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Tools for Teaching

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... If the teachers are friendly and enthusiastic, the students tend to like the subjects that those particular teachers teach. Stressing on the importance of the teachers being enthusiastic, Davis (1993) argues that an instructor's enthusiasm is a crucial factor in students' motivation. If the teachers become bored, typically the students will be bored too. ...
... Despite the powerful four motivational dimensions proposed by Dornyei (2001), additional ways of motivating students may still be needed. Since students' motivation is influenced by many factors that can be different from one student to another, there is no magic way to increase student motivation (Davis, 1993). For example, some students will be motivated by the approval of others, while some other students may be motivated by overcoming challenges. ...
... According to Davis (1993), there are several general strategies that teachers in the classroom can use to increase students' motivation. One of the general strategies to motivate students is that the teachers need to be aware of students' existing needs. ...
Article
Motivation is undoubtedly an important factor in learning foreign languages. Yet, in English as foreign language context, like Indonesia, especially in West Kalimantan, not all students are motivated to learn English, a compulsory foreign language for secondary students. Thus, it is a necessity that teachers know how to increase students’ motivation. This paper analyses the issue of motivation in learning English as a compulsory subject in a foreign language context which can be useful for teachers and students to know what why motivation is important in learning foreign languages. Through reviewing related literatures to motivation, this paper outlines the role of motivation in learning a foreign language, and the problems of low motivation commonly found in EFL contexts. It also discusses some possible causes of low motivation as well as elaborates ways to increase students’ motivation.
... Selection of instructional methods. The review of a series of instructional methods manuals (Ginnis 2001;Petrina 2006;Davis 2009;Joyce & Weil 2008;Peterßen 2009;Petty 2009;Brenner & Brenner 2011;Wiechmann 2011;Cruickshank et al. 2011) revealed more than 50 instructional methods to choose from. The review was characterized by the requirement that instructional methods had to pass the muster as being capable of being understood as clearly defined, conceptually perceivable and independent components of the instruction. ...
... Processes involved in the act of learning. The educational literature knows numerous variations relating teaching to learning as an act spread over time and to phases which can be distinguished during the course of learning (Bruner 1966;Petrina 2006;Olson 2007;Davis 2009). What all of the variations have in common is that learning (1) has a starting point, (2) a sequential form and (3) a (generally preliminary) end point. ...
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Answers to the questions of which instructional methods are suitable for school, what instructional methods should be applied in teaching individual subjects and how instructional methods support the act of learning represent challenges to general education and education in individual subjects. This article focuses on the empirical examination of instructional methods supporting knowledge processes in the act of learning. A survey was conducted in which mathematics teachers evaluated 20 instructional methods in regard to the following knowledge processes: build, process, apply, transfer, assess and integrate. The results of the study demonstrate that certain instructional methods are especially predestined for mathematics education: problem-based learning, direct instruction, learning at stations, learning tasks, project work and discovery learning
... Moreover, undertaking others' views, Barkley (2011) accumulated some strategies that may direct to the trajectory of success in group work. Barkley pointed out , (1) students should be wellinformed about the aim and objectives of the project (Davis, 1993); (2) they should be well-known to the learning objectives; (3) they should be well-equipped with the skill required to perform group work; (4) they should be familiar to constructive criticism (Fiechtner & Davis, 1992); (5) they should devise a plan of action to accomplish the task; (6) instructors should also inform students about the benefit of group work (Freeman and Greenacre, 2011); (7) instructors should create ways to handle unproductive members. Finson and Ormsbee (1998) shed light on rubrics which are perceived beneficial for evaluating group work and increase the chances of group success. ...
... Students' vocal in this regard is linear to Connery's (1988) explication that called for leaving the responsibility to form groups with teachers as they are cognizant about learner's performance level, academic strengths and weaknesses, ethnicity, gender and so on. Davis (1993) also recommended that teacher should be the moderator to avoid possible collisions among group members. Davis also urged teachers to monitor groups 'activity, which is in line with students' suggestions in this study. ...
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Group work is a common strategy of collaborative learning, practiced both inside and outside classroom. Irrespective of the subject matter, learners, either being assigned by the teachers or being self-employed, tend to carry out group work. It is evident that often learner experience various difficulties when they are involved in group work outside rather inside the class. Pertinently, this study aimed at identifying the difficulties undergraduate students face outside the class and presenting some effective ways of overcoming them. The study undertook Tuckman (1965), Connery (1998), Beebe and Masterson (2003) and Barkley et al. (2014) to elicit theoretical ground. Mixed –method research strategy was applied. Findings of the study suggested that learners witness problems in forming, storming, and performing stages. Individualism also impeded their group work. Participants of the study called for teachers’ monitor to diminish problems.
... That is, SET are used as an overall sum of pedagogical competence, often as the sole indicator of this competence (Berk, 2005;Galbraith et al., 2012;Spooren et al., 2013). SET are now often used for promotion and hiring decisions (Cashin, 1999;Seldin, 1999;Clayson, 2009;Davis, 2009;Seldin et al., 2010), indicating that it is important to understand systematic variations in SET. ...
... It may be difficult for a lecturer to be rated good on both liking (or warmth) and competence, which is in line with research on gender stereotypes (Fiske et al., 2007;Heilman, 2012). Given that SET form the basis of hiring and promotion decisions (Cashin, 1999;Seldin, 1999;Clayson, 2009;Davis, 2009;Seldin et al., 2010), the results of the present reseach contributes to the literature. ...
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This paper tests how gender stereotypes may result in biased student evaluations of teaching (SET). We thereby contribute to an ongoing discussion about the validity and use of SET in academia. According to social psychological theory, gender biases in SET may occur because of a lack of fit between gender stereotypes, and the professional roles individuals engage in. A lack of fit often leads to more negative evaluations. Given that the role as a lecturer is associated with masculinity, women might suffer from biased SET because gender stereotypes indicate that they do not fit with this role. In two 2 × 2 between groups online experiments (N's = 400 and 452), participants read about a fictitious woman or man lecturer, described in terms of stereotypically feminine or masculine behavior, and evaluated the lecturer on different SET outcomes. Results showed that women lecturers were not disfavored in general, but that described feminine or masculine behaviors led to gendered evaluations of the lecturer. The results were especially pronounced in Experiment 2 where a lecturer described as displaying feminine behaviors was expected to also be more approachable, was better liked and the students rather attended their course. However, a lecturer displaying masculine behaviors were instead perceived as being more competent, a better pedagogue and leader. Gender incongruent behavior was therefore not sanctioned by lower SET. The results still support that SET should not be used as sole indicators of pedagogic ability of a lecturer for promotion and hiring decisions because they may be gender-biased.
... In this perspective, its major concern is based on the fact that, human attention span is limited; therefore, lectures need to be delivered in short life span in order to maximize the benefits lecturers and students make out of their learning interactions. Affirmatively, some researchers maintained that in spite of variation in attention span, human attention may be as short as eight (8) seconds to five (5) minutes at any given time depending on the nature of engagement (Benjamin, 2002;Davis, 2009;Goss Lucas and Bernstein, 2005;Wankat, 2002). They went further to posit that students' attention during lectures tends to wane approximately after 10 to 15 minutes in terms of transient or selective sustained attention. ...
... Accordingly, the mind should not be overfed at any particular time, in order not to overwhelm its attention capacity. That means that since human attention span could be as short as eight (8) seconds to five (5) minutes (Benjamin, 2002;Davis, 2009;Goss Lucas and Bernstein, 2005;Wankat, 2002), caution must be exercised in order not to frustrate it. Accordingly, lecture session of three hours at a stretch could not only be frustrating but smothers attention retention progress. ...
... Me të drejtë vlerësohet se komunikimi në shoqërinë bashkëkohore është proces i përbërë dhe shumëdimensional i cili varet nga faktorë të ndryshëm (Davis 1993;Habermas 1981;Hubley 1993). Kërkimet e shumta në fushë të komunikologjisë veçanërisht ato të realizuara nga psikologjia eksperimentale flasin për drejtime dhe teori të ndryshme (Wrench et al., 2008;Pettijohn 1996;Jones 2000). ...
... Mund të themi se "Klima pozitive në marrëdhëniet mësuesnxënës në klasë rrit cilësinë e të nxënit për një rezultat efektiv". Davis (1993) dhe CET (1999) përmendin karakteristikat në vijim si dalluese për mësuesit efektivë dhe jo-efektive në komunikimin me nxënësit. ...
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Education and Communication
... There are certain kinds of delivery that are more effective in terms of communication than others, meaning that they make it easier for people to pay attention, remember and grasp concepts, and process information and knowledge [2]. Centuries of teaching at University level have been characterized by an audience of students taking notes from a professor delivering authoritative lectures, to later test students on their knowledge and assign grades [3]. However, over the past thirty years, research on theories of learning and cognitive development and students' academic success has confirmed that teaching that emphasizes active learning and collaborative activities, and that promotes intellectual engagement on students, is more efficient. ...
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A computer-simulated reality and the human-machine interactions facilitated by computer technology and wearable computers may be used as an educational methodology that transforms the way students deal with information. This turns the learning process into a more participative and active process, which fits both the practical part of subjects and the learner’s profile, as students nowadays are more technology-savvy and familiar with current technological advances. This methodology is being used in architectural and urbanism degrees to support the design process and to help students visualize design alternatives in the context of existing environments. This paper proposes the use of virtual reality (VR) as a resource in the teaching of courses that focus on the design of urban spaces. A group of users—composed of architecture students and professionals related to the architecture field—participated in an immersing VR experience and had the opportunity to interact with the space that was being redesigned. Later, a quantitative tool was used in order to evaluate the effectiveness of virtual systems in the design of urban environments. The survey was designed using as a reference the competences required in the urbanism courses; this allowed the authors to identify positive and negative aspects in an objective way. The results prove that VR helps to expand digital abilities in complex representation and helps users in the evaluation and decision-making processes involved in the design of urban spaces.
... It is argued that groups have more information than a single individual. In addition, students who are involved in 'group work' have been shown to develop a deeper understanding of the subject matter and increased problem-solving skills and perform better academically (Cooper 1990;Davis 1993). In peer learning, whilst there is no direct intervention of teachers, their role is to define the learning objectives of the required activity, as well as forming the student groups, which then is capable of fostering peer teaching among students (Johnson et al. 2007;Boud et al. 2001). ...
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This study presents findings from three different disciplines in STEMM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics and Medicine) and across different models of student-focused teaching. Specifically, we assessed the feasibility and effectiveness of flipped classroom approaches combined with team based learning (TBL), and TBL alone within STEMM, particularly in the disciplines of Physics, Engineering and Medicine across different year levels. TBL activities were incorporated into undergraduate Physics and Engineering cohorts, with students from a diverse range of majors and backgrounds and a graduate level Doctor of Medicine (MD) cohort. Quiz scores from the Physics cohort were significantly improved following TBL, exam scores from the engineering cohort were more evenly distributed than pre-TBL quiz scores and students in the medical cohort had higher quiz scores when working within teams rather than alone. Qualitative survey responses from both the physics and engineering cohorts indicated that students felt TBL was positive and increased their understanding of key concepts. Informal feedback from medical students following TBL classes was also very positive and students demonstrated obvious engagement. Comparisons for pre- versus post-TBL quiz scores for Physics, for pre-TBL quartile versus exam scores in Engineering and for Team versus Individual learning quiz scores in Medicine all provide evidence of effective student engagement and performance. The observation study suggests that TBL is a feasible and effective method of student-focused learning within STEMM. More rigorously designed studies are now required to further explore these findings.
... outcome of the participation. Some studies have shown student who are involved in group work also have better learning outcomes and retention of the learned contents for a longer time compared with other learning methods (GrossDavis, 1993;Barkley et al., 2014). Those who are involved in group work also gain a better understanding of themselves as it allows people learn how other see them and this may have a positive impact on their interpersonal behaviour(Beebe and Masterson, 2012). ...
Conference Paper
Dental trauma affects around 25% of schoolchildren, resulting in functional and aesthetic impairments. The long-term prognosis of a traumatised tooth is dependent on the immediate action taken following the injury; therefore public awareness about dental trauma is vital. Aims 1) To determine the format of educational material preferred by children who are not currently being treated for dental trauma 2) To work with schoolchildren to develop child friendly educational material about dental trauma 3) To evaluate the educational materials developed 4) To assess the suitability of the posters with children of different age groups Methods Phase 1: Questionnaires were distributed to 100 children aged 8-14 years, to determine their most preferred format of educational material. Phase 2: A presentation session about dental trauma followed by classroom activities to develop posters participated by 91 schoolchildren, aged 8-9 years. Phase 3: Evaluation by children followed by analysis by the research team. Phase 4: Two modified versions of the posters were displayed in the waiting room area of the paediatric dentistry clinic, to evaluate children’s preference and the learning outcomes. Most children in the younger age group (8-11 years) preferred posters, whereas older children (12-14 years) preferred videos. Twenty-one hand drawn posters were produced, and the top three posters were chosen by the children. Following evaluation by the research team, the highest number of domains (8) was obtained by three posters, and 19 posters had some interactive elements. Children in different age groups preferred posters, and their preference was influenced mainly by the design and information included in the posters. Information in image format were listed more commonly than information given in text format only. Involving schoolchildren in research was rewarding for both the children and the research team, and highlights the feasibility and importance of involving children in development of health educational materials.
... Teaching means having at one's disposal the right method and technique to cope with each individual difficulty and to act to the uniqueness of such difficulties with unique solutions. The best method would be the one which would answer best to all possible difficulties bring upon by a student, that is , not a method but an art and talent (Davis, 2009). ...
Article
Teaching has long been distinguished as a demanding profession, even in the most favorable circumstances. It is an extraordinary life experience-a volatile, highly charged, emotionally draining, physically fatiguing experience for even the most knowledgeable, experienced teacher. Besides, the working surrounding is typically far from ideal. The primary purpose of the current study is to examine the critical issue of the common challenges and some suggested solutions as they relate to teachers. The opinions of twenty-five university and school teachers were sorted by their frequencies and the findings obtained were interpreted. The researcher came out with four common challenges and three recommended solutions.
... Teaching strategies are effective when students are taught the syllabus they have to, take an interest in the lesson and find the educational process entertaining, so as to start on their own the whole learning effort undertaking gradually bigger responsibility for the design and the assessment of their own work (Good & Brophy, 1978). In order for teachers to improve their teaching skills, it is helpful to create a course diagram in cooperation with a teacher-observer, or alternatively to videotape the course and do self-assessment (Gross, 2009). Towards this direction, lifelong learning is vital and should be inevitable for all the members of the school community in order to modernize their teaching methods and techniques, to improve education and school in general (Chatzidimou & Stravakou, 2005) and to acquire specific knowledge about all the educational sectors they feel unable to manage easily. ...
Article
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During the last decades many theorists tried to define what classroom management is, which are the characteristics that make classroom management effective or ineffective, the factors that are connected to this term, the sectors of classroom management and if whether it is affected by external factors. The first definitions that have been given present classroom management as a synonym to discipline, but according to modern theories discipline is just a crumple of classroom management, as classroom management is a wide term that includes many aspects that are presented below (in the article).
... Ancak öğrencinin pasif dinleme dikkatini 10 dakikadan daha fazla süreyle sağlamada etkisizdir. 5 Bununla birlikte, eğitmenler bilgiyi iletmenin tek yolu ve öğrencinin öğrenmesini yeni bilgilere ulaşma olarak yorumlarsa, bu yöntem öğrenim çıktılarının elde edilmesini kolaylaştıramaz. Bu yöntem her zaman öğrenci öğreniminde yansımayı (reflection-öğrencinin bilgiyi başka alanlara uygulaması) teşfik etmez; öğrenciler öğrenmeyi sorgulamaz ve üzerinde düşünmezler. ...
Article
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The aim of undergraduate dental education has been described as raising the new generation as competent graduates not only managing the patient welfare and expectations but also improving and promoting the oral healthcare status of the population. Faculty has the responsibility to synchronise the undergraduate dental education with the clinical reality by combining the innovative and conventional education methods while training the students to be able to have life-long learning ability. The academical perfection would be defined with the measurable and objective terms in near future. The requirements of quality assessments might not be fulfilled without determining and implementing the standards for education and therefore being a famous institution would no more be enough alone. This review presents various conventional and innovative methods of teaching and learning in order to help the faculties to decide the best education model/s for their own conditions. KEYWORDS Dental education, competency, learning styles
... Ancak öğrencinin pasif dinleme dikkatini 10 dakikadan daha fazla süreyle sağlamada etkisizdir. 5 Bununla birlikte, eğitmenler bilgiyi iletmenin tek yolu ve öğrencinin öğrenmesini yeni bilgilere ulaşma olarak yorumlarsa, bu yöntem öğrenim çıktılarının elde edilmesini kolaylaştıramaz. Bu yöntem her zaman öğrenci öğreniminde yansımayı (reflection-öğrencinin bilgiyi başka alanlara uygulaması) teşfik etmez; öğrenciler öğrenmeyi sorgulamaz ve üzerinde düşünmezler. ...
... States that the instructional media as "the physical means of conveying to the instructional content books, films, videotapes, etc" [3]. Furthermore, [4] media states are "a tool to provide incentives for the students so that learning occurs". ...
... One Finnish student pointed out, "I was happy to exchange a lot of ideas in my group," whilst another added, "It was ideal to work in a group rather than in a pair, because it helped to listen to more ideas and in a pair, you may run out of ideas or not know how to continue the discussion". As Davis (1993) mentions, groups of four to five tend to work best. The students, as a result, benefited from this learning experience in terms of intercultural awareness, as perceived in previous research (Coutinho, 2016;O'Dowd, 2000). ...
Chapter
Although asynchronous communication tools have traditionally been used in online interactions, recently increasing popularity has been noted in the application of synchronous communication tools to facilitate intercultural learning. This chapter will explore and report on a study of how students from two countries, Spain and Finland, developed intercultural competence through the use of a video-conferencing platform, Adobe Connect, as a learning context. English was the lingua franca and the exchange of information was aimed at helping the students to learn about different aspects of each other's culture to develop intercultural competence. The findings suggest that the students' attitude to their learning experience was positive, since they were curious to explore each other's cultural traits. Videoconferencing was considered an effective tool because it enabled them to share experiences and build up a relationship, thereby enhancing their knowledge of both cultures. Body language also encouraged interaction since they could see each other via videoconferencing.
... Stakeholder inclusion also allows for the generation of the input (such as conditions, requirements, and ideas) needed to create a prototype. 17 Additionally, including stakeholders increases the intrinsic motivation of these groups 19 and creates feelings of ownership 20 for eventual use of the finalized prototype. Importantly, the iterative nature of stakeholder feedback replaces linear and time-consuming sequence approaches such as Analyze-Design-Develop-Implement-Evaluate (ADDIE), 21 a common approach in curriculum design, reducing both development time and costs. ...
Article
Women want positive birth experiences with high quality maternity care that is neither too much, too soon, nor too little, too late. Research confirms the effectiveness of midwifery care, and the midwifery approach to birth as physiologic may counter the upward trend of the unnecessary medicalization of birth. The role of guardian of physiologic birth is seen as central to midwifery practice; however, medical hegemony has led to the subordination of midwives, which inhibits them in fulfilling the role as guardian of physiologic birth. Learning to become powerful advocates of physiologic birth creates midwives able to speak up for effective, evidence‐based maternity care and challenge the unnecessary use of obstetric intervention. Midwifery education has a role to fulfil in molding midwives who are able to assume this role. This brief report describes the development of an educational prototype aimed at increasing student midwife agency as an advocate of physiologic birth. This was done using rapid prototyping (RP) methodology, in which important stakeholders gave input and feedback during the educational design and development process. Input from stakeholders led to the inclusion of persuasive communication strategies and discussion and debate as teaching methodologies in order to increase student midwife agency to argue for physiologic birth. Reflective evidence‐based practice, using the Optimality Index‐Netherlands, allowed students to reflect on their practice while providing a framework for discussion. Working with the RP methodology allowed for the development of a prototype that reflected the needs of midwifery stakeholders and was mindful of material and human resources.
... We consider a setting where a population of agents seeks to share resources in groups of size at most k. The value of k, the desired group size, is application specific (e.g., in (Davis 2009), values of 4, 5, and 6 are prescribed as appropriate for educational applications, while similar such constraints are natural in carpooling and other applications). Each group generates social welfare, which is then distributed as utility to the agents who generated it. ...
Article
In recent years, a range of online applications have facilitated resource sharing among users, resulting in a significant increase in resource utilization. In all such applications, sharing one’s resources or skills with other agents increases social welfare. In general, each agent will look for other agents whose available resources complement hers, thereby forming natural sharing groups. In this paper, we study settings where a large population self-organizes into sharing groups. In many cases, centralized optimization approaches for creating an optimal partition of the user population are infeasible because either the central authority does not have the necessary information to compute an optimal partition, or it does not have the power to enforce a partition. Instead, the central authority puts in place an incentive structure in the form of a utility sharing method, before letting the participants form the sharing groups by themselves. We first analyze a simple equal-sharing method, which is the one most typically encountered in practice and show that it can lead to highly inefficient equilibria. We then propose a Shapley-sharing method and show that it significantly improves overall social welfare.
... Conscientious instructors spend a great deal of time preparing lessons to provide a logical and organized flow of information, and they practice their lectures to ensure a smooth delivery with the goal that the information should make sense and should not be confusing to students. Likely for these reasons, many handbooks on effective teaching encourage instructors to prepare lectures that are highly organized (Brown & Atkins, 1990;Brown & Race, 2002;Davis, 1993;Ekeler, 1994;Hogan, 1999;Lowman, 1995;Morton, 2009). Indeed, when the content of a lecture is made more organized-for example, by including clarifying statements and transitions between concepts-students perceive the lecture as clear and they also perform better on tests of their knowledge over that lecture (Titsworth, 2001; see also Titsworth & Kiewra, 2004). ...
Article
Students’ judgments of their own learning are often misled by intuitive yet false ideas about how people learn. In educational settings, learning experiences that minimize effort and increase the appearance of fluency, engagement, and enthusiasm often inflate students’ estimates of their own learning, but do not always enhance their actual learning. We review the research on these “illusions of learning,” how they can mislead students’ evaluations of the effectiveness of their instructors, and how students’ evaluations of teaching effectiveness can be biased by factors unrelated to teaching. We argue that the heavy reliance on student evaluations of teaching in decisions about faculty hiring and promotion might encourage teaching practices that boost students’ subjective ratings of teaching effectiveness, but do not enhance—and may even undermine—students’ learning and their development of metacognitive skills.
... In addition, the study examined the most commonly used textbooks and articles. It is common practice, according to Gross Davis (1993), for instructors to use a foundational textbook on the subject of the course (p. 34). ...
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Learning analytics is an emerging field in which educators and researchers are using data to improve their students’ educational experiences. One of the most common courses offered by higher academic institutions in the US is data science. This paper examines the data science syllabi found in today’s academic sector and compares the results to those of Friedman’s, Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 26(5), 135–148 (2017) study of Big Data syllabi. For the present study, 40 data science syllabi used in private and public academic institutions in the US were collected, and Palmer et al.’s, To Improve the Academy, 33, 14–36 (2014) rubric was used as a framework to analyze them. The study found that the most frequently used communication engagement tool, according to the syllabi, was discussion forums (used in 53% of the syllabi), and instant message applications were second (21%). Using Palmer et al.’s rubric, the study found 95% of all data science syllabi the study examined provided very detailed articulation and scored in the top range outline by the model. In comparing data science syllabi to big data syllabi, the study found that data science syllabi provided better descriptions of the learning goals than did big data syllabi. Future studies could examine students’ participation and appreciation of these courses using a machine analytics rubric.
... The activity is structured so that group members are interdependent. Besides, each member of the group must participate to succeed and be individually accountable (Davis, 1993;Cobb & Yackel, 1996;Silberman, 1996, pp. 67-69;Kanselaar, 2002;John & Staver, 2007). ...
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Many students have difficulty in learning abstract and complex lessons of chemistry. This study investigated how students develop their understandings of abstract and complex lessons in chemistry with the aid of visualizing tools: animation, simulation and video that allow them to build clear concepts. Animation, simulation and video enable learning by doing and provide opportunity to explore the abstract and complex lessons of chemistry. They also enable to present information in more dynamic, compelling and interactive way with engaging environment. The study applied animation, simulation and video supporting, on student-centered learning activities, in electrochemistry for second year students organized with state of art technology flash and micro media player and evaluated for its effectiveness. A particular focus of this investigation was to what extent the uses of animation, simulation and video influenced student-centered learning. Pre-and post-tests were administrated on the target group and concurrent embedded mixed case study design was employed. Total quality of the developed package was evaluated by administrating a separate schedule containing open and closed ended question. The comments and ratings obtained in the learners' insights provided the basis for the learning impact of the study. The result obtained from the experiment and responses of the schedule showed that technology integrated with appropriate pedagogy improves the performance of students.
... The acts of asking questions, giving opinions or simply answering questions posed by the instructor or fellow students are examples of active type of classroom participation. Davis (2009) stated that enthusiasm and willingness of student to participate in a classroom through verbal engagements would create conducive classroom environment. ...
... 30 Group work can also help overcome shame or shyness. 31 Some participants might be too shy or fearful of criticism to ask questions in the larger group. In a small group, this fear can be mitigated. ...
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Background Building financial management capacity is increasingly important in low‐ and middle‐income countries to help communities take ownership of development activities. Yet, many community members lack financial knowledge and skills. Methods We designed and conducted financial management trainings for 83 members from 10 community groups in rural Zambia. We conducted pre‐training and post‐training tests and elicited participant feedback. We conducted 28 in‐depth interviews over 18 months and reviewed financial records to assess practical application of skills. Results The training significantly improved knowledge of financial concepts, especially among participants with secondary education. Participants appreciated exercises to contextualize financial concepts within daily life and liked opportunities to learn from peers in small groups. Language barriers were a particular challenge. After trainings, sites successfully adhered to the principles of financial management, discussing the benefits they experienced from practicing accountability, transparency, and accurate recordkeeping. Conclusion Financial management trainings need to be tailored to the background and education level of participants. Trainings should relate financial concepts to more tangible applications and provide time for active learning. On‐site mentorship should be considered for a considerable time. This training approach could be used in similar settings to improve community oversight of resources intended to strengthen developmental initiatives.
... (1) It is estimated that students" attention diminishes after 10 minutes of passive listening, limiting what is learned. (2) Additionally, lectures do little to challenge and stimulate the students to problem solve, a skill that is necessary for their clinical years as well as their medical careers. (3) In PBL, a clinical problem is given to students without prior reading or lecture. ...
... Um quiz é um teste de conhecimento breve que cobre uma quantidade pequena de material que foi dado em uma ou algumas aulas(DAVIS, 2009). ...
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O inglês não é um só: desenvolvimento do concei to de inglês como língua franca em um curso do programa Idiomas sem Fronteiras English is not an only one: the development of the concept English as a lingua franca in a Language without Borders course Resumo: Este artigo objetiva reportar o desenvolvimento do conceito de inglês como língua franca (ILF) por cinco participantes de um curso presencial de curta duração ministrado por dois professores em formação inicial, no âmbito do Programa Idiomas sem Fronteiras em uma universidade pública municipal brasileira. Dois instrumentos de coleta de dados foram utilizados: respostas a dois quizzes realizados durante o curso e um questionário aplicado posteriormente. Em seus discursos, os participantes trouxeram à tona, em certa medida, indícios de uma compreensão crítica dos conceitos de falante nativo, imperialismo, juízo de valor, preconceito linguístico, empoderamento, monitoramento linguístico, variação linguística e foco nas práticas comunicativas. Palavras-chave: Desenvolvimento de Conceitos. Inglês como Língua Franca. Programa Idiomas sem Fronteiras. Abstract: This article aims to report the development of the concept of English as a lingua franca by five participants in a short-term face-to-face course taught by two pre-service teachers in the Languages without Borders Program at a public Brazilian municipal university. Two data collection instruments were used: responses to two quizzes applied during the course and a questionnaire applied later. In their discourses, the participants
... Como alternativa à metodologia tradicional, destacam-se as "metodologias de aprendizagem ativa", que podem ser resumidas pela seguinte frase, cunhada por Davis (1993): "Não fale aos alunos quando você pode demonstrar, e não demonstre quando eles podem fazer sozinhos." De acordo com essa metodologia, a função do professor não é mais de transmissor do conhecimento, mas sim de realizar um trabalho de mediação, de facilitador da aprendizagem, no qual o protagonista do método é o próprio aluno. ...
Article
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en Global competencies are crucial for societies to progress in a changing world. Beyond the specific language skills needed to be integrated into an international workforce, individuals should also develop the capacity to analyze and understand intercultural issues in their fields. In light of this, our paper firstly aims to pilot a problem-based learning (PBL) proposal around a cultural critical incident for design engineers to develop intercultural and linguistic competences in an ESP engineering course. A secondary objective investigates how the project raises students’ awareness about cultural factors in product design. The results point to PBL as a method which enables instructors to integrate intercultural and linguistic skills in engineering programs, where students’ awareness of cultural factors can be increased through problem-solving teamwork on critical incidents. Resumen es Las competencias globales son claves para que las sociedades avancen en un mundo cambiante. Más allá de las capacidades lingüísticas necesarias para integrarse en un mercado laboral internacional, también debe desarrollarse la habilidad de analizar y comprender problemas interculturales que pudieran surgir entre diferentes áreas. Nuestro trabajo tiene como objetivo principal diseñar una propuesta de aprendizaje basado en problemas (ABP) en torno a un incidente cultural crítico para capacitar a estudiantes de ingeniería en diseño industrial en la adquisición de competencias interculturales y lingüísticas. Un objetivo secundario investiga cómo el proyecto aumenta la percepción de los estudiantes sobre los factores culturales en el diseño de productos. Los resultados apuntan al ABP como un método que permite integrar habilidades interculturales y lingüísticas en programas de ingeniería, donde la asimilación de dichos factores por parte de los estudiantes puede mejorar mediante el trabajo en equipo en torno a incidentes críticos.
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كتاب الحاسب الآلي في التعليم : يحتوي الكتاب على إحدى عشر فصلاً هي كما يلي : مدخل إلى الحاسب الآلي في التعليم- أنماط الحاسب الآلي في التعليم و أساليب تقويمها-الانترنت في التعليم-البرمجيات التطبيقية للحاسب الآلي و استخداماتها في التعليم-الوسائط المتعددة - الوسائط الفائقة- التعليم الالكتروني-التعليم الافتراضي- التعليم عن بعد-الفصول الذكية- الحاسب الآلي في تعليم اللغة الانجليزية
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This research aimed at observing and describing the process and the results of the action implemented in improving the classroom interaction and the students’ self-esteem of STAIN GPA. This research was a classroom action research. The subject of the study is the semester 6 students of English department in the academic year of 2014/2015. The purposive sampling was used in this study. This research consists of three steps, namely: input, transformation, and output. The finding of the research is that the implementation of group work is able to improve the classroom interaction, as they: interaction between student and student, student and teacher, student and learning sources, and student and the environment. In relation to the students’ self-esteem, the implementation of group work was able to improve: feeling of competence, feeling to be respected, feeling to be loved, feeling to have a chance for success, and feeling of confidence.
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