally during 7Min, but it was evident that during some exercises, deficits in strength and/or physical function led to a lower number of repetitions performed and potentially lower HR and V _ O 2 response. We recommend that home- based workouts such as 7Min introduce greater flexibility of individual exercises to better apply to clients of diverse fit- ness and muscular function, which may allow individuals to attain various health-related benefits, including enhanced cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular endurance, or fat loss, as reported in recent studies (23,29). Last, both bouts were preceded by a brief warm-up which may not be feasible for home-based exercise. ...
... Our data show that despite similar exercise duration, a single session of cycling- based HIIE elicits higher mean and peak HR and V _ O 2 as well as calorie expenditure vs. the whole-body 7Min work- out. Recent studies (23,29) show small increases in V _ O 2 max and muscle endurance and reductions in fat mass in response to chronic exercise using 7Min, but these adaptations did not occur in all participants. Future research should compare long-term responses to this protocol, especially considering that 7Min is easily accessible and has the potential to increase both muscular fitness and V _ O 2 max which are inde- pendently associated with health risk (26,31). ...
Article
Full-text available
Completion of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) leads to significant increases in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and oxidative capacity. However, individual responses to HIIT have been identified as approximately 20-40% of individuals show no change in VO2max, which may be due to the relatively homogeneous approach to implementing HIIT. Purpose: This study tested the effects of HIIT prescribed using ventilatory threshold (VT) on changes in VO2max and cycling performance. Methods: Fourteen active men and women (age and VO2max = 27 ± 8 year and 38 ± 4 mL/kg/min) underwent nine sessions of HIIT, and 14 additional men and women (age and VO2max = 22 ± 3 year and 40 ± 5 mL/kg/min) served as controls. Training was performed on a cycle ergometer at a work rate equal to 130%VT and consisted of eight to ten 1 min bouts interspersed with 75 s of recovery. At baseline and post-testing, they completed progressive cycling to exhaustion to determine VO2max, and on a separate day, a 5 mile cycling time trial. Results: Compared to the control group, HIIT led to significant increases in VO2max (6%, p = 0.007), cycling performance (2.5%, p = 0.003), and absolute VT (9 W, p = 0.005). However, only 57% of participants revealed meaningful increases in VO2max and cycling performance in response to training, and two showed no change in either outcome. Conclusions: A greater volume of HIIT may be needed to maximize the training response for all individuals.
... Wang (11) studied the effects of a HICTBW program (12 × 30 seconds exercises with a 15-seconds rest) on cardiopulmonary fitness in overweight middle-aged men and observed that aerobic capacity was increased after 12 weeks of training. Moreover, Schmidt et al. (12) showed that an 8-week (3 days per week) HICTBW program improved aerobic capacity in moderately fit women, but not in men indicating a gender specific effect in response to HICTBW training. ...
... Whilst previous studies have demonstrated that HICTBW training programs of 6 to 12 weeks duration are effective in improving cardiorespiratory fitness (10)(11)(12), it remains unknown whether shorter duration HICTBW programs provide similar health related benefits. Moreover, the gender and age differences in physiological responses to training (8,13,14) may impact the effectiveness of a HICTBW designed program. ...
... The increase in VO 2peak in the TG group infers that cardiorespiratory fitness may be improved after undertak-ing a short-term HICTBW program i.e., increased ability of the circulation and respiratory systems to supply oxygen to sustain physical activity. The number of weeks required to increase maximal oxygen consumption is in contrast to Schmidt et al.'s (12) findings, who reported that the VO 2peak values increased after a longer duration (8 week) 14-minutes HICT training program.. The difference in the time span required to improve VO 2peak between our studies may be related to the differences in the progression of the number of circuits performed over the successive study weeks. For example, Schmidt et al. (12) utilized one circuit in the first 3 weeks before increasing to two circuits during the 4th to 6th week of training. ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Background: It is unknown whether a shorter duration of high-intensity circuit training (HICT) could improve health-related fitness in sedentary women. Objectives: This study aims to investigate the effects of 4-week of HICT using body weight (HICTBW) on cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in middle aged, sedentary women. Methods: Twenty-four women (age: 35±3 years), who currently participated in exercise for less than 2 days or 150 minutes per week, were randomly assigned to either an untrained (CG; n=12) or trained (TG; n=12) group. The TG group performed a HICTBW program for four weeks (3 times weekly), whereas the CG group performed their usual activity. All participants were asked to maintain their current eating habits. Parameters were compared before and after 4 weeks. Results: Exercise V̇O2peak, relative V̇O2peak, heart rate and workload significantly increased over the 4-week period in the TG compared with CG at the end of the 4 weeks of training (p< 0.05). However, there were also no differences between groups in any body composition parameters at the end of the 4-week program (p >0.05). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that a 4-week HICTBW program (12 poses per circuit, 8 min each circuit three times weekly for 4 weeks) was sufficient to improve cardiorespiratory fitness but had no effect on body composition or weight loss in sedentary women who did not change their dietary habits.
... This form of workout was shown to help decrease insulin resistance and resulted in the normal uptake of glucose in overweight/obese people (12). Additionally, a recent study showed that HICT improved muscle strength, and aerobic fitness in moderately fit populations (19). ...
... The primary findings of this research were comparable to our hypotheses showing that even a very short duration workout affect the nutritional status in normal weight individuals who did not change any of their eating habits. Recent studies have investigated the effect of this type of exercise mainly on fitness and strength (19) or in special population like overweight/obese individuals (24) or post-menopausal women (25), while usually using longer durations of exercise (more than 7 minutes). We aimed at investigating the effect on normal weight individuals who do not exercise regularly to see if this type of workout can be recommended simply as a preventive measure to improve body composition, protect against possible overweight and other comorbidities associated with physical inactivity. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The 7-minute workout composed of aerobic and resistance exercises is becoming a very popular workout. It targets individuals with time constrains and low motivation to commit to lengthy and extensive workout programs. The objective of the study is to investigate if the 7-minute workout has a 6 week effect on body weight and composition. Methods: The training group (n=29, age 18-30) did the 7-minute workout 7 days a week during 6 weeks while the control group (n=29) did not perform the workout. Measurements such as height, weight, body mass index, circumferences (middle upper arm, hip, and waist), blood pressure, heart rate, hand grip, and bioelectrical impedance were collected and recorded at week 1, 3 and 6. Results: Mean BMI was 24.4kg/m2 at week 1, 24.01kg/m2 at week 3(p=0.003). Waist circumference decreased between week 1 and 3 (p=0.003) and week 6 (p=0.01) by 4 cm on average. Hip circumference followed the same trend between week 1 and week 3 (p=- 0.001). There was a decrease in fat mass and % fat mass between week 1, 3, and 6 (p=0.001). No changes were noted for mid-upper arm circumference or hand grip. Conclusions: The findings of this research show that even a very short duration workout affect the nutritional status in normal weight individuals who did not change any of their eating habits. This implies that even in normal weight individuals who perform the 7-minute workout, improvement through a decrease in waist circumference can be achieved thus leading to a better cardio-protective nutritional status. The 7 minutes workout can be a great solution for people to get started and to plan on continuing exercising, as it is simple and of minimal constraints.
... The increase in strength was expected since the exercise in many stations involved resistance such as barbell, dumbbell and body weight of the subjects. The research yielded a similar result with that of the study of Schmidt et al. [9]. In that study, low intensity circuit training plus a high resistance exercise for 12 weeks in women significantly increased scores for bench press, knee extension, and muscle endurance of the subject. ...
... Furthermore, repeated anaerobic exercise could lead to a reduction in fat deposits. These findings yielded similar results with many studies [5], [7], [9], [12]. Finally, the findings in this study imply that interval circuit training, involving work and rest interval with a focus on anaerobic training with resistance, i.e. with resistance and done repeatedly for a long period of time, is an effective way to improve both aerobic and anaerobic performance that form the foundation of healthrelated physical fitness. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to examine the effects of a circuit training program on muscle strength, agility, anaerobic performance and cardiovascular endurance. The study involved 24 freshmen (age 18.87+0.68 yr.) male students of the Faculty of Sport Science, Burapha University. They sample study were randomly divided into two groups: Circuit Training group (CT; n=12) and a Control group (C; n=12). Baseline data on height, weight, muscle strength (hand grip dynamometer and leg strength dynamometer), agility (agility T-Test), and anaerobic performance (Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test) and cardiovascular endurance (20 m Endurance Shuttle Run Test) were collected. The circuit training program included one circuit of eight stations of 30/60 seconds of work/rest interval with two cycles in Week 1-4, and 60/90 seconds of work/rest interval with three cycles in Week 5-8, performed three times per week. Data were analyzed using paired t-tests and independent sample t-test. Statistically significance level was set at 0.05. The results show that after 8 weeks of a training program, muscle strength, agility, anaerobic capacity and cardiovascular endurance increased significantly in the CT Group (p < 0.05), while significant increase was not observed in the C Group (p < 0.05). The results of this study suggest that the circuit training program improved muscle strength, agility, anaerobic capacity and cardiovascular endurance of the study subjects. This program may be used as a guideline for selecting a set of exercise to improve physical fitness.
... The clinical symptoms and signs included nocturnal snoring, chocking and fragmented sleep, daytime sleepiness, fatigue and problems with memory and concentration. 1 Consequently, OSA has unexpected impacts on psychological distress, alternations of quality of life, and also individual performance, such as vehicle and industrial accidents. 2 The prevalence is in men approximately 3e7%, and in women about 2e5% 3,4 ; yet, remaining untreated, along with development of severity, OSA has many highly associated comorbidities, including cardiovascular disorders, metabolic disorders, neurological disorder, and neurocognitive disorders. 5e7 However, on account of the low compliance of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or the low acceptance of surgery, physical therapy is developed as a non-invasive, alternative management for OSA. ...
... Finally, participants ended each session with 5min cool down (supplement). 2,30,31 Patients were instructed to rate breathlessness on the modified 0e10 Borg scale and were informed that very severe breathlessness (7e8/ 10) was expected to reach target training intensity. 32 ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Critically compromised by upper airway anatomical impaired properties, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can be categorized into different phenotypic traits, mainly including oropharyngeal muscle dysfunction. The upper airway muscle strength training was targeted on oropharyngeal muscle dysfunction by re-educating the oropharyngeal muscles to maintain the upper airway patency. OSA was characterized with multilevel collapsibility of the upper airway; however, the programs are still inconsistent and the effects are unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a comprehensive physical therapy on OSA. Methods: Fifteen subjects with newly diagnosed moderate or severe OSA (AHI ≥ 15) were randomized into intervention and control groups. The intervention group underwent a 12-week-intervention of hospital based physical therapy, while the control group was kept on waiting for 12 weeks. Polysomnography (PSG) data, oropharyngeal and respiratory muscle performance were measured before and after intervention. Results: In intervention group (n = 8), AHI was significantly improved (from 46.96 ± 19.45 to 32.78 ± 10.78 events/h, p = 0.017); in control group (n = 7), AHI was significantly increased (from 35.77 ± 17.49 to 42.96 ± 17.32 events/h, p = 0.043). While the control group remained no change between pre- and post- intervention, the intervention group demonstrated that other PSG outcomes significantly improved, including arousal index (46.04 ± 18.9 versus 32.98 ± 8.35/h), mean SpO2 (92.88 ± 2.1 versus 94.13 ± 1.46%), and oxygen desaturation index (ODI) (31.13 ± 19.48 versus 20.57 ± 7.83/h). Conclusion: This comprehensive physical therapy can be prescribed for the significant clinical improvement on sleep apnea for the patients with moderate and severe OSA.
... This study was conducted with a randomized cross-over design to examine training volume, muscle soreness (doMS), metabolic markers (creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, blood lactate), rating of perceived exertion (oMNi-reS) and myoelectric activity responses subsequent to four different rT methods (TS, pS, SS and involves a sequence of exercises performed for a single set each, with the circuit performed one or more times sequentially. 6 previous researchers reported that performing agonistantagonist or pulling and pushing exercises sequentially may increase training volume, muscle activation and metabolic responses. [7][8][9] Maia et al. 10 investigated the effect an agonist-antagonist pS that incorporated the leg extension exercise preceded by a prone leg curl exercise (with 10 repetition maximum loads both exercises); with no rest, 30-sec, 1-min, 3-min, or 5-min rest between exercises. ...
Article
Full-text available
2 Biodynamic laboratory of exercise, health, and performance, castelo Branco university, rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 3 Kinesiology center of performance, Biodesp institute, rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 4 department of Kinesiology, california State university, fullerton, ca, uSa; 5 department of health and human performance, Montana State university, Billings, MT, uSa *corresponding author: Gabriel a. paz, School of physical education and Sports, rio de Janeiro federal university, avenida alberico diniz 2332, Jardim Sulacap, rio de Janeiro, a B S T r a c T BacKGrouNd: a challenging aspect of research in sports science is designing and conducting studies that simulate actual workout scenarios, especially with application to resistance training (rT). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of rT sessions performed in differing workout formats on myoelectric activity, strength performance, and metabolic markers (creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, blood lactate) over 24, 48 and 72 hours post-workout. MeThodS: Twenty-two trained men (25.2±4.1 years, 182.1±12.3 cm and 91.2±5.9 kg) performed the following four training protocols with 10-repetition maximum loads in random order: 1) traditional set (TS): three sets were performed in succession for the barbell bench press (Bp), lat pulldown (lpd), 45° incline bench press (Bp45), seated close-grip row (Scr), triceps extension (Te) and biceps curl (Bc) on a pulley; 2) paired set (pS): three paired sets were performed as follows: Bp-lpd, Bp45-Scr, and Tc-B; 3) super-set (SS): similar to the pS protocol, but without rest between paired exercises; 4) circuit training (cT): one set of each exercise was performed sequentially three times. reSulTS: The results showed greater total volume under the SS (8063.2±2270.5 kg) protocol versus the TS (7356.8±2279.7 kg). Total work (repetitions) was also significantly greater for the SS and CT protocols versus the TS (p<0.05). coNcluSioNS: Therefore, the practitioners should consider utilizing the SS method during time-constrained periods with the goal to achieve greater training volume in time-efficient manner versus the TS, pS and cT methods.
... In our study, we noticed that minor effect changes occurred in normal weight group; this can possibly be explained by the fact that it has been administered a medium intensity protocol, and it has recently been shown that the best results, especially in nonobese subjects, are obtained with high intensity circuit protocols. 14 Moreover, the only parameter that decreases in a statistically significant way, that is body fat mass, oddly does not seem to go in parallel with a statistically significant reduction in cholesterol and triglycerides. ...
Article
Full-text available
Benefits of exercise are known for a long time, but mechanisms underlying the exercise mode recommendations for specific chronic cardiovascular diseases remain unclear. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different circuit training protocols in order to determine which is the best for weight loss and for specific overweight related disorders. Forty-five female sedentary overweight participants from 20 to 50 years (average 31.8±11.2) were enrolled and assigned to three different groups; each group was compared with a control normal-weight group. Three different circuit protocols were randomly assigned to each overweight group: aerobic-tone-aerobic (ATA), aerobic-circuit-aerobic (ACA) and mini-trampoline circuit (MTC), while control group performed a classic circuit weight training (CWT). Every group trained three times per week, for 12 weeks. The results show that ATA group reduced body fat and total body mass more than other groups (P<0.001; P=0.007).
... However, they combined circuits of both functional and ergometer-based exercise to meet aerobic exercise guidelines in this population. Such relative workloads have also been recorded using circuit-based functional movements in populations without acquired brain injury (Paoli et al., 2013;Miller et al., 2014;Schmidt et al., 2016;Sperlich et al., 2017). During high-intensity circuit training using resistance-based exercise, overweight males were able to maintain workloads corresponding to 85% of maximal HR for 30 min 3 times per week over 4 weeks (Miller et al., 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To determine whether stroke survivors could maintain workloads during functional task practice that can reach moderate levels of cardiometabolic stress (i.e., ≥40% oxygen uptake reserve (V˙O2R) for ≥20 min) without the use of ergometer-based exercise. Design: Cross-sectional study using convenience sampling. Setting: Research laboratory in a tertiary rehabilitation hospital. Participants: Chronic hemiparetic stroke survivors (>6-months) who could provide consent and walk with or without assistance. Intervention: A single bout of intermittent functional training (IFT). The IFT protocol lasted 30 min and involved performing impairment specific multi-joint task-oriented movements structured into circuits lasting ~3 min and allowing 30–45 s recovery between circuits. The aim was to achieve an average heart rate (HR) 30-50 beats above resting without using traditional ergometer-based aerobic exercise. Outcome measures: Attainment of indicators for moderate intensity aerobic exercise. Oxygen uptake (V˙O2), carbon dioxide production (V˙CO2), and HR were recorded throughout the 30 min IFT protocol. Values were reported as percentage of V˙O2R, HR reserve (HRR) and HRR calculated from predicted maximum HR (HRRpred), which were determined from a prior maximal graded exercise test. Results: Ten (3-female) chronic (38 ± 33 months) stroke survivors (70% ischemic) with significant residual impairments (NIHSS: 3 ± 2) and a high prevalence of comorbid conditions (80% ≥ 1) participated. IFT significantly increased all measures of exercise intensity compared to resting levels: V˙O2 (Δ 820 ± 290 ml min⁻¹, p < 0.001), HR (Δ 42 ± 14 bpm, p < 0.001), and energy expenditure (EE; Δ 4.0 ± 1.4 kcal min⁻¹, p < 0.001). Also, mean values for percentage of V˙O2R (62 ± 19), HRR (55 ± 14), and HRRpred (52 ± 18) were significantly higher than the minimum threshold (40%) indicating achievement of moderate intensity aerobic exercise (p = 0.004, 0.016, and 0.043, respectively). Conclusion: Sufficient workloads to achieve moderate levels of cardiometabolic stress can be maintained in chronic stroke survivors using impairment-focused functional movements that are not dependent on ergometers or other specialized equipment.
... However, they combined circuits of both functional and ergometer-based exercise to meet aerobic exercise guidelines in this population. Such relative workloads have also been recorded using circuit-based functional movements in populations without acquired brain injury (Paoli et al., 2013;Miller et al., 2014;Schmidt et al., 2016;Sperlich et al., 2017). During high-intensity circuit training using resistance-based exercise, overweight males were able to maintain workloads corresponding to 85% of maximal HR for 30 min 3 times per week over 4 weeks (Miller et al., 2014). ...
Presentation
Title of Session: Ramping up Stroke Rehab using Aerobic Exercise: Many birds with one stone (Presented by Mr. Liam Kelly and Ms. Marianne Thornton) Outline: 1) Discuss activity and sedentary time during inpatient stroke rehabilitation. 2) Discuss the benefits of combining aerobic exercise with cognitive training. 3) Explain ways of meeting aerobic training guidelines in the ’real world’.
... Alejandro Martínez-Rodríguez 1 Frecuencia de entrenamiento en circuito de alta intensidad y dieta. Efectos sobre rendimiento y salud en adultos activos: Ensayo Controlado Aleatorizado ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: High intensity interval training (HIIT) has been proven to be one of the most efficient methods to improve physical and physiological parameters using short training sessions. The objective of this study was to discern the effects of a 6-week HIIT program in active persons, modifying the training frequency. Methods: Group A trained two days a week (n=7), group B trained 3 days a week (n=7), while the control group did not perform any training (n=7). All groups followed a diet program adapted to the strength training requirements. The training sessions were comprised of 4 series of 10 self-loading exercises, including sprints and supporting materials, with 1-2 minute rests between series, exerting an 80-95% maximum cardiac frequency intensity. A 1:1 training load density was used, with 20-25 second intervals between work and recovery. Results: Groups A and B significantly improved in body composition and strength tests (bench press and back squats), compared to the control group as well as in the intragroup analysis when comparing before and after the intervention. However, no significant differences were observed when comparing the two experimental groups. No changes in blood pressure were observed in any inter- or intragroup analysis. Conclusion: An adapted nutritional program and a 2-day/week HIIT program seems to be sufficient in order to obtain significant improvements in strength and body composition in healthy active subjects, although blood pressure was not affected.
... Circuit training is one of the average progressive linear loading resistance training methods designed to train and improve the biomotor component including power, agility and endurance [17,18]. Some of the research results with low and high intensity of the circuit training program can increase power, agility and endurance [19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29], but the result of the circuit training program with low and high intensity is not still optimal to improve power, agility and endurance for beginners and adult athletes of table tennis in the pre-competition stage especially in table tennis performance. ...
... The perceived exertion scale (BORG) was used to control the intensity of the activities during this component of the intervention[42]. The activities included in the program were based on the recommendations of high-intensity physical activities for adolescents[43] [44][45].2. Physical activity during the lunch break: Equipment (i.e., balls, ropes, clubs, cones) was provided during the lunch break and supervised sports activities were held three times a week for six months (i.e., the duration of the intervention). ...
Article
Full-text available
Physical activity promotes positive effects on people's health, but most adolescents do not engage in sufficient physical activity to receive the benefits. Studies suggest that school-based interventions can be effective in increasing physical activity in adolescents. However, the literature is inconsistent on the effect size and the type of intervention. This paper presents the design of the SCHOOL IN ACTION program to increase physical activity engagement and healthy eating habits. The cluster randomized controlled trial was performed during a period of six months of intervention and 12 months of follow-up in adolescents from four Brazilian public schools. The theoretical model is based on health promoting schools and the social-ecological and self-determination theory. The action strategies were: improvement of exercises intensity during physical education classes and during lunch breaks; vegetable gardening experience; active breaks in non-physical education classes; counselling health to parents and adolescents and changes in the school environment to promote physical activity and healthy eating. Primary variables were physical activity and sedentary behavior (both assessed by accelerometers). Secondary variables were body composition (assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) and eating habits (assessed by questionnaire and 3-day food recall). Questionnaires were used to assess other information related to life satisfaction, health behavior and socioeconomic information. Statistical analysis will follow the principles of intention-to-treat and will explore the composition data analysis and mediating factors of lifestyle-related behaviors. We propose that SCHOOL IN ACTION program will be effective to provide evidence to increase physical activity and food healthy habits in adolescents' students. ClinicalTrials.gov registration: NCT03153176. TRIAL STATUS: Follow-up and data analysis.
... In our study, we noticed that minor effect changes occurred in normal weight group; this can possibly be explained by the fact that it has been administered a medium intensity protocol, and it has recently been shown that the best results, especially in non- obese subjects, are obtained with high intensity circuit protocols. 14 Moreover, the only parameter that decreases in a statistically sig- nificant way, that is body fat mass, oddly does not seem to go in parallel with a statistically significant reduction in cholesterol and triglycerides. Table 1. ...
Article
The “Jill Cooper’s aerobic accellerator system” uses high quality rebound, modified to increase the acceleration, create a more accommodating work surface, greater stability and cushioning to protect joints. Thanks to the three forces of acceleration, deceleration, and the force of gravity, for each jump, the one-way valves of the lymphatic pathways open and close pushing the lymph towards the next “closed”. This action allows the lymphatic system to make a full turn faster than usual. We investigate the effects of 6 months of training on 20 subjects (age: 37 ± 19; weight: 74 ± 19 Kg; height:164,5 ± 13,5 cm; BMI: 28,13 ± 6,876 Kg/m2; % body fat: 26 ± 14,7 Kg). Antropometric parameters were detected used a Bioimpedance analyzer (BF 302 Ormon BIA); blood samples were collected by a clinical specialized center to analyze lipid profile (total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides) as well as white and red blood cells (WBC and RBC). All these tests were performed before and after training. At the end of the six months of training all the determinations (body composition and blood tests) was made. The results obtained suggest that this system of fitness training got a great changement both on physical form (increase lean body mass at the expense of fat mass) that in blood parameters (all had a decrease statistical significance). The most relevant data covered the variation of blood parameters and in particular of the lipid profile: HDL, Triglycerides, LDL, total cholesterol. Also as regards the blood cells, the results were detected mainly on the number of basophils, lymphocytes and eusinofili regarding the white cells. The results of this study are still preliminary, but the premises stimulate interesting to perform further investigations in this direction, with a higher number of subjects.
... Despite popular high-intensity exercise protocols typically being shorter in session duration, this does not appear to limit aerobic fitness adaptations [56,57]. For example, Schmidt et al. [58] demonstrated a large positive between-group effect on VO 2 max (1.15 ± 0.714) in favour of a training group (n = 15, females 20.5 ± 1.5 years) following eight weeks of single 14-min bodyweight circuit sessions three days/ week. Future studies should examine the effects of varied HIMT session styles (i.e. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background High-intensity multimodal training (HIMT) is emerging as a popular training method that combines aerobic and resistance training throughout a single exercise session. The current literature is limited by a lack of terminology that broadly encompasses all styles of combined aerobic and resistance training. The magnitude of chronic or long-term (i.e. ≥ 4 weeks) effects of HIMT participation on aerobic and muscular fitness also remains unclear. Additionally, one of many complex reasons for the growing popularity of HIMT may be attributed to the affective response to exercise, namely levels of enjoyment. However, this concept is not yet well understood across all styles of HIMT. A comprehensive systematic review is required to synthesise the available literature and attempt to provide an operational definition of HIMT to capture the breadth of combined training styles that exist. Objective The objective of this systematic review was to determine the chronic effects of HIMT participation on aerobic and muscular fitness and to compare HIMT to established concurrent training methods. Enjoyability and other adherence-related subjective responses were also examined in HIMT participants. This review critically assessed the level of evidence and feasibility of current HIMT guidelines. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted on PubMed, Web of Science and SPORTDiscus to identify studies up until March 2021. Results A total of 20 studies were included for review. Studies generally reported moderate to large effects on aerobic fitness and subjective responses in favour of HIMT interventions. Mixed outcomes were demonstrated in muscular fitness. These results should be treated with caution due to high risk of bias among included studies. Conclusions Few studies have assessed the chronic effects of HIMT participation on aerobic, and musculoskeletal adaptations and subjective responses, in particular exercise enjoyment. Research conclusions are limited by heterogeneity of experimental protocols and outcome measures. Furthermore, the inability of the literature to make adequate comparisons between various styles of HIMT and other concurrent training protocols limits understandings of the efficacy of HIMT. Registration This systematic review was registered on the Open Science Framework (10.17605/OSF.IO/2RE4B; 26 March 2021).
... Contradictory findings were published by Schmidt et al. [50] who investigated ninetysix recreationally active college-aged subjects and analyzed the effects of 24 seven-minute circuit training workouts conducted within eight weeks (three workouts per week). The results suggest that short-duration, high-intensity circuit training may improve muscle endurance in a moderately fit population but not give statistically significant improvements in aerobic capacity. ...
Article
Full-text available
High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) promises high training effects on aerobic fitness in children, adolescents and adults in a relatively short time. It is therefore well-established in professional training settings. HIIT methods could also be suited to Physical Education (P.E.) lessons and contribute to students’ health and fitness. Since HIIT sessions need little time and equipment, they can be efficiently implemented in P.E. However, there are few studies which have examined non-running-based HIIT programs in the school sport setting. We therefore conducted an intervention study including 121 students aged 11–15 attending a secondary school in Baden Württemberg, Germany. The effects of three different forms of HIIT training varying in duration and content (4 × 4 HIIT, 12 × 1 HIIT, CIRCUIT) were analyzed. The training was conducted twice a week over 6 weeks (10–12 sessions). Strength and endurance performances were determined in pre- and posttests prior to and after the intervention. Results verified that all three HIIT programs led to significant improvements in aerobic fitness (p < 0.001; part ŋ2 = 0.549) with no significant interaction between time x group. In contrast to the running-based HIIT sessions, CIRCUIT training also led to significant improvements in all of the measured strength parameters. Retrospectively, students were asked to assess their perception of the training intervention. The HIIT sessions were well-suited to students who considered themselves as “athletic”. Less athletic students found it difficult to reach the necessary intensity levels. The evaluation showed that endurance training conducted in P.E. lessons needs a variety of different contents in order to sufficiently motivate students. Students perceiving themselves as “unathletic” may need additional support to reach the required intensities of HIIT. Circuit training sessions using whole-body drills can be efficiently implemented in the P.E. setting and contribute to students’ health and fitness.
... Schmidt et al. [51] reported that high intensity short duration circuit training may improve muscle endurance. In another study, Paoli et al. [52] compared high-intensity exercise combined with endurance training and alone or low intensity endurance circuit training. ...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has had severe effects on communities globally, leading to significant restrictions on all aspects of society, including in sports. Several significant decisions were made to postpone or cancel major swimming events by FINA (Fédération Internationale de Natation). Swimmers were no longer allowed to continue their usual training in swimming pools and were confined to their homes. These unusual circumstances may represent a good opportunity to strengthen different areas of swimmer preparation and potentially enhance performance when resuming regular aquatic training. We searched major databases for relevant information, and the present article provides practical information on home-based training for swimmers of all ages. The COVID-19 crisis and its consequences on the swimming community have created a myriad of challenges for swimmers around the world, including maintaining their fitness level and preparing to return optimally and safely to pool training and competitions. Unfortunately, the mental consequences that might arise after the pandemic may also have an impact. We strongly recommend encouraging the swimmers to consider quarantine as an opportunity for development in specific areas of preparation and learn how to best cope with this special situation of self-isolation and/or "physical distancing" for their mental health and in case a similar situation is faced again in the future.
... (V Senthil Kumar and D Maniazhagu, 2014) [37] Study results of effects of integrative neuromuscular training on fitness performance in children indicate that integrative neuromuscular training is an effective and time-efficient addition to PE as evidenced by improvements in health-and skill-related fitness measures in children. Schmidt W, Anderson K, Graff M, Strutz V. (2015) [31] , they found that the high intensity circuit training may improve muscle endurance in moderately fit populations. Slight improvements that are gender specific may also be observed in muscle strength as well as aerobic fitness. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the present study was to know the effects of concurrent strength and endurance training on power of junior athletes. Thirty school junior athletes from Alagappa Model Higher Secondary School, Karaikudi were randomly selected as subjects. The age of the subjects ranged between 15 to 17 years. The thirty subject were divided into three equal groups. The experimental group-1 (n=10, STb ET) underwent strength training before endurance training, the experimental group-2 (n=10, STa ET) underwent strength training after endurance training and group 3 served as control group (n=10, CG).The power was chosen as criterion variables and tested by stnding broad jump. The selected two treatment group's were performed three days in a week for the period of nine weeks, as per the stipulated training program. The power was tested before and after the training period. The collected pre and post data was critically analyzed with apt statistical tool of oneway analysis of co-variance. The ability of power have show better in both treatment groups than the control group.
... High-intensity exercise can induce a series of physiological adaptations, including the improvement of mitochondrial content and peripheral vascular structure and function [72], and it seems to be a key factor in promoting cardiorespiratory capacity [73]. Additionally, Schmidt et al. reported that high-intensity circuit training, using body weight as resistance, has positive effects on enhancing muscle endurance, even if it is performed for 7 min only [74]. Our findings were in agreement with previous studies. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: To examine the effects of three types of school-based exercises on bone health and physical fitness function in Chinese boys and girls. Methods: One hundred and seventy-four Chinese boys and girls were randomly assigned into four groups: (1) sham exercise (ShEx); (2) high-impact exercise (HiEx); (3) high-impact exercise with various directions (HiExVi); and (4) high-intensity interval exercise (HiInEx). Speed of sound (SOS) and physical fitness parameters were determined before and after six-month intervention. Results: At the end of six-month intervention, participants in all groups show an increment of SOS compared with the baseline (p < 0.05), and the changes were higher in HiEx (mean: 38.878 m/s, 95% CI: 32.885~44.872, p = 0.001) and HiExVi groups (49.317 m/s, 42.737~55.897, p < 0.001) compared with ShEx group (20.049 m/s, 13.751~26.346). Six-month exercise training generated a reduction of percent of body fat (PBF) and waist-hip ratio (WHR) (p < 0.05). The decrease of PBF was greater in HiExVi (-1.222%, -1.820~-0.624, p = 0.012) and HiInEx groups (-1.395%, -1.809~-0.982, p = 0.003), whereas the reduction of WHR was larger in HiEx (-0.026, -0.039~-0.014, p = 0.009), HiExVi (-0.024, -0.036~-0.012, p = 0.021), and HiInEx groups (-0.035, -0.046~-0.024, p < 0.001) compared with ShEx group. Balance function (BLF), vital capacity (VC), standing long jump (SLJ), and sit up (SU) increased in all intervention groups (p < 0.05). The BLF increased in HiEx (6.332 s, 4.136~8.528, p = 0.001), HiExVi (10.489 s, 8.934~12.045, p < 0.001), and HiInEx groups (9.103 s, 7.430~10.776, p < 0.001) showed a greater change than that of ShEx group (1.727 s, 0.684~2.770). The increment of VC (273.049 mL, 199.510~346.587, p < 0.001) and SU (2.537 times/min, 0.639~4.435, p = 0.017) was higher in HiInEx group, whereas the accrual in SLJ was larger in HiExVi (7.488 cm, 4.936~10.040, p = 0.007) compared with ShEx group (58.902 mL, 7.990~109.814; -0.463 times/min, -2.003~1.077; 1.488 cm, -0.654~3.630). Conclusion: The brief school-based exercises were effective in improving schoolchildren's health, but they showed different effects, with HiEx mostly improving bone health, HiInEx largely benefiting physical fitness function, and HiExVi enhancing both bone and physical fitness.
... The present study demonstrates an increase in speed performance of 0.0003% and 0.0002% for circuit training combined with speed agility quickens and circuit training combined with jump rope drills respectively. Schmidt W, Anderson K, Graff M, Strutz V. (2015), they found that the high intensity circuit training may improve muscle endurance in moderately fit populations. Slight improvements that are gender specific may also be observed in muscle strength as well as aerobic fitness.AtulMeethal* and Dr.A.M.Najeeb(2013) their study proved that the mud circuit training group had improved the speed, agility, leg explosive power, pulse rate, blood pressure, and aerobic capacity to a greater degree than concrete circuit training group. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
We describe improbable data patterns in the work of Barbalho et al.
Article
Background: The physical and mental health of college students tends to continuously decline worldwide. Thus, improving their health is necessary. Jazz dance may be one of the effective exercises to improve one's health. However, the effect of jazz dance exercise on different physical fitness level and whether the intensity of jazz dance exercises can improve physical and mental health simultaneously and efficiently need to be investigated. In this study, we systematically assessed the effect of jazz dance on physical and mental health of college students by a rigorous randomized, parallel-controlled design. Methods: An experimental study including 90 Chinese female college students (junior and senior) was performed. They completed an 8-week jazz dance class (two times/week for 70 min per session). Data on psychological status were obtained using the Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale after every class. Based on the Japanese national physical fitness test method, we identified the body weight and body mass index and the students performed 30-s sit ups, standing long jump, 20s repeated across the body, and seated forward flexion to determine their physical fitness at baseline and after 8 weeks. Repeated measures analyses of variance and paired samples t-tests were used to compare the means of the participants' data. Results: Differences in the mean of mental health scores over time were significant and showed an increasing trend (p<0.005) in all groups. Physical fitness showed an increasing trend in the low fitness level group. Most of the variables decreased slightly in the high fitness level group; however, flexibility significantly decreased. Conclusions: Among the participants with different physical fitness, a similar training has different training effects. This study demonstrates that appropriate training intensity and content are vital to improve physical and mental health.
Article
Full-text available
Background and Objective: Obesity is a hralth problem found throughout the world and could lead to subsequent complications. Nowadays, people are more interested in exercise to maintain and improve their health as a result of the support from social media, which make an attention of being healthy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of seven-minute exercise program on the fat percentage in the obese women. Materials and methods: Fifty female volunteers with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2 were divided into two groups; exercise with seven-minute exercise program (n=25) and control groups (n=25). All participants were measured the percentage of fat, BMI and waist circumference at before and after 6 weeks period. Results: Seven-minute exercise program could decrease the percentage of fat (10.72%), weight (7.10%), BMI (7.10%) and waist circumference (4.12%) significantly when compared to the control group before and after exercise in six weeks. (p<0.05). Conclusions: Seven-minute workout for 6 weeks could reduce the percentage of weight, BMI and waist circumference in obese females.
Article
A popular smartphone application called the 7 Minute Workout (7Min) claims to be scientifically proven to promote weight loss and improve cardiovascular function. The application has 10 million downloads and has been reviewed by 350,000 users. However, changes in metabolic and perceptual variables in response to 7Min are unknown. Our study compared acute responses between 7Min and a time-matched session of cycling-based high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE). Fourteen active men and women (age and VO2max = 25.4 ± 8.3 yr and 40.5 ± 6.4 mL/kg/min) initially underwent VO2max testing. During two subsequent sessions separated by > 48 h, they completed 7Min or HIIE. During exercise, oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentration (BLa), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. Peak VO2 was higher (p < 0.001) in HIIE versus 7Min, and HIIE yielded greater (p < 0.001) mean VO2 (1.83 ± 0.41 L/min vs. 1.44 ± 0.32 L/min) and HR (159.0 ± 10.7 b/min vs. 140.7 ± 18.3 b/min, p < 0.001) versus 7Min. Blood lactate concentration increased (p < 0.001) during exercise but was similar between bouts (p = 0.07). RPE was higher (p = 0.008) in response to HIIE versus 7Min. Although 7Min yields lower peak VO2 and HR than HIIE, it is characterized by bursts approaching 90 %HRmax and causes significant BLa accumulation, representing vigorous exercise. Nevertheless, 7Min is on the low end of the intensity spectrum, which questions whether it represents true HIIE and will confer similar benefits if performed long-term.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of study was to find out the effect of circuit training combined with speed agility quickness drills and jump rope drills on agility. To achieve the purpose of the study, thirty school boys from different schools from of Alagappa Sports Foundation at Karaikudi, were selected as subject at random. Their age group range between 11 to 14 years. The study was formulated as pre and post test random group design, in which thirty subject were divided into three equal groups. The experimental group-1 (n=10, CT-SAQD) underwent circuit training combined with speed agility, and quickness drills, the experimental group-2 (n=10, CT-JRD) underwent through circuit training combined with Jump Rope Drills and group 3 served as a control group (n=10, CG) did not undergo any specific training. In this study, two training programme were adopted as independent variable, i.e., circuit training combined with speed agility quickens and circuit training combined with jump rope drills. The agility was selected as dependent variable. It was measured by T test in seconds. The selected two treatment groups were performed five days in a week for the period of six weeks, as per the stipulated training program. The data was collected before and after the training period. The collected pre and post data was critically analyzed with apt statistical tool of analysis of co-variance, for observed the significant adjusted post-test mean difference of three groups. The Scheffe’s post hoc test was used to find out pair-wise comparisons between groups. To test the hypothesis 0.05 level of significant was fixed. The performance of the agility better in circuit training combined with the drills of speed, agility and quickness than the circuit training combined with the drills of jump rope. Keywords: Circuit training (CT), Speed agility quickness (SAQ), Jump rope drills (JRD), Agility
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of study was to find out the effect of two modes of circuit training on explosive power of school boys. To achieve the purpose of the study, thirty school boys from different school trained from Alagappa Sports Foundation at Karaikudi, were selected as subject at random. Their age group range between 11 to 14 years. The study was formulated as pre and posttest random group design, in which thirty subject were divided into three equal groups. The experimental group-1 (n=10, CT-SAQ) underwent circuit training combined with speed agility quickness drills, the experimental group-2 (n=10, CT-JRD) underwent circuit training combined with Jump Rope Drills and group 3 served as a control group (n=10, CG) did not undergo any training. In this study, two training programme were adopted as independent variable, i.e., circuit training combined with speed agility quickens and circuit training combined with jump rope drills. The explosive power was selected as dependent variable. It was measured by standing broad jump. The selected two treatment groups were performed five days in a week for the period of six weeks, as per the stipulated training program. The nature of speed was collected before and after the training period. The collected pre and post data was critically analyzed with apt statistical tool of analysis of co-variance, for observed the significant adjusted post-test mean difference of three groups. The Scheffe's post hoc test was used to find out pair-wise comparisons between groups. To test the hypothesis 0.05 level of significant was fixed. The nature of the explosive power better in CT combined with JRD drills than the CT combined with the SAQ.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to investigate the Impact of Moderate Intensity Circuit Training programme on Explosive Power and Anaerobic Performance of NRI students. The study involved forty male students (N=40) aged between 14 to 17 years, were randomly selected from Indian School, Doha-Qatar. The students were randomly divided into two group, Experimental Group (EG; N=20) and Control Group (CG; N=20). Baseline data of Explosive Power (EP) measured in Standing Broad Jump (SBJ) and Anaerobic Performance (AP) measured in anaerobic sprint test 50m were collected. The Moderate Intensity Circuit Training (MICT) includes 9 stations of one circuit with duration of 45/60 seconds of work/rest, 2 min rest in between the set. The training was performed for three days in a week for duration of 8 weeks. Data were analyzed by paired 't' test statistically signicant level was set at 0.01. After the MICT programme, Explosive Power and Anaerobic Performance were signicantly in the experimental group P<0.01 level of signicant. The result showed that moderate intensity circuit training programme was effective to increase Explosive Power and Anaerobic Performance among NRI students
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The present study was to investigate effects of 8-week modified high intensity circuit training using bodyweight (modified HICT BW) on body weight (BW), Waist/Hip circumference ratio (WHR), body circumferences and resting metabolic rate in sedentary obese women. Methods: Twenty-four sedentary female (aged between 20 and 40 years) who have body mass index between 25-29.9 kg/m 2 participated and were divided into untrained groups and trained groups. The trained group performed modified HICT BW program for 8 weeks. All parameters were measured before and after the 8-week study period in both groups Results: There was a significant increase in resting metabolic rate after 8 weeks of modified HICT BW training (p<0.05) , however, there were no significant differences in BW, WHR and body circumference in trained group when compared before and after an eight-week training. Discussion: An eight-week modified HICT BW exerts the beneficial effects on an improvement of resting metabolic rate, but not body weight loss and changes in body circumference in sedentary obese people.
Article
Full-text available
Introduction When athletes are performing sports training, many movements are of high intensity, and that training is repetitive, resulting in wear and tear on some injured parts. Objective Sports athletes can damage parts of the body in high - intensity exercise. During the processing, it is necessary to identify and analyze the damaged parts in the image. However, the current relevant methods have low accuracy and different problems of efficiency and quality. Methods In this paper, a Fish Swarm Algorithm is proposed to identify high-intensity motion damage images. According to the combination of adaptive threshold and mathematical morphology, the contour of the damaged part of the image is extracted. Results The above-mentioned method can improve the accuracy of identifying damaged parts of sports injury images, shorten the recognition time, and has certain feasibility in determining sports injury parts. Conclusions This method can be widely used in high-intensity sports injuries. Level of evidence II; Therapeuticstudies - investigation of treatment results. Keywords: Simulation; Recognition method; Damaged parts of high-intensity; Sports injury images
Article
Full-text available
We assessed the effects of resistance circuit-based training (CT) on strength, cardiorespiratory fitness, and body composition. A systematic review with meta-analysis was conducted in three databases, ending on March, 2020. Meta-analysis and subgroup analysis were used to analyze the effects of pre–post-intervention CT and differences from control groups (CG). Of the 830 studies found, 45 were included in the meta-analysis (58 experimental groups (n = 897) and 34 CG (n = 474)). The CT interventions led to increases in muscle mass (1.9%; p < 0.001) and decreases in fat mass (4.3%; p < 0.001). With regard to cardiorespiratory fitness, CT had a favorable effect on VO2max (6.3%; p < 0.001), maximum aerobic speed or power (0.3%; p = 0.04), and aerobic performance (2.6%; p = 0.006) after training. Concerning strength outcome, the CT increased the strength of the upper and lower extremities. Only the magnitude of strength performance appears to be influenced by the training (number of sessions and frequency) and the training status. Moreover, low and moderate intensities and short rest time between exercise increase the magnitude of change in fat mass loss. Therefore, CT has been shown to be an effective method for improving body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, and strength of the lower and upper limbs.
Article
Background: A challenging aspect of research in sports science is designing and conducting studies that simulate actual workout scenarios, especially with application to resistance training (RT). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of RT sessions performed in differing workout formats on myoelectric activity, strength performance, and metabolic markers (creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, blood lactate) over 24, 48 and 72 hours post-workout. Methods: Twenty-two trained men (25.2±4.1 years, 182.1±12.3 cm and 91.2±5.9 kg) performed the following four training protocols with 10-repetition maximum loads in random order: 1) traditional set (TS): three sets were performed in succession for the barbell bench press (BP), lat pulldown (LPD), 45° incline bench press (BP45), seated close-grip row (SCR), triceps extension (TE) and biceps curl (BC) on a pulley; 2) paired set (PS): three paired sets were performed as follows: BP-LPD, BP45-SCR, and TC-B; 3) super-set (SS): similar to the PS protocol, but without rest between paired exercises; 4) circuit training (CT): one set of each exercise was performed sequentially three times. Results: The results showed greater total volume under the SS (8063.2±2270.5 kg) protocol versus the TS (7356.8±2279.7 kg). Total work (repetitions) was also significantly greater for the SS and CT protocols versus the TS (P<0.05). Conclusions: Therefore, the practitioners should consider utilizing the SS method during time-constrained periods with the goal to achieve greater training volume in time-efficient manner versus the TS, PS and CT methods.
Article
Full-text available
Background: High-intensity functional training (HIFT) has become a popular method in the sports and fitness sector. In contrast to unimodal approaches such as strength or endurance training, it has been hypothesized to induce concurrent adaptations in multiple markers of motor function. However, to date, the effectiveness of HIFT in this regard has not been reviewed. Objective: To quantify the chronic effects of HIFT on motor function in healthy individuals. Methods: A multilevel meta-analysis with a robust random effects meta-regession model was used to pool the standardized mean differences (SMD) between a) HIFT and b) no-exercise (NEX) as well as conventional endurance, resistance and balance training for outcomes of muscle strength, endurance capacity and balance. The influence of the possible effect modifiers such as program duration, session duration, age or sex was examined in a moderator analysis. Results: Seventeen papers with moderate to high methodological quality (PEDro scale) were identified. Compared to NEX, HIFT had small to moderate positive effects on endurance capacity (SMD: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.78, p=0.03) and strength (0.60, 95% CI: 0.02 to 1.18, p=0.04) but no effect on balance (SMD: -0.10, 95% CI: -1.13 to 0.92, p=0.42). Regarding endurance, HIFT showed similar effectiveness as moderate-intensity endurance training (SMD: -0.11, 95% CI: -1.17 to 0.95, p=0.75) and high-intensity interval endurance training (SMD: -0.15, 95% CI: -1.4 to 1.1, p=0.66). No comparisons of HIFT vs. classical resistance or balance training were found. Moderator analyses revealed no influence of most effect modifiers. However, regarding endurance, females seemed to respond more strongly to HIFT in the comparison to NEX (p<.05). Conclusion: HIFT appears to represent an appropriate method to induce chronic improvements in motor function. While being superior to NEX and non-inferior to endurance training, current evidence does not allow a comparison against resistance and balance training. The impact of possible effect moderators should be further elucidated in future research.
Article
To investigate the acute cardiometabolic responses of a 7-minute bodyweight resistance exercise circuit (HICE) compared to a 7-minute high intensity interval training cycle protocol (HIIE). Methods: Twelve apparently healthy and active young adults were enrolled in a randomized crossover study (HICE vs HIIE). The 12 HICE exercises used a 30:5 second exercise to rest ratio, followed by a 3-minute cool-down and was replicated in the HIIE cycle protocol. Following each protocol, subjects were seated for the next hour. Measurements included blood pressure (BP) heart rate, blood glucose and triglycerides, taken prior to exercise, immediately after, 15, 30, 45, and 60-minutes post-exercise. Blood glucose and triglycerides were only taken, immediately after and at 60-minutes. General mixed linear modeling was used to analyze the data and Cohen's d was calculated for effect size. Post hoc analysis of individual time points used Bonferroni adjustment. Results: There was no significant difference in overall systolic BP between HIIE and HICE (p = 0.168). However, there was a significant difference in overall diastolic BP resulting a higher response in HIIE (p = 0.002). Immediately after exercise exhibited significant (p = 0.001) and trending, respectfully, higher values in diastolic BP for HIIE. The overall post-exercise heart rate was lower for HIIE vs HICE (p < 0.001). Blood glucose and Triglycerides had no overall difference between the two protocols (p = 0.104). Conclusion: The HICE protocol had a similar cardiometabolic response post-exercise to HIIE but did have a reduction in diastolic BP post-exercise. However, post-exercise heart rate was higher.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of study was to find out the effect of two modes of integrative neuromuscular training on explosive power of school boys. To achieve the purpose of the study, thirty school boys from different school trained from Alagappa Sports Foundation at Karaikudi, were selected as subject at random. Their age group range between 11 to 14 years. The study was formulated as pre and posttest random group design, in which thirty subject were divided into three equal groups. The experimental group-1 (n=10, INT) underwent integrative neuromuscular training, the experimental group-2 (n=10, INT-AT) underwent integrative neuromuscular training with aerobic training and group 3 served as a control group (n=10, CG). In this study, two training programme were adopted as independent variable. The explosive power was selected as dependent variable. It was measured by vertical jump. The selected two treatment groups were performed five days in a week for the period of six weeks, as per the stipulated training program. The nature of power was tested before and after the training period. The collected pre and post data was critically analyzed with apt statistical tool of analysis of co-variance, for observed the significant adjusted post-test mean difference of three groups. The Scheffe's post hoc test was used to find out pair-wise comparisons between groups. To test the hypothesis 0.05 level of significant was fixed. The nature of the explosive power better in INT combined with aerobic training than the INT group.
Article
Full-text available
Roberts, BM, Nuckols, G, and Krieger, JW. Sex differences in resistance training: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are different responses to resistance training for strength or hypertrophy in young to middle-aged males and females using the same resistance training protocol. The protocol was pre-registered with PROSPERO (CRD42018094276). Meta-analyses were performed using robust variance random effects modeling for multilevel data structures, with adjustments for small samples using package robumeta in R. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. The analysis of hypertrophy comprised 12 outcomes from 10 studies with no significant difference between males and females (effect size [ES] = 0.07 ± 0.06; P = 0.31; I = 0). The analysis of upper-body strength comprised 19 outcomes from 17 studies with a significant effect favoring females (ES = -0.60 ± 0.16; P = 0.002; I = 72.1). The analysis of lower-body strength comprised 23 outcomes from 23 studies with no significant difference between sexes (ES = -0.21 ± 0.16; P = 0.20; I = 74.7). We found that males and females adapted to resistance training with similar effect sizes for hypertrophy and lower-body strength, but females had a larger effect for relative upper-body strength. Given the moderate effect size favoring females in the upper-body strength analysis, it is possible that untrained females display a higher capacity to increase upper-body strength than males. Further research is required to clarify why this difference occurs only in the upper body and whether the differences are due to neural, muscular, motor learning, or are an artifact of the short duration of studies included.
Article
Full-text available
From this article, the reader should understand the following concepts: • the difference between a fad and a trend • worldwide trends in the commercial, corporate, clinical (including medical fitness), and community health fitness industry • expert opinions about identified fitness trends for 2014
Article
Full-text available
From this article, the reader should understand the following concepts: • the difference between a fad and a trend • worldwide trends in the commercial, corporate, clinical (including medical fitness), and community health fitness industry • expert opinions about identified fitness trends for 2015
Article
To understand the health benefits and practical application of a high-intensity circuit training exercise protocol.
Article
The assessment of body composition has become an important method for determining a desirable body weight of adults and athletes. Hydrostatic weighing is a popular and valid method, but it is often not feasible for the clinical setting or for mass testing; thus, anthropometry has become the preferred method. This article reviews the scientific basis for generalized body composition prediction equations and provides methods for evaluating body composition. The authors recommend using a sum of three skinfolds (triceps, chest, and subscapula for men and triceps, abdomen, and suprailium for women) and give detailed instructions for securring accurate measurements of body fat.
Article
THE PURPOSE OF THE ARTICLE IS TO FOCUS ON RESISTANCE CIRCUIT TRAINING (RCT) AS A METHOD OF STRENGTH TRAINING FOR THE ADULT POPULATION. HEALTH-FITNESS ADAPTATIONS GAINED FROM RCT INCLUDE IMPROVED V̇o2max (MAXIMAL AMOUNT OF OXYGEN CONSUMPTION OF THE BODY DURING EXERCISE) IN CERTAIN CASES, AN INCREASE IN TIME TO EXHAUSTION, A DECREASE IN RESTING BLOOD PRESSURE, INCREASED MUSCULAR STRENGTH, AND CHANGES IN CIRCULATING CHOLESTEROL AND HORMONE CONCENTRATIONS. RCT MAY USE A PERIODIZED OR PROGRESSIVE PROGRAM MODEL IN A CONDENSED FORM TO ACHIEVE HEALTH-FITNESS RESULTS BY THE CERTIFIED PERSONAL TRAINER DETAILING LONG-TERM AND SHORT-TERM PROGRAM PLANS.
Article
Strength training (ST; high intensity/low volume/long rest) has been used in several populations, including children, young adults, and older adults. However, there is no information about circuit weight training (CWT; low intensity/high volume/short rest) in apparently healthy postmenopausal women. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the effects of high-intensity ST and circuit training on isometric strength (IS), upper limb dynamic strength (ULS) and lower limb dynamic strength (LLS), muscle activation of quadriceps (EMG quad), maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max), time to exhaustion (TE), and bone mineral density (BMD). Twenty-eight postmenopausal women were divided into 3 groups: 1) ST group (STG, n = 9, 45-80% 1 repetition maximum (1RM), 2-4 sets, 20-6 reps), 2) circuit training group (CTG, n = 10, 45-60% 1RM, 2-3 sets, 20-10 reps), and 3) a control group (CON, n = 9, no exercise). Significance level was defined as p <or= 0.05 for all analyses. After 24 weeks of training, increases were observed in STG and CTG. However, whereas in the STG, the IS (32.7%), ULS (28.7%), LLS (39.4%), EMG quad (50.7%), VO2 max (22%), and TE (19.3%) increased, CTG showed changes only in IS (17.7%), ULS (26.4%), LLS (42.2%), VO2 max (18.6%), and TE (16.8%). BMD did not change in any experimental group. In the CON, there were no changes in the variables analyzed. Our results suggest that ST and circuit training positively affect postmenopausal women's muscular strength, muscular activation, and cardiorespiratory fitness, with no changes in BMD.
Article
The effects of a 12-week low resistance circuit weight training (CWT) on cardiovascular and muscular fitness were studied in 90 healthy sedentary adults. The subjects were randomized into three equally fit groups: CWT, Endurance (END) and Control (CON) according to their maximal aerobic power (VO2max). Both training groups exercised for 12 weeks, 3 days a week in sessions of 40 min, with a heart rate (HR) level of 70-80% HRmax. The CWT group trained with air resistance machines. Heart rate was controlled by setting the speed of movement. The END group walked, jogged, cross-country skied or cycled. The net differences (between pre- and posttraining changes) between the CWT and CON groups was statistically significant for VO2max (2.45 ml x min(-1) x kg(-1), 95% CI 1.1; 3.8), for abdominal muscles (3.7 reps, CI 0.3; 7.1), for push-ups (1.1 reps, CI 0.2; 2.1), and for kneeling (2.25 reps, CI 0.01; 4.5). The net difference (between pre- and posttraining changes) in the END and CON groups was statistically significant for VO2max (2.75 ml(-1) x min(-1) x kg(-1), 95% CI 0.9; 4.6), and kneeling (3.0 reps, CI 0.7; 5.3). Low resistance CWT with moderately hard HR level has effects comparable to an equal amount of endurance training on the cardiovascular fitness of sedentary adults. The CWT model was benefical also on muscular fitness. Based on the results, this type of exercise can be recommended for beginners because of its multilevel effects.
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 8 wk of exercise training on functional capacity, muscular strength, body composition, and vascular function in sedentary but healthy subjects by using a randomized, crossover protocol. After familiarization sessions, 19 subjects aged 47 +/- 2 yr (mean +/- SE) undertook a randomized, crossover design study of the effect of 8 wk of supervised circuit training consisting of combined aerobic and resistance exercise. Peak oxygen uptake (.VO(2peak)), sum of 7 maximal voluntary contractions and the sum of 8 skinfolds and 5 segment girths were determined at entry, crossover, and 16 wk. Endothelium-dependent and -independent vascular function were determined by forearm strain-gauge plethysmography and intrabrachial infusions of acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in 16 subjects. Training did not alter ACh or SNP responses. .VO(2peak), (28.6 +/- 1.1 to 32.6 +/- 1.3 mL.kg(-1).min(-1), P < 0.001), exercise test duration (17.4 +/- 1.1 to 22.1 +/- 1.2 min, P < 0.001), and muscular strength (465 +/- 27 to 535 +/- 27 kg, P < 0.001) significantly increased after the exercise program, whereas skinfolds decreased (144 +/- 10 vs 134 +/- 9 mm, P < 0.001). These results suggest that moderate intensity circuit training designed to minimize the involvement of the arms improves functional capacity, body composition, and strength in healthy, middle-aged subjects without significantly influencing upper limb vascular function. This finding contrasts with previous studies in subjects with type 2 diabetes and heart failure that employed an identical training program.
Article
Brief, intense exercise training may induce metabolic and performance adaptations comparable to traditional endurance training. However, no study has directly compared these diverse training strategies in a standardized manner. We therefore examined changes in exercise capacity and molecular and cellular adaptations in skeletal muscle after low volume sprint-interval training (SIT) and high volume endurance training (ET). Sixteen active men (21 +/- 1 years, ) were assigned to a SIT or ET group (n = 8 each) and performed six training sessions over 14 days. Each session consisted of either four to six repeats of 30 s 'all out' cycling at approximately 250% with 4 min recovery (SIT) or 90-120 min continuous cycling at approximately 65% (ET). Training time commitment over 2 weeks was approximately 2.5 h for SIT and approximately 10.5 h for ET, and total training volume was approximately 90% lower for SIT versus ET ( approximately 630 versus approximately 6500 kJ). Training decreased the time required to complete 50 and 750 kJ cycling time trials, with no difference between groups (main effects, P </= 0.05). Biopsy samples obtained before and after training revealed similar increases in muscle oxidative capacity, as reflected by the maximal activity of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) and COX subunits II and IV protein content (main effects, P </= 0.05), but COX II and IV mRNAs were unchanged. Training-induced increases in muscle buffering capacity and glycogen content were also similar between groups (main effects, P </= 0.05). Given the large difference in training volume, these data demonstrate that SIT is a time-efficient strategy to induce rapid adaptations in skeletal muscle and exercise performance that are comparable to ET in young active men.