Article

From "We" to "Me": Group Identification Enhances Perceived Personal Control With Consequences for Health and Well-Being

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Abstract

There is growing recognition that identification with social groups can protect and enhance health and well-being, thereby constituting a kind of "social cure." The present research explores the role of control as a novel mediator of the relationship between shared group identity and well-being. Five studies provide evidence for this process. Group identification predicted significantly greater perceived personal control across 47 countries (Study 1), and in groups that had experienced success and failure (Study 2). The relationship was observed longitudinally (Study 3) and experimentally (Study 4). Manipulated group identification also buffered a loss of personal control (Study 5). Across the studies, perceived personal control mediated social cure effects in political, academic, community, and national groups. The findings reveal that the personal benefits of social groups come not only from their ability to make people feel good, but also from their ability to make people feel capable and in control of their lives. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

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... From the perspective of enrichment, work-community enrichment enables psychological resources and social identity to flow into communities where entrepreneurs reside. For entrepreneurs, the pursuit of positive values and acknowledgment of one's identity will not only increase their commitment to the community, but it will also help cultivate a feeling of belonging among the community's members (Putnam, 2007;Greenaway et al., 2015). Statistical indicators from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Global Report show that an average of 65.8% of Chinese adults surveyed in 2016-2018 consider entrepreneurship a good career, and 73.7% consider successful entrepreneurs to have high social status (GEM, 2019), which explains the high vitality of entrepreneurship in China to a certain degree. ...
... According to the functional cognitive path of enrichment theory, entrepreneurs tend to embed themselves in the communities to get social support (Jack and Anderson, 2002;Wang and Altinay, 2012;Wigren-Kristoferson et al., 2022). In the process of entrepreneurs' engagement in social activities (Zimmeran and Rappaport, 1988), maintaining a better neighbor identity (Greenaway et al., 2015), and exhibiting more prosocial behavior (Long and Yang, 2016), a sense of perceived control enables them to switch among their multiple identities . ...
... Perceived personal control is measured by how much the entrepreneur is in control of work, family, and community (Lang and Heckhausen, 2001;Greenaway et al., 2015). To determine an individual's life control level, he or she responds by choosing an option from "no choice at all (Score 1)" to "a lot of choice (Score 10)." ...
Article
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Passion plays a crucial role in entrepreneurial activity, while its positive spillover to the family and community domains is scant. We proposed an integrated enrichment framework of “work-family-community” based on the literature in the field. Drawing upon the matching samples of entrepreneurs' individuals, families, and communities in the China Labor-force Dynamics Survey (CLDS) database, we identified a significant positive spillover effect into the family and community domains and explored the moderating role of the entrepreneur's perceived personal control. The empirical results indicate that entrepreneurs with higher passion experience higher subjective wellbeing related to family members and have a higher likelihood of engagement in prosocial behaviors. Perceived personal control positively moderates the spillover of passion to life and economic satisfaction. The spread of an entrepreneurial role model's peer effect and the contagion of entrepreneurial passion have a significant positive impact on entrepreneurial behavior in a cluster. Synthesizing our findings, we contribute to the literature concerning work-family enrichment, entrepreneurial passion, and the spillover-crossover model and offer important implications for entrepreneurs' role transition tension.
... The social identity approach argues that people derive their sense of self (e.g., their goals and values; Oyserman, 2007) partly from their social identity. Having a collective sense of "we" also provides people with psychological resources to navigate life challenges (Greenaway et al., 2015;Haslam et al., 2014). Because people tie their personal identity to their social groups, and experience a sense of "we", they are personally impacted by what happens to their group (see Leigh & Melwani, 2019, for review). ...
... Finally, collective autonomy restriction is negatively associated with psychological well-being among disempowered communities that have chronically been restricted by other social groups including the LG-BTQ+ community (Kachanoff, Cooligan, et al., 2020) and Black communities in Canada and the United States (Holding & Koestner, 2021). Importantly, collective autonomy restriction is uniquely associated with personal autonomy and well-being even when statistically accounting for other group perceptions associated with well-being (Kachanoff, Taylor, et al., 2019) like group agency, efficacy and control (e.g., Greenaway et al., 2015Greenaway et al., , 2016, and perceptions that others like and value one's group (e.g., Branscombe et al., 1999). ...
... Group members experience greater well-being when they feel their group has agency and control (i.e., power) within its environment (e.g., Bagci et al., 2020;Cvetkovska et al., 2020;Greenaway et al., 2016Greenaway et al., , 2015 and when they feel that their groups are regarded as good or moral by others (i.e., high in status; Branscombe et al., 1999;Schmitt et al., 2014). Groups also use power and status to avoid being exploited or harmed by other groups (e.g., by defending against violence or securing further resources). ...
Preprint
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People experience “collective autonomy restriction” when they believe other groups want to restrict their own group from freely expressing its social identity and determining its behavior. We review emerging research on the negative consequences of collective autonomy restriction for well-being, as well as its implications for group members’ motivation to fight for their place within social hierarchies. We propose that group members desire two resources tied to having a favorable position within the social hierarchy – structural power (i.e., the ability to influence and resist influence from other groups) and status (being positively valued and perceived as moral by others) – because they believe that having power and status are necessary to secure their group’s collective autonomy. We hypothesize that group members anticipate that other groups might restrict their group if they lack the structural power to resist outside influences, or if they are perceived as negative or immoral and worthy of restriction. We apply this power and status perspective of collective autonomy restriction to predict (1) when disempowered groups are most likely to fight against (vs. tolerate) their disadvantaged position and (2) when powerful groups are most likely to relinquish power and acknowledge their transgressions (versus defensively maintain their privileged position).
... Research informed by the social identity approach has shown how group memberships (and the social identities that are derived from group memberships) affect people's selfesteem, belonging, meaning, sense of purpose, and efficacy (38)(39)(40). Given the central role of group memberships in how people think, feel, and behave (39)(40)(41)(42), recently, social identity theorizing has been extended to focus on understanding the social processes that underlie health and wellbeing outcomes [the Social Identity Approach to Health, SIAH, (33,(43)(44)(45)]. ...
... Research informed by the social identity approach has shown how group memberships (and the social identities that are derived from group memberships) affect people's selfesteem, belonging, meaning, sense of purpose, and efficacy (38)(39)(40). Given the central role of group memberships in how people think, feel, and behave (39)(40)(41)(42), recently, social identity theorizing has been extended to focus on understanding the social processes that underlie health and wellbeing outcomes [the Social Identity Approach to Health, SIAH, (33,(43)(44)(45)]. ...
... This sub-discipline of social identity research describes how a sense of positive group membership is key to understanding a range of health outcomes (32,46,47). Referred to as the Social Cure, this perspective has demonstrated how social connection can improve feelings of personal control (39), satisfy global psychological needs (48), enhance resilience (49), alleviate depression (50), and even reduce post-retirement mortality rates (51). Findings from the social cure perspective suggest that it is both the process and strength of identification with groups that provides a base from which to access health-giving psychological resources. ...
Article
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While the relationship between loneliness and psychological distress is well documented, the mechanisms underlying this relationship are less clear. One factor known to be related to loneliness as well as psychological distress, is social support, with some studies suggesting that support–both received and provided–can serve as a mechanism to reduce the distress associated with loneliness. In this paper we examine the mediating role of both aspects of support in the relationship between loneliness and psychological distress in the COVID-19 context. We used a multi-country dataset collected at two timepoints during the pandemic; the first during the early stages ( N = 6,842, 11 countries) and the second collected for a subset of countries ( N = 1,299, 3 countries) 3 months later. Across all eleven countries, results revealed significant positive associations between loneliness and distress. Furthermore, using longitudinal data, we investigated the directionality of this relationship and found that increased loneliness over time was associated with increased psychological distress. The data also showed that both feeling unsupported and feeling unable to provide support to others mediated this relationship. These findings point to the need to facilitate people's ability to draw effective social support and help others–particularly at times when social connectedness is threatened–as a way of alleviating the psychological distress that commonly presents with loneliness.
... The social identity approach argues that people derive their sense of self (e.g., their goals and values; Oyserman, 2007) partly from their social identity. Having a collective sense of "we" also provides people with psychological resources to navigate life challenges (Greenaway et al., 2015;Haslam et al., 2014). Because people tie their personal identity to their social groups, and experience a sense of "we", they are personally impacted by what happens to their group (see Leigh & Melwani, 2019, for review). ...
... Finally, collective autonomy restriction is negatively associated with psychological well-being among disempowered communities that have chronically been restricted by other social groups including the LG-BTQ+ community (Kachanoff, Cooligan, et al., 2020) and Black communities in Canada and the United States (Holding & Koestner, 2021). Importantly, collective autonomy restriction is uniquely associated with personal autonomy and well-being even when statistically accounting for other group perceptions associated with well-being (Kachanoff, Taylor, et al., 2019) like group agency, efficacy and control (e.g., Greenaway et al., 2015Greenaway et al., , 2016, and perceptions that others like and value one's group (e.g., Branscombe et al., 1999). ...
... Group members experience greater well-being when they feel their group has agency and control (i.e., power) within its environment (e.g., Bagci et al., 2020;Cvetkovska et al., 2020;Greenaway et al., 2016Greenaway et al., , 2015 and when they feel that their groups are regarded as good or moral by others (i.e., high in status; Branscombe et al., 1999;Schmitt et al., 2014). Groups also use power and status to avoid being exploited or harmed by other groups (e.g., by defending against violence or securing further resources). ...
Article
Full-text available
People experience “collective autonomy restriction” when they believe other groups want to restrict their own group from freely expressing its social identity and determining its behavior. We review emerging research on the negative consequences of collective autonomy restriction for well-being, as well as its implications for group members' motivation to fight for their place within social hierarchies. We propose that group members desire two resources tied to having a favorable position within the social hierarchy—structural power (i.e., the ability to influence and resist influence from other groups) and status (being positively valued and perceived as moral by others)—because they believe that having power and status are necessary to secure their group's collective autonomy. We hypothesize that group members anticipate that other groups might restrict their group if they lack the structural power to resist outside influences, or if they are perceived as negative or immoral and worthy of restriction. We apply this power and status perspective of collective autonomy restriction to predict (1) when disempowered groups are most likely to fight against (vs. tolerate) their disadvantaged position and (2) when powerful groups are most likely to relinquish power and acknowledge their transgressions (vs. defensively maintain their privileged position).
... Negative life experiences can compromise personal control (Price et al., 2002), which frequently acts as a buffer against negative life events or stressors. Hence, previous studies revealed that people with higher degrees of personal control have fewer health issues and better levels of well-being (Greenway et al., 2015). According to a recent study, good personal control mitigates the negative impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, such that the association between the pandemic's perceived severity and mental health problems dropped as the ability of people to control them increased . ...
... Personal control positively affected personal health, as predicted by H6a. These findings lend support to the current body of literature (Price et al., 2002;Greenway et al., 2015;. In accordance with the prediction of the hypothesis associated with the direct effects of personal control on well-being (H6b), the results found that personal control had a positive and significant impact on well-being. ...
... In accordance with the prediction of the hypothesis associated with the direct effects of personal control on well-being (H6b), the results found that personal control had a positive and significant impact on well-being. These findings also supported earlier research (Price et al., 2002;Greenway et al., 2015;Cucinotta & Vanelli, 2020;Chen & Chen, 2021). Personal health had an affirmative effect on well-being, as predicted by H7a. ...
Article
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The current study assesses the impact of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic on tourism workers' health and well-being in Jordan by investigating coronavirus threats, financial impacts, resources impacts, social isolation, depression and personal control experienced by tourism workers during the COVID-19 pandemic, and how the threats and impacts of the coronavirus pandemic affect workers' health and well-being. A quantitative survey method was applied using a questionnaire. Data were collected from a sample of 400 tourism workers in Jordan. The study's findings revealed that tourism workers are financially strained, socially isolated, psychologically depressed, experiencing a lack of personal control, and have limited resources due to their dread of the pandemic and its negative impacts. It was also found that a significant negative direct effect of perceived coronavirus threats and their impacts on workers' depression and personal control had a significant influence on workers' health and well-being. The current study proposed a model of the influence of coronavirus on tourism workers' health and well-being through their personal control and depression. Resumo O presente estudo avalia o impacto da pandemia de COVID-19 na saúde e no bem-estar dos trabalhadores do turismo na Jordânia, investigando ameaças do coronavírus, impactos financeiros, impactos nos recursos, isolamento social, depressão e controle pessoal experimentados pelos trabalhadores do turismo durante a pandemia, e como as ameaças e impactos do coronavírus afetam a saúde e o bem-estar dos trabalhadores. Um método de pesquisa quantitativa foi aplicado através de questionário. Os dados foram recolhidos de uma amostra de 400 trabalhadores do turismo na Jordânia. Os resultados demonstram que os trabalhadores do turismo estão financeiramente tensos, socialmente isolados, psicologicamente deprimidos, experimentando uma falta de controle pessoal, e têm recursos limitados devido ao temor da pandemia e dos seus impactos negativos. Verificou-se também que um efeito direto negativo significativo das ameaças percecionadas do vírus e impactos na depressão e controle pessoal dos trabalhadores teve uma influência significativa na saúde dos trabalhadores. O presente estudo propôs um modelo da influência do coronavírus na saúde e bem-estar dos trabalhadores do turismo através do seu controle pessoal e depressão. Palavras-chave: Ameaças do coronavírus, depressão, controle pessoal, saúde pessoal, bem-estar, trabalhadores do turismo.
... The study involved a between-subjects identification manipulation to expose participants to statements loaded about positive and negative characteristics of student identity ( Table 1). Two types of identification manipulations occurred following Greenaway et al. 's (2015) example to create "high" and "low" identifiers. Participants in the "High Identification" group received five moderately positive and five extremely negative student identity-related statements; the "Low Identification" group was presented with five moderately negative and five extremely positive statements ( Table 1). ...
... Participants in the "High Identification" group received five moderately positive and five extremely negative student identity-related statements; the "Low Identification" group was presented with five moderately negative and five extremely positive statements ( Table 1). Greenaway et al.'s (2015) manipulation posits that the manipulation prompts participants to agree with moderate statements and disagree with the extreme ones. This manipulation has been successfully used by Banas et al. (2016) to create "low" and "high" identifiers in their social norms study. ...
... Identification manipulation items created following the example ofGreenaway et al. (2015). only want to participate in activities with people who are undergraduate students Being an undergraduate university student opens up no career opportunities in the future My undergraduate degree offers me complete control over what I would like to study Being an undergraduate university student means that all my time is dedicated to studying Being a university student means that I can be fully flexible in how I manage my time Studying an undergraduate degree does not always mean that I study about areas that I am interested in As an undergraduate student, it's mostly up to me how I manage my own time There are some things I do not like about being an undergraduate student Being an undergraduate university student offers me the opportunity to learn about areas I am interested in Frontiers in Psychology | www.frontiersin.org ...
Article
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This study investigated the influence of descriptive norm messages that either communicated that university students eat a sufficient amount of fruit and vegetable (F&V) or that they do not, on F&V consumption, and whether or not any effects are moderated by student identification. An online 2 (Norm: “Sufficient”/“Insufficient”) × 2 (Identification: “Low”/“High”) experimental design was employed. Infographics containing “sufficient”/“insufficient” F&V intake descriptive norms were presented. An identification manipulation was employed to create “high”/“low” student identifiers. F&V intake intentions were assessed after the manipulations; self-reported F&V intake was reported at 2 days post-intervention. Undergraduate students in the United Kingdom (N = 180) reported their intake intentions, of which 112 (62%) completed the behavioral follow-up. Participants were predominantly white female students from Scottish universities, mean age 20.4 (±1.6) years. Baseline mean F&V consumption was high (4.5 ± 2.8). There were no significant main effects of Norm or Identification manipulations on F&V intentions and intake. Significant norm × identification interactions were revealed for fruit intake intentions and vegetable intake at follow-up, indicating half-portion differences (~40 g) between groups. Ironic effects were observed for “high” identifiers, who neither intended to, nor acted in accordance with group norms; “low” student identifiers intended to and followed group norms, whereby the “sufficient”/“low” group intended to consume significantly more fruit portions and consumed more vegetables than the “insufficient”/“low” group. Given the half-portion differences between groups resulting from the norm × identification interactions, future research on a larger sample of young adults with low F&V intake is warranted to further explore the conditions under which moderating effects of identification are observed and the underlying mechanisms.
... When people think that they have enough resources and social relations with other people, they perceive social support (Chun & Lee, 2017). Many research indicated that social support has a significant role in increasing the perception of a sense of power (Bullers, 2001;Greenaway et al., 2015;Haslam et al., 2005). Power is the capacity to produce an intended effect in the relationship (Gray-Little & Burks, 1983), an ability to control or influence another person's actions (Ragsdale et al., 2009). ...
... The literature has documented a positive association between social support and perceived power (Cai et al., 2021;Greenaway et al., 2015;Haslam et al., 2005). Social support increases individuals' perceived sense of power over a relationship with others (Chun and Lee, 2017). ...
Conference Paper
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"Child marriage or early marriage is defined as the type of marriage performed before the girl is physically, physiologically, and psychologically ready to shoulder the responsibilities of marriage and childbearing. Turkish Population and Health Survey in 2018 demonstrated that 21% of women married before the age of 18, while 4% of them married before the age of 15. As can be observed from the statistics, early marriage is considered to be a serious problem, especially for girls in Turkey. Therefore, understanding the effects of early marriage on women seems to be an essential step to prevent young girls from getting married at an early age. Children are forced to take the adult roles before they are ready and have no control over their future; this situation paves the way for psychological problems such as depression. The variables that may predict depressive symptoms in early-married women were examined based on the relevant literature. The aim of the present study is to examine the mediator role of perceived power in the relationship between social support and depressive symptoms in early-married women. The study sample consists of 97 women (between the ages of 19-30) who got married before the age of 18. The participants were given Demographic Information Form and The Multidimensional Scale of Social support, Couple Power Scale, and Depression subscale of Brief Symptom Inventory. In model test results of the analysis, perceived power mediates the relationship between social support and depression in early-married women. According to the results, women who have more social support feel more power in the marital relationship, which in turn results with less depressive symptoms. These findings of the current study suggest that social support and perceived power in a marital relationship play a significant role in depressive symptoms of early-married women. Along with the further studies, this study may help improve treatment strategies, which focus on social support and marital power for early-married women who present depressive symptoms."
... One of the participants emotionally shared, "I don't know what will happen, what will happen in the future if this is what is happening now?" (R3), supported by a study on the impact of future anxiety due to the pandemic (Paredes et al., 2021). However, community identification and positive relationships in more extensive social networks were vital (Greenaway et al., 2015), as one expressed the value of "having a community with the same belief that you are holding to, the group of people that you know will understand one another" (R20). ...
... Participants reached out to significant others for support in difficult times, as one expressed, "I approach my significant other first because he's always there to listen to me" (R25). These strategies brought positive feelings to the participants, and at the same time, they were able to increase their confidence and feel in control of their lives (Greenaway et al., 2015). Interestingly, connecting to their pets boosted their well-being (Luhmann & Kalitzki, 2018); as one participant expressed, "I find comfort with my pet, as we sleep and hug each other as we sleep" (R20). ...
Article
Full-text available
Capping the final issue for the pandemic year 2021 is the release of the journal's tenth issue, Volume 4.4 (October-December 2021). The issue features 16 interesting papers which discussed various topics on mental health, spiritual well-being, quality of available healthcare services, online teaching pedagogy, electronic evidence, school management, a course review of the Readings in Philippine History, research productivity in the Philippines, national census data utility, the effect of the farmer field school, and development of a tool to measure kapwa, ecocentrism, and model for social communication. READ FULL TEXTS HERE: https://philssj.org/index.php/main/issue/view/12
... One of the participants emotionally shared, "I don't know what will happen, what will happen in the future if this is what is happening now?" (R3), supported by a study on the impact of future anxiety due to the pandemic (Paredes et al., 2021). However, community identification and positive relationships in more extensive social networks were vital (Greenaway et al., 2015), as one expressed the value of "having a community with the same belief that you are holding to, the group of people that you know will understand one another" (R20). ...
... Participants reached out to significant others for support in difficult times, as one expressed, "I approach my significant other first because he's always there to listen to me" (R25). These strategies brought positive feelings to the participants, and at the same time, they were able to increase their confidence and feel in control of their lives (Greenaway et al., 2015). Interestingly, connecting to their pets boosted their well-being (Luhmann & Kalitzki, 2018); as one participant expressed, "I find comfort with my pet, as we sleep and hug each other as we sleep" (R20). ...
Article
Full-text available
Most studies in positive psychology focused on psychological factors and their impact on mental health based on Western models and quantitative approaches (Datu et al., 2018). Thus, there is a need to develop further the knowledge and application of concepts and theoretical models grounded in the lived experiences of the Filipino population. The present study utilized a grounded theory method to build a Filipino-based well-being model among university students. The BLOOMS Model of Well-being proposed that holistic well-being comprises five interconnected dimensions (Academic, Psycho-emotional, Physical, Social, and Spiritual). The study found that personal factors, social influences, and unexpected life events influenced well-being. Also, the study suggested that the following strategies enhanced well-being: building, leveraging, owning, opening, molding, and self-enhancing practices, leading to holistic growth. Data from this study can serve as a resource for further exploration of positive psychology and developing mental health policies and programs for university students.
... Satisfied needs promote more autonomous (i.e., self-determined) motivations, which could further contribute to fulfillment of needs . Previous research shows that in-group identification alleviates threats to self-esteem and control (Greenaway et al., 2015; see also Branscombe et al., 1999). Similarly, studies differentiating between collective narcissism and secure in-group identity also demonstrate that the latter predicts increased self-esteem and control Golec de Zavala et al., 2020). ...
... As hypothesized, identified regulation-a selfdetermined motive capturing identifying because identity allows group members to accomplish personally valued objectives-had a positive relationship with secure in-group identity, suggesting it may help individuals to achieve their objectives (Greenaway et al., 2015). As in Study 1, integrated regulation was positively related to secure ingroup identity and collective narcissism. ...
Article
We draw on self-determination theory and research on religious orientations to investigate motivations associated with collective narcissism—a belief in in-group greatness that is underappreciated by others—versus secure in-group identity, an unpretentious positive regard for the in-group. Four surveys examined these associations focusing on different social identities: personally important groups (Study 1, N = 212), nationalities (Study 2, N = 196), and religious groups (Study 3, N = 1,690; Study 4, N = 399). In Studies 1, 2, and 4, self-determined motivations were associated with secure in-group identity, whereas non-self-determined motivations were related to collective narcissism. In Studies 3 and 4, intrinsic religiosity was related to collective narcissism and secure in-group identity, while extrinsic personal religiosity was associated with collective narcissism only. Results indicate that collective narcissism is motivated by seeking external and internal rewards.
... When people think that they have enough resources and social relations with other people, they perceive social support (Chun & Lee, 2017). Many research indicated that social support has a significant role in increasing the perception of a sense of power (Bullers, 2001;Greenaway et al., 2015;Haslam et al., 2005). Power is the capacity to produce an intended effect in the relationship (Gray-Little & Burks, 1983), an ability to control or influence another person's actions (Ragsdale et al., 2009). ...
... The literature has documented a positive association between social support and perceived power (Cai et al., 2021;Greenaway et al., 2015;Haslam et al., 2005). Social support increases individuals' perceived sense of power over a relationship with others (Chun and Lee, 2017). ...
Presentation
Full-text available
Child marriage or early marriage is defined as the type of marriage performed before the girl is physically, physiologically, and psychologically ready to shoulder the responsibilities of marriage and childbearing. Turkish Population and Health Survey in 2018 demonstrated that 21% of women married before the age of 18, while 4% of them married before the age of 15. As can be observed from the statistics, early marriage is considered to be a serious problem, especially for girls in Turkey. Therefore, understanding the effects of early marriage on women seems to be an essential step to prevent young girls from getting married at an early age. Children are forced to take the adult roles before they are ready and have no control over their future; this situation paves the way for psychological problems such as depression. The variables that may predict depressive symptoms in early-married women were examined based on the relevant literature. The aim of the present study is to examine the mediator role of perceived power in the relationship between social support and depressive symptoms in early-married women. The study sample consists of 97 women (between the ages of 19-30) who got married before the age of 18. The participants were given Demographic Information Form and The Multidimensional Scale of Social support, Couple Power Scale, and Depression subscale of Brief Symptom Inventory. In model test results of the analysis, perceived power mediates the relationship between social support and depression in early-married women. According to the results, women who have more social support feel more power in the marital relationship, which in turn results with less depressive symptoms. These findings of the current study suggest that social support and perceived power in a marital relationship play a significant role in depressive symptoms of early-married women. Along with the further studies, this study may help improve treatment strategies, which focus on social support and marital power for early-married women who present depressive symptoms.
... Furthermore, there is substantial evidence that migrants who identify as a migratory group and integrate their old and new cultures report a higher level of happiness compared to those who do not (Gui et al., 2012;Wang & Mesman, 2015). In-group identity is a powerful buffer that can alleviate the adverse effects of risk factors on individuals' mental health (Greenaway et al., 2015;Schmitt & Maes, 2002). According to the protective-protective model (Cohen et al., 2003), a protective factor's effect on its outcomes may be increased by another protective factor. ...
... Accordingly, relative to low levels of in-group identity, migrant adolescents with high levels of in-group identity are more likely to receive psychological resources and social support, which enhances their sense of trust, belonging, security, and support, and helps them cope with setbacks, changes, and challenges (Jetten et al., 2014). Furthermore, considerable evidence indicates that in-group identity acts as a protective factor that mitigates the negative effect on mental health (Greenaway et al., 2015). Particularly, perceived social support may be less influenced by relative deprivation and less associated with social withdrawal for migrant adolescents with higher in-group identity than for those with lower in-group identity. ...
Article
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Despite existing studies showing that relative deprivation is a risk factor for migrant populations’ social withdrawal, the underlying mechanisms are largely unclear. The current study used a moderated mediation model to investigate perceived social support as a possible mediator and in-group identity as a possible moderator in the relationship between relative deprivation and social withdrawal. A large sample of 1772 Chinese migrant adolescents completed questionnaires that measured relative deprivation, social withdrawal, perceived social support, and in-group identity. Relative deprivation was significantly and positively correlated with migrant adolescents’ social withdrawal, and perceived social support partially mediated this relationship. Moreover, in-group identity moderated the indirect effect of relative deprivation on social withdrawal via perceived social support, with a high level of in-group identity weakening the association between relative deprivation and perceived social support. It is recommended that parents and educators pay closer attention to adolescents’ perceived social support and in-group identity to provide appropriate interventions.
... This seems relevant for crisis events. Indeed, when appeal messages are construed in a way that implies a need to be suspicious of all community members (family, friends, neighbors, and colleagues), they can reduce the feeling of group membership (Greenaway et al., 2015(Greenaway et al., , 2019 and result in deindividuation from the group . The development of a general mistrust in the community and a lack of identification with ingroup members might dampen the perceived obligation to provide help in dire situations. ...
... However, that mediation effect was nullified when considering participants with high national identification. A strong feeling of group membership (Greenaway et al., 2015(Greenaway et al., , 2019 and commitment to the group Castano et al., 2002;Obst and White, 2007) might have suppressed the negative effect of conservatism and mistrust present in right-wing oriented participants. To elaborate further, individuals who strongly identify with their group showed more positive attitudes toward discretionary COVID-19 behaviors regardless of the individual differences in their political beliefs and views. ...
Article
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A growing body of work has highlighted the importance of political beliefs and attitudes in predicting endorsement and engagement in prosocial behavior. Individuals with right-wing political orientation are less likely to behave prosocially than their left-wing counterparts due to high levels of Right-wing authoritarianism (RWA). Here, we aimed to extend prior work by testing how political values relate to COVID-19 discretionary behavioral intentions (i.e., prosocial and non-mandatory behaviors aimed at controlling the spread of the pandemic). Furthermore, we tested whether identification with the national group would influence the relationship between RWA and prosocial behavior. A cross-sectional study conducted on 350 Italian participants showed that right-wing political orientation had a negative effect on COVID-19 discretionary behavioral intentions via RWA. Furthermore, a moderated mediation model revealed that this effect was only significant for participants who are lowly identified with the national group. The results suggest that highlighting group belongingness might effectively motivate more conservative individuals to engage in prosocial behavior.
... Group-based treatment may also allow service capacity to be scaled-up, when faced with large patient numbers. Key psychosocial resources linked to behaviour change, including social support and self-efficacy [20], can be triggered when group members form a sense of social connectedness, or shared social identity, with other group members [21,22]. Being socially connected to others is associated with improvement in a variety of health outcomes, including a reduction in mortality rate [23]. ...
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Background Approximately 15 million people in the UK live with obesity, around 5 million of whom have severe obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥35kg/m ² ). Having severe obesity markedly compromises health, well-being and quality of life, and substantially reduces life expectancy. These adverse outcomes are prevented or ameliorated by weight loss, for which sustained behavioural change is the cornerstone of treatment. Although NHS specialist ‘Tier 3’ Weight Management Services (T3WMS) support people with severe obesity, using individual and group-based treatment, the current evidence on optimal intervention design and outcomes is limited. Due to heterogeneity of severe obesity, there is a need to tailor treatment to address individual needs. Despite this heterogeneity, there are good reasons to suspect that a structured group-based behavioural intervention may be more effective and cost-effective for the treatment of severe obesity compared to usual care. The aims of this study are to test the feasibility of establishing and delivering a multi-centre randomised controlled clinical trial to compare a group-based behavioural intervention versus usual care in people with severe obesity. Methods This feasibility randomised controlled study is a partially clustered multi-centre trial of PROGROUP (a novel group-based behavioural intervention) versus usual care. Adults ≥18 years of age who have been newly referred to and accepted by NHS T3WMS will be eligible if they have a BMI ≥40, or ≥35 kg/m ² with comorbidity, are suitable for group-based care and are willing to be randomised. Exclusion criteria are participation in another weight management study, planned bariatric surgery during the trial, and unwillingness or inability to attend group sessions. Outcome assessors will be blinded to treatment allocation and success of blinding will be evaluated. Clinical measures will be collected at baseline, 6 and 12 months post-randomisation. Secondary outcome measures will be self-reported and collected remotely. Process and economic evaluations will be conducted. Discussion This randomised feasibility study has been designed to test all the required research procedures and additionally explore three key issues; the feasibility of implementing a complex trial at participating NHS T3WMS, training the multidisciplinary healthcare teams in a standard intervention, and the acceptability of a group intervention for these particularly complex patients. Trial registration ISRCTN number 22088800.
... Instead, it is the psychological experience of group membership, or social identification, that is crucial (Haslam et al., 2018). Identifying as a group member informs our self-definition, which is critical to a group's healthenhancing potential, as it unlocks the psychological resources provided by the group, such as perceptions of belonging, personal control, and social support (Greenaway et al., 2015). For example, it has been found that identification with university friendship groups predicted lower levels of depression, anxiety, and paranoia by decreasing feelings of loneliness (McIntyre, Worsley, Corcoran, Harrison Woods, & Bentall, 2018). ...
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Families play an important role in eating disorder (ED) recovery, and it has been suggested that they can ameliorate the loneliness associated with EDs. However, the psychological mechanisms through which this occurs have yet to be systematically explored. Utilising the Social Identity Approach to Health, we explore whether identification with one's family group positively predicts health in people with self‐reported EDs due to its potential to reduce feelings of loneliness. We investigate this in two online questionnaire studies (N = 82; N = 234), one conducted before the COVID‐19 pandemic and the second conducted in its early stages. In both studies, mediation analyses demonstrated that family identification was associated with fewer and less severe self‐reported ED symptoms, and in the context of the COVID‐19 pandemic, reduced self‐reported ED‐related impact and anxiety. In both studies, these benefits were suggestive of a protective role of family identification against loneliness. Our findings provide a framework for understanding in general why families can be considered an important social recovery resource and should be included in the treatment of adult EDs. Please refer to the Supplementary Material section to find this article's Community and Social Impact Statement.
... According to social identity theory, when people perceive that they belong to a certain group, they will experience social support because they feel supported and respected, thus making them feel more in control (Greenaway et al., 2015). If people perceive that they have enough social relations and resources, they will be more likely to obtain material and spiritual support from others in the face of challenges and crises, thus generating a stronger sense of control and psychological resources for overcoming adversity (Chun & Lee, 2017). ...
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Taking “Guozhuang worship”, a traditional ritual of Pumi people in China, as an example, this study explored the effects of ritual actions, symbolic meanings, and positive emotions on the perceived control of adolescents and adults in Pumi people by using the methods of recall task and creating novel rituals. The results showed that adolescents who were familiar with the actions, symbolism, or more emotional experiences of the Guozhuang worship had a stronger perceived control. The study concluded that there is a dual path way mechanism in the influence of ritual actions and symbolic meaning on peoples’ perceived control. Ritual actions directly enhance perceived control, while symbolic meaning enhances perceived control through the full mediation of positive emotions. The relationship between symbolic meaning and perceived control is also variant in different ritual subjects. Praying for blessing indirectly enhances adolescents' perceived control through positive emotions, while expressing gratitude indirectly enhances adults' perceived control through positive emotions. The results have important implications for exploring the effects of ritual actions, symbolic meanings, and positive emotions on the individual’s perceived control.
... Social psychological research has demonstrated the positive impact of shared social identity and group cohesion in terms of feelings of connectedness, a sense of meaning, purpose and worth, giving and receiving social support, increased sense of agency and improved health outcomes. 50,[53][54][55][56] Importantly, however, the function and impact of shared identity and group cohesion may differ across contexts. 23,31,57 For example, sharing a sense of identification with other people who are living with and functionally limited by pain may create a sense of cohesion between group members. ...
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Background: Although cognitive-behavioural treatments for chronic pain are delivered in groups, there is little research investigating group effects in these treatments. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate associations between group composition variables at the start of treatment and individual outcomes following intensive interdisciplinary treatment for pain based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. Methods: This was a secondary analysis of routinely collected observational data. Five-hundred and sixteen patients completed a standard set of demographic, pain-related and psychosocial measures at pre- and post-treatment. Intracluster correlations (ICCs) were computed to examine the clustering of outcomes within groups and multilevel models explored the association between group composition variables and individual level outcomes. Results: The ICCs for pain intensity (0.11) and interference (0.09) suggested that multilevel models were warranted for these outcomes, while a multilevel model for post-treatment depression (ICC = 0.04) was not warranted. Group percentage of participants receiving disability benefits and group mean pain intensity at pre-treatment were significantly positively associated with individual level pain intensity at post-treatment, controlling for pre-treatment individual level pain intensity. Group mean pain intensity at pre-treatment was the only group variable that significantly predicted post-treatment pain interference at the individual level. Psychosocial group composition variables were not significantly associated with individual level outcomes. Conclusion: Given the limited predictive utility of group composition variables in the current study, future research should undertake direct assessment of group level therapeutic and countertherapeutic processes to advance understanding of who benefits from group treatments for pain and how. As the variance in outcomes accounted for by group clustering was relatively small and significant within groups variance remained, research is also needed to further understand individual level factors that influence cognitive-behavioural treatment outcomes for pain.
... According to the social identity tradition [6], belonging to a social group constitutes a fundamental resource for human beings. Group membership fulfills individuals' needs for control and agency, a sense of belonging and social support, self-esteem, uncertainty reduction, and meaning [7][8][9][10][11]. Moreover, being part of a group has a positive impact on individuals' health and well-being [12][13][14], protects against and alleviates depression symptoms [15], reduces post-traumatic stress [16], and facilitates the transitions in important life changes [17]. ...
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A robust body of research has highlighted the fundamental role of social identifications in dealing with emergencies and in predicting commitment behaviors. We report the results of two studies carried out in Italy to assess whether the subjective sense of belonging to meaningful proximal and distal social groups affected people’s ability to cope with the pandemic crisis. Study 1 (N = 846) shows that different identifications with proximal (i.e., family and friends) and distal social groups (i.e., nation, European, and humankind) may act as buffers for individuals by reducing negative emotions and negative expectations about the future after COVID-19 and by increasing people’s intentions to adhere to containment measures and to be involved in prosocial actions. Study 2 (N = 350) highlights the role of European identification in predicting propensities for using the tracing app and getting vaccinated. These results confirm the benefits of various types of identification (proximal vs. distant) in helping individuals deal with the COVID-19 pandemic.
... According to the social identity model of adjustment to identity change, the impact of transition stress is influenced by the subjective evaluation of the capacity to activate or adopt social identities congruent with the new environment. Research centred on the social identity model of adjustment to identity change reinforces the protective nature of malleable social identities and identification with various social groups, because these factors assist to retain social connectedness and social resources through stressful life transitions in support of wellbeing [25][26][27][28][29]. ...
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Military identity and a sense of social connectedness may help explain differences in contemporary veteran wellbeing following transition from military to civilian life. However, it is unclear how these constructs interrelate. The current study quantitatively explored the role of social connectedness in the relationship between military identity and subjective wellbeing among contemporary ex-serving Australian Defence Force veterans. To facilitate analyses, data from 358 veterans were used to first explore the suitability of the factor structure of the Warrior Identity Scale. Subsequently, the potential moderating and mediating effects of social connectedness in the relationship between military identity and wellbeing were explored via path analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Warrior Identity Scale revealed support for the multidimensional construct of military identity, and a revised six-factor measurement model was found suitable for further path analysis. Consistent with past research, social connectedness positively related to quality of life and negatively related to psychological distress. There was no support for a moderation effect of social connectedness. However, results indicated military identity indirectly influenced wellbeing and distress via differential relationships with social connectedness. Specifically, private and public regard for the military and not feeling like an outsider positively related to social connectedness. In contrast, interdependence with other veterans, viewing the military as family, and the centrality of military identity negatively related to social connectedness. The results suggest nurturing the protective aspects of military identity and addressing inhibitory aspects of military identity may support a sense of social connectedness and wellbeing among ex-serving veterans.
... Social Identity Theory posits that the membership with multiple social groups affords benefits that foster greater psychological and physical health (Tajfel & Turner, 1979). This is argued to be the result of in-group membership providing individuals with a sense of belonging to their social world, thereby inducing feelings of comfort, meaning, and purpose, which are known to be critical factors of psychological well-being (Greenaway et al., 2015;Hinton et al., 2021). This additive effect-known as the social cure-has a documented range of protective outcomes. ...
... In this sense, our results point to the key role of social connections to reduce the levels of paranoid ideation, that is, the ability to form and maintain intimate, close and caring relationships with others. Indeed, other authors have considered the promotion of social relationships as a key mechanism and a way to improve well-being and promote recovery in patients with paranoia (Goodman et al., 2018;Greenaway et al., 2015). Finally, environmental mastery was a shared mediating mechanism between the two outcomes Note. ...
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Attachment theory is considered an important theoretical framework for understanding the ontogenesis of psychopathology. In this regard, insecure attachment styles have been associated with the development and maintenance of paranoid and depressive symptoms. Furthermore, different psychological processes (i.e., self-esteem and experiential avoidance) have been identified as mediating mechanisms between the relationship of insecure attachment and these symptoms. Nowadays, there is a more positive view in psychology focusing on factors that contribute to well-being, although little is known about the role of these psychological well-being variables as mediators between insecure attachment and psychopathology. For thus, the aim of this study was to test one explorative structural equation model of insecure attachment on paranoid and depressive symptoms through psychological mediating mechanisms to elucidate the processes involved in each of them. To evaluate the model, 141 individuals with severe psychiatric conditions participated in the study. The results revealed good model fit, highlighting that avoidant attachment has a direct and indirect effect on the symptoms, while anxious attachment has only an indirect effect through mediating mechanisms. On the other hand, lower levels of self-acceptance and environmental mastery have been identified as important processes associated with paranoid and depressive symptoms. However, less positive relationships were a significant mediating mechanism only for paranoid ideation symptoms. These results have important clinical implications by shedding light on the relationship between insecure attachment, paranoid and depressive symptoms, and the psychological mediating mechanisms involved in this relationship, which may be considered key variables in clinical treatments.
... In particular, social identity researchers have argued that people's social identities are a psychological resource and that they have important consequences for health [11,12]. This is because, among other things, social identity is a basis for (a) the provision and receipt of social support [13], (b) a sense of connection to others [14], (c) a sense of control [15], (d) a sense of collective self-efficacy [16] and (e) a sense of meaning and purpose [17]. These processes in turn are also argued to minimize-and to help people work together to counteract-the harmful effects of various stressors they encounter in the workplace in ways that protect them from burnout [18,19]. ...
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Do leaders who build a sense of shared social identity in their teams thereby protect them from the adverse effects of workplace stress? This is a question that the present paper explores by testing the hypothesis that identity leadership contributes to stronger team identification among employees and, through this, is associated with reduced burnout. We tested this model with unique datasets from the Global Identity Leadership Development (GILD) project with participants from all inhabited continents. We compared two datasets from 2016/2017 (N = 5290; 20 countries) and 2020/2021 (N = 7294; 28 countries) and found very similar levels of identity leadership, team identification and burnout across the five years. An inspection of the 2020/2021 data at the onset of and later in the COVID-19 pandemic showed stable identity leadership levels and slightly higher levels of both burnout and team identification. Supporting our hypotheses, we found almost identical indirect effects (2016/2017, b = −0.132; 2020/2021, b = −0.133) across the five-year span in both datasets. Using a subset of N = 111 German participants surveyed over two waves, we found the indirect effect confirmed over time with identity leadership (at T1) predicting team identification and, in turn, burnout, three months later. Finally, we explored whether there could be a “too-much-of-a-good-thing” effect for identity leadership. Speaking against this, we found a u-shaped quadratic effect whereby ratings of identity leadership at the upper end of the distribution were related to even stronger team identification and a stronger indirect effect on reduced burnout.
... Furthermore, these resources may be functional in achieving work goals, reducing job demands or stimulating personal growth and development, and also promote high work engagement (Schaufeli and Taris, 2014). Affective commitment implies that employees identify with the organization that provides them with feelings of support, control, resilience, sense of belonging and meaning and purpose, which help them cope with high demand situations (Greenaway et al., 2015;Steffens et al., 2017). Moreover, the involvement and affective liaison with the organization help employees perceive that they have access to more resources and, thus, they continue to devote effort and energy in situations with high demands (Tourigny et al., 2013). ...
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There has been little consensus around the sequential relationship between organizational affective commitment and workers’ wellbeing. In line with the Conservation of Resources Theory, results of this two-wave study with a contact center employee sample (N = 483) showed that organizational affective commitment decreases work ill-being (i.e., burnout) and increases work wellbeing (i.e., work-engagement). Furthermore, in keeping with the loss spiral assumption of this theory, the mediating role of burnout in the affective commitment-health relationship was supported in this study. However, in accordance with the Job Demand-Resources, work engagement was found not to prevent effects on health. The findings have implications for the organizational affective commitment theory, as well as for organizational occupational health policies and interventions.
... Menschen betrachten soziale Gruppen nicht nur als deskriptive Kategorien sondern in der Regel auch als handlungsfähige Akteure (Brewer et al. 2004) mit kollektiven Zielen, zielgerichtetem Handeln und der Möglichkeit, ihre Umwelt zu beeinflussen. Die Identifikation mit sozialen Gruppen kann für Menschen daher auch die wahrgenommene Handlungsfähigkeit ihres eigenen Selbst bestärken oder erhöhen (Greenaway et al. 2015). Dies ist die Kernannahme des Modells gruppenbasierter Kontrolle . ...
Chapter
Dieses Kapitel gibt einen Überblick über die Forschung zu psychologischen Prozessen im Zusammenhang mit gesellschaftlicher Integration. Wir stellen zunächst die kognitiven und motivationalen Grundlagen von Stereotypen, Vorurteilen und Diskriminierung dar und gehen dann auf Modelle zur Erklärung von Intergruppenkonflikten ein, bevor wir uns Intergruppenkontakt und den daraus resultierenden Möglichkeiten für erfolgreiche Integration widmen. Abschließend stellen wir die Forschung zur Akkulturation dar, die die Beteiligung von Migrant*innen und Aufnahmegesellschaft am Integrationsprozess betont.
... This is because understanding leadership experiences from the target's own perspective could help explain how that individual becomes psychologically attached to the group (strong group identification). And as past research indicates, strong group identification promotes both the functioning of the group (e.g., by increasing an individual's willingness to engage in group-serving behavior; Blader & Tyler, 2009;Huo et al., 2010) and the health of the individual, by promoting their sense of connection to others and access to important forms of support (see work on the "social cure;" Greenaway et al., 2016Greenaway et al., , 2015Haslam et al., 2009;Hoffmann et al., 2020;Jetten et al., 2017). Thus, addressing this gap will have several important theoretical and practical implications. ...
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Research on social identity and leadership rarely examines leadership processes from the perspective of leaders themselves. Three studies (experimental, longitudinal, cross-sectional) help fill this gap. Integrating social identity principles with a reflected appraisals perspective, we demonstrate that as individuals come to see themselves as (informal) leaders in a group, it positively affects their own sense of fit to the group prototype. Their own perceived prototypicality, in turn, yields a strengthened attachment to the group (identification). Importantly, we demonstrate this in racial and ethnic minority groups – an understudied context, yet where individuals develop meaningful conceptions of leadership and identification, with implications for their health and commitment to collective action. Altogether, this provides insights on social identity processes, and minority group leadership.
... Organizational affective commitment equips employees with resources that allow them to cope with high demand situations and, consequently, ensure their wellbeing (Meyer & Maltin, 2010). This emotional liaison implies that employees identify with the organization that provides them with feelings of support, control, resilience, sense of belonging, meaning and purpose, which help them cope with high demand situations (Greenaway et al., 2015;Steffens et al., 2017). Moreover, engagement and affective commitment toward the organization lead employees to perceive that they have access to more resources, therefore continuing to devote effort and energy to high demand situations (Tourigny et al., 2013). ...
Article
Based on the Conservation of Resources Theory, this longitudinal study analyzes the contribution of organizational affective commitment during the preparation phase of a peacekeeping mission (T1) to explain the well-being of soldiers during that mission (T2). A sample of 409 Brazilian army participants in the MINUSTAH (United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti) was used in two waves – preparation of the troops in Brazil, and their deployment in Haitian territory. The data analysis was performed using structural equation modelling. The results supported organizational affective commitment during the preparation phase (T1) positively predicting the general well-being (perception of health and general satisfaction with life) of these soldiers during the deployment phase (T2). The workplace well-being (i.e. work engagement) of these peacekeepers was also found to mediate this relationship. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed, and limitations and suggestions for future research are presented.
... Both are significant identities that are enacted through sport, and which have many benefits for mental wellbeing and quality of life. Self-esteem (Jetten et al., 2015), social support (Häusser et al., 2020), meaning and purpose (Steffens et al., 2017) and personal growth (Greenaway et al., 2015) are all associated with connection to sport. Thus, a shared sporting identity can act as vehicle through which people connect with one another. ...
... Social Identity Theory (SIT; Tajfel & Turner, 1979;Turner et al., 1987) proposes that people internalize the membership(s) of the group(s) they belong to and build identities from them. These identities provide people with positive psychological resources (e.g., self-esteem, support, and meaningfulness, e.g., Cooper et al., 2017;Greenaway et al., 2015;Kearns et al., 2017Kearns et al., , 2018. When people belong to and identify with a stigmatized group, the positive benefits of their group membership can be threatened and hindered (Jetten et al., 2017). ...
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IntroductionLesbian and gay (LG) people often respond to stigmatization by managing their sexual identity. LG people may disassociate from their LGBTQ + ingroup (i.e., individual strategies) or connect to it (i.e., collective strategies). Yet, many factors that may prompt LG people to use either strategy have been generally overlooked. We explored whether socio-demographic characteristics (i.e., age and gender), perceptions of the relationship between the LGBTQ + ingroup and heterosexual outgroup, and self-construal were associated with identity management strategies among LG people.MethodsA sample of 204 LG people (Mage = 29.78) was collected online via Prolific Academic between 2020 and 2021.ResultsHierarchical linear regressions showed that LG people who perceived the status of their LGTBQ + ingroup relative to the heterosexual outgroup as legitimate in (im)permeable and (un)stable, contexts reported engaging in more individual strategies. Those endorsing an independent self-construal were less likely to engage in individual strategies and conveyed more LGBTQ + social support. In contrast, those with higher interdependent self-construal were more likely to engage in collective strategies. Gay men were more likely to dissociate from the LGTBQ + ingroup, whereas lesbian women were more likely to seek its support. Older LG people reported lower engagement in collective strategies.Conclusion These findings help paint a picture of how social and cultural variables factor in LG people managing their sexual identity as a possible response to stigma.Policy ImplicationsThe results can help inform policies and interventions addressing sexual identity stigma and health inequalities by emphasizing the nuances of individual-level factors among LG people.
... Higher identification with an ingroup can increase self-stereotyping (van Rijswijk et al., 2006). For personal control, identification might be seen as a predictor or a consequence: Low and temporarily reduced control can increase identification with social groups (Fritsche et al., 2013), and higher identification with groups helps bolster feelings of personal control (Greenaway et al., 2015;Jetten et al., 2017). Identification with the respective groups thus will be examined in exploratory analyses to investigate its role for control restoration in the context of stereotyping and prejudice. ...
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This work examines the influence of personal control and anxiety on stereotyping and prejudice. In two experiments, personal control was manipulated in an autobiographical experience task. In Experiment 1, participants then completed measures of implicit and explicit gender stereotypes. In Experiment 2, implicit and explicit racial prejudice was assessed. Anxiety was tested as a possible mediator of the relationship between personal control and stereotyping and prejudice, respectively. Low personal control was associated with greater gender stereotyping and racial prejudice in explicit measures. Anxiety mediated the relationship between personal control and stereotyping but not between personal control and prejudice. Also, ingroup identification was found to moderate some of the relations between personal control, anxiety and stereotyping and prejudice. The results provide support for stereotyping and prejudice as compensatory control mechanisms, but evidence is mixed regarding the role of anxiety in mediating the processes.
... The mental health of an individual is strongly conditioned by social/ environmental factors influencing his/her social identity (Jetten et al., 2017). Reliable to this notion, interest has grown in the way that one's social identity can be directly responsible for mental and physical health (e.g., see Cruwys et al., 2014;Greenaway et al., 2015;Jetten et al., 2015;Jetten et al., 2017). The mental health and well-being of any person are closely connected with the environmental conditions of which he/she is a part. ...
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Recent investigative studies reveal that social support and parental behaviour are protective against poor performance, and positive involvement is compatible with better performance. The current research investigates insights into the contribution of parental involvement to student-athletes. Student-athletes from different colleges of the district (N=202) completed a survey on an adopted questionnaire with the permission of Prof. Dr Craig Williams, assessing the perceived importance of parental behaviour with student-athlete. Participants reported positively moderate to higher levels of relationship between parent's behaviour and sports activity with r=.374 and a p-value less than 0.01, representing positive-relationship between parents' behaviour and sports activity. The regression model also indicates the same, with an unstandardised coefficient for parent's involvement B=.326, parent's behaviour B=.089and significance level less than 0.05. This research points to a range of challenges provoking those who seek to promote a greater understanding of the significance of social factors for higher sports performances. (PDF) parents-and-studentathletes-the-propensity-to-underestimate-the-importance-of-social-factors-for-sports-performance. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/361618185_parents-and-studentathletes-the-propensity-to-underestimate-the-importance-of-social-factors-for-sports-performance [accessed Jun 30 2022].
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The purpose of this study is to see if God-mediated control beliefs moderate the relationship between participation in combat and alcohol intake. God-mediated control refers to the belief that people can work together with God to deal with the problems that confront them and the plans they make. The data are from a nationwide probability sample of adults age 18 and older (N = 2,752). The findings suggest that the magnitude of the relationship between exposure to combat and alcohol consumption declines steadily as the level of God-mediated control increases. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.
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Long covid is an urgent global public health problem. In the UK alone, experiencing it for a year or more is estimated to affect 405 000 people, with higher prevalence in deprived groups.1 Medical research into the pathophysiology of long covid, and how it can be treated is urgently needed, but it is also essential to consider social factors that may be implicated in the recovery of the millions of people with long covid across the world. It is not possible to holistically understand any individual’s experiences, without understanding their connection and place within the broader community around them. Research shows that social connections and belonging are essential determinants of health and wellbeing.
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This study proposes and tests a theory of ethnic selective exposure – namely, ethnic audiences’ use of English- and ethnic-language media as a function of their most salient or strongest cultural identity among the many available to them (American, ethnic American, pan ethnic, or national origin). This identity-based media selectivity is examined with experimental data from a 2016 survey experiment and observational data from the 2006 Latino National Survey. Results consistently showed that ethnic audiences preferred to use media that are congruent with their most salient or strongest cultural identity, especially when they sought out information related to politics and public affairs. The 2016 experiment also suggests that immigrants’ everyday experience living in the nation can affect their media selection, which in turn influences their incorporation into the U.S. and thus points to the complexity of assimilation and the media’s role in it.
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The economic crisis precipitated by the COVID-19 pandemic has placed considerable financial pressures on households across the world. These are compounded by the enforced isolation accompanying pandemic restrictions, during which individuals can struggle to access external assistance and often need to rely heavily on the social, emotional, and financial support of other family members. Previous research indicates that family financial stress has negative consequences for the mental health and wellbeing of members, but that heightened family identification can provide individuals with a stronger sense of collective financial resilience. In the present study, an online longitudinal survey of UK residents (N=172) shows that, in summer 2020, the positive relationship between individuals’ family identification and their wellbeing one month later was mediated by levels of perceived family financial efficacy and financial stress. These findings build upon existing evidence of the pivotal role of the family in financial wellbeing and suggest that supporting family units to cope with shared financial challenges may have psychological benefits over and above supporting individual family members.
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We examined the impact of emotional leadership on employees' mental health by establishing a cross-level theoretical model to test this relationship as a function of employees' sense of job security, selfdirected learning, and organizational identification. The research sample consisted of 304 employees of 10 high-technology companies in China. Results show that emotional leadership was positively associated with employees' mental health, and that job security mediated this relationship. Organizational identification and selfdirected learning positively moderated the relationship between job security and employees' mental health, resulting in a moderated mediation effect on the model. The conclusions of this study have implications for improving employees' mental health via interactions with emotional leaders.
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Mothers' social integration with other mothers in the same residential area has been shown to be beneficial for their health and well-being. The socio-psychological resources afforded by other mothers aid the transition to motherhood. However, much less is known about the processes whereby mothers integrate with other local mothers. Therefore, we analysed first-time mothers' experiences of social integration with other mothers in the same neighbourhood. Through three waves of semi-structured interviews, we followed eight Finnish first-time mothers' everyday lives for a year. The narrative analysis of these longitudinal interviews revealed three story types – social integration, social exclusion and social disconnection – that depicted mothers' different experiences of integration with other local mothers. The perceived similarity of experiences, goals and interests related to motherhood enhanced the development of a shared sense of identity and supported integration with other local mothers. We discuss our findings in relation to the social identity model of identity change (SIMIC).
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Secrecy is both common and consequential. Recent work suggests that personal experiences with secrets (i.e., mind-wandering to them outside of concealment contexts), rather than concealment (within conversations), can explain the harms of secrecy. Recent work has also demonstrated that secrecy is associated with emotions that center on self-evaluation-shame and guilt. These emotions may help explain the harms of secrecy and provide a point of intervention to improve coping with secrecy. Four studies with 800 participants keeping over 10,500 secrets found that shame surrounding a secret is associated with lower perceived coping efficacy and reduced well-being. Moreover, shifting appraisals away from shame improved perceptions of efficacy in coping with secrets, which was linked with higher well-being. These studies suggest that emotions surrounding secrets can harm well-being and highlight avenues for intervention.
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COVID-19 has had significant negative consequences for well-being. As well as the primary effects of the virus itself, secondary effects have resulted from the social isolation caused by the lockdowns imposed to slow the spread of the virus. Recognising the toxic effects of isolation, researchers, practitioners and policy-makers are conscious of the need to mitigate the negative effects of social distancing. Drawing on insights from a large body of research on the Social Identity Approach to Health, we devised an online activity-GROUPS 2 CONNECT (G2C)-aimed at helping people to maintain social connectedness when face-to-face interaction was not possible. Across four studies (N = 1021), we found that after completing the G2C activity, participants reported an increase in perceived quality of social connection, perceived ability to stay connected and well-being, with results showing that for two of the three longitudinal studies these uplifts were stable over time, and for all studies, the uplifts remained consistently higher for those who reported completing their social connection goals. These findings provide initial evidence of the value of G2C as a tool to support social connection, thereby reducing the risk of social isolation.
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Building on evolutionary perspectives, we offer a new demand-based explanation as to why the product innovation performance of firms varies across countries. We propose that certain consumer characteristics (namely, buyer sophistication, creativity, global identity and local identity) influence firms’ product innovation performance by a) affecting the creation and success of innovative products and b) strengthening (positively moderating) the effects that a firms’ R&D has on its product innovation performance. The analysis of 48,176 firm-level observations from 49 emerging economies in Central and Eastern Europe, Central Asia and Africa confirms most of the above predictions. The study complements prior perspectives on innovation performance, which largely focus either on the firm or its industry, by explaining the mechanisms through which consumer characteristics influence firms’ innovation performance, identifying which consumer characteristics matter, and advancing a demand-based perspective that has not attracted sufficient attention in the literature.
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Background: Physical activity is often promoted as a way to prevent and combat anxiety and depression in adolescents. However, very little research has sought to establish whether the benefits of exercise arise from the excercise itself or from the social context in which it takes place. We explore the hypothesis that it is not physical activity on its own, but rather adolescents' engagement in group life (as part of a sports group or otherwise), that accounts for positive mental health effects associated with physical activity. Methods and results: We conducted a longitudinal study that tracked 558 high-school boys and found that anxiety and depression over time was not predicted by (a) T1 physical fitness as determined by 7 speed and agility tests, or (b) engaging in multiple sports as co-curricular activies at T1. In contrast, multiple group memberships - irrespective of the activity - predicted reduced depression and anxiety over time, particularly when these were groups that adolescents identified with and experienced as compatible with each other. Limitations: Limitations relate to (a) physical fitness only being measured at T1, (b) the absence of a measure of frequency and duration of physical activity, and (c) the homogeneity of the sample. Conclusions: We conclude that group memberships and the social identities that adolescents derive from these groups (including, but not restricted to, those involving sport) function as a psychological resource to reduce anxiety and depression over time.
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Objetivo: Evaluar la relación entre el estrés post traumático y variables psicológicas asociadas, en guerrilleros desmovilizados las Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC-EP) en el departamento de Córdoba, Colombia. Método: Estudio cuantitativo, transversal, de alcance correlacional. Participaron 48 guerrilleros mayores de edad (34 hombres y 14 mujeres) pertenecientes al Frente 58 de esta agrupación, a quienes se les aplicó los cuestionarios Lista de chequeo de estrés post traumático (PCL-5), la escala de distrés psicológica de Kessler, el cuestionario de creencias básicas (CBI), la escala de la esperanza de Herth y la escala de bienestar compuesto (WBC). Resultados: Los participantes no presentaban síntomas de estrés post traumático, tenían bajos niveles de estrés y de cambios en las creencias básicas, igualmente presentaban altos niveles de esperanza y de bienestar físico y psicológico. Para detectar posibles predictores del TEPT se desarrolló un análisis de regresión múltiple en el cual el 48% de la varianza total fue explicado por el distrés psicológico y las creencias básicas. Conclusión: Se evidencia la necesidad de desarrollar estudios que profundicen en las características del estado psicológico de los ex guerrilleros de la FARC-EP, con el fin de aclarar las variables involucradas que favorecen los procesos de reintegración a la vida civil.
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Background: Opioid addiction is currently one of the most pressing public health issues. Despite several treatment options for opioid addiction, the recurrence of use episodes during remission remains high. Research indicates that meaningful membership in various social groups underpins the successful transition from addiction to long-term remission. However, much of the current literature focuses on online peer-support groups for individuals in remission from substance use, sometimes also called recovery groups, a term we will use in line with the terminology used by the online community we studied. In contrast, online group memberships that promote substance use and groups that are unrelated to substance use and remission (non-drug-related groups) are rarely studied. Objective: This study aims to understand whether engagement with a variety of Reddit subforums (subreddits) provides those in remission from opioid use disorder (OUD) with social capital, thereby reducing their risk of a use episode over several years. More specifically, it aims to examine the different effects of engagement with substance use, recovery, and non-drug-related subreddits. Methods: A data set of 457 individuals in remission from OUD who posted their remission start date on Reddit was collected, of whom 219 (47.9%) indicated at least one use episode during the remission period. Using a Cox proportional hazards model, the effects of the number of non-drug-related, recovery, and substance use subreddits an individual had engaged with on the risk of a use episode were tested. Group engagement was assessed both in terms of the absolute number of subreddits and as a proportion of the total number of subreddits in which an individual had posted. Results: Engagement with a larger number of non-drug-related online communities reduced the likelihood of a use episode irrespective of the number of posts and comments made in these forums. This was true for both the absolute number of non-drug-related communities (P<.001) and the proportion of communities with which a person engaged (P<.001). The findings were less conclusive for recovery support and substance use groups; although participating in more recovery support subreddits reduced the risk of a use episode (P<.001), being part of a higher proportion of recovery support groups relative to other subreddits increased the risk (P=.01). A higher proportion of substance use subreddits marginally increased the risk of a use episode (P=.06); however, the absolute number of substance use subreddits significantly reduced the risk of a use episode (P=.002). Conclusions: Our work indicates that even minimal regular engagement with several non-drug-related online forums may provide those in remission from OUD with an opportunity to grow their social capital and reduce the risk of a use episode over several years.
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Individuals oftentimes lack personal control over risks and depend on powerful others to manage a risk for them. This lack of control could lead individuals to derive risk evaluations from beliefs about the trustworthiness of powerful others, which might explain the vital effect of trust on risk perception. Three studies (total N = 1,961) provide evidence for the proposed moderation of the trust-risk association by personal control in diverse contexts (i.e., COVID-19, meat consumption, and climate change). In line with the assertion that risk evaluations can be derived from beliefs about others being willing and able to avert a risk, Study 2 and 3 show that beliefs in the benevolence of powerful others but no other trustees or trust attributions drive the effects of trust on risk perceptions depending on personal control. The findings remained significant when partialling out the effects of potential confounding variables, such as perceived knowledge, the affect heuristic, responsibility diffusion, and political orientation. Unlike previous research, perceived knowledge did not moderate the association of trust with risk perceptions. Moreover, the data indicate that trust in powerful others managing a risk can partially backfire in people who lack personal control by indirectly thwarting behavioral risk responses and policy support for managing the risk. The present findings highlight that trust attributions can serve as information for evaluating risks that are beyond an individual's sense of control.
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The purpose of this research is to evaluate the continuance usage intention on online healthcare community (OHC) platform for patients and examine the "doctor-OHC-patient" relationship. The proposed model attempted to integrate social interaction ties, shared value, trust with the indirect effects on the relationship between the determinants and continuous usage intention of the OHC platform. The empirical results showed that perceived critical mass, social identity, and para-social interaction would strengthen continuance intention via the social interaction ties. In addition, this study found that the shared values and trust increase users' willingness to continue usage of OHC. This study provides OHC platform managers with an in-depth understanding of the "doctor-OHC-patient" online social interaction. The results of this study may also help hospitals, health policy makers, and related healthcare practitioners to improve the way they use the web for advocacy and guidance, and provide insight into the intent of promoting the ongoing use of OHC platforms.
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Sexual harassment and other forms of gendered discrimination are social psychological phenomena, yet the psychological impact of sexual harassment has rarely been examined through a model which considers the role of diverse content of gender identity (i.e. norms). We used an experimental design to investigate how salient norms associated with the social identity of ‘women’ affect coping with sexual harassment. Participants who identified as women ( N = 291) were randomly assigned to either a feminist, traditional feminine, or control norm condition, in which the salience of particular norms associated with womanhood was manipulated. Participants completed measures of personal growth (as a proxy for post-traumatic growth), and help-seeking intentions in response to a hypothetical sexual harassment scenario. Participants in the feminist condition reported significantly greater personal growth relative to those in the traditional feminine and control conditions. Participants in both the feminist and traditional feminine conditions reported significantly greater intentions to seek help from formal supports (e.g. primary care doctor), relative to those in the control condition. The findings suggest that the salience of social identities and their content may be valuable resources in promoting recovery following experiences of gendered discrimination and support the role of social identities in influencing post-trauma trajectories.
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Purpose: There is increasing recognition of the contribution that group processes, particularly identification and cohesion, make to outcomes of group delivered health treatments. This study examined the role that these particular group processes play in the treatment of lower back pain, and a theorised mechanism of personal control through which group treatment might enhance outcomes. Methods: Participants (N = 85) elected to either receive NeuroHAB®, a defined functional movement therapy of 8 weeks duration, or continue with treatment-as-usual (TAU). Pain intensity and disability were assessed at baseline (T1) and post-intervention or 8 weeks later (T2), as well as at a 1-month follow-up (T3). Only the NeuroHAB® participants additionally completed weekly questionnaires that measured treatment group identification, cohesion, and personal control. Results: NeuroHAB® was significantly more effective than TAU in reducing pain intensity and disability at T2 and T3. Furthermore, among NeuroHAB® recipients, stronger treatment group identification and cohesion early in the program predicted better pain outcomes over time, and this relationship was fully mediated by perceptions of personal control. Conclusion: These data provide further support for the role of group identification and cohesion as a contributing mechanism of change in group-based treatments and extend this to the domain of pain management.Implications for RehabilitationA focus on defined functional movement therapy, as offered by the NeuroHAB® group program, was found to improve pain outcomes in patients with lower back pain.A key ingredient in the NeuroHAB® rehabilitation program was its group delivery.Group delivery supported treatment group identification and cohesion which, through enhancing the perception of personal control, reduced pain intensity and disability.
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Securing a clear sense of identity is a critical issue in adolescence, yet the role that cultural identity plays in the well‐being of youths remains unclear. This study aims to examine the relationship between cultural identity and mental health among three groups of adolescents in Hong Kong with different residential backgrounds. Data came from a cross‐sectional survey with 2180 4th–9th grade students in Hong Kong. Cultural identity was assessed by whether the youths identify themselves as local Hong Kong people, mainland Chinese, both Hong Kong and mainland Chinese, or confused about which group to belong to. Mental health was assessed by self‐esteem, mental well‐being, happiness, social anxiety, and depression. Multiple linear regression was performed to examine the relationship between cultural identity and mental health, adjusting for sociodemographic variables. The regression results suggested adolescents with confused cultural identity scored lower in all positive indicators of mental health compared with those with a clear cultural identification. No significant association was found between cultural identity and social anxiety/depression. Uncertainty in cultural identification may be detrimental for the mental health of adolescents living in a multicultural society. Interventions may consider cultivating clear cultural identities among adolescents to promote their mental health.
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How do people maintain a sense of control when they realize the noncontingencies in their personal life and their strong interdependence with other people? Why do individuals continue to act on overwhelming collective problems, such as climate change, that are clearly beyond their personal control? Group-based control theory proposes that it is social identification with agentic groups and engagement in collective action that serve to maintain and restore people’s sense of control, especially when their personal control is threatened. As a consequence, group-based control may enable people to act adaptively and stay healthy even when personal control seems futile. These claims are supported by evidence showing increased in-group identification and group-based action intentions following reminders of low personal control. Furthermore, these responses of identifying with agentic in-groups increase people’s perceived control and well-being. This article succinctly presents group-based control theory and relevant empirical findings. It also elaborates on how group-based control relates to other social-identity motives and how it may explain social phenomena.
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A host of studies have shown that self‐relevant health messages may result in increased defensiveness and rejection of protective recommendations. Drawing on research showing that multiple identities offer psychological resources to deal with identity threats, we sought to examine whether the salience of an alternative identity before people are exposed to a personally relevant health message may buffer the threat and reduce defensive responses. Two studies were conducted on samples of daily smokers asked to read an antismoking message before completing a range of measures of defensiveness. Half of the participants had an alternative identity made salient beforehand (vs. no salience condition). Consistent with our hypotheses, Study 1 (N = 90) showed that this manipulation significantly reduced defensiveness to the message. Study 2 (N = 95) additionally showed that such effects only occurred when the alternative identity overlapped highly with the threatened identity. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.
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Membership in important social groups can promote a positive identity. We propose and test an identity resource model in which personal self-esteem is boosted by membership in additional important social groups. Belonging to multiple important group memberships predicts personal self-esteem in children (Study 1a), older adults (Study 1b), and former residents of a homeless shelter (Study 1c). Study 2 shows that the effects of multiple important group memberships on personal self-esteem are not reducible to number of interpersonal ties. Studies 3a and 3b provide longitudinal evidence that multiple important group memberships predict personal self-esteem over time. Studies 4 and 5 show that collective self-esteem mediates this effect, suggesting that membership in multiple important groups boosts personal self-esteem because people take pride in, and derive meaning from, important group memberships. Discussion focuses on when and why important group memberships act as a social resource that fuels personal self-esteem.
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Social identity threats, depending on the content of the identity targeted, may evoke varying socio-political responses. In this regard, religious discrimination may be especially threatening, challenging both the social group and its belief system, thereby promoting more active collective responses. This research examined how religious and ethnic identification differentially evoked engagement with support resources (ingroup and spiritual), civic involvement (including individual and collective action-taking), and political participation (voting or political consciousness) following group-based threats. Study 1 drew from the Canadian Ethnic Diversity Survey ( N = 1806). Participants who reported religious discrimination demonstrated greater religious identification, ingroup social engagement, and civic involvement—comparable associations were absent for ethnic discrimination. Study 2 ( N = 287) experimentally primed participants to make salient a specific incident of religious or ethnic discrimination. Although ethnic discrimination elicited greater ingroup support-seeking and political consciousness, religious discrimination was perceived as especially harmful and evoked more individual and collective action-taking. Further to this, religious high-identifiers’ responses were mediated by engagement with ingroup or spiritual support in both studies, whereas no mediated relations were evident for ethnic identification. Findings are discussed in terms of distinct socio-political responses to threats targeting identities that are grounded in religious belief systems.
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Identifying with a group can contribute to a sense of well-being. The mechanisms involved are diverse: social identification with a group can impact individuals' beliefs about issues such as their connections with others, the availability of social support, the meaningfulness of existence, and the continuity of their identity. Yet, there seems to be a common theme to these mechanisms: identification with a group encourages the belief that one can cope with the stressors one faces (which is associated with better well-being). Our research investigated the relationship between identification, beliefs about coping, and well-being in a survey (N = 792) administered in rural North India. Using structural equation modelling, we found that social identification as a Hindu had positive and indirect associations with three measures of well-being through the belief that one can cope with everyday stressors. We also found residual associations between participants' social identification as a Hindu and two measures of well-being in which higher identification was associated with poorer well-being. We discuss these findings and their implication for understanding the relationship between social identification (especially with large-scale group memberships) and well-being. We also discuss the application of social psychological theory developed in the urban West to rural north India.
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Social relationships play a key role in depression. This is apparent in its etiology, symptomatology, and effective treatment. However, there has been little consensus about the best way to conceptualize the link between depression and social relationships. Furthermore, the extensive social-psychological literature on the nature of social relationships, and in particular, research on social identity, has not been integrated with depression research. This review presents evidence that social connectedness is key to understanding the development and resolution of clinical depression. The social identity approach is then used as a basis for conceptualizing the role of social relationships in depression, operationalized in terms of six central hypotheses. Research relevant to these hypotheses is then reviewed. Finally, we present an agenda for future research to advance theoretical and empirical understanding of the link between social identity and depression, and to translate the insights of this approach into clinical practice.
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Why are conservatives happier than liberals? Napier and Jost (2008) argue that this is because conservative ideology has a palliative (system-justifying) function that protects conservatives’ (but not liberals’) happiness. We develop another rationale for this effect and argue that we need to examine how ideology (e.g., conservatism) is embedded in the social system and people’s own place within it. In a study (N = 816), we find that conservatives are more satisfied with life than liberals and that conservatism is associated with higher socioeconomic status (SES). Taking SES as a starting point, we find that those with high SES have access to more group memberships and that this is associated with higher life satisfaction. We failed to replicate Napier and Jost’s finding that system-justifying ideology mediated the relationship between conservatism and life satisfaction. We conclude that conservatives may be happier than liberals because their high SES gives them access to more group memberships.
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Recent research suggests that multiple group memberships can be a source of resilience in the face of various life challenges (e.g., illness, injury, life transitions, performance demands). In two studies the authors examined whether multiple group memberships promote resilience in the face of novel physical challenges. They found that belonging to multiple groups was associated with faster heart rate recovery for novice bobsleigh, luge, and skeleton athletes (Study 1) and that the salience of a greater number of group memberships led to greater endurance on a cold-pressor task (Study 2). Importantly, these effects were unchanged when controlling for individual differences in responses to the challenge, challenge perceptions, and group mem- bership importance. The authors argue that multiple group memberships reflect an important psychological resource from which individuals draw strength when faced with life challenges and speculate as to the mechanisms underlying this effect.
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Every year thousands of dollars are spent on psychics who claim to "know" the future. The present research questions why, despite no evidence that humans are able to psychically predict the future, do people persist in holding irrational beliefs about precognition? We argue that believing the future is predictable increases one's own perceived ability to exert control over future events. As a result, belief in precognition should be particularly strong when people most desire control-that is, when they lack it. In Experiment 1 (N = 87), people who were experimentally induced to feel low in control reported greater belief in precognition than people who felt high in control. Experiment 2 (N = 53) investigated whether belief in precognition increases perceived control. Consistent with this notion, providing scientific evidence that precognition is possible increased feelings of control relative to providing scientific evidence that precognition was not possible. Experiment 3 (N = 132) revealed that when control is low, believing in precognition helps people to feel in control once more. Prediction therefore acts as a compensatory mechanism in times of low control. The present research provides new insights into the psychological functions of seemingly irrational beliefs, like belief in psychic abilities.
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Membership in lots of groups—at home, work, the gym—makes us healthier and more resilient. Here's how—and why.
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Objectives: Aging is associated with deterioration in health and well-being, but previous research suggests that this can be attenuated by maintaining group memberships and the valued social identities associated with them. In this regard, religious identification may be especially beneficial in helping individuals withstand the challenges of aging, partly because religious identity serves as a basis for a wider social network of other group memberships. This paper aims to examine relationships between religion (identification and group membership) and well-being among older adults. The contribution of having and maintaining multiple group memberships in mediating these relationships is assessed, and also compared to patterns associated with other group memberships (social and exercise). Method: Study 1 (N = 42) surveyed older adults living in residential care homes in Canada, who completed measures of religious identity, other group memberships, and depression. Study 2 (N = 7021) longitudinally assessed older adults in the UK on similar measures, but with the addition of perceived physical health. Results: In Study 1, religious identification was associated with fewer depressive symptoms, and membership in multiple groups mediated that relationship. However, no relationships between social or exercise groups and mental health were evident. Study 2 replicated these patterns, but additionally, maintaining multiple group memberships over time partially mediated the relationship between religious group membership and physical health. Conclusion: Together these findings suggest that religious social networks are an especially valuable source of social capital among older adults, supporting well-being directly and by promoting additional group memberships (including those that are non-religious).
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We propose that the crucial difference between human cognition and that of other species is the ability to participate with others in collaborative activities with shared goals and intentions: shared intentionality. Participation in such activities requires not only especially powerful forms of intention reading and cultural learning, but also a unique motivation to share psychological states with others and unique forms of cognitive representation for doing so. The result of participating in these activities is species-unique forms of cultural cognition and evolution, enabling everything from the creation and use of linguistic symbols to the construction of social norms and individual beliefs to the establishment of social institutions. In support of this proposal we argue and present evidence that great apes (and some children with autism) understand the basics of intentional action, but they still do not participate in activities involving joint intentions and attention (shared intentionality). Human children's skills of shared intentionality develop gradually during the first 14 months of life as two ontogenetic pathways intertwine: (1) the general ape line of understanding others as animate, goal-directed, and intentional agents; and (2) a species-unique motivation to share emotions, experience, and activities with other persons. The developmental outcome is children's ability to construct dialogic cognitive representations, which enable them to participate in earnest in the collectivity that is human cognition.
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The processes involved in well-being maintenance among African Americans who differed in their attributions to prejudice were examined. A rejection–identification model was proposed where stable attributions to prejudice represent rejection by the dominant group. This results in a direct and negative effect on well-being. The model also predicts a positive effect on well-being that is mediated by minority group identification. In other words, the generally negative consequences of perceiving oneself as a victim of racial prejudice can be somewhat alleviated by identification with the minority group. Structural equation analyses provided support for the model and ruled out alternative theoretical possibilities. Perceiving prejudice as pervasive produces effects on well-being that are fundamentally different from those that may arise from an unstable attribution to prejudice for a single negative outcome. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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On the agency of individuals and groups: Lessons from the bbc prison study Social psychology is one of the social sciences that emerged in the nineteenth century, in response to the crisis of order provoked by industrialization. Where once the population lived in small villages, now they were increasingly concentrated in towns and cities. Where once they had been known to the social elite, now they were anonymous. The identifiable labourer had been absorbed into the ranks of unknown workers and had thereby become the stuff of political nightmares. Would the masses rise up and shatter the status quo? In striving to offset this possibility, the individual was clearly preferable to the collective and, accordingly, theorists translated this ideological preference into a psychological hierarchy (Barrows, 1981; Giner, 1976). This accommodation was achieved by arguing that, when people are submerged in the mass, they both lose their individual identity and gain ...
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According to John Adair, the most important word in the leader's vocabulary is "we" and the least important word is "I". But if this is true, it raises one important question: why do psychological analyses of leadership always focus on the leader as an individual - as the great "I"? One answer is that theorists and practitioners have never properly understood the psychology of "we-ness". This book fills this gap by presenting a new psychology of leadership that is the result of two decades of research inspired by social identity and self-categorization theories. The book argues that to succeed, leaders need to create, champion, and embed a group identity in order to cultivate an understanding of 'us' of which they themselves are representative. It also shows how, by doing this, they can make a material difference to the groups, organizations, and societies that they lead. Written in an accessible and engaging style, the book examines a range of central theoretical and practical issues, including the nature of group identity, the basis of authority and legitimacy, the dynamics of justice and fairness, the determinants of followership and charisma, and the practice and politics of leadership. The book will appeal to academics, practitioners and students in social and organizational psychology, sociology, political science and anyone interested in leadership, influence and power.
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The Psychology of Prosocial Behavior provides original contributions that examine current perspectives and promising directions for future research on helping behaviors and related core issues. • Covers contributions which deal explicitly with interventions designed to foster out-group helping (and to improve its quality) in real world settings • Provides the reader with a cohesive look at helping and prosocial behaviors using a combination of theoretical work with research on interventions in applied settings • Examines helping from multiple perspectives in order to recognize the diverse influences that promote actions for the benefit of others • Contributors to this volume include cutting-edge researchers using both field studies and laboratory experiments.
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The ability to communicate with others is one of the most important human social functions, yet communication is not always investigated from a social perspective. This research examined the role that shared social identity plays in communication effectiveness using a minimal group paradigm. In two experiments, participants constructed a model using instructions that were said to be created by an ingroup or an outgroup member. Participants made models of objectively better quality when working from communications ostensibly created by an ingroup member (Experiments 1 and 2). However, this effect was attenuated when participants were made aware of a shared superordinate identity that included both the ingroup and the outgroup (Experiment 2). These findings point to the importance of shared social identity for effective communication and provide novel insights into the social psychology of communication. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
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Hope is an emotion that has been implicated in social change efforts, yet little research has examined whether feeling hopeful actually motivates support for social change. Study 1 (N = 274) confirmed that hope is associated with greater support for social change in two countries with different political contexts. Study 2 (N = 165) revealed that hope predicts support for social change over and above other emotions often investigated in collective action research. Study 3 (N = 100) replicated this finding using a hope scale and showed the effect occurs independent of positive mood. Study 4 (N = 58) demonstrated experimentally that hope motivates support for social change. In all four studies, the effect of hope was mediated by perceived efficacy to achieve social equality. This research confirms the motivating potential of hope and illustrates the power of this emotion in generating social change.
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Social identities are generally associated with better health and in particular lower levels of depression. However, there has been limited investigation of why social identities protect against depression. The current research suggests that social identities reduce depression in part because they attenuate the depressive attribution style (internal, stable, and global; e.g., ''I failed because I'm stupid''). These relationships are first investigated in a survey (Study 1, N = 139) and then followed up in an experiment that manipulates social identity salience (Study 2, N = 88). In both cases, people with stronger social identities were less likely to attribute negative events to internal, stable, or global causes and subsequently reported lower levels of depression. These studies thus indicate that social identities can protect and enhance mental health by facilitating positive interpretations of stress and failure. Implications for clinical theory and practice are discussed.
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What psychological mechanisms facilitate social coordination and cooperation? The present research examined the hypothesis that social cues that signal an opportunity to work with others can fuel intrinsic motivation even when people work alone. Holding constant other factors, participants exposed to cues of working together persisted longer on a challenging task (Experiments 1 and 3), expressed greater interest in and enjoyment of the task (Experiments 1, 3, and 5), required less self-regulatory effort to persist on the task (Experiment 2), became more engrossed in and performed better on the task (Experiment 4), and, when encouraged to link this motivation to their values and self-concept, chose to do more related tasks in an unconnected setting 1-2 weeks later (Experiment 5). The results suggest that cues of working together can inspire intrinsic motivation, turning work into play. The discussion addresses the social-relational bases of motivation and implications for the self and application.
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Background: Clinical depression is often preceded by social withdrawal, however, limited research has examined whether depressive symptoms are alleviated by interventions that increase social contact. In particular, no research has investigated whether social identification (the sense of being part of a group) moderates the impact of social interventions. Method: We test this in two longitudinal intervention studies. In Study 1 (N=52), participants at risk of depression joined a community recreation group; in Study 2 (N=92) adults with diagnosed depression joined a clinical psychotherapy group. Results: In both the studies, social identification predicted recovery from depression after controlling for initial depression severity, frequency of attendance, and group type. In Study 2, benefits of social identification were larger for depression symptoms than for anxiety symptoms or quality of life. Limitation: Social identification is subjective and psychological, and therefore participants could not be randomly assigned to high and low social identification conditions. Conclusions: Findings have implications for health practitioners in clinical and community settings, suggesting that facilitating social participation is effective and cost-effective in treating depression.
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Membership in social groups may restore people's sense of global control when personal control is questioned. Therefore, ethnocentric tendencies might be increased as a consequence of personal control threat. Testing hypotheses derived from a novel model of group-based control in five experiments, we show that making lack of personal control salient increased ingroup bias and pro-organizational behavior (Studies 1–5). These effects were independent of parallel effects of uncertainty (Study 2) and most pronounced for highly identified group members (Study 3). Studies 4 and 5 lend support to the assumption that perceiving the ingroup as a unitary actor is critical for symbolic control restoration: threat to collective homogeneity and agency catalyzed the effect personal control threat had on ingroup support and defense. These findings complement previous research on motivated intergroup behavior and socio-cognitive strategies to cope with deficits in personal control.