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Methanolic extract of Coriandrum sativum (coriander) seeds was analyzed for the presence of various antioxidants; ascorbate, riboflavin, tocopherol, polyphenols and in vitro antioxidant potential. The extract, rich in polyphenolic compounds (18.696 ± 0.12 mg/g dry seeds) was subjected to HPLC analysis for identification and quantification of phenolics. Gallic acid (173.656 µg), caffeic acid (80.185 µg), ellagic acid (162.861 µg), quercetin (608.903 µg) and kaempferol (233.70 µg)/g dry seeds were identified. Antioxidant activity of the extract was determined by various mechanisms including DPPH free radical scavenging, metal induced protein and lipid oxidation inhibition and protection of DNA against H2O2 induced damage. Coriander had excellent free radical scavenging activity with IC50 value 0.4 mg dry seed weight, whereas comparatively higher IC50 was observed with metal ion chelating assays (7.2-8.0 mg dry seed weight). The results suggest that polyphenols including gallic acid, caffeic acid, ellagic acid, quercetin and kaempferol are the principle component responsible for high antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of coriander seeds. This is the first report on detailed analysis of antioxidant composition and antioxidant properties of methanolic extract of coriander seeds.
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Dua Anita et al. Int. Res. J. Pharm. 2014, 5 (3)
Page 220
ISSN 2230 8407
Research Article
Dua Anita1*, Agrawal Sharad2, Kaur Amanjot2, Mahajan Ritu2
1Department of Biochemistry, University College, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, India
2Department of Biotechnology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, India
*Corresponding Author Email:
Article Received on: 10/02/14 Revised on: 21/02/14 Approved for publication: 07/03/14
DOI: 10.7897/2230-8407.050347
Methanolic extract of Coriandrum sativum (coriander) seeds was analyzed for the presence of various antioxidants; ascorbate, riboflavin, tocopherol,
polyphenols a nd in vitro antioxidant potential. The extract, rich in polyphenolic compounds (18.696 ± 0.12 mg/g dry seeds) was subjected to HPLC analysis
for identification and quantificati on of phenolics. Gallic acid (173.656 µg), caffeic acid (80.185 µg), ellagic acid (162.861 µg), quercetin (608.903 µg) and
kaempferol (233.70 µg)/g dry seeds were identified. Antioxidant activity of the extract was determined by various mechanisms including DPPH free radical
scavenging, metal induced protein and lipid oxidation inhibition and protection of DNA against H2O2 induced damage. Coriander had excellent free radical
scavenging act ivity with IC50 value 0.4 mg dry seed weight, whereas comparatively higher IC50 was observed with metal ion chelating assays (7.2-8 .0 mg dry
seed weight). The results suggest t hat polyphenols including gallic acid, caffei c acid, ellagic acid, quercetin and kaempferol are the principle component
responsible for high antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of coriander seeds. This is the first report on detailed analysis of antioxidant composition and
antioxidant properties of methanolic extract of coriander seeds.
Keywords: coriander seeds, methanol extract, polyphenols, antioxidant properties
The survival on oxygen has presented a serious challenge to
the aerobes, since ROS are the normal by-products of cell
respiration and metabolism. Biological systems are especially
sensitive to reactive oxygen species (ROS), the reactive
forms of oxygen which arise either as by-products of
oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria, or as the
result of exposure to environmental chemicals and toxins.
The biological macromolecules including proteins, lipids and
nucleic acids, are vulnerable to oxidative attack. ROS can
disturb homeostasis of cells and tissues, which ultimately
threatens the integrity of the organism. Acute stress responses
are characterized by the cessation of cell division,
degradation of irreparably damaged proteins or organelles by
proteasomal and autophagic mechanisms. Oxidative stress is
reported to play an important role in ageing and various
clinical disorders such as diabetes, atherosclerosis,
reperfusion injury, cancer1 etc. Humans and other mammals
possess a multitude of cytoprotective mechanisms against
environmental and biochemical damage. One general
mechanism that cells employ to protect themselves against
the oxidative damage is to maintain a reducing intracellular
milieu, by keeping a significant concentration of reducing
equivalents in the form of reduced glutathione, thioredoxin,
and other redox buffers2,3. Dietary intake of naturally
occurring antioxidants such as ascorbic acid, Vitamin E and
phenolic compounds have ability to reduce oxidative damage
associated with many diseases including cancer,
cardiovascular diseases, cataract, arthritis, diabetes4. Due to
several side effects of synthetic antioxidants, such as risk of
liver damage and carcinogenesis in laboratory animal, there is
a need for more effective, less toxic and cost effective natural
antioxidants. Medicinal plants appear to have these desired
comparative advantages and are rich source of bioactive
principles that form the ingredients in traditional systems of
medicine, modern medicines, pharmaceutical intermediates,
neutraceuticals and food supplements. Coriander
(Coriandrum sativum) is an annual herb of the family
Apiaceae. The herb is cultivated and used extensively in
Russia, Europe, India, Turkey, Argentina and United States
of America. The leaves and dry fruits of coriander are used as
spice in various food preparations. Traditionally coriander
seeds (dry fruits) are also used to cure indigestion, cough,
bronchitis, vomiting, diarrhea and dysentery, against worms,
rheumatism and joint-pain4. The coriander seeds are reported
to affect carbohydrate5 and lipid metabolism6. Antioxidant
activity of aqueous extract of coriander on carotene and
linoleic acid oxidation has been studied7. Wong and Kitts
(2006) have reported free radical scavenging and antibacterial
activity in the extracts of coriander leaves and stem8. Free
radical scavenging and lipid per oxidation inhibition activity
in the dichloromethane and aqueous extracts of coriander
leaves and seeds has also been reported by Wangensteen, et
al.9 The present study estimates the level of various
bioreactive antioxidant compounds in the methanol extract of
coriander seeds. The study further evaluates the free radical
scavenging and possible protection of macromolecules
proteins, lipids and DNA against oxidative stress by the
The coriander (Coriandrum sativum) seeds, procured from
the local market, were identified and authenticated at
Department of Botany, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra,
India. Diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), acetonitrile, gallic
acid, Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and methanol were purchased
from Hi-media, Mumbai, India. Bovine serum albumin, calf
thymus DNA, 5,5-dithio-bis (2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB),
thiobarbituric acid, caffeic acid, ellagic acid, ferulic acid,
quercetin and kaempferol were purchased from Sigma
Chemical Company, USA. All other chemicals used were of
analytical grade.
Dua Anita et al. Int. Res. J. Pharm. 2014, 5 (3)
Page 221
Coriander seeds were dried at 60°C and ground to get fine
powder. Ground coriander seeds were shaken with 80 %
methanol (1 g/10 ml) in a shaker at room temperature for 4 h
followed by re-extraction of the residue for 2 h. Collected
extract was filtered through double layered muslin cloth and
centrifuged to get clear supernatant. Extract was concentrated
in a vacuum evaporator and stored at -20°C and used after
appropriate dilutions for various experiments.
Antioxidant analysis
Coriander seed extract was analyzed for ascorbate by diluting
in 5 % metaphosphoric acid in presence of 10 % stannous
chloride and adding equal volume of 2 % thiourea in 5 %
HPO3. After incubating at 37°C for 6 h the contents were
chilled and 5 ml of 85 % H2SO4 was added slowly. The
absorbance was read at 540 nm against reagent blank after 30
minutes10. A calibration curve of ascorbic acid (1-20 µg/ml)
was prepared. To determine total ascorbic acid, reduced
ascorbate was first oxidized by adding bromine water.
Riboflavin content of coriander extract was estimated after
diluting with 0.2M acetate buffer pH 4.0. Few drops of
caprylic alcohol and 3 ml of 4 % potassium permanganate
solution (freshly prepared) were added. Within 2 minutes, 3
ml of H2O2water solution (1:1) was added and pH adjusted
to 7.0 with NaOH. The fluorescence by the filtrate was
measured at 530 nm with excitation at 470 nm using
fluorescence spectrophotometer10. Standard riboflavin (1
µg/ml) was used for calibration purpose. For tocopherol
estimation, the extract was mixed with saturated potassium
hydroxide and hexane. Hexane layer was evaporated under
nitrogen and dissolved in ethanol. To the ethanol extract, 0.2
ml of 2 % bathophenanthroline followed by 0.2 ml of ferric
chloride reagent was added in dark. After 1 minute, 0.2 ml of
0.01M phosphoric acid (prepared in alcohol) was mixed and
read at 534 nm. Standard DL-tocopherol (1-10 µg) was used
to prepare the calibration curve. Total polyphenolic content
of the methanolic extract of coriander was estimated by
Folin-Ciocalteau method11. Aliquot of the extract was mixed
with 2 ml of sodium carbonate (2 %). After 2 minutes, 100 µl
of Folin-Ciocalteau reagent (IN) was added and absorbance
was read at 750 nm after 30 minutes. The methanolic extract
was defatted with n-hexane. The defatted extract was treated
with 2N HCl to hydrolyze glycosidic bonds. The extract was
dried, again dissolved in methanol and subjected to HPLC for
qualitative and quantitative analysis of free phenolic
compounds by modifying the method given by Ani et al.11
The HPLC system (Agilent Technologies Company) was
equipped with dual lamp binary system, UV detector, C18
column (i.d. 4.6 mm × 150 mm, 5 µm) and data was
integrated by Agilent Chem Station software. Standards and
sample extracts were analyzed using the following gradient
program (A, 100 % acetonitrile B, HPLC Grade Water: 0
minute, 5 % A: 10 minutes, 15 % A: 20 minutes, 25 % A: 30
minutes, 35 % A: 40 minutes, 45 % A: 50 minutes, 55 % A).
Flow rate was 0.5 ml/min and injection volume was 10 µl.
Peak area (280 nm) of the sample was used as an index of the
amount of component and the retention time of individual
peaks was used to identify polyphenols by comparing with
standard polyphenols gallic acid, caffeic acid, ellagic acid,
ferulic acid, quercetin and kaempferol.
Measurement of free radical scavenging activity
To 1 ml of DPPH solution (50 x 10-5 M) different dilutions of
the coriander extract were added in a final volume of 1.1 ml.
The decrease in absorbance due to the scavenging of DPPH
radicals by the extract was recorded at 517 mm11 after 5
minutes. The percentage inhibition of DPPH scavenging with
different dilutions of extract was calculated and IC50, the
concentration at which 50 % of the initial DPPH could be
scavenged was noted.
% inhibition = [(Abs control Abs sample)/Abs control] x 100
Estimation of lipid and protein oxidation Inhibition
The amount of malonaldehyde produced by copper induced
egg lecithin per oxidation was monitored as thiobarbituric
acid reacting substances (TBARS) to measure lipid per
oxidation as described earlier10. The coriander extract were
added to the reaction mixture containing lecithin and CuCl2 in
50 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.4) and incubated at 37°C for 15
minutes. Malonaldehyde produced was determined by adding
TBA reagent containing 0.37 % thiobarbituric acid (TBA), 15
% trichloroacetic acid (TCA), 0.04 % butylated hydroxyl
toluene (BHT) and 2 % ethanol. Mixture was heated at 100°C
for 15 minutes and centrifuged at 3000 g for 10 minutes. The
absorbance of supernatant at 535 nm was recorded. IC50, the
concentration inhibiting 50 % of per oxidation was
calculated. Oxidative modifications in BSA were induced by
copper in presence and absence of different dilutions of
coriander extract10. The reaction mixture containing albumin
(10 mg/ml) and CuCl2 in 50 mM TrisHCl buffer (pH 7.4)
was incubated at 37°C for 2 h. Phosphate buffer (pH 8.0)
containing 12.5 mM EDTA plus 10.0 M urea and phosphate
buffer (pH 7.0) containing 10 mM 5,5-dithio-bis (2-
nitrobenzoic acid) was added to the reaction mixture. The
absorbance was recorded at 412 nm as an index of cysteine-
SH residues. Percent inhibitory ratio was calculated as
% inhibition = [(Abs co ntrol Abs sample)/Abs control] x 100
Inhibition of oxidative damage to DNA
Oxidative damage is induced in DNA by hydroxyl radicals
generated by Fentons reaction11. The reaction mixture
containing 3 µg of calf thymus DNA in 20.0 mM phosphate
buffer saline (pH 7.4) and different concentrations of the
extract (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 µg) in a final volume of 9 µl was
pre-incubated for 15 minutes. The oxidation was induced by
adding 1.0 mM FeSO4 + 10.0 mM ascorbic acid and
incubated for 1 h at 37°C. The loading buffer (xylenecyanol,
0.25 %; bromophenol blue, 0.25 % and glycerol 30 %) was
added and the mixture was subjected to gel electrophoresis in
1.5 % agarose-TAE buffer system and run at 60 V. DNA was
visualized and photographed by using UV- transilluminator
(Genei) and Chemidoc (Biorad) system to assess the damage
and protection.
Antioxidants are the chemical moieties which inhibit the
production and propagation reactions of ROS or terminate
these reactions when present in small amounts. Ascorbate,
riboflavin, tocopherol and polyphenols have redox potential
high enough to scavenge or terminate ROS2-4. Polyphenols
can contribute as metal ion chelators due to the presence of
various hydroxyl radicals. The π electron cloud of one or
more benzene rings makes them suitable as antioxidants13.
Dua Anita et al. Int. Res. J. Pharm. 2014, 5 (3)
Page 222
Table 1: Antioxidant Profile of Coriander Seed Extract
Amount (µg/g dry wt.)
Oxidized ascorbate
150.5 ± 9.14
Reduced ascorbate
136.6 ± 9.36
Total ascorbate
287.1 ± 1.82
4.67 ± 0.37
181.33 ± 9.02
Total Polyphenols
18.696 ± 0.12*
Gallic acid
Caffeic acid
Ellagic acid
*(mg/g dry wt.)
Table 2: Antioxidant Activity of Coriander Seed Extract Determined by Different Assays (As Percent Inhibition of Control)
Dry Weight (mg)
DPPH Scavenging
Lipid per oxidation
Protein oxidation
Figure 1: HPLC analysis of the coriander extract; peak at retention time 2.583, 15.269, 25.022, 54.217 and 61. 171 minutes are identified as gallic
acid, caffeic acid , ellagic acid, quercetin and kaempferol respectively
Figure 2: Protection of DNA from H2O2 induced damage i n presence of extract equivalent to different amounts of coriander seeds; Lane1-control
DNA (1.5 µg); Lane2-DNA + Fentons reagent with ascorbic acid; La ne3-coriander (0.5 µg) + DNA + Fentons reagent with ascorbic acid; La ne 4-
coriander (1.0 µg) + DNA + Fentons reagent with ascorbic acid; Lane5-oriander (1.5 µg) + DNA + Fentons reage nt with ascorbic acid
To identify and determine the level of possible antioxidants
in coriander seeds, the seed extract was analyzed for the
presence of biomolecules, known to have antioxidant activity.
The coriander seeds had low methanol extractable ascorbate,
riboflavin and tocopherol (Table 1). Total ascorbate and
tocopherol are 287.1 µg and 181.33 µg/g dry seeds, where as
riboflavin is only 4.67 µg/g dry seeds. However, the extract
had considerable amount of polyphenols 18.696±0.12mg
GAE/g dry weight of seeds. Polyphenols have good
antioxidant potential both as free radical scavenger and
inhibitor of metal induced oxidation13. Wangensteen et al.
have reported that butanol and ethyl acetate extracts of
coriander seeds had polyphenols 1.16 g GAE and 0.189 g
GAE/100 g dry seeds9. Higher amount of polyphenols from
coriander seeds were extracted here using methanol.
Polyphenolic compounds are usually present as glycosides in
plant sources. The coriander seed extract was therefore,
hydrolyzed with 2N HCl to break glycosidic bonds before
analysis by HPLC (Figure 1). The identification of
polyphenols was done by comparing retention time of the
peaks with that of standard compounds. Coriander seed
extract contained gallic acid, caffeic acid, ellagic acid,
quercetin and kaempferol (Table 1). Quantification of the
identified compounds was achieved by comparing the peak
area of individual compound with that of standards (2 ng/10
µl). Methanolic extract of coriander had 173.656 µg gallic
1 2 3 4 5
Dua Anita et al. Int. Res. J. Pharm. 2014, 5 (3)
Page 223
acid, 80.185 µg caffeic acid, 162.861 µg ellagic acid, 608.903
µg quercetin and 233.70 µg kaempferol/g coriander seeds.
Extract of fresh coriander leaves and stem is reported to
contain caffeic acid, protocatchunic acid, chlorogenic acid,
ferulic acid and flavanols such as quercetin7. Shan et al. have
identified quercetin, isoquercetin, rutin and their glucuronoid
derivatives from coriander seeds but quantitative analysis of
polyphenols from coriander seeds has not been reported14.
Antioxidant activity of the polyphenols increases with the
number of hydroxyl groups and the density of π electron
cloud. Gallic acid, among the simple phenolics and quercetin
among the flavanols are the most potent antioxidants13.
Presence of high amount of quercetin and kaempferol, along
with other polyphenols indicates high efficacy of the spice as
an antioxidant. Scavenging free radicals such as hydroxyl or
superoxide radicals and terminating chain reaction, chelating
metal ions and inhibiting ROS production, donating electrons
or hydrogen to terminate chain reactions are some of the
ways by which antioxidants reduce oxidation. The mode of
action of natural antioxidants may be varied and could
involve multiple mechanism of action. Tocols and phenols
act as primary antioxidants while ascorbic acid may
reductatively regenerate oxidized primary antioxidants. The
antioxidant activity of a natural source is generally related to
either of these activities or as a synergist. Synergism between
various antioxidants has been reported15.
Antioxidant activity of coriander seed extract was examined
by methods based on different principles i.e. DPPH free
radical scavenging, copper induced lecithin peroxidation,
copper induced cysteine oxidation in BSA and peroxide
induced damage to DNA. DPPH is a stable free radical which
can absorb an electron or hydrogen to become a stable
diamagnetic molecule. Scavenging of these free radicals by
the antioxidants in coriander seed extract was observed as
decrease in optical density of the reaction mixture. Coriander
extract exhibited a concentration dependent elimination of
DPPH free radicals (Table 2). Methanolic extract
corresponding to 5 mg of coriander seeds caused complete
scavenging of free radicals. IC50 of the spice is 0.4 mg for
DPPH free radical scavenging activity. These results indicate
that antioxidants in coriander seeds are effective electron or
hydrogen donors and this activity contributes to the
antioxidant capacity of coriander seeds. Ramadan et al. have
found a positive correlation between the radical scavenging
activity and polyphenol content of the chloroform extracts of
various spices16. Free radical scavenging activity of aqueous7,
ethanol and ethylacetate9 extracts of coriander seeds is also
positively correlated to the polyphenol content of the extracts.
Polyphenols from other spices are also reported to have
DPPH free radical scavenging activity8,10,11,17.
Metal ions such as iron and copper can induce oxidation of
lipids leading to the production of per oxy radicals, which in
turn propagate chain reaction and accelerate lipid oxidation.
Lipid oxidation brings about chemical changes, spoiling the
fats and fatty acids of foods. Cellular membranes being rich
in polyunsaturated fatty acids are easily attacked by free
radicals. Oxidative damage to the membrane lipids affects
their permeability and induces apoptosis, autogenesis,
carcinogenesis18 and the processes related to membrane
integrity. Malonaldehyde produced by copper induced
oxidation of lecithin in presence and absence of different
dilutions of coriander extract was determined as
thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (Table 2). In controls,
19.35 ± 0.318 nmoles of MDA was produced and the
production of MDA was reduced to 11.64 ± 0.776 nmoles in
presence of the extract equivalent to 6 mg of the coriander
seeds indicating 40 percent inhibition of lipid per oxidation.
IC50 calculated from the data is 8.0 mg. Higher
concentrations of spice extract are required for metal
chelation as compared to free radical scavenging. The results
indicate that antioxidants from this spice are efficiently
preventing the oxidation of lipids induced by metals either by
metal chelation or by inhibiting the propagation reactions
being hydrogen/electron donor. A decrease in lipid oxidation
in presence of coriander7,8, parsley8, cumin11 and fenugreek17
extracts has been reported. This activity has been attributed to
the metal chelating property of the polyphenols of the
extracts of spices and herbs14.
Oxidation of the sulphydryl groups of cysteine to cystine may
cause changes in the structure and functions of the proteins.
These proteins may be enzymes, hormones or components of
immune system. Deleterious impact of oxidative stress in
biological systems is related to the damage of proteins,
enzymes and various transcriptional factors like Nrf2, NFkB
and AP-119,20. BSA was subjected to oxidative modifications
by incubation with copper ions in presence and absence of
coriander extract (Table 2). Although little effect was
observed with lower concentrations of the extract, the process
of oxidative modifications was inhibited by 84 % in presence
of extract equivalent to 10 mg of coriander seeds. Presence of
extract equivalent to 7.2 mg spice is enough to inhibit the
metal induced protein oxidation up to 50 %, which is
comparable to IC50 for copper induced lecithin oxidation,
indicating that this is the influence of metal chelating
components of the extract. Methanol extracts of various herbs
and spices are reported to exhibit metal chelating activity
comparable to EDTA. Coriander extract inhibited metal
induced oxidation up to 88 % at 400 ppm concentration21.
Metal ion chelating capacity plays a significant role in
antioxidant mechanism since it reduces the concentration of
the oxidation catalyzing transition metal in lipid and protein
oxidation. Oxidation of DNA and RNA by hydroxyl radicals
can cause mutations22. Guanosine is oxidized to hydroxyl-2-
deoxyguanosine and thymine is modified to thymine glycol
under oxidative stress caused by carcinogens23. Oxidative
damage to DNA is shown to be extensive and could be a
major cause of physiological changes associated with aging
and degenerative diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular
diseases, immune-system decline, diabetes mellitus etc.
Antioxidants are believed to decrease the attacks on DNA by
free radicals and thus, protect against mutations that cause
disease status24. Oxidative stress generated by Fenton`s
reaction can cause breaks in calf thymus DNA and can uncoil
the super coiled DNA. Incubation of DNA with FeSO4 and
ascorbate has caused damage to DNA and damaged DNA
moves to a greater extent in the gel (Figure 2). Presence of
extract equivalent to 1.0 µg and 1.5 µg coriander in the
incubation mixture could prevent the damage. This protective
impact of the extract indicates that antioxidant formulation
from coriander seeds can efficiently quench hydroxyl radicals
from the reaction mixture and protect nucleic acid from
oxidative damage.
The present study reveals that coriander seed is a rich source
of natural antioxidants which could be extracted efficiently
with methanol. Polyphenolic compounds of the methanol
extract of coriander seeds include gallic acid, caffeic acid,
ellagic acid, quercetin and kaempferol. The extract exhibited
good free radical scavenging property and could protect
Dua Anita et al. Int. Res. J. Pharm. 2014, 5 (3)
Page 224
lecithin, protein and DNA against metal ion induced
oxidation and per oxidation. Potential use of coriander as an
antioxidant neutraceutical and as food preservative needs to
be explored further.
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Cite this article as:
Dua Anit a, Agrawal Sharad, Kaur Amanjot, Mahajan Ritu. Antioxidant
profile of Coriandrum sativum methanolic extract. Int. Res. J. Pharm. 2014;
Source of support: Nil, Conflict of interest: None Declared
... It bears hydroxyl groups that serve as proton donors that scavenge oxygen free radicals and act as inhibitors for radical chain reactions [98,109]. The antioxidant profile of C. sativum seed extract (mg/g dry weight) by Dua et al. [110] reports the presence of ascorbate, caffeic acid, ellagic acid, gallic acid, riboflavin, tocopherol, and polyphenol, as indicated in Table 6. ...
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Essential oils are hydrophobic liquids produced as secondary metabolites by specialized secretory tissues in the leaves, seeds, flowers, bark and wood of the plant, and they play an important ecological role in plants. Essential oils have been used in various traditional healing systems due to their pharmaceutical properties, and are reported to be a suitable replacement for chemical and synthetic drugs that come with adverse side effects. Thus, currently, various plant sources for essential oil production have been explored. Coriander essential oil, obtained from the leaf and seed oil of Coriandrum sativum, has been reported to have various biological activities. Apart from its application in food preservation, the oil has many pharmacological properties, including allelopathic properties. The present review discusses the phytochemical composition of the seed and leaf oil of coriander and the variation of the essential oil across various germplasms, accessions, at different growth stages and across various regions. Furthermore, the study explores various extraction and quantification methods for coriander essential oils. The study also provides detailed information on various pharmacological properties of essential oils, such as antimicrobial, anthelmintic, insecticidal, allelopathic, antioxidant, antidiabetic, anticonvulsive, antidepressant, and hepatoprotective properties, as well as playing a major role in maintaining good digestive health. Coriander essential oil is one of the most promising alternatives in the food and pharmaceutical industries.
... They are valuable in the preparation of food products, perfumes, cosmetics and to prevent food borne diseases and food spoilage as food preservatives too. Coriander has been used for the treatment of cough, bronchitis, dysentery, diarrhea, gout, rheumatism, intermittent fevers and as antiseptic [10][11][12] . Coriander seed essential oil have been reported to have antibacterial activity against gram postitive and gram negative bacteria as well as candida species [13][14][15] . ...
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In the present study the essential oil of Coriandrum sativum L. seed was extracted by hydrodistillation and investigated for the antimicrobial activity against clinical pathogens E. coli, Enteobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans by microdilution method, Minimum bactericidal concentration and antioxidant activity by DPPH assay. Results showed that MIC was minimum 0.02mg/ml and 0.04mg/ml for C. albicans and Klebsiella pneumoniae and maximum 1.28 mg/ml for P. aeruginosa, followed by E. coli 0.64 mg/ml. The minimum bactericidal concentration results showed that the MBC value ranges from 0.02mg/ml to 2.56mg/ml. The MBC and or MFC value is low for C. albicans 0.04mg/ml and high for P. aeruginosa 2.56mg/ml. The essential oil of Coriandrum sativum L. seed showed significant antioxidant activity and the percentage of inhibition were 66.2% and 87.8% for standard ascorbic acid. The IC50 value were 0.147 mg/ml and 0.108 mg/ml
... Studies have also demonstrated hypoglycaemic action and effects on carbohydrate metabolism (Kamran, et al., 2012). Volatile components in essential oil, from both seeds and leaves, have been reported to inhibit growth of a range of micro-organisms (Suganya, et al., 2012;Darughe et al., 2012), cholesterol lowering (Dhanapakiam, et al., 2008), and inhibition of lipid peroxidation (Anita et al,, 2014 prevention and inhibition of metastasis. Also study conducted on HT-29 cell showed that ethanol extract of the leaf possesses significant anticancer activity (Nithya, et al., 2014). ...
... Volatile components in essential oil, from both seeds and leaves of coriander (Corinadrum sativum L.), have been reported to inhibit growth of a range of microorganisms (Şimonati and Mihuta 2009;Darughe et al., 2012;Suganya, et al., 2012), lower cholesterol level (Dhanapakiam, et al., 2008), and inhibit lipid peroxidation (Dua et al., 2014). Furthermore, different studies on leaf, seed and root of this herb demonstrated antioxidant and anticancer activities (Nithya and Sumalatha 2014). ...
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Abstract The Foeniculum vulgare, known as fennel, has a long history of herbal uses as both food and medicine. Phytochemical screening, the total phenolic contents (TPC), total flavonoid contents (TFC), in vitro antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of chloroform, water, methanol, and aqueous: methanol (20:80, v/v) extracts of Foeniculum vulgare leaf were investigated. The antioxidant activity was measured using 1, 1 Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, reducing power and total antioxidant activity by phosphomolybdate methods. TPC and TFC were evaluated using Folin–Ciocalteu and AlCl3 methods respectively. Foeniculum vulgare extracts were investigated for in vitro antibacterial screening by disc diffusion method against Bacillus megaterium, Enterococcus gallinarum, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Aqueous: methanol (20:80, v/v) extract contained the highest TPC [(24.3 ± 0.99) mg GAE/g], and TFC [(18.92 ± 0.34) μg CE/mg] and showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 69.68 ± 2.28 μg/mL). The results also showed that the aqueous: methanol (20:80, v/v) extract had strongest reducing ability (0.82 ± 0.06 nm) as compared to other extracts. Chloroform extract exhibited the highest total antioxidant capacity (1.94 ± 0.76 mg AAE/g) as determined by the phosphomolybdenum method. Except for total antioxidant activity, all antioxidant activities were positively correlated TPC and TFC. Of the Foeniculum vulgare extracts, the highest inhibition zone was found in aqueous: methanol (20:80, v/v) extracts of the (8.74 ± 0.12 mm) against Bacillus megaterium. The study revealed that antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the crude extract of Foeniculum vulgare extracted by different solvents indicating a high potential to be used as natural antioxidants in food preservation as well as for preventing oxidative stress mediated human disorders.
... Volatile components in essential oil, from both seeds and leaves of coriander (Corinadrum sativum L.), have been reported to inhibit growth of a range of microorganisms (Şimonati and Mihuta 2009;Darughe et al., 2012;Suganya, et al., 2012), lower cholesterol level (Dhanapakiam, et al., 2008), and inhibit lipid peroxidation (Dua et al., 2014). Furthermore, different studies on leaf, seed and root of this herb demonstrated antioxidant and anticancer activities (Nithya and Sumalatha 2014). ...
... Biological systems are especially sensitive to ROS, the reactive forms of oxygen which arise as either by-products of oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria, or as the result of exposure to environmental chemicals and toxins. 34 The acute toxic effects of CCl4, a well-known hepatotoxin are known to be mediated through free radicals in vivo. Thus inhibition of free radicals by in vivo antioxidant systems like SOD, CAT and GSH could play a vital role protection of liver against CCl4-induced free radical damage. ...
... Volatile components in essential oil, from both seeds and leaves of coriander (Corinadrum sativum L.), have been reported to inhibit growth of a range of microorganisms (Şimonati and Mihuta 2009;Darughe et al., 2012;Suganya, et al., 2012), lower cholesterol level (Dhanapakiam, et al., 2008), and inhibit lipid peroxidation (Dua et al., 2014). Furthermore, different studies on leaf, seed and root of this herb demonstrated antioxidant and anticancer activities (Nithya and Sumalatha 2014). ...
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Spiced chili paste (green or red), locally known as Datta, is a traditional popular spicy paste consumed in Ethiopia. This study investigated the total phenolic contents (TPC), total flavonoid contents (TFC), in vitro antioxidant, and α-amylase inhibition activities of water, acetone, petroleum ether, methanol, and 80% methanol extracts of red Datta paste. TPC and TFC of the extracts were determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride method, respectively. DPPH scavenging, reducing power, and total antioxidant activities were taken as parameters for the evaluation of antioxidant activity. It was found that acetone extract contained the highest TPC (14.98 ± 0.76 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g of dried extract) and TFC (22.05 ± 0.87 mg of quercetin equivalent/g of dried extract). The acetone extract showed the highest, 2- diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 87.30 ± 3.17 g/ml), iron reducing power (11.06 ± 2.10 mg of ascorbic acid equivalent/g dried extract), and total antioxidant activity (0.62 ± 0.13 mg butylated hydroxytoluene equivalent/g of dried extract) than the other four extracts tested. The acetone extract also exhibited the highest percentage of α-amylase inhibition activity (54.31 ± 4.70%). TPC and TFC were strongly correlated with DPPH (r = 0.93, 0.94. p < 0.01), ferric reducing power (r = 0.89, 0.83, p < 0.05), and total antioxidant activity (r = 0.88, 0.85, p < 0.05), respectively. The α-amylase inhibition activity was well correlated with TPC (r = 0.78, p > 0.05) and TFC (r = 0.81, p > 0.05). This indicated that phenolic compounds are the main contributors of antioxidant and α-amylase inhibiting activities in red Datta paste. The study revealed that crude extract of red Datta paste can be used as natural antioxidants as well as for preventing oxidative stress mediated human disorders such as suppressing hyperglycaemia. Keywords: chili pepper, Datta paste, antioxidant, α-amylase, phenolic content
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The environmental and health risks associated with the application of synthetic chemical inputs in agriculture increased the demand for technologies that allow higher performance and quality of vegetable crops by implementing synergistic materials with the principles of sustainability. In this work, the seed coating with the biomass of Dunaliella salina incorporated in a bioplastic film of Manihot esculenta (cassava) was evaluated as an initial growth and secondary compounds stimulator of Coriandrum sativum (coriander) plants. The obtained results demonstrated that the coating stimulated an increase in the germination percentage (28.75%) and also in concentration of bioactive compounds, such as the six-fold increment of caffeic acid (13.33 mg 100 g-1). The carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins present in the microalgae biomass seem to be responsible for these increments once they are known for providing energy to the seedling development and coordinating the secondary metabolites synthesis. As conclusion, we consider the coating with biomass of D. salina an alternative for crop improvement that contributes to the development of sustainable agricultural practices.
Ants are the most dominant group of social insects belonging to order Hymenoptera of class Insecta. Ants can contaminate and destroy some agricultural products and stored foods. High cost of chemical insecticides leads to search for an alternative source for the above pest management. The use of toxic chemicals as pesticides to control insects and other pestiferous organism has drawn public concern due to environmental and health implications hence the need for alternative techniques of integrated pest management is the need of the hour. Hence the present experiment is carried out to study the phytochemical analysis of Coriandrum sativum, Ocimum basilicum and Cymbopogan citrates. We found positive results for the presence of phytochemical components and bioactive compounds by GC-MS analysis. Later we tested these extracts for ant repellant activities in the field at different concentration. From the experiment it was observed that a minimum concentration of the plant extract had maximum ant repellency activity.
Change in the lifestyle is causing the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), free radicals, and decreasing the physiological antioxidant capacity. ROS can also cause protein and lipid oxidation, nucleic acid mutation, and further responsible for the development of various diseases including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, cataract, ageing, etc. Antioxidants can prevent the oxidation of biomolecules. Antioxidants present in food are now being preferred by consumers instead of synthetic antioxidants due to their non-toxic and non-carcinogenic effects. Antioxidants present in leafy vegetables, fruits, herbs, spices, seeds, alcoholic, and non-alcoholic beverages have the ability to reduce the damage caused by ROS. Polyphenols have redox potential high enough to scavenge or terminate ROS and also provide the environment favourable for inhibition of bacterial growth. Polyphenols also have metal ion chelating property which causes the deficiency of essential metal ions in the growth medium and ultimately responsible for antimicrobial effect. Binding of the polyphenols to the thiol groups at the active site of various microbial enzymes makes them inactive, thus inhibiting the growth of microbes. Polyphenols particularly phenolic acids and flavonoids have great potential as food additives with pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and food preservative properties. The aim of this chapter is to present some valuable natural sources of polyphenols, structural characteristics, main classes of polyphenolic compounds, and extraction of polyphenols and also provide information on the most recent developments in the chemical investigation of polyphenols, emphasising their antioxidant and antimicrobial potential.
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Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds were extracted in 80% methanol to examine the content of various potent antioxidant compounds and their influence on in-vitro oxidation of biomolecules i.e. amount. proteins, lipids and DNA. Fenugreek extract had polyphenols (9.47±0.10 mg GAE/g dry seeds) as major antioxidant principle. Gallic acid (170.335µg), caffeic acid (164.550 µg), ellagic acid (184.879 µg) and quercetin (215.814 µg)/g dry weight fenugreek seeds were identified in methanolic extract by HPLC analysis. Other antioxidant compounds ascorbate, tocopherol and riboflavin were present in very low amounts. Antioxidant properties were assayed using DPPH free radical scavenging activity. Fenugreek extract inhibited the metal induced oxidation of proteins and lipids. Presence of the extract could protect DNA against H 2 O 2-induced oxidative stress. IC 50 value of fenugreek seeds was estimated by these mechanisms. The results of this study indicate that polyphenol rich methanolic extract of fenugreek had efficient free radical scavenging, reducing and metal chelating activity to protect biomolecules like proteins, lipids and DNA against oxidative stress.
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Methanolic extract of dried Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller) seeds was analyzed for the presence of bioreactive compounds: ascorbate, riboflavin, tocopherol and polyphenols with potential antioxidant properties. The extract had low ascorbate (197.12+1.82µg), riboflavin (11.97+0.35µg) and tocopherol (280.33+5.67µg/g dry seeds) content. However the extract had high polyphenol content (16.506+0.32mg/g dry seeds). Antioxidant activity of the extract was determined by various mechanisms including DPPH free radical scavenging, metal induced protein and lipid oxidation inhibition and protection of DNA against H2O2 induced damage. Fennel had excellent free radical scavenging activity with IC50 2.1mg dry seed weight. IC50 observed for protection of proteins and lipids against metal ion induced oxidation is 2.1 and 2.5mg dry seed weight respectively. Extract equivalent to 0.5µg seeds is enough to protect DNA against H2O2 induced oxidation. The results suggest that polyphenols are the principal components responsible for high antioxidant potential of methanolic extract of fennel.
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Enhancing the shelf life of any product with natural extract from fruits and vegetables is most desirable. These extracts with known and unknown bioactive compounds can also be exploited to inhibit the oxidation in human system. In the present study evaluation of the antioxidant potentials of selected fruits, vegetables, spices and medicinal plants available locally was carried out by five methods selected, which represents lipid peroxidation occurring in both food as well as in biological system. Neem leaves in medicinal plants, tomato and cabbage in vegetables, curry leaves in leafy vegetables, pomegranate and amla in fruits, coriander seed and decalepis rhizome showed very good antioxidant potency in most of the methods selected in the study, which were comparable to synthetic antioxidant such as BHA, TBHQ etc. Utilization of the extracts studied may result in formulating better health care products with enhanced shelf life and little or no side effects.
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Cumin is one of the commonly used spices in food preparations. It is also used in traditional ayurvedic medicine as a stimulant, carminative and astringent. Earlier we have reported that bitter cumin (Cuminum nigrum L.) possess the most potent antioxidant activity among cumin varieties—cumin, black cumin and bitter cumin. In this study, we have further characterized the polyphenolic compounds of bitter cumin and also their antioxidant and antibacterial activity using different model systems. The major polyphenolic compounds of cumin seeds were extracted with 70% methanol, 70% acetone, water, separated by HPLC and their structures were elucidated by LC-MS. The profile of phenolic acids/flavonols in bitter cumin were found to be gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, ellagic acid, ferulic acid, quercetin and kaempferol. The antioxidant activity of the cumin extract was tested on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, soybean lipoxygenase-dependent lipid peroxidation, rat liver microsomal lipid peroxidation and superoxide anion (O2−) scavenging. The bitter cumin extract exhibited high antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 14.0±0.5μg, 28.0±3.0μg, 110±14.0μg and 125.4±8.7μg of the extract, respectively for DPPH free radical scavenging, soybean lipoxygenase-dependent lipid peroxidation, rat liver microsomal lipid peroxidation and superoxide anion scavenging. Further, the extract offered a significant protection against DNA damage induced by hydroxyl radicals. Among a spectrum of food-borne pathogenic and spoilage bacteria tested, the cumin extract significantly inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. Thus, bitter cumin with an array of polyphenolic compounds possesses potent antioxidant and antibacterial activities.
An aqueous coriander extract obtained through a sequential extraction process, was analysed using chromatography and mass spectrometry in order to identify the phenolic compounds responsible for its antioxidant activity. Four fractions were identified from the crude extract using chromatography in a silica gel column. Their antioxidant activity, according to the β-carotene/linoleic acid model, was similar to one another but inferior to that of the crude extract and of butylated hydroxytoluene. Of the phenols identified through gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, it was noted that caffeic acid was present in high concentration (4.34μg/ml in fraction I and 2.64μg/ml in fraction III), whereas protocatechinic acid and glycitin were present in high concentration in fraction II (6.43μg/ml) and fraction IV (3.27μg/ml), respectively. These results, when considered with the recognized antioxidant ability of phenolic acids, suggest that they are principal components responsible for the antioxidant activity of the aqueous coriander extract.
The antioxidant activities of 22 selected culinary herbs and spices (i.e. ginger, cinnamon, clove, bay, sage, rosemary, thyme, savory, oregano, sweet basil, parsley, coriander, tarragon, sansho, allspice, cumin, black and white peppercorns, nutmeg, caraway, dill and fennel) when they were added to pork homogenate were measured and expressed as a thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value. The addition of liquid extracts of all the herbs and spices significantly suppressed lipid oxidation of the pork, especially the extracts of sansho, sage and ginger, which showed the strongest inhibition of lipid oxidation.
The activities of several enzymes that protect against oxidative injury were determined in blood lymphocytes from patients with B chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and from normal subjects. Similar glutathione reductase (GR), catalase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activities were found in normal and CLL lymphocytes. Higher glutathione peroxidase (GP) activity was found in CLL lymphocytes. This activity in CLL B lymphocytes was 2-fold higher than that of normal B lymphocytes, and 3-fold higher than that of T lymphocytes from either source. Several disease processes have been associated with decreased glutathione peroxidase activity. Our finding with CLL B lymphocytes is believed to be the first example of an increased GP activity in a disease. It may reflect either the expansion of a rare type of B cell population or be an expression of the malignant process.
Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of freeze-dried and irradiated parsley (Petroselinum crispum) and cilantro (Coriandrum sativum) leaves and stems were determined on methanol and water extracts. The total phenolic content was quantified with the Folin–Ciocalteau reagent. Several mechanisms of potential antioxidant activity of all extracts, including determining relative free radical-scavenging and ferrous ion-chelating activities, as well as reducing power, were examined. Assessment of the total antioxidant activity of all extracts was done using an iron-induced linoleic acid oxidation model system. Antimicrobial activity towards Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli by different extracts was assessed by determining cell damage. Total phenolic content varied between parsley and cilantro, leaf and stem, as well as methanol and water extracts. Methanol-derived leaf extracts exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) greater radical-scavenging activity towards both lipid- and water-soluble radicals, which was attributed to the total phenolic content. Ferrous ion-chelating activity was significantly (p < 0.05) greater in the stem methanol extracts, and corresponded to antioxidant activity. Prooxidant activity was a feature of all aqueous extracts and corresponded to the reducing activity of both leaf and stem parts of parsley and cilantro. Bacterial cell damage, resulting in significant (p < 0.05) greater growth inhibition of B. subtilis and E. coli, corresponded to ferrous sequestering activity of methanol-derived stem extracts.
Extracts of different polarity from leaves and seeds of coriander (Coriandrum sativum) and coriander oil were investigated for their antioxidant activity. Three different bioassays were used, namely scavenging of the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical method, inhibition of 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO) and inhibition of Fe2+ induced porcine brain phospholipid peroxidation. Total phenolic content was quantified as well. Positive correlations were found between total phenolic content in the extracts and antioxidant activity. Coriander leaves showed stronger antioxidant activity than the seeds, and in both parts of coriander, the ethyl acetate extract contributed to the strongest activity. In conclusion, addition of coriander to food will increase the antioxidant content and may have potential as a natural antioxidant and thus inhibit unwanted oxidation processes.
The synergistic effects of phosphatidyl ethanolamine and phosphatidyl choline in enhancing the antioxidant properties of some polyhydroxy flavonoids in lard at 100–140°C have been investigated. Phosphatidyl ethanolamine is very effective in all cases, especially when used at concentrations upwards of 0·1%, with flavonoids at levels of 0·007% to 0·07%. Phosphatidyl choline has little synergistic activity.Possible causes of the synergism are discussed. It is concluded that the presence in the synergist molecule of a strongly acid, proton generating function is of importance.