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Irony's Edge: The Theory and Politics of Irony

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... Irony is important because it stimulates thought by revealing the nuances, twists, and turns of life (Marx, 1981;Schneider, 1975: 332). The humanities have paid substantial attention to irony's utility as a tool of knowledge construction and communication (Hutcheon, 1994;Muecke, 1982). Yet irony is at the outermost periphery of the social sciences, including criminology (Schneider, 1975). ...
... First, irony depends on context, or the situation (Booth, 1975;Hutcheon, 1994). In the first example above, the necessity of context is revealed by the way in which appreciation of death depends on the person contemplating suicide; in most contexts, people do not want to die. ...
... Irony cannot be created out of nothing. Irony requires something to be known together by people (Hutcheon, 1994). The man's final words in the death story would not be ironic if we were unaware of his prior thoughts. ...
... 15-18;Geerts & Van den Bossche, 2014, p. 3). Linda Hutcheon (2006) and Julie Sanders (2006) remain among the most frequently cited scholars in discussions about terminology (Nicklas & Lindner, 2012;Müller, 2013;Schober, 2013). J. Sanders distinguishes between adaptation and appropriation, whereby an "adaptation signals a relationship with an informing source text or original" (2006, p. 26), while an appropriation often "affects a more decisive journey away from the informing source into a wholly new cultural product" (p. ...
... Firstly, the relationship between adaptations and their sources is much bigger and (often) more complex than mere presence, allusion, or quotation. Following Hutcheon (2006) and Cartmell and Whelehan (2010), David Buchbinder argues that "adaptation proper exceeds individual, local quotation from and/or alteration of a source text" (2011, p. 130). Sarah Cardwell makes a case for the need to rescue the field of adaptation studies from absorption into the study of intertextuality as "it is becoming hard to see what adaptation is but a special instance of intertext" (2018, p. 9). ...
... It is often "made explicit in the publicity material and reviews, which ensure that the audience is alert to the fact of adaptation" (Geraghty, 2008, p. 4). Hutcheon (2006), J. Sanders (2006) and Cardwell (2018), whose views I share, all describe the relationship between intertextuality and adaptation as one of set and subset, where adaptation is a subset of intertextuality, just as the previously defined retelling or appropriation are subsections of adaptation. All texts, including adaptations, are intertextual, but not all intertextual relationships are adaptations. ...
Thesis
There exists a multitude of adaptations of Charles Dickens’s novels for children and young adults, but thus far this body of work has been paid little critical attention. This thesis proposes to change that by analysing a sample of these texts to explore what is ‘Dickensian’ about adaptations of Dickens’s novels for children and young adults. I argue that Dickens’s appeal to adaptors targeting young audiences lies in the specificities of his writing, that is, elements which are often referred to as ‘Dickensian’. This project draws on children’s literature criticism, adaptation theory, and Dickens scholarship. The first part, comprising Staves One and Two, will address the question of why Dickens’s oeuvre has been so extensively adapted for young readers. Stave One argues that the categorisation of Dickens’s novels as classics contributes to his popularity with adaptors who are creating texts for young audiences. Stave Two builds on the first chapter in its attempt to determine which elements of Dickens’s writing make his work particularly suitable for adaptation for children and young adults, and thus make Dickens’s novels more popular with adaptors than those of his contemporaries. These characteristics are ones he shares with much of children’s literature, which is why his works prove such apt sources for young audiences. Stave Two focuses specifically on Dickens’s use of language, his characterisation, and his representation of children and childhood. The second section (Staves Three through Five) analyses adaptations of Dickens’s novels to determine the ways in which they engage with the distinctive elements of Dickens’s writing as identified in Stave Two. Stave Three focuses on how adaptations in a variety of media and intended for audiences of different ages engage with Dickens’s use of language. Stave Four examines the ways in which adaptations of Dickens’s novels represent the child characters and the child’s perspective which he explores in his own writing. I argue that the child’s perspective, which is at the centre of Dickens’s prose, is what results in the similarities between his novels and much of children’s literature (such as his use of language, as discussed in Stave Three) and consequently it is what leads to his enduring popularity with adaptors targeting young audiences. Stave Five addresses the (ir)relevance of Dickens’s representation of women for modern audiences, and the ways in which adaptations engage with Dickens’s depiction of stories as transformative, especially with regards to changing stereotypical gender roles. This thesis finds that what is most Dickensian about adaptations of Dickens for young audiences are a playful use of language, the privileging of the child’s perspective – which points towards a kinship between childhood and adulthood – and the emphasis placed on the transformative power of stories.
... In order to typify these variances, the present inquiry will be restricted to two canonical critics, because their investigations are comparable in goal and scope but clearly reveal different conceptual underpinnings. Both Booth (1974) and Hutcheon (1994) aim at understanding the (mis)interpretations of irony in artistic manifestations. 2 The fact that I comment on these two specific works reveals my methodological preference: even if research on the clausal or phrasal level has provided very useful analytical toolkits, it does not, in my opinion, suffice for the comprehension of more sophisticated forms of irony that are displayed through contradictions or incongruities on above-phrase level. ...
... This is as close as one can get to a repertory method. Such a list will always be deficient in that it cannot account for the relevance, or irrelevance, of certain formal clues for the ironic interpretation of a literary work in a specific discursive community (Hutcheon, 1994). Even Booth, who strives for interpersonal, univocal interpretation through strict formal analysis, admits that ironic clues are there only to invite us to recognize an ironic meaning (1974, p. 49). ...
... Apart from the feasibility problem, the repertory list is limited methodologically in that its a priori nature pinpoints irony to concrete linguistic or textual manifestations without being able to account for more interpretative processes. There is little doubt, however, about the question of irony being a complex cognitive process (Kaufer, 1981(Kaufer, , p. 1983 determined by the discursive community in which it is produced and interpreted (Hutcheon, 1994). Put in other words, the a priori nature leaves little or no margin for the reader's interpretation triggered by elements previously processed, whether intra-or intertextually. ...
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This article outlines some conceptual and methodological issues regarding the analysis of translated literary irony. In the first part it is argued that the TS scholar ’s adherence to a specific conception of literary irony is not value-free and entails programmatic consequences for TS research on translated irony. Only a dynamic approach to irony—where irony “happens” rather than “exists ”—allows us to embrace three relevant orientations in descriptive empirical TS research: (1) target-side functional investigations, (2) historical-descriptive oriented analyses and (3) translational interpretive oriented analyses. The second part focuses on three issues regarding the comparative ST-TT procedure, namely (1) the unit of comparison, (2) the degree of the differences looked upon and (3) the specific traits on the basis of which the differences and similarities are identified. The paper winds up with remarks on one kind of normativity inherent to the comparative procedure.
... Irony is often seen as a kind of opposition or incongruity between the said and the unsaid and between the expressed meaning and the intended meaning (e.g., Abrams & Harpham, 2009, p. 165). The data that have been investigated also included cases where the irony was close to Hutcheon's (1994) definition: "The said and the unsaid come together in a certain way in order to become irony" (p. 136). ...
... The concept "relational" is, from the standpoint of translation studies, the most interesting. According to Hutcheon (1994), the relational strategy means that "irony operates not only between meanings (said and unsaid) but also between people (the ironist, interpreters and targets)" (p. 56). ...
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This paper analyses the translation of irony in children ’s literature. For children and adolescents irony is not only a matter of comprehension but also a matter of learning. However, to enjoy the literary device of irony one first has to get the point, one first has to understand the irony. Additions are discussed in this paper as a part of target text reader-oriented translation strategies. In the studied context, these strategies are regarded as tools to improve the interpretation and comprehension of irony by young target readers. Additions are discussed not merely as irony-building textual elements but also as parts of larger textual units. In the latter case, additions can provide extra information and this improves the ironic interpretation in its entirety. The results in this paper are based on a comparison of six translations (English, Finnish and Swedish as target languages) and the two source texts in German.
... 581). Following Linda Hutcheons (1994), Wilz notes how particular scenes oscillate between the perspectives of the soldier protagonist and enemy Other. By doing so, the text invites audiences to "push beyond a dualistic framework of good and evil, and instead to see the shared humanity of both soldiers and enemies" (p. ...
... Audience members are invited to see Earle from a variety of vantage points: she is sometimes rational and sometimes irrational; she is sometimes strong and sometimes vulnerable; she is sometimes logical and sometimes emotional. Where our analysis adds to the conversation is in the way the text oscillates between poles of multiple binaries when referencing a single individual rather than the perspectives of different people, as was the case in Hutcheons' (1994) analysis. However, while we believe there is some promise in the way the film depicts these gender-related oscillations, the film is not without its limitations. ...
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Despite its relative compatibility with contemporary approaches to criticism and flexibility in application, few media studies scholars have “taken up” ecofeminism as an analytical framework. This study marshals insights from ecofeminist theory and critical rhetoric to analyze the Netflix documentary Mission Blue. Through its depictions of renowned oceanographer Sylvia Earle, the film points ecofeminists and media scholars toward an alternative theoretical position capable of deconstructing power binaries. More specifically, we contend Mission Blue makes use of “binary oscillations.” These oscillations invite viewers to experience shifts between the extremes of a binary when depicting Earle in the film, thereby resisting the urge to see her as fitting into one side of a dualism. Implications of this critical ecofeminist approach and the notion of a binary oscillation are discussed, in addition to the limitations of the film itself in supporting intersectional feminist commitments.
... I acknowledge this by describing how the intended messages of jokes can also serve to reinforce the very ideas and assumptions they seek to change. Linda Hutcheon (1995) calls this the trans-ideological nature of humour, irony, and comedy. The potential for humour and joking to serve the goals of the person performing it is subject to multiple contexts that impact how a performance makes meaning for its listeners. ...
Chapter
This chapter evaluates the recent stand-up humour of women, LGTBQ+, and non-binary American Muslim performers for whom gender and sexuality is a prominent theme in their performance material. The analysis identifies several trends in performance with regard to how these voices represent being Muslim in terms of gender, sexuality, and the body. These comics use humour to raise awareness about how patriarchy dehumanizes their experiences, and how narrow definitions of Muslim personhood fail to fully realize the entire global ummah (Muslim community). Their humour insists on the humanity of those who are marginalized, whether that be in terms of race, ability, sexuality, place in the Muslim community, or gender. The ways in which Islamophobia is uniquely gendered also emerges as a theme in this comic material, as Muslim women challenge common and myopic assumptions about the hijab and female sexualities in their jokes.
... I acknowledge this by describing how the intended messages of jokes can also serve to reinforce the very ideas and assumptions they seek to change. Linda Hutcheon (1995) calls this the trans-ideological nature of humour, irony, and comedy. The potential for humour and joking to serve the goals of the person performing it is subject to multiple contexts that impact how a performance makes meaning for its listeners. ...
Article
The book highlights the mercurial power of humour and comedy within contexts relevant to Muslims and Islam. The volume includes both theoretical and practical perspectives to challenge the notion of a monolithic and fixed understanding of Islam, especially in relation to humour. Featuring scholars from a broad range of academic disciplines, the collection offers balanced perspectives on these issues. As a publication focused on Muslims, Islam and humour, the volume offers a better understanding of the diversity of Muslim humour practices and Islamic sensibilities towards humour; it also encourages debates about issues that have not been previously brought together in a comprehensive scholarly volume. The book will make a difference in the way (mostly Western) audiences conceive of humour practices in relation to Islam and Muslims. In this way, it can help to undermine negative stereotypes, fostering a spirit of nuanced thinking and better understanding between Muslims and non-Muslims, thus making a powerful contribution in the interfaith cultural space.
... A great amount of scholars provide reliable classifications of irony in both literary and linguistic fields [7,8,9,4,6]. ...
Article
The article refers to the translation peculiarities of situational irony on the basis of S. Maugham’s “Three Fat Women of Antibes”. Irony, as a stylistic device, plays a significant role in literature. Perceiving irony is not an easy task as it depends on different factors, such as cultural knowledge, the reader’s interpretative skills, background knowledge and many more. The translation of irony becomes even more difficult as besides the factors the translator should find appropriate ways to transmit it into target text. The peculiarity of the translation of irony is that irony should not be explained in the target text (TT), so that the TT readers can discover it themselves.
... Da cuenta de que los creadores de los memes recurren a varios tipos de tipologías narrativas, por ejemplo, en algunos destacan las secuencias descriptivas, mientras que en otros, el texto y la imagen están al servicio de la narración. Finalmente, la autora recuerda que para que el lector pueda interpretar el humor y esto tenga un efecto perlocutivo (la propagación del meme) el destinatario debe contar con una triple competencia: la lingüística, la genérica y la ideológica (Hutcheon 1994). ...
... De hecho, ya hemos visto cómo la mayor parte de las formas de ironía presentes en estos diarios producen implicaturas conversaciones particularizadas. Cada una de ellas muestra "un punto de vista específico sobre el mundo, una forma de interpretación verbal del mismo, un horizonte objetual-semántico y axiológico específico" (Bajtin 1975: 108-109), que permite adscribirla a una determinada "comunidad discursiva" (Hutcheon 1994). Por lo tanto, aunque la distancia temporal que nos separa de estos diarios de finales del siglo XIX limita el número de presupuestos contextuales a los que los lectores de hoy podemos acceder para la interpretación de sus textos, el análisis pragmalingüístico de estos editoriales puede arrojar luz sobre el papel de la prensa en la difusión de las tesis que condujeron a la pérdida de la soberanía española en Cuba. ...
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El propósito de este trabajo es analizar las señales lingüísticas constitutivas de los enunciados irónicos presentes en un corpus de un centenar de editoriales sobre la guerra de Cuba, publicados en la prensa andaluza entre 1895 y 1898. Este conflicto bélico tuvo especial repercusión en Andalucía, debido a las estrechas relaciones comerciales de su población con los habitantes de la isla y al hecho de que Cádiz se convirtió en uno de los puntos clave de embarque de los soldados que partían hacia las tierras antillanas. La prensa constituía entonces el único medio con el que contaban los andaluces para informarse sobre los sucesos ultramarinos, de ahí que nos hayamos propuesto analizar cómo la prensa local se sirve de la ironía para manifestar a sus lectores su visión de la actualidad noticiosa. Esto nos ha permitido identificar los principales tipos de ironía presentes en estos diarios, así como los blancos a los que se trata de atacar mediante este recurso pragmalingüístico.
... Conforme Linda Hutcheon (1995), a ironia se caracteriza por ser um recurso de estereótipo plausível para uma contraposição diante de uma sistematização vista como absolutista, pois é o possível modelo de oposição sempre que alguém é implicado em um sistema que se considera opressor. ...
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O presente artigo se propõe a analisar como as adversidades vigentes tanto na vida da escritora Jane Austen, uma das maiores romancistas da literatura inglesa do século XIX, quanto na vida de Maria Firmina dos Reis, autora brasileira precursora na publicação de um romance em solo nacional, se fazem presentes na literatura de ambas. Pretende-se observar como certos obstáculos promoveram mobilizações feministas e antirracistas em suas respectivas produções. Indagações e argumentações fundamentadas por Virginia Woolf a respeito das condições de produção literária de autoria feminina serão empregadas.
... Goldman tends to exalt film genre conventions so much that he highlights the fictional status of the story, thus entering the realm of meta-fiction. Therefore, even though film criticism has treated Goldman's work as a parody, here it will be considered as ironic, in the sense that his work tends to take a detached look at itself (Booth, 1994;Hutcheon, 1994). Northrop Frye (2006: 208-223) points out that irony can have comical purposes -as happens with satire-or tragic, and it is in this purpose of irony where the touchstone of the author's vision can be found. ...
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William Goldman is a North American novelist and screenwriter with more than fifty years in his professional career. This article aims to identify Goldman’s personal writing traits by focusing on Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid and The Princess Bride, which can be considered the most comprehensive and complete of all his screenplays. Apart from their differences, both scripts reveal the influence of the adventure narrative on William Goldman’s work and reflect the writer’s interest in ironically revising some of the conventions of film genre.
... Människor med humorkompe tenser utanför svensk populärkultur, riskerar att missa poängen. Humor är inkluderande och exkluderande, vilket i fallet med kändisarna blir särskilt påtagligt (Hutcheon 1995). Men om personerna är kända, så kan komikerna representera föreställningen om att vi alla göra något för att bidra till hållbar utveckling. ...
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Avloppshantering är en infrastrukturell fråga med avgörande betydelse för såväl vardagsliv som miljön. Men infrastrukturerna är sköra, och människors beteenden kan orsaka att de brakar samman. Medborgarna måste uppfostras, men samtidigt är avföring ett känsligt ämne och toalettbeteenden privata. Hur kan VA-branschen informera om sådant vi inte vill tala om och dessutom styra konsumenters toalettvanor i en tid präglad av det fria valet? Artikeln handlar om hur humor fungerar neutraliserande och möjliggör information om kiss och bajs. Informationen använder sig av rim, lek och komik för att på ett explicit sätt uppfostra vuxna människor, disciplinera deras handlingar och skapa önskvärda subjekt. Detta sker genom att avdramatisera det intima toalettbeteendet men även själva styrningen av människor. I denna genre är pekpinnar vanligt förekommande i form av en slags metaironisk styrning, det vill säga med ett ironiskt förhållningssätt till själva ironin. Toaletthumorn är övertydlig propaganda, och därmed ofarlig för det liberala subjektet.
... L'intelligence apparaîtrait désormais comme un bien commun, une facilité de l'esprit, d'autant plus vicieuse qu'apparemment séduisante. 3 Si cet échange nous interpelle, c'est parce que nous faisons résonner ce propos sur « l'intelligence » à l'aune des études sur l'ironie qui voit dans ce trope un phénomène polyphonique auquel correspond un spectre de manières d'être et de dispositions morales 2 , à l'image des analyses proposées par Linda Hutcheon (1994) sur la « politique » de l'ironie, auxquelles on put faire écho les travaux d'un Philipe Hamon (1996) ou d'un Pierre Schoentjes (2001 sur l'ironie comme indissociable d'une éthique et d'une poétique. L'ironie constituerait une mise en doute systématique de tout discours à prétention définitive et conclusive ; elle serait cette façon de dire tout en ne disant pas, de suggérer plus que ce que l'on dit, de jouer « au malin » en suggérant l'incomplétude, l'insuffisance, voire l'inanité d'une parole que l'on chercherait à mettre à distance 3 . ...
Article
Emmanuel Carrère distances himself from what he calls “intelligence” whose pragmatics and ethics recalls irony’s ones. In Yoga, his conception on writing, mixing aesthetics with ethics, is based on an ideal of authenticity and sincerity. Even if Emmanuel Carrère acknowledges the possible shortcomings of this ideal, he tries to embody it through an ethos of fragility and vulnerability.
... The Meta and the Uncertain Uncertainty is without any doubt a by-product of the irony, intertextuality, and ontological pluralism that are the hallmarks of postmodernist writing, as discussed influentially by scholars such as Brian McHale (1987) and Linda Hutcheon (1994). Yet I have argued in Chapter 1 that the uncertainty staged by contemporary fiction marks a sharp departure from postmodernism. 1 The opaque animal minds examined in the previous chapter, for instance, channel a concern not only over the limitations of human knowledge (hence the uncertainty) but also over the unprecedented role that human societies are playing in dramatically reshaping material environments that we share with nonhumans. ...
... Following upon Billig's work, recent research on online racist discourse has expanded our knowledge of the ways in which humor and irony are deployed therein as rhetorical tools. Linda Hutcheon (1994) defines irony as "to say something, but mean something else" (p. 14). ...
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The present study explores how the polarized political discussion on climate change is used to construct as a humorous misogynist message in a Finnish far-right political campaign video from 2021. Applying a multimodal analytical approach, the study explores the ways in which humor and irony are mobilized in the video through intertextual cues and verbal, visual, and sonic means to produce a dichotomy between "us"-the rational males who oppose strong measures against climate change-and "them," the irrational females, who propose them. The study contributes to political psychology, first by responding to the call for social and political psychologists to expand our knowledge of the production and spread of misogyny in online political communication; second, by showing the importance of studying intertextual and multimodal constructions of misogyny disguised as humor in political communication, and, finally, through demonstrating the utility of interdisciplinarity and multimodal analytic approaches in research on online political mobilization and persuasion.
... En effet, pour entrer dans le jeu de l'ironie, il n'est pas nécessaire de partager les valeurs sur lesquelles elle joue -nous comprenons parfaitement l'ironie raciste ou sexiste même si nous ne sommes ni l'un ni l'autre -mais il est indispensable de connaître le contexte qui permet le déploiement du jeu sur et avec les valeurs. Par sa réalisation et sa reconnaissance, l'ironie institue différents groupes (idéologiques), qu'elle coupe parfois les uns des autres (Hutcheon, 1994). ...
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Irony is a salient feature of common discourse and of some of contemporary art ’s more sophisticated representations. An intriguing characteristic of art and speech, irony ’s power and relevance reaches well beyond the enclaves of academic research and reflection. Translating irony involves a series of interpretative gestures which are not solely provoked by or confined to the act of translation as such. Even when one does not move between languages, reading irony always involves an act of interpretation which ‘translates’ a meaning out of a text that is not ‘given’. This article offers a critical survey of the literature on the translation of irony while aiming to monitor and explain the techniques and challenges involved in its translation.
... Les théoriciens de l'ironie s'accordent toutefois sur l'ambiguïté de l'ironie et sur son rapport à l'idéologie de groupes distincts. Le fonctionnement de l'ironie est conditionné par une communauté discursive : comme l'a montré Linda Hutcheon (1994), elle implique des relations dynamiques avec le contexte, la dimension sociale étant loin d'être négligeable. L'ironie se développe plus facilement lorsque les codes sont partagés : elle fait appel à une politique comme à une esthétique. ...
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Inspired by Much Ado about Nothing of Shakespeare, the comic opera Béatrice et Bénédict of Berlioz countains a significant amount of irony. Richard Pohl, the author of the German translation, removed several strokes of irony for the performances in Weimar in 1863. This choice shows linguistic and cultural obstacles, as well as a specific aesthetic and ideological orientation. Irony, moreover, contributes to the different semiosis used in opera and circulates between text, music and theater. Music remains the same in both versions, but the new text changes the general atmosphere.
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El presente trabajo, centrado en los discursos Contra Timarco, Sobre la embajada fraudulenta y Contra Ctesifonte de Esquines y Sobre la Corona y Sobre la embajada fraudulenta de Demóstenes, analiza el funcionamiento de un grupo de evidenciales en enunciados irónicos para examinar la relación que los evidenciales pueden tener con la expresión lingüística de la ironía en griego antiguo.
Thesis
This dissertation explores the notion of didactic novel through the reception and textual study of two corpora of works of fiction published in Britain between 1778 and 1814. It starts with early reception, building a corpus of novels perceived to be morally instructive by the critics of the Monthly Review and the Critical Review upon first publication. This "didactic" corpus is compared to another set of novels, published in the same time period, which were not deemed instructive, although they may be considered morally unexceptionable. The early reviewers’ discourse is first of all analyzed, showing moral instructiveness to be as important a criterion of literary merit as composition and style at the turn of the nineteenth century. Textual comparison of the corpora, using a combination of computer-aided analysis and close reading methods, demonstrates that both sets of novels use overtly ideological language related to moral philosophy, challenging the contemporary conception of moral didacticism as overt "moralizing," deemed to cause literary mediocrity. In fact, textual comparison highlights the main dividing line between the corpora to be the presence of specific topics and motifs rather than a particular style of language. Through these common topics, the didactic novels form a subgenre of fiction which upholds a clearly circumscribed moral ideal, based on gendered models of proper genteel Englishness. A study of the corpora’s fluctuating relationship to canonicity underlines the evolution of the definition of didacticism and the place carved out for it in literary criticism, from a welcome element to an utterly distasteful feature of texts. Conversely, the analysis of contemporary students’ written reactions to excerpts from three didactic novels shows that perception of an obvious moral tendency is not inimical to an aesthetic experience. Overall, this dissertation invites us to reconsider the definition and critical treatment of the didactic component of late-eighteenth-century novels, through a recognition of the historically situated nature of its disdain in literary scholarship.
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The gay frog has taken on a surprisingly prominent role in contemporary environmental culture. Primarily associated with American shock jock Alex Jones and the so-called alt-right, fears of frogs being turned gay by hormones in water have nevertheless entered the mainstream, while gay frog memes are shared online by users from across the political spectrum. This article offers a genealogy of the gay frog, situating this recent moment in the longer history of “sex panics” over gay animals described by queer ecologists, and in the context of an ongoing backlash against feminism and trans liberation. It argues that the potency of the gay frog as alt-right symbol derives from the capacity of the frog to instantiate racialized and sexualized anxieties about border crossings. By examining the role of humor in gay frog clips and memes, this article shows how liberal mockery of Jones has inadvertently mainstreamed far-right beliefs and served to consolidate alt-right notions of victimhood. In spite of this, it argues that the comic potential of the gay frog holds promise for queer ecologists seeking to think differently about sex and nature.
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This study aims at investigating the translation strategies used in the dubbing of verbal irony. It tackles four tropes of verbal irony in an English corpus, The Simpsons, and its Arabic counterpart, Aal Shamshoon, and their translation strategies to find out the most commonly used strategy to translate verbal irony and how the paralinguistic features of each ironic utterance were rendered. To this end, the categorization of Burgers et al. (2012) of verbal irony markers and VIP (verbal irony procedure) are applied, focusing on the four tropes; ironic metaphors, ironic rhetorical questions, ironic understatements, and ironic hyperbole. The tools used in this study are the set of translation strategies put together by Mateo (1995), and a number of compiled research findings from Haverkate (1990), and Bryant (2011) and a host of other scholars to identify the most salient paralinguistic features of the ironic utterances. The results indicate that the majority of the ironic tropes in the source were retained in the target by means of literal translation, maintaining the irony in the TT. In addition, the study reveals that exaggerated stress and lengthening the syllabic quality of the ironic utterances is majorly used technique by the actors in Aal Shamshoon as the paralinguistic means of emphasizing verbal irony.
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In an effort to better understand the modus operandi of Ilya Khrzhanovskiy's DAU, both scholars and critics all too often gravitate towards the overused term "Gesamtkunstwerk". And while these attempts to make the project fit the paradigmatic mold of the "total work of art" and ascribe to Khrzhanovkiy the absolutist aspirations of modernist artists are rather debatable, they do provide the author of the present paper with the incentive and the grounds for an apophatic definition of DAU, i.e. by what it is not. First outlining several fundamental contradictions between the Gesamtkunstwerk aesthetics and Khrzhanovskiy's work, it then offers a reading of DAU from the standpoint of postmodernist poetics, drawing attention to its liminality, heterogeneity, transitivity, and intermediality, as well as its original approach to structuring the participants' experience via the "shimmering" effect and that of the spectators via multistable perception.
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Este artigo pretende ser uma contribuição para a história da revista Kapa, dirigida por Miguel Esteves Cardoso, e publicada mensalmente em Portugal entre 1990 e1993.Sugere-se que ao longo dos seus 32 números, a Kapa foi guiada por um espírito que procurou forjar uma comunidade comunicante. Por este motivo, a revista renunciou à “informação” no sentido tradicional do termo e abriu-se a algumas estratégias que podem ser associadas ao entretenimento e à diversão; entre elas, abordaremos o uso imagem fotográfica, o apelo à nostalgia e à ironia, e o recurso ao humor. Crê-se que estes aspetos contribuíram para o sucesso da Kapa e foram decisivos para fazer dela uma revista de culto, bem como um símbolo de uma geração no início da década de 90 em Portugal.
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The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. An entry was missing in the reference list of Chapter 9. The missing reference has been updated as below.
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Socio-communicative performance in children with ASD. An analysis from Transcurssive Logic. The purpose of this paper is to review the neurobiological and psychological foundations of the so-called Theory of Mind (ToM), whose alleged flaws in its development pretend to explain the appearance of the socio-communicative disorders presented by people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in order to shed some light on the appearance of some signs such as, for example, the non-social features of autism. From a critical analysis of some contributions from the Cognitive Sciences, we conclude that the Theory of Mind is an inappropriate model to assess language comprehension because it does not consider its subjective aspects. Transcurssive Logic, on the other hand, provides an interpretation of the communicative process and thus demonstrates the inappropriateness of the Theory of Mind.
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This chapter argues that the selected YouTube parodies of game experience offer a self-fashioning strategy that enables participatory game culture to address the inherent potential for ridicule generated by the act of playing games. Simultaneously, the presented analysis explores the specificity of the said strategy and indicates the possibility of its shifting from a product of self-reflection to a tool for predetermining the player’s identity.KeywordsRole-playing gamesVideo gamesSelf-fashioningRidiculeEmbarrassment
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Through close textual analysis, this chapter situates Travis Strikes Again: No More Heroes as a ‘sincerely ironic’ text, reflective of both the current industry context the game finds itself in as well as the techniques it uses to express love and loathing for the hobby of gaming at large. Building from Hutcheon’s and Kierkegaard’s definitions of irony, a sincerely ironic text is defined here as ‘having a humorous edge where differing concepts are related jestingly to reach an elevated perspective in earnest’. In examining both the successes and shortcomings of TSA’s usage of irony and sincerity this chapter points the way to a humorous understanding of games as both a subject of sincere, nostalgic passion and as objects of destructive influence on their obsessive fans and burnt-out creators.KeywordsIronyParodyVideo-gameGamerSincerity No More Heroes Game fictionGames industry
Thesis
O presente trabalho analisa, por meio de uma perspectiva hermenêutica de vertente comparatista, a construção de uma “poética da sacanagem” em quatro romances brasileiros publicados entre os anos de 1990 e 2011: O Caderno Rosa de Lori Lamby, de Hilda Hilst; A Casa dos Budas Ditosos, de João Ubaldo Ribeiro; Pornopopeia, de Reinaldo Moraes; Quenga de Plástico, de Juliana Frank. Tirando o melhor partido do dispositivo da autoria ficcional, essas obras veiculam “autobiografias” imaginárias pornográficas, que se elaboram, na forma e no fundo, explorando à saciedade as noções de obscenidade, escárnio e engodo, constitutivas da “sacanagem”, fortemente reivindicada como fio condutor e que aqui se oferece em espetáculo ao longo das páginas. Na realização deste estudo, mobilizamos notavelmente os conceitos de ironia e de sátira, que nos permitem interpretar as diversas formas de duplicidade e de ambiguidade presentes nos textos e dar sentidos às transgressões operadas pelos discursos politicamente incorretos dos personagens. Considerando o dialogismo e a plurissignificação como elementos próprios do gênero romanesco, a partir das contribuições de Mikhail Bakhtin, buscamos destacar a construção híbrida dos romances e sua dimensão autorreflexiva, que resultam em uma espetacularização da escrita.
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In 2020, the Mapula Embroidery Project were commissioned to produce a series of 14 artworks in cloth on the topic of Covid-19 and its impact on their community. However, as the article reveals, the relationship of the works to the actual lived experiences of project members turned out to be complex, indirect or even paradoxical. In their choice and treatment of subject matter, members of the project sometimes represent their aspirations rather than necessarily their difficulties. While sometimes exposing hardships people experience or illustrating their own fears, they also often represent scenarios that are suggestive of an aspiration to be part of an ordered society where difficulties are overcome. Furthermore, while the works include imagery drawn from designers’ own perceptions of their everyday environment, they also at times incorporate motifs and text gleaned from online searches and television broadcasts, in effect recording messages and discourses about Covid-19 current at a particular historical juncture. Consequently, while not literal reflections of practices in the context of the pandemic, the cloths have an important “truth” value: they invoke people’s fears and anxieties while also suggesting their capacity to sustain hope in a time of challenge and uncertainty.
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The Weight of Images explores the ways in which media images can train their viewers’ bodies. Proposing a shift away from an understanding of spectatorship as being constituted by acts of the mind, this book favours a theorization of relations between bodies and images as visceral, affective engagements that shape our body image - with close attention to one particularly charged bodily characteristic in contemporary western culture: fat. The first mapping of the ways in which fat, gendered bodies are represented across a variety of media forms and genres, from reality television to Hollywood movies, from TV sitcoms to documentaries, from print magazine and news media to online pornography, The Weight of Images contends that media images of fat bodies are never only about fat; rather, they are about our relation to corporeal vulnerability overall. A ground-breaking volume, engaging with a rich variety of media and cultural texts, whilst examining the possibilities of critical auto-ethnography to unravel how body images take shape affectively between bodies and images, this book will appeal to scholars and students of sociology, media, cultural and gender studies, with interests in embodiment and affect.
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Narrative After Postmodernism takes a critical and practical look at the cultural theories of what comes after postmodernism or the postmodern. Alongside contemporary literary authors, the anthology studies diverse contemporary textual phenomena from TV shows to online fan theories and survivalist blogs. The essays compiled in this anthology tentatively apply the theories of the post-postmodern to contemporary texts to see how they might open up for analysis within their new theoretical frameworks or challenge them. The introduction, co-written by all the authors of this volume, introduces the most influential theories of post-postmodernism and contextualizes them within broader intellectual trends of the early 21st Century. The three essays comprising the first part of the volume discuss some of the theories of the postmodern in relation to contemporary works that seem to challenge them. Yet they also strive to clarify and sharpen some of the ideas proposed in the theories of the post-postmodern. The second part of the volume aims to show that it is not only the contemporary texts that move beyond the postmodern – the ways of reading literature and interpreting artworks in different media are also changing. The essays in the second part of the volume inquire about the effects of the contemporary literary culture on the methods of interpretation and ways of reading.
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