Poblamiento Paleoindio en el norte-centro de Chile: Evidencias, problemas y perspectivas de estudio

Complutum 01/2004; 15.
Source: OAI


Este artículo presenta una revisión de las evidencias de sitios Paleoindios en el área comprendida entre el Norte Grande y Centro de Chile, caracterizando contextos, marco paleoambiental y relaciones culturales. Sólo se consideran contextos culturales asociados con fauna extinta y sitios con instrumentos líticos tipológicamente diagnósticos del periodo. Se discuten las evidencias y sus asociaciones culturales, los problemas interpretativos de los sitios a nivel regional, la existencia de ocupaciones anteriores a 11.500 años B.P. y algunos lineamientos para el estudio de los primeros poblamientos Paleoindios en el Norte-Centro de Chile.

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    • "Highaltitude areas of the Chilean and Argentine Andes were first occupied after 13,000 cal BP. The earliest occupations, north of 25 S, date between 12,000 and 13,000 cal BP (Fig. 5), while the majority of these early sites were first occupied after 11,500 cal BP as part of a regional demographic increase (Jackson et al., 2004;Grosjean et al., 2005;Rivero and Berberi an, 2008;Osorio et al., 2011;Yacobaccio and Morales, 2011;Latorre et al., 2013;Rademaker et al., 2014). At this point, glaciers were receding as low temperatures and a significant dry period were coming to an end, making resourcerich , high-altitude valleys more accessible. "
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    ABSTRACT: In the southern Andes, Holocene climate records show drastic changes in moisture during the early and middle Holocene. To generate a more refined chronology of climate changes in this region, we present a Bayesian model that combines published cosmogenic dates from the Encierro Valley (29.1°S) and radiocarbon dates on peat and soils from the western slope of the Andes (27–33°S). We compare this to a similar model from the high-altitude archaeological site ARQ-18 in the Las Taguas Valley (29.5°S), San Juan, Argentina. These chronologies indicate synchronous changes in climate and occupational intensity, which shed light on hunter-gatherer mobility decisions. This site was first occupied in the early Holocene, when nearby valleys were deglaciated by around 10,700 cal BP. ARQ-18 was occupied a few centuries later around 10,100 cal BP. The site was first colonized during a regional wet phase, probably by hunters from the highlands to north who moved quickly among humid high-altitude valleys. As regional moisture began dropping around 8700–7800 cal BP, occupational intensity at ARQ-18 reached a maximum as diverse groups gathered in the valley. At this point, an important environmental threshold was crossed as groups reversed their mobility patterns and decisions and did not occupy the site for 1700 years. This “archaeological silence” correlates closely with the middle Holocene's hyperaridity during 7800–5700 cal BP. As soon as humidity returned, groups began visiting the site again. From this point on, strategies increasingly incorporated herding in response to less stable environmental conditions.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Quaternary International
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    • "In localities such as Quebrada Quereo (Nuñez et al., 1994a) and El Membrillo (ca. 32 S) the remains of horses (Equus (Amerhippus) sp.) and camelids (Palaeolama sp.) are dominant (Jackson et al., 2004; Labarca and López, 2006), while the genus Antifer is the most common cervid in the Quereo and Tagua-Tagua sites (Jackson et al., 2004). Camelids have also been recorded in Monte Verde (Casamiquela and Dillehay, 1989; Labarca and Pino, 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Paleontological and archaeological sites have frequently been found in open locations of the Intermediate Depression of south-central Chile. This paper presents the results of two field sampling seasons carried out at the Pilauco Site (ca. 39°S) and compares them with those of three well known sites in Chile: Quereo, Tagua-Tagua and Monte Verde, ca. 32°, 34° and 41°S, respectively. Stratigraphic data collected at Pilauco and the resulting radiocarbon age model suggest that before 12,540 ± 90 BP the old Damas River eroded an older volcaniclastic hill, which was followed by a bog formation in an ox-bow lake. The site was developing up to 11,004 ± 186 BP, the date of the youngest vertebrate fossil. Two younger peat beds seal the site. As in Tagua-Tagua and Monte Verde, Gomphotheres are the most represented megafauna. Fossils of Equidae, Camelidae, Cervidae, Mephitidae, Muridae, Myocastoridae and Xenarthra are also found in Pilauco. As a whole, 718 bones, 30 teeth and 11 coprolites represent the extinct and extant vertebrates. Preliminary taphonomic results suggest action of various agents in the bones, i.e. trampling, root etching, abrasion, and carnivore gnawing. The spatial analysis suggests the transfer of smaller anatomical units (e.g. bones of camelids and horses) and the rearrangement of some pieces comparatively large (e.g. gomphothere bones). Similar to the present day north Patagonian landscape, the area where Pilauco site is located had a variety of animal resources, plants and stones in an ecotone between hills, floodplains and wetlands. A total of 101 lithics were recorded: basalt and quartzite were collected from nearby fluvial deposits and dacitic obsidian from the local volcaniclastic deposits. Debitage is the most represented lithic item (75%); cores and marginal edge-trimmed artifacts represented 12 and 13%, respectively. Artifacts and flakes are spatially and temporality associated in the same PB-7 bed with high bone concentrations in some specific areas, between 361 and 424 cm of local altitude. This industry is characterized by a recurrent lithic expedite technology with production of flakes and chips which mastered marginal retouches over the bifacial trimming. This seems to be connected to strategic conditions of high resource diversity, especially of human groups with a high or medium mobility across land. Pilauco represents a site contemporaneous to Monte Verde related as well to the first human occupation in the southern cone of South America, but with higher mammal diversity.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Quaternary International
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    • "edad y diversidad cultural de los primeros poblamientos humanos de Sudamérica ( de Souza 2004 ; Dillehay 2000 , 2002 ; Grosjean et al . 2005b ; Núñez et al . 2002 ; Osorio et al . 2011 ; Salazar et al . 2011 ) . Cabe destacar , por ejemplo , la ausencia de evidencias de megafauna extinta y puntas " cola de pescado " en la mayoría de estos sitios ( Jackson et al . 2004 ) . Todos estos yacimientos , sin embargo , son ante - cedidos en ~2 . 000 años por Monte Verde ( Dillehay 1997 ) , por lo que , dada la presencia de condiciones paleoecológicas propicias desde los 17 ka en la cuenca de Maní y en otras localidades del desierto de Atacama , se podría esperar la existencia de sitios anteriores 13 ka . Dad"
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    ABSTRACT: In South America, evidence of human occupation dates back to 14,600 calibrated years BP (14.6 ka). Yet, important areas such as the Atacama Desert, between latitude 17° to 21° S (northern Atacama), lack occupations older than 11,5 ka. Current hyperarid conditions in the Atacama have dissuaded many researchers from considering this region as a possible territory for Pleistocene-Holocene peoples. Paleoecological data, however, have suggested increased availability of water along the western slope of the Andes from 17.5-9.5 ka. Thus, we systematically searched for rodent middens and paleowetlands in the large canyons of the Andean Precordillera as well as the interfluves (1,000-3,000 masl). As a result, we identified specific habitats favorable for early human settling. This interdisciplinary and predictive methodological model, summarized in this paper, allowed us to identify several sites. Among these, Quebrada Maní 12 is the first Pleistocene-Holocene human occupation (~11.9 a 12.7 ka) known from the northern Atacama.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2011 · Chungará
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