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The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order

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... 60 For a communitarian defense of culture as an essential element of an individual's identity, see Sandel, M. J. (1998), Liberalism and the limits of justice, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; for a theoretical argumentation that carries that defense to the extreme, see Huntington, S. P. (1996), The clash of civilisations and the remaking of the world order, New York: Simon and Schuster; for a discussion based on individuals as valuing their cultural and ethnic origins but not deriving their value as human beings from being a member of a given ethnocultural group, see Sen, A. (2006), Identity and violence, London: Allen Lane. ...
... Does the existence of a diversity of cultures, which might pass each other like ships in the night, count as a successful case of multiculturalism? Sen (2006 156) In recent years, the idea of clash of civilisations, which was presented by political scientist Samuel P. Huntington (1996), has received a considerable amount of criticisms worldwide, especially in research milieus. For A. Appadurai (2006 pp.115-116), its main default is that it gives an image of multiculturalism where "The world appears as a large series of slowly moving cultural glaciers, with sharp contrasts at their boundaries and little variety within". ...
... 60 For a communitarian defense of culture as an essential element of an individual's identity, see Sandel, M. J. (1998), Liberalism and the limits of justice, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; for a theoretical argumentation that carries that defense to the extreme, see Huntington, S. P. (1996), The clash of civilisations and the remaking of the world order, New York: Simon and Schuster; for a discussion based on individuals as valuing their cultural and ethnic origins but not deriving their value as human beings from being a member of a given ethnocultural group, see Sen, A. (2006), Identity and violence, London: Allen Lane. ...
... Does the existence of a diversity of cultures, which might pass each other like ships in the night, count as a successful case of multiculturalism? Sen (2006 156) In recent years, the idea of clash of civilisations, which was presented by political scientist Samuel P. Huntington (1996), has received a considerable amount of criticisms worldwide, especially in research milieus. For A. Appadurai (2006 pp.115-116), its main default is that it gives an image of multiculturalism where "The world appears as a large series of slowly moving cultural glaciers, with sharp contrasts at their boundaries and little variety within". ...
... 60 For a communitarian defense of culture as an essential element of an individual's identity, see Sandel, M. J. (1998), Liberalism and the limits of justice, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; for a theoretical argumentation that carries that defense to the extreme, see Huntington, S. P. (1996), The clash of civilisations and the remaking of the world order, New York: Simon and Schuster; for a discussion based on individuals as valuing their cultural and ethnic origins but not deriving their value as human beings from being a member of a given ethnocultural group, see Sen, A. (2006), Identity and violence, London: Allen Lane. ...
... Does the existence of a diversity of cultures, which might pass each other like ships in the night, count as a successful case of multiculturalism? Sen (2006 156) In recent years, the idea of clash of civilisations, which was presented by political scientist Samuel P. Huntington (1996), has received a considerable amount of criticisms worldwide, especially in research milieus. For A. Appadurai (2006 pp.115-116), its main default is that it gives an image of multiculturalism where "The world appears as a large series of slowly moving cultural glaciers, with sharp contrasts at their boundaries and little variety within". ...
... Whereas, Samuel P. Huntington (1997) in the book titled The Clash of Civilizations, which he made into a book due an article that he published previously in 1993 and the interest it received later, defined civilization as the broadest culturally created thing and defended that the probable great divisions and clashes among civilizations would take their place on the fault lines among civilizations as culturally sourced. According to him, this clash would be nourished by the religion-based identity and by becoming aware of the world, which became smaller with these historical, cultural differences. ...
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Most studies of globalization tend to focus on global economic and political issues, however, globalization is also having a significant impact on local cultures habits and traditions and forces them to planned uniformity by its products and services. Global products are one of the main outputs of the global economy and thanks to the perfectly organized production and distribution of goods and services and hungry consumer all over the world, these products may accelerate local cultural change by the choice of consumers who access to products that they would not otherwise have. In this study, I will attempt to question first, what the global product is and then on what is the success of the global products based? And I will try to open a debate on the hegemonic cultural export and local response to the global products under the light of industrial design.
... Culture serves as means of fomenting mutual confidence and understanding among the peoples. Essentially, culture has been a source of collaborations, interactions and conflicts between and among peoples, kingdoms, and states (see Huntington, 1996;Ryhan, 2015). Aside from its intrinsic thrust to the existential identity of a state, it poses an irrefutable influence on state's internal and external sovereignty. ...
Chapter
Nigeria and South Africa are two regional powers in Africa whose motivation for cooperation, collaboration, partnership, or competition has implications for Africa. In comparative terms, the two countries remain Africa’s regional economic and military powerhouses and possess extensive soft power resources as well. Despite the geographical distance separating them, both countries have continued to engage in diplomatic relations. However, the recurring Afrophobic/xenophobic incidences in South Africa have resulted in episodic diplomatic row between Pretoria and Abuja. Although the theme of cultural diplomacy is not novel in Africa regional discourse, the role of the creative industry in addressing the pervasive mistrust between Nigeria and South Africa remains underexplored. This paper argues that by emphasizing mutually admired cultural products between citizens of both countries, the shared suspicion that fuels xenophobic outbursts can be curbed significantly. The authors explore the role of certain arms of the creative industry such as film industry, afro-pop music, national festivals, and cultural troupes to enhance people-to-people interactions and mitigate the devastating effects of Afrophobia in the continent.KeywordsCultural diplomacyAfrophobiaNigeria-South AfricaForeign policyRegional powers
... In answering these and other related questions different theorists suggested numerous factors, with very few similarities. Some see that it has resulted in due consideration to domestic and international factors such as dedicated government with a development-oriented leader and sound policies, proper management of resources including aggressive technology acquisition (Liang, 2010;Park, 2002;Huntington, 1996;Lajciak, 2017;Zhang, 2003;Perkin, 2000;Gamora, 2014)., ...
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The purpose of this article is to examine the role of Confucian ethics in the economic growth of South-East Asia countries. Ever since development theorists propound different pathways as the way out of underdevelopment, Modernization theory assumes development through western cultural values in place of traditional ones, which are believed to be detrimental to development. However, nowadays, such an assumption is contested and cultural factors are put forward in economic development practices evidently in South-East Asia. The article investigates the antithetical views of modernization theory to cultural values in general and, Confucian ethics, in particular. In so doing, the qualitative method is employed by analyzing related secondary sources from journal articles, book sections, and books. Accordingly, the article argues that Confucian ethics as a cultural factor has played a great role in the economic growth of South-East Asia. The way Confucianism drives economic success displays the contemporary cultural turn in the development discourse. To this effect, the article suggests that the rest nations having cultural values like Confucian ethics should step up on the economic growth ladder of South-East Asian countries.
... La famosa espressione di Huntington, «scontro di civiltà», si basa su due presupposti di base: 1) il mondo è diviso in civiltà, a loro volta in gran parte basate sulle religioni; 2) la politica internazionale è di natura conflittuale e i conflitti più pericolosi sono tra stati o gruppi di civiltà diverse (Huntington 1993(Huntington , 1996. Nell'ambiente del dopo guerra fredda, quindi, la partita è tra l'Occidente, che secondo Huntington è la civiltà dominante, e gli sfidanti, che hanno origine nella civiltà asiatica e nei nuovi movimenti islamisti. ...
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Umberto Gori is an eminent representative of the first wave of international studies in Italy. Throughout the past decades he has constantly been engaged in a number of research projects – ranging from international organization to the theory of international relations, from strategic studies to forecasting – and has taught not only at the University of Florence but also at many other Italian and foreign institutions. The present collection of essays is meant to celebrate his outstanding career. The contributors are students of his who, in turn, have followed his path in teaching and research, and who acknowledge an intellectual debt to him. The volume is arranged according to three general themes that are consistent with Gori’s interests: the competitive and cooperative dimensions of the international system; foreign policy and regional governance; the contemporary international order.
... L'Ucraina ospita una delle più grandi comunità etniche e culturali russe, nonché il più grande aggregato di madrelingua russi al di fuori della Russia. La polarizzazione socio-culturale e interetnica del Paese, tuttavia, porta l'impronta di una profonda spaccatura di civiltà (Huntington, 2000). Questa spaccatura crea i presupposti per una disconnessione geopolitica dell'Ucraina tra Russia e Occidente, che si manifesta chiaramente negli atteggiamenti elettorali. ...
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L'article examine la tradition de la géopolitique russe dans le contexte de son identité eurasienne. L'interprétation des paramètres spatiaux de l'Eurasie russe comme la plus grande masse continentale du monde (ou une sorte de «heartland» planétaire) la sépare de l'Europe et de l'Asie en tant que région géopolitique indépendante. On estime que cette région a un vecteur de développement «tellurocratique», par opposition à la dépendance «thalassocratique» du monde occidental. Selon l'imbrication culturelle des traditions occidentales et orientales, l'Eurasie est également porteuse d'intégrité civilisationnelle et géoéconomique, dans laquelle la Russie joue un rôle central. Après l'effondrement de l'URSS, l'Eurasie s'est imposée comme la force dominante de la renaissance géopolitique de la Russie, définie par son influence sur la géographie. L'importance géopolitique de l'Eurasie réside dans l'autosuffisance actuelle en ressources, les perspectives d'intégration et la garantie de la sécurité de la Russie en interaction avec le monde extérieur. Le résultat des actions liées à l'intégrité eurasienne est l'«opération militaire» russe en Ukraine aujourd'hui. Le résultat de cette «opération militaire» devrait déterminer le statut géopolitique de la Russie et ses ambitions de leadership dans le monde.
... 7 Within the proposition, Statement 1 can be seen as a more generalized form of the Law of Natural Selection or the survival of the fittest, Statement 2 concerns humankind as a totality and its empirical test is more suitable for anthropological studies, and Statement 3 is a comparative historical statement that can be applied to the comparative development of different societies with a sufficiently large scale and a stable combination of the motives of the people. This means the comparative development of civilizations (Toynbee 1987a;1987b;Huntington 1996), which are large-scale societies holding a relatively uniform worldview, provides the most straightforward test of Proposition 3. However, before moving on to empirical studies, more auxiliary statements about the morality that can be derived from the three basic motives must be specified, and a theoretical scheme to classify the worldviews of civilizations proposed. ...
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This article outlines a theist social science paradigm. The central thesis, derived from the assumption of an omnibenevolent and powerful God, is the Law of Divine Selection. It states that the motives of people, or the worldviews they adopt, fundamentally determine their society's organization and evolution. In particular, the more hedonic or Nietzscheist a society is, the less progressed it will be, and the more ascetic a society is, the more progressed it will be. This provides a consistent and parsimonious explanation of many puzzles in macro-historical studies, among them the Great Divergence between the West and China, the sudden eruption of the two World Wars, and the religious distribution of Nobel Laureates.
... In 1996 the American political scientist Samuel P. Huntington published his book The Clash of Civilizations and Remaking of the World Order, which was based on ideas he first put forward in a lecture four years earlier (Huntington 1996). He argued that ideology would no longer be the principal source of conflict, but instead the world would retreat into rival cultural groupings. ...
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This article offers a discussion of the meaning, assessment, and measurement of impact in disaster risk reduction. It begins with a historical perspective on the impact of learned work in times when orthodoxy posed severe limits on the impact of new thinking. Regarding the modern age, the article explains why impact is considered important and how it might be recognized when it occurs, including a tentative classification of types of impact. The question of whether impact can truly be measured remains pending, as the answer is diffuse and dependent on many different circumstances. Further sections consider the relationship between impact and mainstreaming and the question of whether a piece of work should be regarded as having impact if its effects are negative rather than positive. Next, impact is considered in terms of whom it benefits. Given the large number of possible reservations about the concept, the question is raised as to whether too much emphasis is given to the impact of research and scholarship. Finally, some suggestions are offered regarding how to obtain a better indication of what the impact of an academic study actually is.
... Furthermore, while the current cross-cultural research is partially dominated by comparisons of Western and Eastern cultures, this fact also offers an opportunity for expansion into less studied regions. For instance, Broek and Webb (1968) identified four major cultural realms and two minor cultural reams, Huntington (1996) described nine major civilizations, Toynbee (1987) found 21 world civilizations, and Price (1990) suggests that there exist more than 3,800 cultures in the world. Naturally, even ordinary people experience many culturally-dependent situations while visiting and living in different countries. ...
Thesis
This doctoral thesis consists of four research articles dealing with how cultural influences shape cognitive processes. The first article describes cross-cultural differences in analytic-holistic cognitive style, individualism/collectivism and map reading. The next two articles describe the psychometric properties of the methods measuring behavioral impulsivity and individualism/collectivism. The fourth article demonstrates the risk of ignoring measurement invariance on a cross-cultural comparison of individualism/collectivism. In the closing, I discuss the implications for cross-cultural research and its measurement
... virus infection had occurred but was also responsible for its global spread. We study how his and formulations fitted into a larger narrative of a US-Chinese confrontation, not unlike the "clash of civilizations" envisaged by S. Huntington (1996) on a global scale. We argue that whilst Trump was careful not to engage in describing falsifiable details of the allegations, his statements did indeed allege their facticity for the purpose of blaming China and that they can be classified as attempts at construing an anti-Chinese conspiracy theory. ...
Chapter
Conspiracy theories (CTs) have an extraordinarily persuasive effect on parts of the public. How can they achieve such a socio-communicative impact, given their lack of factual evidence? The chapter studies allegations by conservative US politicians, especially former President Donald Trump, that the virus which caused the COVID-19 pandemic was intentionally “unleashed” by the Chinese government on the world, including the USA. Using relevance-oriented pragmatics of figurative language use, we analyze Trump’s blaming policy as an attempt to construe an anti-Chinese CT by inducing the public to suspend their “epistemic vigilance” (Sperber et al. 2010), not only on account of his political “authority” as well as their ideological and group loyalty to him but also due to the CT’s seeming coherence in explaining the pandemic as part of a war-like US-Chinese conflict. However, the persuasiveness of this particular CT (as measured in Trump’s ultimately unsuccessful bid for a second term of office in 2020) seems to have been limited, due to the continuing lack of corroborating evidence for several key-parts of the narrative, e.g. for alleged Chinese “accountability” and a US “victory”. Trump’s only partially successful attempt at launching an anti-China CT shows that the relationship between empirical evidence (or lack of them) and their scenario frame can affect the reception of CTs so that critical inferential tests may be reinstated and help counteract their populist appeal.
... This research paper thus strives to value-add to the present academic stalemate by offering an unorthodox cultural dimension to the debate on the degree that contemporary US-Sino relation is the historical Cold War. Samuel P. Huntington, a Harvard political scientist, famously asserted in his book, "The Clash of Civilisations", that diverse cultural identities will be the primary source of conflict in a post-Cold War period (Huntington, 2011). This can be extended to the US-Sino conflict, where a clash of value systems in politics contributed to the escalation of tensions. ...
Thesis
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Research Paper for Hwa Chong Institution Humanities Research Project on whether the US-Sino strategic competition of the 21st Century can be labelled as the historical Cold War
... Det diskuteres stadig indaedt, om vi har set flere religiøse konflikter efter slutningen på den kolde krig. Samuel Huntington (1996) haevder det i sit meget diskuterede vaerk om civilisationernes sammenstød, og Mark Juergensmeyer (1994) taler om, at religion udgør fundamentet for en ny kold krig. Om vi har set en opblomstring i religiøst begrundet vold i det internationale system, behøver vi ikke at svare på her. ...
... No.July/August, https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/united-states/1999-07-01/redefiningnational-interest. 18 Huntington, Samuel P. (1996, The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. London: Simon & Schuster: Touchstone Books. ...
Book
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A Planetary Tragedy addresses the question of why, some 50 years after the environment became a topic of public concern, efforts to address environmental problems have by and large failed and the world appears to be heading for a disastrous future. Although over these years, governments have adopted a raft of national and international measures to combat environmental issues, most of these have proven to be inadequate and the rate of environmental degradation has continued unabated. The book critically surveys and analyses the environmental performance of countries, in particular, some that have been regarded as environmental leaders, and identifies and discusses three broad reasons for this failure. First, the way environmental problems have been predominantly interpreted, which largely ignores the deep and interconnected nature of the environmental challenge; second, the failure to recognise, let alone address, the systemic sources and causes of environmental problems; third, the power structures in the prevailing political-economic systems, which make it virtually impossible to fundamentally change those systems and to put societies onto a path towards sustainability. Covering an extensive literature, the book draws on research, theories, findings, and ideas from the fields of environmental politics and policy, including comparative, international, and global analyses and perspectives, environmental sociology and history, economics and the environment, political and social theory, and environmental management. It puts forward a framework that can assist in taking a comprehensive and integrated approach to the environmental challenge, discusses the strengths and weaknesses of a range of theoretical perspectives, clarifies key concepts and factors central to better understanding the systemic issues and obstacles lying at the heart of the environmental challenge, and puts forward ideas on how to strategically address the enormous imbalance of power that stands in the way of transformative change. The main suggestion is the creation of national-level Sovereign People’s Authorities based on the principle of popular sovereignty that will enable societies to democratically steer themselves towards a sustainable and desirable future.
... Simon Springer (2016) opens up the concept of neoliberal authoritarianism to a dialogue with coloniality, positing that both colonialism and neoliberalism pave "a road to hell with ostensibly good intentions" (2016,153). His central argument is that neoliberalism has managed to hide its violence and authoritarianism through creating the impression that all violence is 'local' and blaming it on "backward" cultural practices (Springer 2016, 155; see also Kaplan 2000;Huntington 1996). The postcolonial period in Africa has been characterized as marked by dictatorships, coups and ethnic wars. ...
Chapter
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We are witnessing a worldwide resurgence of reactionary ideologies and movements, combined with an escalating assault on democratic institutions and structures. Nevertheless, most studies of these phenomena remain anchored in a methodological nationalism, while comparative research is almost entirely limited to the Global North. Yet, authoritarian transformations in the South — and the struggles against them — have not only been just as dramatic as those in the North but also preceded them, and consequently have been studied by Southern scholars for many years. This volume brings together the work of more than 15 scholar-activists from across the Global South, combining in-depth studies of regional processes of authoritarian transformation with a global perspective on authoritarian capitalism. With a foreword by Verónica Gago.
Conference Paper
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Abstract The mission of e-Government is to provide better, more efficient, and faster public services from central and local public administration to citizens and businesses. In recent years, Kosovo has significantly increased the application of e-Government, which transforms the activities provided by Public Administration and had a great impact on citizens and businesses by making everyday procedures easier and more efficient. E-Government brings great benefits to society. Benefits can be economic and social, including modernization of administration, education, health, justice, security, business, and trade development, increase in the budget, democracy, culture, scientific research, etc. Within the modernization of the public administration through the extensive use of the Information and Technology Infrastructure the e-Government’s objective is to create a new dynamic relationship between Kosovo’s public administration, citizens, and businesses. By analyzing the current situation from the view of citizens and businesses, this paper will present the level and types of services offered by the government portal e-Kosova. The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of E-Government implementation on Kosovo institutions to citizens and the business community. In this paper, we intend to introduce the current situation and present the level of implementation of e-Government by analyzing results from the survey conducted by the Regional Cooperation Council 2021 edition of the Balkan Barometer for citizen and business perceptions in Western Balkan Countries. During the short period of implementation, the e-Government in Kosovo faced certain challenges such Covid-19 pandemic, which will be the subject of elaboration in this paper. Keywords: E-Government, Public Administration, e-Kosova, e-Government services.
Chapter
Whether addressing the conflagrations of cultural conflict, the survival or enslavement of peoples, planetary degradation, or the annihilation of humanity, the narrative of the apocalypse is rarely far from the surface of modern history. Without an educational understanding of the intertwined apocalyptic histories of modern politics and religion, there is neither peace nor security. In this context, I present an analytical assessment of the respective origins and ends of peace education and security studies as two alternative means to address a single narrative of the apocalypse. As the English writer H.G. Wells prophetically elaborated a century ago, history is here caught ‘between education and catastrophe’; or, to coin a phrase from the 1960s counterculture, politically unified in opposition to the Vietnam War, we stand, still, on the “eve of destruction.” The core educational issue here is acutely existential.KeywordsPeace Education and Security StudiesApocalyptic and Peace Education
Chapter
Culture is now integrated with the economy and politics, and is playing an increasingly prominent role in global competition. Culture is the foundation, spirit, and soul of a nation. It represents a national deposit accrued through long-term accumulation, and is part of what determines the quality, character, and destiny of a country. As an important component of social norms, culture is an informal long-term institutional arrangement; it incurs the least institutional cost and requires neither coercive regulation nor inductive incentives. Through the combined governance of the rule of law and the rule of virtue, culture plays an indispensable role in supporting the modern market economy.
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The term “Christian terrorism” began to appear in U.S. media narratives following a shooting outside of a Planned Parenthood clinic in 2015. Reflecting on a blog post I wrote from this time nearly six-years later, where I had proposed six theses on “Islamic” versus “Christian” terrorism in America, I consider how this rhetoric has developed in the interim. Adding five additional theses, I argue that the relative absence of terror attacks on U.S. soil throughout the Trump era, and the preoccupation with a variety of culture wars issues, has complicated the ways in which Muslims/Islam are constructed in the contemporary United States. I also consider the “Muslim question” and how it relates to Marx’s “On the Jewish Question.” Despite certain parallels between these issues, I propose that the “question” for Western Muslims today is less about achieving basic rights as it is a battle over the definition of Islam itself.
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Can civil war ever be overcome? Can a better order come into being? This book explores how the Roman civil wars of the first century BCE laid the template for addressing perennially urgent questions. The Roman Republic's collapse and Augustus' new Empire have remained ideological battlegrounds to this day. Integrative and disintegrative readings begun in antiquity (Vergil and Lucan) have left their mark on answers given by Christians (Augustine), secular republicans (Victor Hugo), and disillusioned satirists (Michel Houellebecq) alike. France's self-understanding as a new Rome – republican during the Revolution, imperial under successive Napoleons – makes it a special case in the Roman tradition. The same story returns repeatedly. A golden age of restoration glimmers on the horizon, but comes in the guise of a decadent, oriental empire that reintroduces and exposes everything already wrong under the defunct republic. Central to the price of social order is patriarchy's need to subjugate women.
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Religion can unite and divide, it can lead to a strengthening or a weakening of identity and legitimacy. Religion can stoke conflicts but it can also pacify them – within societies and in international politics. Religion endures and it can exist independently of states, it can constitute them, and it can provide new forms of states, societies, and empires. Arguably, religion shapes or even constitutes the international society of states, an aspect so far neglected in the field of International Relations. The dissertation provides a new definition of religion for International Relations and the English School in particular. Based upon this understanding of religion, the five publications presented in the dissertation provide new analytical and theoretical concepts and approaches to fill the research gap. Religion is integrated into the theoretical framework of the English School in the form of a “prime institution” and with the help of the “quilt model”. While the former expands the theoretical framework, the latter adds an analytical layer. Based upon this definition religion is also introduced as a concept (“hybrid actorness”) in Foreign Policy Analysis, opening it up to become less state-centrist and more transnational-oriented, thereby boosting its relevance considering the evolving international (global) society. In another step, the Securitization framework of analysis is expanded to include (freedom) of religion. By revisiting the publications, the dissertation is able to identify next steps in terms of avenues of research. Finally, the dissertation reveals areas of study which contribute to increasing the pertinence of IR, particularly of the English School.
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Clarivate Analytics announces highly cited researchers (HCRs) every November to recognise true pioneers in their respective fields over the last decade who are one in 1000 according to citation analysis based on the Web of Science™ database. However, the scientometric rules underlying HCR selections have constantly evolved over the years; thus, a comparative study between HCRs’ academic relevance before and after 2018, when the cross field started to be included in HCR statistics, is essential. This paper evaluated the consistency of measurements in 2017 and 2018 by analysing HCR distributions by different regions and Essential Science Indicators (ESI) fields, studied the effects of introducing the cross-field category to the original 21 ESI fields, and portrayed the accurate picture of HCR distributions by region and subject without the influence of measurement biases. The cross field is believed to exert great impact on regional and field-specific HCR distributions, especially for research fields with HCR counts larger than 150. It was other countries and regions except the US and China that grew with the greatest momentum after the inclusion of cross-field HCRs.
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The focus in this chapter is on Islamophobia and neoliberalism within a global context, and the ways in which these dynamics operate as a form of racialised governmentality in racial states across the West. The chapter provides an outline of the origins of the hierarchical and civilisational classification of people stemming from the period of the Enlightenment and linked to the discourse of Orientalism. Following this, Islamophobic discourse is contextualised in a post-communist/colonial era and linked to neoliberalism under US hegemony to explain how ‘otherness’ is embedded in the fabric of states through an analysis of the discursive constructions of Muslims and the underpinning material dynamics which shape these discourses. This includes geopolitical and economic goals of global powers, to strengthen their neoliberal ideology and maintain global supremacy. Finally, the focus is narrowed to surveillance and the schooling of Muslim youth to draw connections between the context and schools.KeywordsRacialised governmentalityOrientalismUS hegemonyNeoliberal ideology
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On a daily basis in inclusive secondary classrooms, teachers struggle to address the academic and social needs of autistic adolescents. Many general education teachers feel unprepared to work directly with students with autism, and the problem is even more complicated in high-poverty, high minority communities which may have greater numbers of students demonstrating characteristics of such disorders but no formal diagnosis or have a delayed diagnosis (Chaidez, Hansen, & Herz-Picciotto, 2012). For instance, one important research study emphasized this very point by surmising that although autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are identified across all racial, ethnic and socioeconomic groups, diagnosing children with autism is a complicated process and further exacerbated for culturally and linguistically diverse children especially in high poverty regions (Mandell, Wiggins, Carpenter, Daniels, DiGuiseppi, Durkin, Giarelli, Morrier, Nicholas, Pinto-Martin, Shattuck, Thomas, Yeargin-Allsopp, & Kirby, 2009). In these communities, it is important that general education classroom teachers be able to recognize indicators of ASD, especially of high-functioning autistic children and utilize effective classroom-level strategies and interventions if they are to serve all students. These strategies and interventions, grounded in research, reflect sound principles of good teaching in general, and will benefit not only students with ASD but all learners in inclusive classrooms. This article resulted from the collaboration between an occupational therapist and teacher educator working with children and pre-service teachers in a predominately Hispanic community. By highlighting the therapeutic practice of working with autistic children in this region, along with best-practice recommendations from teacher education literature, this article provides a description of three practical research-based teaching lessons and a series of functional behavior assessment model interventions to target the sensory issues that may underlie challenging classroom behaviors of autistic children for the general education teacher.
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Segalerba, G., The New Citizenship: Seyla Benhabib’s “The Right to Have Rights”, in: «Writing in Times of Displacement. The Existential and Other Discourses», Edited By Mbuh Tennu Meera Chakravorty and John Clammer, Routledge India, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, England, UK, 2022, pp. 129–148. DOI: 10.4324/9781003333234-10. I can send the text of the proofs of my article. I do not possess an electronic version of the printed text - not up to now at least -. i) Introduction In this chapter, I would like to deal with some ideas of Seyla Benhabib regarding cosmopolitanism, culture, identity and evolution of rights. Benhabib meditations prove to be very valuable instruments in order to understand the measures that can promote processes of integration and in order to analyse all the strategies which must be avoided if the end of promotion is to be reached. The most important point is, in my opinion, represented by the idea that the birth of cosmopolitan norms creates new moral facts, that is, the moral universe has and is being extended through new norms and new rights. The moral space is not given, is not complete: the moral space can be extended and can be developed. I would like to consider in my presentation the following subjects based on Benhabib’s meditation: a) Rights and interpretation of rights have had, in Benhabib’s opinion, a complete modifi cation, thanks to the different covenants/conventions for the protection of Human Rights (beginning with the “Universal Declaration of the Human Rights” of 1948). b) As a result of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and as a result of the different Covenants/conventions that have been signed by countries in order to protect Human Rights, particular countries are no more the first and last authority for the acknowledgement and validity of rights. c) The rights of man qua man come about through, thanks to this new constellation. A new dimension of rights belonging to men as such does emerge: there are no longer, in other words, only rights belonging to men qua citizens of a particular country. The new rights belong to every human being as such, not because she/he is citizen of a particular country. The new dimension of rights consists, therefore, in the result of a development of the political dimension that has brought about the going beyond the limited dimension of the particular states with their absolute sovereignty in favour of the creation of a new political subject, that is, the world community. d) The new dimension of rights (that is, cosmopolitan rights) correspond to a new dimension of the person (that is, man and not only citizen) and to a new dimension of the authorities that have to protect rights (that is, world community over and above the particular countries). e) There are rights over the particular states. States must respect them, provided that they want to belong to the world community; they have no power on them, if they sign the treaties a rming existence and imposing respect for these rights. f) The coming about of cosmopolitan rights corresponds to the acknowledgment of the communicative freedom of every person: no ethical position can come about, in the opinion of Benhabib, without acknowledgement of the communicative freedom of the individuals, which implies that every person does possess the right to have rights; in other words, without the acknowledgement of human rights no ethics is possible. 1 The possibility of ethics depends, in other words, on the acknowledgement of human rights. g) An indispensable presupposition for the promotion of the integration between inhabitants of a country consists in the right to citizenship not depending on the belonging to an ethnos. Benhabib many a time express the strong conviction that it is a duty to diff erentiate between “Demos” as political formation and “Ethnos.” The diff erence between “Demos” and “Ethnos” in relation to the criterion through which the process of the citizenship is going to be decided is fundamental: if the belonging to an ethnos is chosen in order to determine who may possess the citizenship and who may not possess the citizenship, the result will be the exclusion from the citizenship of many layers of inhabitants of a country. The choice in favour of the ethnos as criterion proves to be a choice for exclusion: ethnos is a means for exclusion. h) A real democracy cannot aff ord, in Benhabib’s opinion, that groups within the country is denied the acquisition of the citizenship: every exclusion from the citizenship which is not limited by an amount of time is simply incompatible with a democratic order. The world community is the new subject corresponding to the rights of human beings qua human beings. Of course, it can be said that declaration of the rights of man had already been expressed before the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. It must be noticed, though, that the new point, the emerging characteristic accompanying the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, consists in the birth of a new authority, the world community, by which the Human Rights should be protected. The presence of a parallelism between birth and development of the rights of human beings qua human beings and birth and development of the world community has to be taken into account. For my exposition, I will refer to the observations expressed by Seyla Benhabib in her works such as Situating the Self: Gender, Community and Postmodernism in Contemporary Ethics, The Claims of Culture. Equality and Diversity in the Global Era, The Rights of Others: Aliens, Residents and Citizens , Another Cosmopolitanism and Dignity in Adversity. Human Rights in Troubled Times.
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