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« Trobairitz » et chansons de femme. Contribution à la connaissance du lyrisme féminin au moyen âge

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... Cfr. Bec (1979), Grimbert (1999), Bogin (1976), Städtler (1990) y Rieger (1991. Por su parte, Kasten (2000: 7) apunta que las trovadoras francesas, aun conociendo perfectamente el código cortés masculino, y empleándolo en sus composiciones, impregnan su producción de un marcado carácter femenino: "[…] daß die provenzalischen Dichterinnen in ihren Liedern zwar den männlichen Codde der Trobadors verwenden, sic haber mit ihrer Produktion durchaus in signifikanter Weise von ihnen unterscheiden (in der romanistischen Forschung wird dieses Problem unter dem Stichwort ‚Gynocriticism' weiterhin diskutiert". ...
... Un ejemplo de chanson de femme es la siguiente, atribuida a Raimbaut de Vaqueiras 14 : Por su parte, l'aubade y el alba 18 representan el momento en el que llega el día y los amantes, que han pasado juntos la noche, han de separarse 19 . Es, pues (Bec 1977: 91), une pièce lyrique composée sur le thème de la separation de deux amants qui, aprés une furtive et souvant illicite entrevue nocturne, sont réveilles à l'aube par le chant des oiseaux ou le cri du veilleur de nuit et déplorent le jour qui vient trop tôt. 17 "Tenía gran pesar y dolor / por un caballero que una vez fue mío / y deseo que todo el mundo sepa por siempre / cuánto lo he amado. ...
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Flamenca and the Joy of Play in the World of the Troubadours This article attempts to interpret a thirteenth-century Occitan chivalric romance, Le roman de Flamenca, in the context of game and play. Play is an important element of the troubadours’ sociopoetic culture, both in its social (fin’amor) and literary (trobar) aspects. Since the author considers Flamenca to be a work that summarises the history of Occitan courtly poetry, on this basis he puts forward the hypothesis that the plot of the text in question was also constructed by games. This hypothesis is proven by analysing the romance through the prism of Johan Huizinga’s and Roger Caillois’ concept of play. An additional argument testifying to the importance of games in the troubadour world is the key term for fin’amor, joi (translated as Joy), whose components are two other terms: joia (joy) and joc (game). For this reason, the author treats this phenomenon as the Joy of Play, a feeling of pleasure resulting from engagement in poetic games. Based on Caillois’ classification, the author distinguishes two types of games in the text. The first of these is agon, or the competition between Flamenca and her lover Guillaume, and her jealous husband Archambaut. The analysis of the work provides answers to questions about the model player, the set of rules of the game (referred to as lo gay saber, ‘the gay science’) and its course. Of particular note are the passages in which competition is thematised through ludic vocabulary and references to joi. This leads to the conclusion that agon is a structural principle of Le roman de Flamenca. The next section aims to interpret the plot of the novel in the context of mimicry, games based on imitation. The theatrical motifs of the work are subjected to critical reflection, particularly in connection with the joi. In this sense, illusion and imitation constitute the content of the work. In the last section, the author proposes to raise the question about other forms of games in the troubadour world. In particular, the treatment of joi as illinx, a game based on vertigo, is taken into consideration. The collected material and the research lead to the conclusion that Flamenca is a piece built around different types of games: agon is its structure, mimicry serves to guide the action, while illinx may be its possible goal.
Article
Nell’Elegia di Madonna Fiammetta Giovanni Boccaccio fa propria la voce di una fanciulla per narrare in prima persona un’intima esperienza amorosa e psicologica. La fonte principale è riscontrabile nelle Heroides, da cui il certaldese riprende le modalità del monologo al femminile e l’intento di conferire una finalità morale alla vicenda, sulla falsa riga dei limiti medievale dell’esegesi ovidiana. L’articolo pretende esaminare le tecniche retorico-persuasive impiegate nel discorso della donna e funzionali al racconto esemplare, tanto per quanto riguarda le parti dialogiche come i soliloqui in cui la narrazione si articola. Per mettere in atto un’accurata ricerca sulle fonti, saranno presi in considerazioni non solo i testi classici e mediolatini che Boccaccio registrò nei suoi Zibaldoni, ma anche le tradizioni letterarie in lingua volgare di area italiana, tra le quali spicca sopra ogni altra la Vita Nova di Dante. A queste si aggiungeranno le opere di area francese che l’autore ebbe modo di conoscere durante il suo soggiorno presso la corte angioina a Napoli.
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In contrast to the traditional image of the trobairitz offered by the great contemporaneous medieval songbooks, the so-called Béziers Songbook (late 17th-early 18th century) looks at three of the major female troubadours (Comtessa de Dia, Azalais de Porcairagues, and Castelloza) from an unusual angle, which this paper analyses from an iconographical viewpoint focused on gestural symbolism.
Article
This article analyses the role of troubadour lyric in the psychoanalytic theory of Julia Kristeva, particularly her models of the semiotic, the objet a, and the abject. This objective necessarily involves an investigation of her relationship with Lacanian psychoanalysis, and often entails the palimpsestic project of reading Kristeva, reading Lacan, reading troubadour lyric. However, rather than simply documenting the instances of Kristeva’s engagement with lyric, the article expands the textual corpus beyond the lyrics analysed by Lacan and Kristeva in order to outline various ways in which the three textual corpora might illuminate, critique, and speak (back) to each other. The first section suggests that the works of Jaufre Rudel and Raimbaut de Vaqueiras, poets neglected by Kristeva and Lacan, might offer certain compromises between the two theorists on the subject of the semiotic. Focussing on the Thing and objet a, the second section formulates readings of a lyric by Bernart de Ventadorn, exploring ways in which Kristeva’s work might be seen to converge and diverge with both Lacanian and feminist reading practices. The article’s final part argues that the lyrics of the trobairitz suggest new, feminist possibilities for the abject.
Chapter
Although scholars of Old Occitan have long been aware that there were women composing troubadour poetry in southern France (Occitania) from the thirteenth century onward,1 the idea of the woman troubadour still troubles them. It is now generally accepted that courtly reverence for the lady did not entail reverence for the female, and that courtly structures are as much about homosocial bonds as they appear to be about heterosexual love. Leaving aside the question of the socioeconomic circumstances that may have given Occitan women the freedom to be poets,2 how, many scholars have asked themselves, could they compose within such a seemingly masculinist tradition? Critical opinion is thus frequently divided into two camps: those who believe the identity of these women poets to be a fiction created by male troubadours, and those who imagine them as the Virginia Woofs of their day, creating embryonic feminist poetic practices of their own. In either case there is a problem in seeing the women troubadours as troubadours. My concern in this essay is the latter, and especially latter-day, tendency to over-feminize the women troubadours and to read their poetry as expressive of a steadfast female identity. Readings of this sort, which claim to be gender-conscious, turn gender into a stricture, a normalizing filter through which a group of “troublesome” texts can be reclassified.
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Zusammenfassung In einem Überblick über neuere Ansätze literarhistorischen Mediävistik werden drei Schwerpunkte vorgestellt: die unter den Stichworten „New Philology“/„Körperphilologie“ geführte Diskussion um die spezifische Medialität älterer Texte. die im Kontext von Mentalitätsgeschichte und New Historicism angesiedelten Konzepte zum Verhältnis von Literatur und Gesellschaft. die spezifische Ausrichtung der mediävistischen Frauen- und Genderforschung.
Chapter
The early medieval period was a time of relative power and freedom for women. Especially in northern Europe, women had many of the same legal and economic privileges as men. Women could inherit property and manage estates; they could belong to most guilds and take over their husbands’ businesses as widows; peasant women worked equally with their male counterparts.1 In France Charlemagne’s wife and her aristocratic female contemporaries were expected to administer the financial and domestic affairs of their husbands’ estates. Charlemagne’s daughters were substantially endowed upon his death and were able to lead independent lives away from the court of their brother.2 From the tenth century, many fiefs throughout France were held by women, from Boulogne and Calais in the north to Toulouse, Carcassonne, Nîmes, and Montpellier in the south.3
Article
How does the gender of an author or a speaker manifest itself in medieval poetry? In addition to the obvious grammatical markers, are there other devices that might be called "poetic markers? This question is examined in the light of previous scholarship, and then with particular reference to five pairs of woman's voice love-complaints, two each from various cultural contexts. Two of the poems are by women, three by men, the rest anonymous. The gender markers which are not merely lexical or grammatical are culture- and genre-specific. Nevertheless, there are a few more general tendencies, notably the linkage of maleness with movement and violence, femaleness with detainment and enclosure. This contrast is not to be equated with activity versus passivity, however: most of these women speakers are self-assertive – those in the women-authored poems strikingly so. Interestingly, the most passive persona is to be found in an anonymous poem with transferrable voice: the speaker changed from female to male by manuscript alteration. Nothing can be regarded as a reliable test of authorial gender – but there are no indicators that would align the anonymous with the female-authored rather than the male-authored poems.
Article
What occurs when the normally silent lady of trouvre song -- the woman spoken about or spoken to in courtly lyric verse -- assumes a voice, that is, initiates a dialogue, responds, argues, contradicts, questions, and judges? Grounded on a computer concordance of eleven jeux-partis in which one or both partners are women I map in these exchanges paradigms of social interaction that differ markedly from the inherited patterns displayed in courtly trouvre song. A concern for agency, coupled with a need to enhance their reputation, marks most of the female participants in jeux-partis. Female speakers elect not to take the persona of the powerless, suppliant lover -- typical of both the courtly trobairitz canso and the popularizing Old French chanson de femme -- or to play the role of the cold, tyrannical lady. Instead, these feminine voices confidently assert their rights to the act of prayer and sexual pleasure, sometimes without regard for courtly constraints. The expression of female desire is presumed to go counter to the courtly code, whereas outspoken sensuality and active, independent female characters are prevalent in the non-courtly register. It appears that open expressions of sensuality were also possible in the jeu-parti.
Article
Efforts to establish the corpus of twelfth- and thirteenth-century lyric works by women have concentrated on the examination of manuscript evidence and the search for rhetorical characteristics that bespeak a “feminine” style. Following the 1979 publication of an article by Bec, in which he argued that female authors, if any ever existed, simply adopted the socio-poetic conventions of their male counterparts, scholars directed their energies, first, toward isolating the arguably “feminine” characteristics of the trobairitzcorpus, and later, toward publishing the body of works that can be credibly attributed to women trouvères. This essay focuses on the use of refrain in the chansons and motets by women trouvères and suggests how examination of narrative voice in dialogic settings and musical structure in polyphonic compositions can yield further evidence of authorship by women, or fémininité génétique.
Son auteur est-il un homme ou une femme ?
  • Cette Pièce Est Également Anonyme
Cette pièce est également anonyme. Son auteur est-il un homme ou une femme ?
  • C Cf
  • Le Pagine. Lipparim
Cf. C. Lipparim, Le pagine..., op. cit., p. 29. 93. Cf. Johan Baveca. Poésie, éd. C. Zillt, Bari, 1977, p. 92-139. Voici un exemple ('popularisant.) de dialogue mère/fille qui rappelle assez certaines chansons de toile.
ne me dites rien, cela me déplaira, car s'il y a quelque chose d'autre, nous aurons besoin, d'une manière ou d'une autre, d'un autre remède.-Ma mère, je vous ai déjà dit ce qu'il en est : je l'aime
  • Si Ma Fille
  • Vous
Ma fille, si vous ne me dites rien, cela me déplaira, car s'il y a quelque chose d'autre, nous aurons besoin, d'une manière ou d'une autre, d'un autre remède.-Ma mère, je vous ai déjà dit ce qu'il en est : je l'aime... »
soit entre deux femmes Parmi les exemples anonymes donnés par Jeanroy, je relève un dialogue humoristique entre une dame et un ribaud (« Dites, seignor, que devroit on jugierjd'un traïtour qui faisoit a entendre
  • Des Tensons De La Sorte Existent Aussi En Français
  • Soit Entre Un Homme Et Une Femme
Des tensons de la sorte existent aussi en français, soit entre un homme et une femme, soit entre deux femmes. Parmi les exemples anonymes donnés par Jeanroy, je relève un dialogue humoristique entre une dame et un ribaud (« Dites, seignor, que devroit on jugierjd'un traïtour qui faisoit a entendre... »), un débat entre deux femmes sur un cas de casuistique amoureuse, avec une introduction de pastourelle (Au renouviau dou tans que la floreiejnesl par ces prez et indete et blanchete...), un débat assez grossier entre une bonne dame et une fausse, dont le poète (un certain Gasc) est le témoin (L'autrier esloie en un vergierjs'oï II dames consoillier...).
on examine les « chansons de femme » (ou « d'ami ») françaises, on constate assez souvent une expression de la sensibilité et de la sensualité amoureuses
  • Or
Or, si l'on examine les « chansons de femme » (ou « d'ami ») françaises, on constate assez souvent une expression de la sensibilité et de la sensualité amoureuses, qui ne le cèdent sans doute en rien aux cris de passion de nos trobairitz80.
Giammai non mi conforlo), de Rinaldo d'Aquino, une chanson de « trahison » (Oi lassa 'namorata), de Odo délie Colonne, et une malmarita (Per lo marito c'ho rio), de Compagnetto da Prato
Pour la poésie italienne médiévale d'auteurs masculins on peut citer, entre autres exemples : la chanson de croisade féminine (Giammai non mi conforlo), de Rinaldo d'Aquino, une chanson de « trahison » (Oi lassa 'namorata), de Odo délie Colonne, et une malmarita (Per lo marito c'ho rio), de Compagnetto da Prato. Cf. G. Lipparini, Le pagine délia letteratura italiana, Milan, 1945, p. 61, 62, 65. Cf. aussi J. Horrent, « Allas undas... », art. cit..., p. 308, n. 5. 81. Cf. P. Bec, Lyrique..., op. cit., II, n° 3. 82. Cf. A. Jeanroy, Origines..., op. cit., p. 498-499 et P. Bec, Lyrique..., op. cit., II, n° 3.
je l'aime et il m'aime, et je vous assure qu'il n'y a rien d'autre.-Ma fille, je ne sais s'il y a rien d'autre ou non, mais je vous vois toujours lui parler, et je vous vois pleurer, lui et vous.-Ma mère
  • Je Veux Vous Le Dire
  • Ma Mère
Je veux vous le dire, ma mère : je l'aime et il m'aime, et je vous assure qu'il n'y a rien d'autre.-Ma fille, je ne sais s'il y a rien d'autre ou non, mais je vous vois toujours lui parler, et je vous vois pleurer, lui et vous.-Ma mère, je ne vous tiendrai pas d'.-iutro discoure : je l'aime el il...
Massô i Torrents, Poétesses i dames intellectuals, « Homenatge a Antoni Rubiô i Llùch
  • Montagut
  • J Cf
Montagut, je ne serais pas entrée ici. » Cf. J. Massô i Torrents, Poétesses i dames intellectuals, « Homenatge a Antoni Rubiô i Llùch », Barcelone, 1936, p. 405-406.
Voici un exemple ('popularisant.) de dialogue mère/fille qui rappelle assez certaines chansons de toile
  • Johan Cf
  • Baveca
  • . C Poésie
  • Bari Zillt
Cf. Johan Baveca. Poésie, éd. C. Zillt, Bari, 1977, p. 92-139. Voici un exemple ('popularisant.) de dialogue mère/fille qui rappelle assez certaines chansons de toile.
Des tensons de la sorte existent aussi en français, soit entre un homme et une femme, soit entre deux femmes. Parmi les exemples anonymes donnés par Jeanroy, je relève un dialogue humoristique entre une dame et un ribaud (« Dites, seignor, que devroit on jugierjd'un traïtour qui faisoit a entendre
  • Ma Fille
-Ma fille, si vous ne me dites rien, cela me déplaira, car s'il y a quelque chose d'autre, nous aurons besoin, d'une manière ou d'une autre, d'un autre remède. -Ma mère, je vous ai déjà dit ce qu'il en est : je l'aime... » Des tensons de la sorte existent aussi en français, soit entre un homme et une femme, soit entre deux femmes. Parmi les exemples anonymes donnés par Jeanroy, je relève un dialogue humoristique entre une dame et un ribaud (« Dites, seignor, que devroit on jugierjd'un traïtour qui faisoit a entendre... »), un débat entre deux femmes sur un cas de casuistique amoureuse, avec une introduction de pastourelle (Au renouviau dou tans que la floreiejnesl par ces prez et indete et blanchete...), un débat assez grossier entre une bonne dame et une fausse, dont le poète (un certain Gasc) est le témoin (L'autrier esloie en un vergierjs'oï II dames consoillier...). On pourrait certainement multiplier les exemples. Toutes ces tensons -un peu marginales il est vrai -ont visiblement été écrites par des hommes94.