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Literacy in Theory and Practice

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... Así, independiente del lugar, a través de dispositivos móviles, Tablet o computador hoy en día se puede interactuar con otros, colaborar en la generación de contenidos de manera activa, organizar agendas, aprender y descubrir sobre nuevos temas. Entre los jóvenes, por ejemplo, esto sucede incluso en diferentes idiomas (Valero-Porras & Cassany, 2016) usando además variados modos y formatos a través de prácticas letradas cotidianas (Barton y Hamilton, 1998;Cassany, Sala y Hernández, 2008), o personales (Haneda, 2006); mientras al mismo tiempo, mantienen el uso de prácticas dominantes o institucionalizadas en el aula (Street, 1984, Cassany, 2006 para aprender y convivir en un mundo donde la comunicación no tiene límites geográficos. ...
... Este estudio adopta el término literacidad, cuya definición tradicionalmente se entiende como la habilidad de leer y escribir, por lo que aquellos considerados alfabetizados aprendían a manejar los signos y el alfabeto de manera efectiva, además que su referencia estaba ligada a actividades pedagógicas (López y Fragozo, 2013). Sin embargo, a la luz del enfoque sociocultural, y en particular el presentado por los Nuevos Estudios de Literacidad (NLS) (Street 1984(Street , 2003Barton y Hamilton, 1998, 2004Gee 2004), el concepto de literacidad es más amplio y se entiende como un conjunto de prácticas discursivas, las cuales en palabras de Gee son "formas de usar el lenguaje y otorgarle sentido tanto en el habla como en la escritura" (2004, p. 24). ...
... Esta perspectiva se ha desarrollado desde la década de los años 1980 principalmente en Inglaterra (Street 1984;Barton y Hamilton, 2012), sugiriendo que las formas como la gente describe la lectura y la escritura están íntimamente relacio-SABER, CIENCIA Y Libertad | SSN 1794-7154 / e-ISSN 2382-3240 | Vol. 17, No. 1, Enero -Junio 2022 | Págs. ...
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Este estudio de caso cualitativo exploró, entre un grupo de docentes en formación en un Programa de licenciatura en Lenguas Extranjeras, la construcción individual que hacen de su literacidad inglés como lengua extranjera. Para tal fin se tuvo en cuenta las prácticas letradas personales que surgen de sus intereses, gustos y prioridades. La información se recolectó por medio de la fotografía participativa, las entrevistas en profundidad y un grupo focal. El análisis de la información se realizó a través del software ATLAS.ti a partir del cual se codificó y categorizó la información. Los resultados de este estudio revelan que las prácticas letradas realizadas en ambientes sociales permean en cierta forma las prácticas letradas académicas. Para los participantes la prioridad es comunicarse, aprender el idioma y mejorar su enseñanza Finalmente, teniendo en cuenta el enfoque sociocultural del estudio, se puede precisar que los participantes develan una noción de literacidad donde leer y escribir no son solo procesos lingüísticos y cognitivos, sino ante todo una práctica social que les permite interactuar con diversos textos e ideas de otros, aprender de lo que otros publican, a la vez que visibilizan sus propias ideas independientemente del modo en que las presenten.
... Literacy is a multi-faceted concept that has changed over the past few decades from primarily addressing isolated reading and writing skills to addressing the handling of and critical interaction with texts as intrinsic multimodal constructions. In an early formulation of New Literacy Studies, Street (1984) emphasised the need for a shift from an autonomous to an ideological model of literacy, thereby viewing literacy practices as social practices. He addressed not only the doing (or event), but also the cultural thinking about reading and writing (see also Maybin, 2000;Street, 1995). ...
... In an early formulation of New Literacy Studies, Street (1984) emphasised the need for a shift from an autonomous to an ideological model of literacy, thereby viewing literacy practices as social practices. He addressed not only the doing (or event), but also the cultural thinking about reading and writing (see also Maybin, 2000;Street, 1995). In this review, we included insights from New Literacy Studies and related sociocultural and social semiotic literacy research, and from cognitive approaches to reading (e.g., Snow et al., 1998) and writing (e.g., Hayes, 2012). ...
... In line with New Literacy Studies, the plurality of the literacy construct is key, and we draw on the term's shift from the singular literacy over the plural literacies (Street, 1984) and specifically relevant for this review to the notion of multiliteracies set forth by the New London Group (1996). This means that meaning-making competencies related to the written word and to audio, visual, gestural and spatial modes were included. ...
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In this comparative systematic review, we analyse how the use of digital games inside and outside school settings might support primary and secondary students’ literacy and language learning in relation to first language (L1) and second language (L2) educational contexts. Our findings indicate widely different patterns from utilising diverse game aspects, theories, and research methodologies in relation to the two different subject areas, which show that they are less convergent than what often is suggested in research that compares the two subjects in a globalised world. The L1 studies indicate positive findings with mainly commercial games in relation to writing, multimodal production, critical literacy, and, partly, to reading. The L2 studies report positive findings with educational games in relation to the investigated language skills (vocabulary, reading, and writing), though with an increasing number of studies conducted in out-of-school settings examining commercial gaming practices. We discuss the findings from the two K-12 subjects using a cross-disciplinary perspective, and we suggest directions for future research.
... Similarly, Gilhooly and colleagues investigated Karen students' use of digital literacy for connecting to the Karen community (Gilhooly & Lee, 2014) and the use of tattoos as a literacy practice to express solidarity (Gilhooly et al., 2019). These studies illustrated that literacy practices are not only cognitive skills based on the autonomous model (Street, 1984). These literacy practices are situated in wider life domains, and they are used for social purposes in real-life worlds. ...
... The first theoretical framework for this study is literacy as a social practice. In the 1970s, anthropologist Brian Street (1984Street ( , 1995 conducted an ethnographic study in Iran and found that people learned and used literacy in various ways for different purposes. Based on his work, Street (1995) explains differences between two models of literacy -autonomous and ideological. ...
... I drew upon theoretical perspectives of literacy as a social practice (Street, 1984) and positioning theory (Harré & van Langenhove, 1991) to interpret the data. Using the coding approach outlined in the manual by Saldanã (2016) as the analytical methodology, I performed first and second cycle coding. ...
Article
The purpose of this study is to explore the literacy practices of mothers with refugee backgrounds and the ways that they position themselves in relation to these practices. Data include fieldnotes, interviews, artifacts, and informal conversations. The findings reveal the participants’ family literacy practices within the specific domains of education, family, and community in the United States. The findings also show that the participants had multiple identity positions as cultural experts and parents who provided educational resources for their children. The study has implications for parental involvement in urban schools and for educators practicing in K-12 and adult ESL.
... In working toward better understanding humanistic and relational aspects of data practices in everyday settings, we draw on sociocultural theory, and on conceptualizations of literacy as social practice (Street, 1984). In this study, we asked the following research questions: ...
... 375). Our approach to data literacy, like others' (D'Ignazio & Bhargava, 2020;Lee et al., 2021;Wilkerson & Polman, 2020), is based on the conceptualization of literacy as social practice (Street, 1984), in which literacy is seen as a process of making use of sign systems to create meaning and act. To be literate involves familiarity with particular sign systems and the conventions of their use but also the ways in which people mobilize resources to achieve goals, and how they position themselves and are positioned in terms of access or inaccess to particular ways of using sign systems (Lewis et al., 2007). ...
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How do people reason with data to make sense of the world? What implications might everyday practices hold for data literacy education? We leverage the unique context of the COVID-19 pandemic to shed light on these questions. COVID-19 has engendered a complex, multimodal ecology of information resources, with which people engage in high-stakes sensemaking and decision-making. We take a relational approach to data literacy, examining how people navigate and interpret data through interactions with tools and other people. Using think-aloud protocols, a diverse group of people described their COVID-19 information-seeking practices while working with COVID-19 information resources they use routinely. Although participants differed in their disciplinary background and proficiency with data, they each consulted data frequently and used it to make sense of life in the pandemic. Three modes of interacting with data were examined: scanning, looking closer and puzzling through. In each of these modes, we examined the balance of agency between people and their tools; how participants experienced and managed emotions as part of exploring data; and how issues of trust mediated their sensemaking. Our findings provide implications for cultivating more agentic publics, using a relational lens to inform data literacy education. Practitioner notes: What is already known about this topic Many people, even those with higher education, struggle with interpreting quantitative data representations.Social and emotional factors influence cognition and learning.People are often overwhelmed by the abundance of available information online.There is a need for data literacy approaches that are humanistic and relational. What this paper adds Everyday data practices can be variable and adaptable, and include engaging with data at different levels: scanning, looking closer, and puzzling through. Each of these modes involves different data practices.People, independently of their quantitative interpretation skills and disciplinary backgrounds, may engage differently with data (eg, avoiding versus delving deeper) based on their emotional responses, level of trust or interpersonal relationships that are evoked by the data.These everyday data practices have implications for people's sense of their own agency with data and involve emotional and trust-based relationships that shape their interpretations of data. These relational aspects of data literacy suggest productive directions for data literacy education. Implications for practice and/or policy Data literacy can be taught as a process that is inherently relational, for example, by discussing the ways in which learners are personally connected to different data, what emotions these connections evoke, and how that affects the ways in which they attend to, trust and interpret the data.Data literacy education can cultivate a wider range of data practices at a variety of depths of interaction, rather than prioritizing only in-depth inquiry.It may be helpful to include complex experiences with data sources that require learners to go beyond a binary "trustworthy/untrustworthy" distinction, so that learners can become more strategic, nuanced and intentional in forming a variety of trust relationships with different sources.Discussing how learners' everyday data practices interact with different data representations and tools can help them become more critically aware of the possible purposes, values, and risks associated with their everyday data practices.
... Por muito tempo, a redação foi utilizada exclusivamente como instrumento para verificar a correção gramatical dos textos, não fazendo mais que oferecer ao professor um diagnóstico a respeito do grau de domínio do aluno acerca das regras da gramática normativa. Nesse sentido, o que se desenvolvia era um trabalho que se prestava a enfatizar a supremacia dos letramentos dominantes sobre os locais (HAMILTON, 2002), situando-se como uma atuação no modelo autônomo do letramento, aquele em que se privilegia a escrita como uma habilidade por si mesma e superior à oralidade (STREET, 1984), o que, sabe-se, consiste em um dos mitos do letramento (GRAFF, 2017). ...
... Crê-se que as sugestões apresentadas possam promover uma experiência mais significativa aos estudantes, contrapondo-se à abordagem didática (KALANTZIS; COPE; PINHEIRO, 2020) em geral mais enfatizada quando do trabalho com esse gênero em sala de aula. Por conseguinte, o estudo mostra que, embora, historicamente o texto dissertativo-argumentativo tenha sido trabalhado em um modelo de letramento autônomo (STREET, 1984), é possível propor novas formas de apresentá-lo aos estudantes de modo a fomentar sua capacidade de agência e seu senso crítico, qualidades extremamente necessárias ao cidadão da contemporaneidade. ...
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This study presents a proposal for approaching the argumentative essay along the lines of the National Secondary Education Examination (Enem) elaborated in light of the theoretical assumptions of literacies and design pedagogy, for application in secondary education. The conclusions point to the possibility of promoting a more meaningful experience for students, as opposed to the didactic approach (KALANTZIS; COPE; PINHEIRO, 2020), traditionally emphasized when working with the reading and production of this specific text at school. In addition, the proposal offers students the possibility of developing their capacity for agency and their critical sense, qualities that are extremely important to contemporary citizens. Resumo Este estudo apresenta uma proposta de abordagem do texto dissertativo-argumentativo nos moldes do Exame Nacional do Ensino Médio (Enem) elaborada à luz dos pressupostos teóricos da pedagogia dos letramentos e do design, para aplicação no ensino médio. As conclusões apontam para a possibilidade de promover uma experiência mais significativa aos estudantes, contrapondo-se à abordagem didática (KALANTZIS; COPE; PINHEIRO, 2020), tradicionalmente enfatizada quando do trabalho com a leitura e a produção desse texto
... Teoretiskt bygger studien på New Literacy Studies. Centralt i detta perspektiv är att skrivande ses som en social aktivitet förankrad i kontext (Barton, 2007;Street, 1984). Skrivande ses inte som en kognitiv färdighet som sker fristående från ett samman hang utan istället som en aktivitet förankrad i de förväntningar, krav och värderingar som finns inom olika sociala praktiker (Street, 1984). ...
... Centralt i detta perspektiv är att skrivande ses som en social aktivitet förankrad i kontext (Barton, 2007;Street, 1984). Skrivande ses inte som en kognitiv färdighet som sker fristående från ett samman hang utan istället som en aktivitet förankrad i de förväntningar, krav och värderingar som finns inom olika sociala praktiker (Street, 1984). Olika erfarenheter av skri vande medför därför att skribenter skapar mening med skrivande på olika sätt. ...
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Den här studien handlar om elevers erfarenheter av meningsfullt skrivande i skolan. Studien bygger på narrativa analyser av elevers muntliga berättelser om skrivande och literacyhändelser kopplade till skrivande. Studiens data består av intervjuer med nio elever i årskurs 6. Som teoretisk utgångspunkt används New Literacy Studies med fokus mot skrivande som social aktivitet situerad i kontext. I berättelserna framträder skrivandet som meningsfullt när eleverna positionerar sig själva som skribenter och sina klasskamrater som olika typer av mottagare till deras texter. Positioneringarna handlar enligt elevernas utsagor om att framstå som en unik elev, lära andra något, övertyga andra eller skriva för att bli granskad av klasskamrater och lärare. Det framstår som viktigt att skrivandet kopplas till andra literacyhändelser, att texten presenteras för klasskamrater och lärare och att eleverna ges agentskap genom att få bestämma över textens innehåll och form.
... The question remains regarding exactly what knowledge upperelementary and middle school teachers have developed related to comprehension processes, and which of the many perspectives on reading comprehension they might draw from to inform this knowledge. Such perspectives include, among many possibilities available in the professional literature and communities of practice in literacy education: the cognitive processes detailed in the Construction-Integration (Kintsch, 2004) and Landscape Models (see Kucan & Palincsar, 2013); interactive processes explained by reader-text-activity-context models (e.g., Pearson & Cervetti, 2015;RAND, 2002); text processing models explaining how readers make decisions about credibility and relevance to integrate ideas across multiple texts (Cho & Afflerbach, 2017); and sociocultural models specifying how meaning-making processes are ideological and social (Street, 1984) and enmeshed within broader contextual and cultural-historical conditions that influence readers' possibilities for meaning making (Gavelek & Whittingham, 2017). ...
... Teachers' awareness of reading comprehension as a knowledge-oriented process (Cervetti & Hiebert, 2019) has clear connections to research that centers the cyclical relationship between knowledge, knowledge building, and comprehension-a "virtuous cycle" in which " knowledge begets comprehension, which begets knowledge" (Duke et al., 2011, p. 53). Finally, our participants' understanding of reading comprehension as collaborating directly and indirectly with others connects to a decades-old social practices perspective on reading (e.g., Street, 1984). This line of work helps explain how even an individual reader is a participant in an ideological and cultural system of activity, which affords the reader a particular configuration of knowledge, experience, interests, and purposes for reading (Gavelek & Whittingham, 2017). ...
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Teachers’ knowledge of reading comprehension processes is underresearched relative to teachers’ knowledge of word identification and phonological awareness. In this study, sixty-two pre- and inservice upper-elementary and middle school English language arts, science, and social studies teachers completed in-depth interview protocols eliciting multiple aspects of knowledge about reading comprehension processes. Using qualitative analyses, we found that teachers in the sample demonstrated knowledge in four consistent areas: strategizing, grappling to achieve coherence, leveraging and producing knowledge, and participating socially. We propose these concepts as a starting point for characterizing teachers’ knowledge of how comprehension processes work when they are well developed. We discuss implications of these findings for future research and practice in literacy teacher education.
... O campo dos Letramentos Acadêmicos é composto por uma série de investigações iniciadas no Reino Unido em meados de 1980, derivadas do fenômeno conhecido como "Novos Estudos de Letramento" (New Literacy Studies) e tendo como principais expoentes Street (1984;1995), Barton e Hamilton (1998), Heath (1983), dentre outros. A perspectiva questiona os modelos dominantes concebidos acerca das práticas letradas e suas formas de avaliação pelas instituições regulamentadoras, abordando as relações de poder derivadas de diretrizes oficiais e marcadas pelas dicotomias como: oralidade-escrita e letrado-iletrado (STREET, 1984;1995). ...
... O campo dos Letramentos Acadêmicos é composto por uma série de investigações iniciadas no Reino Unido em meados de 1980, derivadas do fenômeno conhecido como "Novos Estudos de Letramento" (New Literacy Studies) e tendo como principais expoentes Street (1984;1995), Barton e Hamilton (1998), Heath (1983), dentre outros. A perspectiva questiona os modelos dominantes concebidos acerca das práticas letradas e suas formas de avaliação pelas instituições regulamentadoras, abordando as relações de poder derivadas de diretrizes oficiais e marcadas pelas dicotomias como: oralidade-escrita e letrado-iletrado (STREET, 1984;1995). Como uma contraposição a essas dicotomias, esses autores defendem que os letramentos são plurais e fortemente influenciados pelo contexto dos sujeitos que o integram. ...
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Resumo: Evidenciamos como a trajetória acadêmica de um docente influencia a (re)produção de suas crenças e habitus. Buscamos esforços para localizar os Letramentos Acadêmicos no contexto da Pós-Graduação, discutindo, por meio desta perspectiva as implicações de demandas em sua prática docente. Observamos que algumas ações foram e são significativas para a inserção, ascensão e manutenção do poder no campo científico, por meio de ações que priorizam o uso do inglês em atividades acadêmico/científicas como reuniões em grupos de pesquisa, apresentações de seminários, publicações e parcerias internacionais. Atividades prioritariamente estabelecidas com pesquisadores de países do norte e europeus. Palavras-chave: Letramentos Acadêmicos. Pós-Graduação. Internacionalização. Abstract: This paper evidences how the academic trajectory of a professor influences the transmission or reproduction of beliefs and habitus. We focus on the Academic Literacy in the context of Graduate Studies, discussing, through this perspective, the implications of demands in their teaching practice. We observed that some actions were and are significant for his insertion, maintenance of power in the scientific field, through actions that prioritize the use of English in academic and scientific activities such as meetings, research groups, seminar's presentations , publications, and international partnerships, primarily established with researchers from Northern and European countries.
... Our reflections on literacy are based on the seminal work of Brian Street (1984) and further developments (BARTON; HAMILTON;IVANIČ, 2000;KLEIMAN;ASSIS, 2016;STREET, 2014). The basic premise of Street (1984, p. 1), adopted by us, is: " […] what the particular practices and concepts of reading and writing are for a given society depends upon the context; that they are already embedded in an ideology and cannot be isolated or treated as 'neutral' or merely 'technical'. ...
... […]". To account for the study of literacy as a social use and practice, Street (1984) argues that literacy has no benefits or consequences intrinsic to itself and, therefore, autonomous from participants and institutions in which reading and writing take place. On the contrary, it is advocated that literacy is situated in different social contexts, with meanings, purposes, values, and power relations specific to each, resulting in varied literacies. ...
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RESUMO A iniciação científica, tradicionalmente implementada no ensino superior, tem-se feito presente também no nível médio de ensino. Com base nessa realidade, objetivamos analisar, comparativamente, a iniciação científica nesses dois contextos, quanto a seus princípios e diretrizes, preconizados em documentos oficiais, e a aspectos formativos nas práticas educativas. Para isso, selecionamos, dos dois níveis de ensino, documentos oficiais que tratam dessa política de educação científica, assim como relatórios finais de projetos de iniciação científica da área de Linguística e Literatura. Tais dados são analisados a partir de reflexões sobre educação pela pesquisa e de estudos sobre letramento e letramento acadêmico, mediante abordagem qualitativo-interpretativista. As análises indicam que os documentos oficiais, em ambos os contextos, se fundamentam em concepções semelhantes, principalmente a pesquisa como princípio pedagógico, mas há diferenças de investimento, significativamente maior na educação superior. Os relatórios, por sua vez, sugerem a realização de atividades/rotinas parecidas no processo de construção e socialização do conhecimento científico, materializadas em textos que evidenciam conhecimentos e dificuldades que independem do nível de ensino. Na situação por nós investigada, portanto, há mais semelhanças do que diferenças entre a iniciação científica no ensino médio e superior, principalmente quanto aos aspectos formativos, apesar de desenvolver-se em ambientes diferentes.
... When reading and writing are presented as neutral skills that students can learn to acquire (Street, 1984), educators risk students not understanding how literacy is bound up in their liberation (Freire, 1968) and is always connected to power and authority (Street, 1984). Every curricular choice-including the decision to focus on neutral and decontextualized skills, readings, and topics-is a political choice. ...
... When reading and writing are presented as neutral skills that students can learn to acquire (Street, 1984), educators risk students not understanding how literacy is bound up in their liberation (Freire, 1968) and is always connected to power and authority (Street, 1984). Every curricular choice-including the decision to focus on neutral and decontextualized skills, readings, and topics-is a political choice. ...
Article
Published in: Michigan Reading Journal. This article draws on the long history of movement building, culturally responsive and sustaining pedagogies, and abolitionist solidarity in presenting a way to bridge ELA standards and humanizing curriculum. The authors’ present their vision of pedagogies for coalitional liberation through five actionable and manageable tenets of practice. These tenets have been formulated to guide teachers in designing their own units or lessons. Each tenet is described in detail and accompanied by classroom examples from a critical qualitative research inquiry that foregrounds one pre-service teacher’s intentional curriculum co-design. The examples show how teachers can move with their students moving from theory to practice, or praxis. We note that the potential of these pedagogies in practice were made possible through the strong justice-orientation of their mentor teacher. We conclude with implications for both liberatory teacher-organizers and a necessary call to action for bold administrators and leaders.
... In this study bumper stickers are positioned as a significant communicative mode that surfaces the text makers' and the text users' ideologies and how commuters are implicated in these texts to act and believe in particular ways (Albers, Vasquez, and Harste 2011;Albers et al. 2019;Harste 2003;Janks 2014aJanks , 2014bVasquez 2004;Vasquez, Albers, and Harste 2017). As texts, bumper stickers are not autonomous selfcontained products but are located within sociocultural contexts (Street 1984). They are a unique genre embedded in the social literacy practices (Street 1984) of taxi drivers, whom Breier, Taetsane, and Sait (1996) construed as "illiterate" or "semi-literate". ...
... As texts, bumper stickers are not autonomous selfcontained products but are located within sociocultural contexts (Street 1984). They are a unique genre embedded in the social literacy practices (Street 1984) of taxi drivers, whom Breier, Taetsane, and Sait (1996) construed as "illiterate" or "semi-literate". These stickers offer opportunities for important learning as students undertake the processes of collection, description and analysis central to the research project. ...
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This article describes a critical literacy research project undertaken with English Additional Language students at a South African township school. Students were invited to take on the position of researchers in gathering and analysing bumper stickers found in commuter minibuses known as itekisi (taxi). These everyday texts in English and African languages are salient for the students’ discourse communities. Bringing them into English lessons validates the use of languages and discourses that multilingual students inhabit and draws on their ability to move fluidly between languages. Framed by critical discourse analysis theory, this project aimed to facilitate students’ abilities to develop and use critical literacy knowledge and skills in analysing taxi bumper stickers. The findings indicate that the students were able to demonstrate some criticality as they investigated multiple interpretations of the texts by community members and themselves. Inviting students to investigate texts drawn from their own communities was envisaged as enabling their development as critical readers with a social justice orientation to texts. However, their relentless negativity towards taxi drivers made it difficult for them to keep their focus on the texts, suggesting that teachers’ selection of salient texts for lessons with a focus on critical literacy may not always achieve the intended outcomes.
... De tankegångar som Barton (2007) har om begreppen literacypraktiker och literacyhändelser återfinns hos Street (1984Street ( , 2000. Street är den forskare som introducerade begreppet literacypraktik, som en reaktion mot den autonoma synen på literacy som kognitiva förmågor utan hänsyn till den sociala och kulturella kontexten (Street, 1984(Street, , 1993. ...
... De tankegångar som Barton (2007) har om begreppen literacypraktiker och literacyhändelser återfinns hos Street (1984Street ( , 2000. Street är den forskare som introducerade begreppet literacypraktik, som en reaktion mot den autonoma synen på literacy som kognitiva förmågor utan hänsyn till den sociala och kulturella kontexten (Street, 1984(Street, , 1993. Street (2000Street ( , 2003 understryker att literacy är beroende av den kontext i vilken läsandet och skrivandet används. ...
... Tais propostas, na realidade, representaram focos de atuação no interior da corrente, pois reivindicavam uma maior atenção para os usos sociais da escrita na expansão das Novas Tecnologias de Informação e Comunicação (NTDICs); uma elaboração mais detalhada sobre como trabalhar os letramentos na diversidade cultural e semiótica em projetos escolares; e as relações entre os letramentos e os discursos multimodais. Tal efervescência de estudos levou a uma categorização dos Estudos do Letramento em três gerações: 1) a dos trabalhos seminais de Shirley Brice Heath, Ways with words (HEATH, 1983), e de Brian Street, Literacy in theory and practice(STREET, 1984); 2) a dos vários estudos empíricos conduzidos em contextos locais; e 3) os trabalhos empíricos que estendem as fronteiras da pesquisa sobre os letramentos, deslocando-a para um foco translocal, dos letramentos impressos para os letramentos digitais e multimidiáticos, dos letramentos verbais para os letramentos multimodais (BAYNHAM e PRINSLOO, 2009). ...
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Breves palavras sobre a contribuição de Brian Street para os estudos do letramento
... Indeed, relational theory is highly relevant to learning and teaching, and researchers have emphasized that education should focus less on the isolated learner self, and more on the relational (Gergen, 2009;Gergen & Wortham, 2001;Wortham & Jackson, 2012). Street (1984) studied the relational processes involved in literacy, and Barton and Hamilton (1998) built on this research to look at how adult literacy in particular is contextualized and embedded within relational frameworks. In higher education, Ramsden (2008) emphasized the importance of improving the teacherstudent relationship to improve teacher performance and subsequently, student outcome. ...
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Previous research on the foreign language (FL) learner has yielded a rich body of knowledge on personality, individual differences, and conceptions of the self as a measure of motivation. While these contributions have greatly enriched our understanding of learner psychology, the current paper proposes an analytical framing of language learning based on relational theory, which positions human relationships with others as the main driver of the psyche and behavior. As human beings are relationally dependent from birth, according to this theory, the self can only be conceptualized in relation to others. Applied to language learning, this perspective shifts the focus from the attainment of knowledge as an individual, private endeavor, to a relational process in which students and teacher are interwoven perforce. As part of a larger study on student perceptions of teacher emotion, qualitative data were collected as case studies from eight adult learners and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results support the power of the teacher-student relationship to influence and motivate students both positively and negatively, affirming the notion of FL learning as a relational process in accordance with Gergen’s (2009) notion that relationships are not merely the self interacting with the other but a true confluence.
... 2). The study is grounded in the literacies as a social practice tradition (Barton, 2001; Barton & Hamilton, 1998;Barton, Hamilton, & Ivanic, 2005;Gee, 2000;Heath, 1982;Street, 1984). The use of text is social, and the definition of literacy is evolving due to the prevalence of digital texts, tools, and applications that are ubiquitous within daily interactions (Leu et al. 2013). ...
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The study examines the collaborative nature of problem solving as dyads and triads of adults were grouped to solve digital problems using online resources. Digital problem solving involves the nimble use of skills, strategies, and mindsets to navigate online in everyday contexts using novel resources, tools, and interfaces, in efficient and flexible ways, to accomplish personal and professional goals. Findings address the nature of collaborative talk during digital problem solving through three interrelated categories of themes gleaned from discourse analysis: (a) power, (b) relationships, and (c) participation. These themes offer a nuanced understanding of collaborative interactions during digital problem solving. Implications from this research suggest ways to design collaborative activities and support dialogic interaction, whether among adolescents or adults, during online learning, in formal education settings or informally in other settings where collaboration occurs.
... Literacy cannot be strictly defined technically, but rather it is a set of practices determined by a community's language ideology. It can be interpreted in many ways that are determined by political, social, and economic forces (Street, 1984;Betti, 2013: 1). ...
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... Indeed, relational theory is highly relevant to learning and teaching, and researchers have emphasized that education should focus less on the isolated learner self, and more on the relational (Gergen, 2009;Gergen & Wortham, 2001;Wortham & Jackson, 2012). Street (1984) studied the relational processes involved in literacy, and Barton and Hamilton (1998) built on this research to look at how adult literacy in particular is contextualized and embedded within relational frameworks. In higher education, Ramsden (2008) emphasized the importance of improving the teacherstudent relationship to improve teacher performance and subsequently, student outcome. ...
Article
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Previous research on the foreign language (FL) learner has yielded a rich body of knowledge on personality, individual differences, and conceptions of the self as a measure of motivation. While these contributions have greatly enriched our understanding of learner psychology, the current paper proposes an analytical framing of language learning based on relational theory, which positions human relationships with others as the main driver of the psyche and behavior. As human beings are relationally dependent from birth, according to this theory, the self can only be conceptualized in relation to others. Applied to language learning, this perspective shifts the focus from the attainment of knowledge as an individual, private endeavor, to a relational process in which students and teacher are interwoven perforce. As part of a larger study on student perceptions of teacher emotion, qualitative data were collected as case studies from eight adult learners and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results support the power of the teacher-student relationship to influence and motivate students both positively and negatively, affirming the notion of FL learning as a relational process in accordance with Gergen’s (2009) notion that relationships are not merely the self interacting with the other but a true confluence.
... With the help of social culture theory, ethnography and post-colonialism, the social and cultural nature of literacy has drawn worldwide attention. Street (1984) examined community literacy practices in Iran and concluded that Western academic models of literacy failed to represent the different ways in which literacy was embedded in cultural practices. Viruru (2013) concluded that young children's literacy instruction all around the world are being modeled on Euro-Western models of education mostly for economic reasons. ...
Article
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p> Since 2001, there is a hot debate on Curriculum Reform of Elementary Education (CRED) in China which is called a debate between Child-centered and Rationalism. The policies of CRED adovates play-based model and since 2017 focuses on Chinese traditional culture learning. However, some people believe play is opposed to linguistic education and the moon in the west is more round than in China. Operating in the paradoxes, Chinese kindergarten teachers always are faced with dilemmas: should the teacher obey the government’s guidance, or satisfy parents’ English learning preference and literacy readiness oriented requirements? Few studies have examined how Chinese kindergarten teachers struggled for early literacy and linguistic education. In this article we examined twenty teachers’ understandings on play-based curriculum and play-literacy relationships. Comparing with the two popular positions toward Chinese play-based linguistic curriculum reforms, Chinese kindergarten teachers tend to hold a golden means. With the professional development of the kindergarten teacher, education approaches in Chinese kindergarten education based on play and local cultures will be used more often and more extensively. Under such circumstances, the English teaching and learning at the kindergarten level is also believed very important to cultivate global citizens and Chinese national citizens. </p
... Fourth, connecting classroom literacy learning with family and community practices enabled the culturally sustaining pedagogical practices that the teacher of immigrant transnational adolescents enacted in their classroom, school, and community settings to be demonstrated by making space for their students to embody what they learned in class in their family, school, and community settings (Jeong, 2021). Multilingual students learn on the move, manifesting the concept of literacy as social practice (Street, 1984) and identity practice (Gee, 2008). Laura's multilingual students during their in-person classes walked around the school buildings to see, feel, talk, draw, and embody their inquiry through movement. ...
... This is mainly because many of them believe there is and should be a universal code for writing, especially in the academic setting, called standard written English (SWE) and teachers should help their students acquire this specific code through learning how to write academically (Canagarajah, 2013). These arguments are implicated with the dominant ideology of "autonomous literacy" (Street, 1984, cited in Canagarajah, 2011b) that "texts are static products that contain self-evident meaning that can be extricated through detached reading" (Canagarajah, 2011b, p. 7). According to this ideology, it does not inculcate any power imbalance between so-called "native speaker" and "non-native speaker" writers because it suggests that SWE is not native to any particular group of people including "nativespeakers". ...
Chapter
The recent epistemological shift in applied linguistics to a more postmodern orientation, which celebrates and embraces the mobility and diversity of languages, has fundamentally influenced the way languages are perceived and examined in both pedagogy and research (Pennycook, 2010). Accordingly, second and foreign language teaching has also turned its focus to more fluid, dynamic, and multitudinous entities (Canagarajah, 2013). However, such a drastic shift has not yet filtered through to how academic writing is taught in the classroom. In EFL writing classrooms, academic writing is still predominantly occupied with monolingual discourses where English is regarded as the only language that students are allowed to utilize in writing. In addition, the pedagogy of academic writing is imbued with native-speakerist ideologies where Western writing conventions are normalized. In such learning environments, emergent multilingual students do not seem to have sufficient spaces to negotiate and engage with translingual practice in their literacy acquisition. In this chapter, we first critique current practices concerning the teaching of academic writing. Then, we make an experimental proposal for a de-nativized, translingual approach to academic writing which empowers students who bring multilingual identities and resources into the classroom, with a particular emphasis on the Japanese context.
... Tracing the Uptake of Expert in Young Children's Writing: Thinking with Rhetorical Genre Studies and Mediated Discourse Analysis Grounded in sociocultural theories of literacy-particularly New Literacy Studies (Street, 1984)-I see literacy practice shaped by a range of social, historical, material, and individual factors. A sociocultural perspective views writing, and literacy more broadly, as mediated actions between agents and their cultural tools (Vygotsky, 1978;Wertsch, 1991). ...
Article
Drawing on data from a yearlong qualitative study examining how children in a multi-age (6-9 years) classroom utilized technology to write across genres, this article examines the gendered negotiation and discursive uptake of expert in early childhood writing. Zeroing in on genius hour as a "site of engagement," the author thinks with rhetorical genre studies and mediated discourse analysis to examine how four second-grade writers positioned themselves as "experts" across the nexus of school writing. Findings highlight how expert-both conceptually and in practice-became gendered and was interdiscursively traced through three threads: the relational, the historical, and the distributive. Through analyses of young students writing in situ, this article contributes new understandings to thinking about children's navigation of genres, not only as rhetorical typifications of academic and disciplinary discourse but as unique social actions of curricular play and gendered uptake.
... Within the review, very few examples of research in the field of science literacies at the middle school level considered the notion of 'literacies', multiliteracies, multimodality, or evaluative skills (Coiro et al. 2008;Cope and Kalantzis 2000;Hinchman and O'Brien 2019). This stands in contrast to the last 30 years of NLS which has sought to broaden what is meant by literacy beyond pen and paper (Gee 1990;Street 1984) and foreground an approach to literacy which privileges 'culturally sensitive teaching' (Villegas 1991) around the rich literacy lifeworlds of students, drawing on critical literacy, student cultural lifeworlds and socio-cultural influences. Broadening conceptions of science literacy that support the interconnectedness of science, literacy, and student lifeworlds may support young people as they make meaning (Calabrese Barton et al. 2013;Zipin 2009). ...
Article
Literacy skills are essential if students are to access knowledge and achieve academic success in middle school science. A key difficulty with interpreting literacy practices in any discipline is the problem of conceptualising what constitutes literacy. Our study contributes new understandings to the discipline of science where there are ongoing debates concerning the meaning of literacy and confusion regarding what constitutes essential literacies in the field. Our scoping review first identifies how literacy in middle school science is conceptualised in empirical studies published between 2006 and 2019 and, second, addresses a significant gap in understandings by identifying how dominant discourses inform practice. Specifically, our findings show the dominance of a narrow conception of literacy in the science classroom relating to skills-based pedagogic instruction. Based on our review, we conclude that the field of science requires a broadening of what constitutes literacy, and engagement with New Literacy Studies which focuses on literacy as a social practice closely interwoven with student identities.
... Literacy, however, is not only a cognitive process and is certainly not limited to school practices or to reading comprehension. These observations have motivated closer examination of how people engage with literacy across personal and professional spaces (e.g., home, church, work, school) (Street, 1984). In the 1980s, the field of New Literacy Studies emerged as researchers argued that literacy should not be limited to the ability to read and to write; rather, it should be discussed and studied as it unfolds as a social activity in specific spaces (Pahl & Rowsell, 2012) given that each space affords individuals opportunities to practice different literacy events and, in doing so, enact different facets of their identities. ...
Article
In the context of additional language (AL) learning, teachers need to focus on the development of language proficiency as well as on high-level literacy skills, for example, comprehending and evaluating information and creating new meaning. From a plurilingual perspective, AL learners’ first language (L1) is conceputalised as a useful tool in the development of target language proficiency; however, limited information exists concerning AL teachers’ beliefs towards the use of the L1 for high-level literacy instruction despite its potential utility for complex skill development. The aim of the present exploratory study was to examine the beliefs of in-service teachers of English as an additional language (EAL) working in the Quebec primary and secondary school system in francophone Canada regarding plurilingual approaches for classroom literacy practices and to uncover the factors that influence their beliefs. An online survey was distributed to in-service EAL teachers ( N = 57) working in the province of Quebec, Canada. Findings suggest that teachers believe that it is most beneficial to adopt a monolingual lens to literacy instruction, a belief that denies learners’ use of their L1 and this, in a bilingual country. Implications for teacher education programs that challenge a monolingual lens are explored.
... Ao recuperar o contexto histórico dos letramentos acadêmicos e que exercem grande influência sobre o trabalho contemporâneo do linguista aplicado, Fiad destaca que propostas de se pensar as práticas com a leitura e escrita na esfera acadêmica surgem da compreensão de que a formação universitária também demandava ações específicas, visto que havia processos interacionais letrados aos quais uma transposição acrítica da perspectiva escolar não seria suficiente, requerendo o desenvolvimento e a expansão dos novos estudos de letramento existentes (STREET, 1984;BARTON, 1994;BAYNHAM, 1995). ...
Experiment Findings
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PHD dissertation in Linguistics
... The very same practices also involve a series of interrelated activities-from offscreen movement to use of controller, body, and/or speech to interaction with players (e.g., avatars, teammates, spectators) to trial-anderror decision making-aspects of meaning making that cannot be identified, analyzed, and/or explained solely through the lens of traditional literacy. Thus, the expansiveness of literacy (i.e., literacies), which began to take shape in the late 20 th century (Barton, 1994(Barton, , 2001Gee, 1996Gee, , 1999New London Group, 1996;Street, 1984Street, , 1995Street, , 1999 has become an understanding embedded in explorations of student learning, in general, and in explorations of videogaming and student learning, in particular. This special issue L1: Education Studies in Languages and Literature, titled Gaming and Literacies, offers is a range of discussions of literacy and videogaming practices, and the mélange of research featured-from systematic reviews of literature to empirical investigations of gaming inside and outside the classroom-not only emphasizes the complexity of gaming and literacies, but also helps to advance understandings of how digital games and their related practices can inform L1 education. ...
... Within uneven cultural, political, and social geographies, particular forms of literacy are dominant and hold more value, whether for economic, social, or cultural gain. Situated perspectives of literacy taken up by New Literacies Studies (NLS) highlight the nature of reading as multiple and situated, as only understood in contexts of use (Barton & Hamilton, 1998;Heath, 1986;Street, 1984). The concept of multiliteracies recognizes that a wide range of linguistic, cultural, social, and technological literacies (New London Group, 1996) exist and that students in this globalized world must be able to handle a wide range of literacies, from traditional language-based literacies to new literacies, such as digital literacy skills (Coiro, 2020). ...
Article
In this article, Chin Ee Loh, Baoqi Sun, and Chan-Hoong Leong utilize a critical spatial perspective to examine how students from different socioeconomic statuses access reading resources at home, in school, and in the community. Using Geographic Information System (GIS) data, they evaluate the distribution of reading resources in Singapore by mapping out students’ physical distances to libraries and bookstores. They juxtapose the data against case studies of students and survey data from more than six thousand participants from six secondary schools in Singapore to understand their use of resources for reading. Findings show that while students may have equal access to reading resources in terms of access to public resources for books, home backgrounds significantly affect students’ actual access. The critical spatial approach of this study provides a new way to evaluate the efficacy and equity of resource distribution and access for twenty-first-century learning.
... In the 1980s, there was increased attention to the idea that literacy is not an autonomous skill, but is deeply influenced by social, cultural, political, and economic factors (Street, 1985). As Bertha Pérez (1998) has eloquently said, literacy practices are culture-specific ways of knowing. ...
... Nonetheless, the tokenism of Nuosu script in the LL raises questions about the usefulness of legislating the LL, and if there might be other, less tokenistic ways of strengthening local languages. Street (1984) identified two competing models of literacy which he called "autonomous" and "ideological." The autonomous model considers literacy a neutral (detached from social contexts) technology evaluated solely or primarily on how elegantly and efficiently it gives a one-to-one correspondence between phonemes and symbols. ...
Article
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Nuosu script, a unique character-based script with a long history, permeates the public spaces of Xichang, the capital of the Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture in southwest China. Using interviews, photos, observations, and documents, this qualitative study discovers the uses and meanings of Nuosu script in the linguistic landscape (LL). The research findings reveal surprising disjunctions between language policy and lived experience. Rather than communicating linguistic messages on the surface, Nuosu script has a sociocultural subtext supporting ethnic pride and collective identity. The script is an important marker of Nuosu culture even for those who cannot read. Nuosu in the LL carries little of the information load, is subordinate to Chinese writing in prominence, functions as a cultural token, and does not prioritise accuracy or naturalness. Nonetheless, Nuosu people affirm that seeing Nuosu script in public spaces helps to develop their language and preserve their culture. The results of this ethnographic study make important contributions to our understanding of writing systems and linguistic landscapes. The uses and meanings of Nuosu script in Xichang illustrate how orthographies, language policies, and local language communities in multilingual and multicultural environments interact to negotiate and construct identities in broader political and social contexts.
... Þar hafa hugmyndir nefndar New Literacy Studies (NLS) verið áberandi. Fraeðimenn sem aðhyllast það sjónarhorn beina athygli að því að í vinnu með laesi þurfi að huga betur en tíðkast hefur að hinu félagsmenningarlega samhengi þar sem lestur og ritun koma við sögu (Gee, 2000(Gee, , 2004Street, 1984Street, , 2001. Þeir telja mikilvaegt að huga að þessu ytra umhverfi vegna þess að fólk notar tungumál og texta á ólíkan hátt í mismunandi aðstaeðum. ...
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Í þessari grein segi ég frá þriggja ára starfstengdri sjálfsrýni (e. self-study) á eigin starfsháttum sem heyrandi íslenskukennari í kennslu nemenda með táknmál að móðurmáli. Tilgangur rannsóknarinnar var að skoða eigin kennslu út frá félagsmenningarlegum hugmyndum um læsi. Markmið rannsóknarinnar var að draga fram augnablik í kennslu til að skoða hvernig eigin viðhorf, aðstæður og kennsluhættir ýmist sköpuðu eða takmörkuðu tækifæri nemenda til að nýta eigin mál- og menningarauðlindir í íslenskunáminu. Fræðilegar undirstöður rannsóknar eru annarsvegar félagsmenningarlegar hugmyndir um læsi og hinsvegar félagsmenningarlegar hugmyndur um nám og kennslu nemenda með táknmál að móðurmáli. Hugmyndir um Orðræður með stóru O-i og fjöltáknun gegna mikilvægu hlutverki í að koma auga á undirliggjandi áherslur í kennslu og hvað hefur áhrif á störf kennara. Rannsóknargögn eru þátttökuathuganir, skrif í rannsóknardagbók, hálfopin viðtöl við foreldra og nemendur og verkefni nemenda.Niðurstöður rannsóknarinnar gefa til kynna að til að byggja kennslu á auðlindum nemenda hafi ég þurft að leggja mig fram um að greina mótsagnakenndar hugmyndir um læsi eins og þær birtust í hugsunum mínum sem og athöfnum og orðum innan skólaumhverfisins. Á þeim grunni gat ég farið að endurhugsa eigin starfshætti með það fyrir augum að skapa nemendum rými þar sem þeir gætu nýtt mál- og menningarauðlindir sínar í námi. Í þeirri vinnu áttaði ég mig á mikilvægi ritunar í íslenskunámi nemenda með táknmál að móðurmáli. Að lokum varpa niðurstöður rannsóknarinnar ljósi á mikilvægi stöðu minnar sem rannsakanda í því umbreytingarferli sem ég þurfti að fara í gegnum sem kennari til að bera kennsl á margvíslegar mál- og menningarauðlindir nemenda.
... Halliday's research to include design, which provided the beginnings of a multimodal framework in literacy studies (Collier & Rowsell, 2014). Other academics also looked at the social aspects of literacy and addressing issues of power and ideology in those decades, such as Street (1984) and Gee (1996). ...
Thesis
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This feminist qualitative research study is driven by two questions: (1) In what ways does feminist street art create pop ups of informal learning in public spaces, both online and offline? (2) How might street art, created by feminist street artists, be considered a feminist literacy practice that provides a point of entry for women, and those who identify as women, to participate in the shaping of community and global conversations? Data from various sources and media were analyzed: interviews with feminist street artists, social media feeds, photographs, online articles, audio interviews, documentaries and my own personal journal entries. I argue that feminist street art, as artifacts, and the actions associated with its production, can be considered a form of feminist public pedagogy that facilitates informal learning outside of traditional educational systems and also encourages women to contribute to the conversations happening in their communities, both online and in real life. Finally, the dissertation discusses how refusing the division between artifact and action supports the emergence of feminist street art as feminist literacy praxis.
... These indexes, which privilege English-medium scholarship (Beigel et al., 2018), impact in complex ways on institutional research evaluation (e.g., Kirchik et al., 2012) and individual scholars' practices around the world, affecting individual and institutional status and rankings (Cargill et al., 2019;Bennett, 2014;Feng et al., 2013;Smirnova et al., 2021;Tian et al., 2016). Whilst citations tend to be treated within such regimes as objective measures of research quality, both bibliometric studies and sociolinguistic case studies indicate that far from being neutral or 'autonomous' (Street, 1984), citation practices are bound up with aspects of identity and legitimacy, refracted through the politics of location, that is, questions about which writers from which contexts in which languages are cited in which texts and why . ...
Article
This paper introduces a paired text history methodology to explore the citation practices of three experienced Russian scholars in philosophy, sociology, and economics. The empirical focus is on the analysis of three paired text histories, comparing Russian-medium research articles with English-medium research articles in each discipline. By analyzing the paired text histories through the use of multiple data sources – article drafts, email correspondence surrounding text production, and interviews – focusing specifically on the changes made to citations in each pair, the paper seeks to throw light on both micro and macro level knowledge production practices. At the micro level, the paper analyses changes made to citations across English and Russian-medium texts, documenting the involvement of literacy brokers, their evaluative requests about citations, and authors’ responses to such requests. At the macro level, the paper raises questions about what counts as ‘citeworthy’ in different geolinguistic contexts and considers the consequences of citation brokering and citation practices for knowledge production and circulation globally.
Article
With the unprecedented increase of forced displacement in recent years, there has been a growing concern with how children from migrant and refugee backgrounds adjust to resettlement in Western schools. Adopting a sociocultural approach to science education, the authors explore how scientific concepts related to the water cycle and practices such as modelling are realized multimodally through play. By means of two constructive and imaginative play activities, block building and scrapbook making, illustrative examples showcase how four children from migrant and refugee backgrounds repurposed various multimodal resources to make sense of scientific concepts, use scientific language, and problem solve in relation to their life experiences beyond the classroom. Implications encourage teachers to consider designing content‐area language instruction infused with play‐based activities to give rise to alternative avenues through which emerging bi/multilingual learners can take risks, be engaged cognitively, and apply their new knowledge creatively.
Book
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Es una obra colectiva que aborda las desigualdades educativas con un posicionamiento epistémico, ético y político, a partir de las distintas miradas de investigadores de Argentina, Brasil y México, para transformarlas en un conjunto de voces que conversan, como una condición única en el acto de educar e investigar con y entre las diferencias.
Article
This paper complicates oracy by attending to moments of vibrancy and stillness in a public school classroom, where children were expected to follow particular rules that governed their bodily movement and language use. I argue that children's talk in classrooms cannot be separated from the making of meaning at the intersection of human bodies, materials and immaterial forces, including discourses of schooling and schooled literacy. To do so, I utilise teacher interviews and video‐recorded observations from a second grade classroom in the Republic of Cyprus, and analyse those drawing on an understanding of talk as embodied: as occurring through bodies, as part of and in conjunction with bodily movement, regulated and regulating, and yet not fully determining what being a child‐learner in a classroom means. I present findings from this analysis in three interrelated moves as I connect talk and silence to local classroom rules, to discourses of literacy and schooling that discipline the (talking) body, and to the contingency of embodied talk in a particular classroom event. Τhis multilayered reading provides insights into the ways in which oracy is part of an assemblage that, among others, brings together and pulls apart teachers' and children's talk, institutional discourses, and always already vibrant bodies.
Article
En un restaurante en el centro de México, los dueños colocaron una figura de san Antonio de Padua, parado de cabeza. Al poco tiempo de inaugurarse, en apego al culto tradicional a san Antonio, los propietarios empezaron a encontrar cartas adheridas a la superficie del santo, por lo que decidieron ubicar un atril con un libro de actas donde comensales podrían escribirle una carta al santo. El contexto de un espacio con motivos religiosos en un restaurante creó un espacio híbrido de lo sagrado y lo profano, un contraste que se observa en las cartas que las comensales allí escribieron. La finalidad de este artículo es examinar algunas de estas cartas y explorar las semejanzas y diferencias entre ellas en su estructura, tono, uso de lenguaje y discurso. Se ilustra cómo las diferencias se explican por la coexistencia de posibles posicionamientos y prácticas sociales presentes en el mundo social de las autoras.
Article
Digital literacy is viewed by many governments as an educational priority area, resulting in policies and curricula aimed at developing students’ digital literacy skills. This can present many challenges, including lacking teacher professional development, uneven digital infrastructure across school districts or unequal access to digital media among students. In this article, I focus on a different challenge that stems from differing definitions of digital literacy among educational researchers, teachers, and educational policy makers and the tensions that can arise from these differences for teachers who are tasked with developing learners’ digital literacy. Specifically, I discuss how I have merged a curricular mandate for a skills‐heavy digital literacy policy with my theoretical conviction of literacy as social practice in my teaching of a tertiary course on digital literacy. To do so, I first critically examine Singapore’s recent digital literacy curriculum reform with reference to a larger divide between conceptualizations of digital literacy as technical, decontextualized skills related to employability on the one hand and as social practice rooted in students’ lived experiences on the other. Second, I discuss my efforts at combining these two perspectives in teaching digital media literacy, highlighting how we can foster digital ‘skills’ and critical engagement with digital media while providing space for playful and creative communicative practice.
Article
Research on academic socialization has predominately focused on the L2 educational experiences of international students. While foreign language (FL) research has explored "multiliteracies" and "intercultural learning," literacy in a FL continues to be understood as the use of foreign words and grammar combined with culturally familiar reading and writing practices. This article, which is conceptual in nature, highlights the potential to socialize US FL learners to literacy practices from the target culture. It reports on an upper-division French literature and composition course that was redesigned to socialize students at UC Berkeley to two French academic genres, namely, the "explication de texte" and "commentaire composé." The insights from the present project, which are not language-specific and hold relevance for undergraduate and graduate students alike, encourage critical reflection within FL departments on what is--and can be--entailed by literacy in additional languages.
Article
Reading levels and levelled reading have been tried and true teaching tools used for assessment and to guide the teaching of reading in classrooms for decades. However, identifying students' reading levels does not necessarily lead to success in reading for students. In strictly adhering to an instructional routine based on reading levels and choosing books based on those levels, we miss valuable opportunities to identify and celebrate children's current and learned reading practices, and importantly adhere to students' reading interests. In this article, we draw on self‐determination theory from the field of motivation to rethink how we are framing our students as readers, and further urge educators to look critically at their use of reading levels and levelled reading. As opposed to solely relying on the tried and tested ways of working with readers, we instead offer an opportunity for teachers to bolster students' well‐being by focusing on their motivational needs and their efficacy as readers. In designing reading instruction and activities around students' interests, choice, abilities, and interactions in the class community, we can empower students, foster their lifelong love of reading, and support their development as strong and strategic readers.
Chapter
A aplicação das tecnologias de informação e comunicação à educação (como o uso dos games como locus de aprendizagem e a midiatização do conhecimento na EAD), o reconhecimento da diversidade cultural, a valorização das trocas interculturais, a importância da ética e dos valores e da história oral de vida, a definição de políticas públicas e a atualidade do pensamento de Freinet, Vigotsky e Paulo Freire são alguns dos temas discutidos neste livro. Se seu tema central é a educação e os desafios que a contemporaneidade apresenta para a formação de profissionais da área, sua maior virtude é não desconhecer as densidades interpretativas que surgem com estas reflexões
Article
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Grapholinguistics, the multifaceted study of writing systems, is growing increasingly popular, yet to date no coherent account covering and connecting its major branches exists. This book now gives an overview of the core theoretical and empirical questions of this field. A treatment of the structure of writing systems—their relation to speech and language, their material features, linguistic functions, and norms, as well as the different types in which they come—is complemented by perspectives centring on the use of writing, incorporating psycholinguistic and sociolinguistic issues such as reading processes or orthographic variation as social action. Examples stem from a variety of diverse systems such as Chinese, English, Japanese, Arabic, Thai, German, and Korean, which allows defining concepts in a broadly applicable way and thereby constructing a comparative grapholinguistic framework that provides readers with important tools for studying any writing system. The book emphasizes that grapholinguistics is a discipline in its own right, inviting discussion and further research in this up-and-coming field as well as an overdue integration of writing into general linguistic discussion.
Article
In this article, we draw on sociocultural perspectives on literacy to explore the ways in which pre‐engineering students took up and made sense of engineering notebooks implemented as part of a robotics project in a first‐semester university study course at a large, public Hispanic‐Serving Institution. Through ethnographic methods, we uncovered two primary sets of uses for the notebooks: (1) recording and remembering and (2) problem solving and decision‐making. The study illustrates the ways in which entering college students, especially those from underrepresented groups who seek to become engineers, may take up opportunities to “try out” disciplinary literacies through meaningful engagement with the practices of the discipline.
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