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Taxonomy of the tribe Apieae (Apiaceae) revisited as revealed by molecular phylogenies and morphological characters


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The family Apiaceae is in the process of major systematic rearrangements at different taxonomic levels. In particular, molecular phylogenies of the tribe Apieae are generating heterogeneous assemblages of morphologically diverse taxa. We analysed a nearly complete taxonomic sample to evaluate the phylogenetic relationships within this tribe, and to review the most informative taxonomic characters of the fruit. Nuclear (ITS) and plastid (rps16) sequences allowed inferring phylogenetic relationships of species and genera of Apieae. Fruit morphology was studied with stereomicroscope, including overall observations and anatomical cross-sections. Both phylogenetic reconstructions were incongruent. Based on the ITS phylogeny, Apieae is arranged in two main clades, one containing most species of Stoibrax and the other clade formed by the rest of species of the tribe grouped into three well-supported subclades. The rps16 phylogeny shows the Anethum alliance to be basal, recovered in a weakly supported clade sister to the rest of the tribe, and a clade subdivided in six well-supported subclades. Nevertheless, three genera are revealed to be non-monophyletic in both phylogenetic reconstructions: Anethum, Seseli and Stoibrax. In the interest of the recognition of natural groups within Apieae, we proposed to create three new genera to accommodate the species that split from the three polyphyletic genera: Canaria for Seseli webbii, Modesciadium for Stoibrax involucratum, and Schoenoselinum for Anethum foeniculoides.
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Phytotaxa 212 (1): 057–079
Copyright © 2015 Magnolia Press Article PHYTOTAXA
ISSN 1179-3155 (print edition)
ISSN 1179-3163 (online edition)
Accepted by Marcus Lehnert: 3 Oct. 2014; published: 2 Jun. 2015
Taxonomy of the tribe Apieae (Apiaceae) revisited as revealed by molecular
phylogenies and morphological characters
1 Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid, Plaza de Murillo s.n., 28014 Madrid, Spain
2 Author for correspondence:
The family Apiaceae is in the process of major systematic rearrangements at different taxonomic levels. In particular, mo-
lecular phylogenies of the tribe Apieae are generating heterogeneous assemblages of morphologically diverse taxa. We anal-
ysed a nearly complete taxonomic sample to evaluate the phylogenetic relationships within this tribe, and to review the most
informative taxonomic characters of the fruit. Nuclear (ITS) and plastid (rps16) sequences allowed inferring phylogenetic
relationships of species and genera of Apieae. Fruit morphology was studied with stereomicroscope, including overall ob-
servations and anatomical cross-sections. Both phylogenetic reconstructions were incongruent. Based on the ITS phylogeny,
Apieae is arranged in two main clades, one containing most species of Stoibrax and the other clade formed by the rest of spe-
cies of the tribe grouped into three well-supported subclades. The rps16 phylogeny shows the Anethum alliance to be basal,
recovered in a weakly supported clade sister to the rest of the tribe, and a clade subdivided in six well-supported subclades.
Nevertheless, three genera are revealed to be non-monophyletic in both phylogenetic reconstructions: Anethum, Seseli and
Stoibrax. In the interest of the recognition of natural groups within Apieae, we proposed to create three new genera to ac-
commodate the species that split from the three polyphyletic genera: Canaria for Seseli webbii, Modesciadium for Stoibrax
involucratum, and Schoenoselinum for Anethum foeniculoides.
Key words: Carpology, polyphyly, taxonomy, Umbelliferae
The family Apiaceae (446 genera, 3540 spp; Mabberley 1997) is undergoing one of the major taxonomic re-arrangements
within the angiosperms. The current systematic knowledge of Apiaceae has changed in the light of recent molecular
phylogenies. Whereas some authors considered two major subfamilies, Saniculoideae (ca. 250 spp.; Mathias 1965) and
Apioideae (2827–2935 spp; Downie et al. 2010) plus the much smaller Azorelloideae and Mackinlayoideae (Nicolas &
Plunkett 2009), other authors circumscribed Saniculoideae as a tribe (Saniculeae) within Apioideae (Magee et al. 2010a).
Conciliation of taxonomy and molecular phylogenetics provides a more natural classification of the family, although
it implies changes that are taxonomically unexpected from a morphological point of view. Previous studies showed
the former subfamily Hydrocotyloideae to be polyphyletic (Nicolas & Plunkett 2009). The type genus (Hydrocotyle
L.) and allied genera were transferred to the family Araliaceae, whereas the remaining members (36 genera) were kept
in Apiaceae in a polyphyletic fashion. At least 18 genera of the subfamily Apioideae have been identified as “highly
polyphyletic” (Downie et al. 2010), some of them being artificial assemblages distributed worldwide, such as Angelica
L., Ligusticum L., Pimpinella L., Seseli L. or the so-called Peucedanum problem” (Winter et al. 2008). The tribal
re-arrangement of the Apiaceae based on molecular phylogenies resulted in the circumscription of morphologically
heterogeneous genera (Downie et al. 2010), in some cases still without nomenclatural recognition. Subsequently,
previously evaluated morphological and anatomical data need to be re-appraised in the light of solid phylogenetic
In particular, morphological polymorphisms within genera, together with extreme reduction of key taxonomic
characters and convergence of characters between distantly related groups, appear to account for misleading
classification of some Apiaceae groups. Within Apioideae, the comprehensive analysis performed by Downie et al.
(2010), which comprises more than half of the genera presently included in the subfamily (292 of 404), provided a
systematic scheme at the tribe and genus levels. These authors reported that tribe Apieae is composed of 12 genera,
most of them monotypic, plus Seseli webbii (see Table 1 for authors of the studied species). Although small, Apiae is a
58 Phytotaxa 212 (1) © 2015 Magnolia Press
complex tribe, displaying the complex variation detected in the other tribes within the family. The tribe includes plants
from annual to shrubby habit and from sub-aquatic to arid habitats; aromatic or not; with flat to linear, sometimes
promptly deciduous leaves; simple or composed inflorescences (umbellae) with or without bracts and bracteoles;
white, yellowish or greenish flowers; sometimes with calyx-like appendages; and with fruits smooth, finely tuberculate
or hairy, mostly with apparent ribs, and in a few cases even winged. Anatomical traits of the fruit have great taxonomic
interest in Apiaceae, although it has not been examined in detail within the current concept of the tribe Apieae as
a whole. Given the significant morphological variation, finding characters to define well-supported clades would
contribute to support a stable classification of the tribe.
From a biogeographic standpoint, the tribe Apieae displays a mainly Mediterranean distribution, spreading eastward
to the Arabian Peninsula, with a main diversity centre in the western Mediterranean. From the 12 genera, eleven occur
in the Iberian Peninsula, Balearic Islands, northwestern Africa and Macaronesia. Moreover, Naufraga Constance &
Cannon, Petroselinum Hill, Pseudoridolfia Reduron, Mathez & S.R.Downie, Sclerosciadium W.D.J.Koch ex DC.,
Seseli webbii Coss. and Stoibrax Raf. are entirely endemic to some of those areas. In addition, Ammi L., Anethum L.
and Deverra DC. have endemic species in northern Africa and Macaronesia, and two taxa of Deverra are known from
arid areas of southern Africa (Podlech 1986). Billburttia, endemic to Madagascar, is the only genus absent from the
Mediterranean basin. Apium has the widest distribution across the world: Europe (1 sp.), South America (6–7 spp.),
South Africa (1 sp.) and Australasia (4 spp.) (Spalik et al. 2010).
In this paper, we used an extended sampling of the species of the tribe (see Downie et al. 2010) to contribute to the
phylogenetic hypothesis of the group. Our main goal was to revisit the systematics of the tribe based on phylogenetic
and morphological results. In particular, we addressed the following objectives: (1) to test monophyletic groups using
nuclear and plastid sequences; (2) to describe anatomical key characters of the fruit; and (3) to propose a new generic
circumscription in the interest of a more natural taxonomy of tribe Apieae.
Materials and Methods
Molecular study
A total of 84 samples of 38 species (39 of these samples taken from GenBank; Table 1) from the tribe Apieae plus 14
species from other Apiaceae tribes (11 from GenBank) were included in the molecular study. This sample constitutes
an almost complete taxonomic coverage of the entire tribe Apiae at species level, and only five accepted species are
missing: Ammi procerum Lowe, Anethum theurkauffii Maire (taxa only known from the type collections; but see Table
3 for considerations about Ammi procerum), Apium larranagum M.Hiroe (a poorly known South American species),
and the North African Deverra reboudii Coss & Durieu and Stoibrax hanotei (Braun.-Blanq. & Maire) B.L. Burtt. All
the newly included plant materials were confirmed following specialized taxonomic literature (Maire 1926; Braun-
Blanquet and Maire 1931; Maire 1936; Short 1979; Podlech 1986; Nieto Feliner et al. 2003; El Alaoui Faris & Ibn
Tattou 2007).
Total DNA was extracted from herbarium specimens (M, MA, MADM, MEL, MPU, MSB, RNG, and UPOS) and
silica dried-materials using DNeasy plant mini kit (Qiagen, California). Total DNA extractions from Azorean Ammi
and most Southern Hemisphere Apium taxa were provided by S.R. Downie and H. Schaefer from materials already
included in previous studies (Spalik et al. 2010; Schaefer et al. 2011; respectively). We amplified and sequenced the
nuclear ribosomal ITS region and the plastid rps16, regions previously used to address phylogenetic relationships
in Apiaceae (Kadereit et al. 2008; Magee et al. 2009a; Downie et al. 2010; Spalik et al. 2010; among others). For
sequencing the ITS region we used primers and procedures given in Vargas et al. (2004). The primers described
in Oxelman et al. (1997) for rps16 intron were used for a pilot study for amplification and sequencing. From the
results, we designed two new primers: rps16ApiF (5’–GTGCGACTTGAAGGACACGA) and rps16ApiR (5’–
ACTTTGATTCTTTATCGGATC), which were successfully used to amplify and sequence the rps16 intron in nearly
all samples. The PCR conditions were: 5 min pre-treatment at 94ºC; 35 cycles of 1 min at 94ºC, 1 min at 58ºC, and 1.5
min at 72ºC; and a final amplification cycle of 8 min at 72ºC. Products were sequenced using the Macrogen Europe
sequencing service (Amsterdam, The Netherlands).
Sequences were automatically aligned in Geneious ver. 5.1. using the MAFFT algorithm and manually corrected.
Informative indels were coded following simple Coding (Simons and Ochoterena 2000) for both the ITS and rps16
intron matrices, as implemented in SeqState (Müller 2005). Prior to the indel coding, ambiguous poli-T and poli-A
regions were removed from the matrix.
TAXONOMY OF THE TRIBE APIEAE Phytotaxa 212 (1) © 2015 Magnolia Press 59
TABLE 1. Material included in the DNA and carpological studies, including voucher information followed by herbarium
acronym according to Index Herbariorum (if applicable), source (when available) and Genbank accession number between
brackets (ITS and rps16, in the given order; missing sequences are represented by an underdash). “Y” indicates materials
used for fruit morphology and anatomy.
Species /
Voucher Source ITS rps16 Fruit
and anatomy
Ammi majus L.
1P. Jiménez-Mejías 54PJM06, UPOS Spain, Seville KJ473864 KJ473901 -
2J.G. Quinn 344, MADM Madeira KJ473863 KJ473902 -
3A. Hansen 70, MADM Madeira KJ473862 - Y
4G.M. Plunkett 1309, WS California, Solano County GQ148786 - -
5J. Lahham & A. El-Oqlah s.n. Jordan GQ148787 - -
6SBB–1158 India JQ230973 - -
Ammi seubertianum (H.C.Watson) Trel.
1H. Schaefer 2008–668, BM Azores, Santa María HQ202136 - -
2H. Schaefer 2008–629, BM Azores, São Miguel KJ486461 KJ473903 -
3E. Sjogren 6686, MO Azores, Flores GQ148788 - -
Ammi trifoliatum (H.C.Watson) Trel.
1H. Schaefer 2011–1021 Azores, Flores KJ486462 KJ473904 -
2G. Belo Maciel et al. AT–TERC–1, AZB, BM Azores, Terceira HQ202142 - -
Anethum foeniculoides Maire & Wilczek
1F. Schuhwerk 90/297, M Morocco, Tarfaya KJ473869 KJ473905 -
2D. Podlech 48741, MSB Morocco, Tarfaya KJ473870 KJ473906 Y
Anethum graveolens L.
1um14 Not available AY548225 - -
2E.A. Leadlay & B. Petty 89, MO Spain, Valencia GQ148794 AF110542 -
3C.A. Danderson s.n., ILL Cultivated GQ148795 - -
4P. M. Uribe-Echevarría sn, MA Spain, Álava - - Y
Apium annuum P.S. Short
N. G: Walsh 5239, MEL Australia, Victoria KJ473892 KJ473907 Y
Apium australe Thouars
1Prance 28611 14–XII–1983, NY Chile, Isla Hornos GQ379279 KJ473936 -
2Goodall 344, NY Argentina, Tierra del Fuego GQ379280 KJ473937 -
3Biese 1652, NY Chile, Ibgallares GQ379282 - -
Apium chilense Hook. & Arn.
1Zöllner 1346, MO Chile, Valparaíso GQ379284 -
2Zöllner 14983, MO Chile, Coquimbo GQ379283 -
Apium commersonii DC.
Prina 1672, ILL Argentina, Mendoza GQ379285 KJ473938 -
Apium decumbens Eckl. & Zeyh.
1Boucher 1831, PRE South Africa, SW Cape GQ379296 KJ473911 -
2Jordaan 1023, PRE South Africa, Transkei GQ379297 - -
Apium fernandezianum Johow
Hildenbrand (C.B.M. 01059A) Chile, Juan Fernández (cultivated) GQ379286 -
Apium filiforme (A.Rich.) Hook.f.
1Allan s.n. New Zealand, Wellington
GQ379299 -
2Astridge 4192, CHR New Zealand, N Auckland GQ379300 -
......continue on next page
60 Phytotaxa 212 (1) © 2015 Magnolia Press
TABLE 1 (Continued)
Species /
Voucher Source ITS rps16 Fruit
and anatomy
Apium graveolens L.
1A. García-Nogales et al. 548AGN09, UPOS Spain, Seville KJ473893 KJ473908 -
2 Downie 453, ILL Cultivated GQ148789 - -
3Downie sn Cultivated GQ379287 - -
4Rivas Goday et, MA Spain, Madrid, Valdemoro - - Y
Apium insulare P.S.Short
Ross 3450, E Australia, Victoria GQ379289 KJ473909 -
Apium panul Reiche
1Eyerdam 10326, NY Chile, Malleco GQ379292 KJ473910 -
2Chandler & Bayer s.n., NY Argentina, Mendoza GQ379293 - -
Apium prostratum Labill.
1Bartlett s.n., CHR New Zealand, Auckland GQ379298 - -
2Rixon et al. ENZAT No. 58 New Zealand, Auckland GQ148790 -
Apium sellowianum H.Wolff
Schinini & Ahumada 15957 Argentina, Corrientes GQ379301 KJ473939 -
Billburttia capensoides Sales & Hedge
1Du Puy et al. M660, P Madagascar FM986437 FM986441 -
2Keraudren 119, P Madagascar FM986438 FM986442 -
3Razafindrabe 193, P Madagascar FM986439 - -
Billburttia vaginoides Sales & Hedge
Bojer s.n., P Madagascar FM986440 - -
Deverra aphylla DC.
1S. Castroviejo 14915SC, MA South Africa, Cape KJ473871 KJ473912 Y
2Vlok 2270, JRAU South Africa, Beaufort West, AM408888 AY838419 -
Deverra battandieri (Maire) Chrtek.
1D. Podlech 33632, MSB Algeria, Wilaya Bechar KJ473878 KJ473940 -
2D. Podlech 33763, MSB Algeria, Wilaya Bechar KJ473876 KJ473913 -
3Iter Maroccanum 10084, RNG Morocco, Haut-Guir KJ473877 KJ473941 -
Deverra burchellii Eckl. & Zeyh.
B-E van Wyk & P M Tilney 4114, JRAU South Africa, Polokwane AM408887 AY838418 -
Deverra denudata (Viv.) R. Pfisterer & Podlech
1M.A. Mateos & S. Silvestre sn, MA Morocco, Guercif KJ473886 KJ473942 Y
2Ait Lafkih & al. 4928, E Morocco EU169255 - -
Deverra intermedia Chevall.
1S.L. Jury & al. 9231, MA Morocco, Errachidia KJ473874 KJ473943 Y
2D. Podlech 35584, MSB Algeria, Wilaya Ouargla KJ473875 KJ473914 -
Deverra juncea Ball
D. Podlech 47666, MA Morocco, Beni-Mellal KJ473885 KJ473915 -
Deverra scoparia Coss. & Durieu subsp. scoparia
1A. Herrero & al. AH393, MA Tunisia, Jerid KJ473887 KJ473944 -
2Davis & Lamond D57330, E Tunisia EU169256 - -
Deverra tortuosa DC.
1 C. Aedo & al. CA16206 Tunisia, Gabès KJ473888 KJ473918 -
2 Collenette 5761, E Saudi Arabia EU169257 - -
Deverra tritadiata subsp. musilii (Chrtek, Osbron. & Šourková) R.Pfisterer & Podlech
1A. Rawi & H. El Kholy s.n., RNG Kuwait KJ473872 KJ473916 -
......continue on next page
TAXONOMY OF THE TRIBE APIEAE Phytotaxa 212 (1) © 2015 Magnolia Press 61
TABLE 1 (Continued)
Species /
Voucher Source ITS rps16 Fruit
and anatomy
2Collenette 6568, E Saudi Arabia AF073561 AF164815 -
Deverra triradiata (Chevall.) R.Pfisterer & Podlech subsp. triradiata
D. Al-Eisawi 2075, RNG Jordan, Petra KJ473873 KJ473917 -
Foeniculum vulgare Mill.
1A. Silvestre-Alsina et al. 38ASA10, UPOS Spain, Seville KJ473896 KJ473919 -
2 T. Buira & J. Calvo s.n., MA Morocco, Guelmim KJ473897 KJ473920 Y
3S. Downie 157, ILL Jordan, Irbid GQ148792 - -
4RF–178 Cultivated HQ377215 - -
5S. Downie 117, ILL Cultivated GQ148791 - -
6A. Aparicio & J. G. Rowe, MA Spain, Cádiz; - - Y
Naufraga balearica Constance & Cannon
1P. Vargas 81PV11, MA Balearic Islands, Majorca KJ473894 KJ473945 Y
2McBeath 2760, E Balearic Islands, Majorca
AF073563 - -
Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss.
1S.L. Jury et al. 11912, RNG Morocco, Tazzeka KJ473879 KJ473921 -
2S.L. Jury et al. 17527, RNG Morocco, El-Ksiba KJ473880 KJ473922 -
3S.L. Jury et al. 17913, RNG Morocco, Azrou KJ473881 KJ473923 -
4D. Podlech 47947, MSB Morocco, Marrakech KJ473882 KJ473946 -
5S. Downie 34, ILL Cultivated GQ148798 -
6S. L. Jury et al. 11572, RNG Morocco, betweem Ketama and Fes - - Y
7E. San Miguel ESM278, MA Spain, Asturias - - Y
Pseudoridolfia fennanei J.-P. Reduron, J. Mathez & S.R. Downie
J. Mathez 6979ter (MPU, paratype) Morocco, Plateau Central
KJ473884 KJ473924 Y
Ridolfia segetum (L.) Moris
1C. Morales et al. s.n. (MA) Spain, Granada KJ473895 KJ473925 -
2J.-P. Reduron 01047 Cultivated GQ148796 - -
3A. Quintanar 897, MA Italy, Sardinia - - Y
Sclerosciadium nodiflorum Coss.
1T. Buira & J. Calvo s.n., MA Morocco, Agadir KJ473865 KJ473926 Y
2Lewalle 11357 19–IV–1986, MO Morocco GQ379303 -
Seseli webbii Coss.
1A. Charpin & M.C. León s.n., MA Canary Islands, Tenerife KJ473866 KJ473927 -
2C. Pardo s.n., MA Canary Islands, Gran Canaria KJ473867 KJ473928 -
3E. Bourgeau 22.Jun.1855, MA Canary Islands, Tenerife - - Y
Stoibrax dichotomum (L.) Raf.
1M. Luceño 1500ML, UPOS Spain, Seville KJ473890 KJ473932 -
2Sanchez Mata & Molina Abril 17, MO Spain, Madrid, Aranjuez DQ516366 - -
3Sanchez-Mata & Molina Abril s.n, K Spain, Madrid, Aranjuez FM201531 AM982519 -
4J. Cantero et al. 13853JC, MA Spain, Madrid, Aranjuez - - Y
Stoibrax involucratum (Maire) B. L. Burtt
1E. Rico & al. MS1136, MA Morocco, Temsaman KJ473868 KJ473929 -
2D. Podlech 47751, MSB Morocco, Marrakech KJ473883 KJ473930 -
3J. Calvo & al. sn, MA Morocco, Agadir - - Y
......continue on next page
62 Phytotaxa 212 (1) © 2015 Magnolia Press
TABLE 1 (Continued)
Species /
Voucher Source ITS rps16 Fruit
and anatomy
4D. Podlech 47218, MSB Morocco, Meknes - - Y
5D. Podlech 47679, MSB Morocco, Middle Atlas - - Y
Stoibrax pomelianum (Maire) B. L. Burtt
1S. Andrés et al. 21.Jun.2008, MA Morocco, Jerada KJ473891 KJ473931 Y
2Reading Univ. B.M. Exped. 906, RNG Morocco, Midelt KJ473889 KJ473947 -
Ammoides pusilla (Brot.) Breistr.
E. Rico et al MS1136, MA Morocco, Temsaman / Tafersite KJ473898 KJ473933 -
Angelica archangelica L.
DL Erickson NMNH 06–8344 Not available EF590754 - -
Downie 79, ILL Cultivated - AF110536 -
Conium maculatum L.
Not available Not available EF437224 - -
Oenanthe fistulosa L.
WA 075167 Poland, Nowe Warpno DQ005664 - -
Lee & Downie 165 Cultivated - DQ168948 -
Pimpinella saxifraga L.
ESSE 13924 Turkey, Kars AY581801 - -
Seseli hippomarathrum Jacq.
Not available Cultivated AY179033 - -
Seseli mairei H.Wolff
KUN:J045 China, Yunnan FJ385061 FJ385245 -
Seseli squarrulosum R.H.Shan & M.L.Sheh
Wang.Q.Z. & Pu F.D. 361539 Not available EU001350 EU220961 -
Seseli montanum L.
Downie 239, ILL Cultivated AH003552
- -
Seseli tortuosum L.
Hildenbrand et al. s.n., ILL Portugal, Lisboa, Sintra AY179031 EF185265 -
Sison segetum L.
P. Goetghebeur 2221, MA Belgium, Flandres KJ473899 KJ473934 -
Torilis arvensis Link
Bulgaria FJ415110 - -
USA, Illinois - AF110548 -
Torilis japonica DC.
Not available AY548223 - -
Cultivated - AF123741 -
Visnaga daucoides Gaertn
J. Solís & S. Martín-Bravo 151JESOGA, UPOS Spain, Seville KJ473900 KJ473935 -
Maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian inference (BI) analyses were performed on the datasets. MP analyses
were carried out in Paup 4.0b10 (Swofford 2002) using PaupUp graphical interface (Calendini & Martin 2005).
Heuristic searches were performed with tree-bisection-reconnection branch swapping algorithm, retaining a maximum
of 10,000 trees. Branch support was estimated by full-heuristic bootstrapping with bootstrap analysis with 1000
replicates. For BI, the simplest model sequence evolution was determined separately for each matrix under Akaike
Information Criterion (AIC) as implemented in jModeltest (Posada 2008). The Bayesian analysis was performed with
TAXONOMY OF THE TRIBE APIEAE Phytotaxa 212 (1) © 2015 Magnolia Press 63
the selected models using MrBayes 3.2 (Ronquist & Huelsenbeck 2012). Four Markov Chain Monte Carlo runs were
performed simultaneously in each Bayesian analysis for 5,000,000 generations, with an interval of 100 generations. To
ensure a likelihood stationary phase, the 25% of the generated trees from the beginning of each chain were discarded,
and log-likelihood scores checked with Tracer 1.5 (Rambaut & Drummond 2009).
Fruit morphology and anatomy
A total of 22 samples of fruits from herbarium specimens of 18 species from all the genera of the tribe Apieae (except
Billburttia) were included in the carpological study (Table 1). Nevertheless, the characterization of the fruit of Billburttia
has already been accurately performed and photographed by Magee et al. (2009b). In most cases, we could not study the
same DNA and fruits specimens given the fact that most umbellifers from Mediterranean and arid/semiarid climates do
not bear green leaves and ripe fruits at the same time. General fruit morphology was studied using a stereomicroscope.
For the anatomic study the materials were rehydrated in distilled water and then fixed in ethanol. The samples were
included in Spurr’s resin for 13 h, and polymerized at 70ºC during 7 h. Transversal sections at midpoint, each 1–3 μm
thick, were cut and stained with toluidine blue. Resin inclusion and cut processes were performed at the microscopy
service of the CITIUS (Universidad de Sevilla, Spain).
Previous carpological work in Apieae members were taken into account to provide an important source of
complementary information and to contrast our own results (Short 1979; Arenas Posada & García Martín 1993; Magee
et al. 2009b; Reduron et al. 2009; Ronse et al. 2010). We followed the standardised terminology for taxonomically key
morphological characters proposed in Kljuvkov et al. (2004).
Morphological character evolution
Morphological characters were reconstructed on the BI consensus tree from the ITS tree using maximum parsimony
with Mesquite 2.75 (Maddison & Maddison, 2011). We chose the ITS tree because it is better resolved than the rps16
tree. Eight key characters were chosen for the taxonomy of the tribe Apieae, two vegetative (life form and morphology
of leaf blade), and six reproductive (presence of bracts, presence of bracteoles, flower colour, mericarp indumentum,
morphology of dorsal ribs, and morphology of marginal ribs). Character scores for each taxon were based on our own
observations on herbarium specimens, including types from Global Plants (JSTOR, 2014), and from literature (Maire
1926; Braun-Blanquet & Maire 1931; Maire 1936; Tutin 1968; Short 1979; Podlech 1986; Nieto Feliner et al. 2003;
El Alaoui Faris & Ibn Tattou 2007; Magee et al 2009b), and photographs provided by the webpage of the Viña del Mar
Botanical Garden, Chile (
Phylogenetic analyses
Length of ITS sequences of the tribe Apieae was 596 to 602 bp; length of rps16 sequences was 848 to 881 bp. The
complete ITS matrix had a total length of 638 characters, of which 338 were variable and 274 parsimony informative,
plus 62 coded indels. The complete rps16 matrix had a total length of 1080 characters, of which 384 were variable and
56 parsimony informative, plus 100 coded indels.
Phylogenetic MP analysis of the ITS matrix reached the maximum limit of 10,000 trees of 1032 steps (CI=0.58;
RI=0.87; RC=0.50; tree not shown). Phylogenetic MP analysis of the rps16 matrix also reached the maximum of
10,000 trees of 653 steps (CI=0.64; RI=0.62; RC=0.40; tree not shown). The simplest model selected by jModeltest
for ITS and rps16 matrices was GRT+G in both cases. The tribe Apieae was strongly supported as monophyletic in all
the analysis based on the ITS matrix (≥0.99 pp, ≥99 bs), but not in those of the rps16 matrix, from which it was well
supported only in the Bayesian analysis (0.99 pp). Our results mostly agreed with previous reconstructions (Magee
et al. 2009a,b; Reduron et al. 2009; Spalik et al. 2010). The genera Ammi, Apium and Billburtia are shown to be
monophyletic. The genus Deverra was monophyletic in the ITS tree, but non-monophyletic (polytomy) in the rps16
tree. Failure in obtaining monophyletic groups was found for the species of three genera (Anethum, Seseli and Stoibrax)
in the two analyses using both matrices. Sison segetum and Visnaga daucoides, previously classified as Petroselinum
segetum and Ammi visnaga (e.g. Tutin 1968; Nieto Feliner et al. 2003) were displayed not closely related to the type
species of Ammi and Petroselinum respectively, supporting previous results (Downie et al. 2010).
64 Phytotaxa 212 (1) © 2015 Magnolia Press
FIGURE 1. Majority rule consensus tree obtained from the Bayesian analysis of ITS matrix with coded indels. Bayesian posterior
probabilities are given in regular typeface next to the respective branches; bootstrap values from the corresponding maximum parsimony
consensus tree are given in italics when greater than 75%. Well supported major clades and subclades are named according to Results.
The white arrows at right point the placement of the different accessions of Stoibrax. The black arrows point the placement of the different
accessions of Seseli.
TAXONOMY OF THE TRIBE APIEAE Phytotaxa 212 (1) © 2015 Magnolia Press 65
The entire tribe was arranged in two main well-supported clades in the ITS analysis (Fig. 1), being Stoibrax s.s.
(clade A; 1 pp, 100 bs) sister to the rest of the tribe (clade B; 1 pp, 97 bs). Clade A includes the Ibero-North African
Stoibrax dichotomum and the North African S. pomelianum. Clade B was subdivided in three well-supported subclades:
the Anethum alliance” (subclade B1; 1 pp, 90 bs); Apium clade (subclade B2; 1 pp, 100 bs), and a heterogeneous
subclade B3 (1 pp, 95 bs). Subclade B1 contained the Anethum alliance, where the two representatives of Anethum
are not monophyletic and grouped together with species of Pseudorifoldia, Foeniculum and Ridolfia. Subclade B2
consisted of Naufraga balearica, sister to the genus Apium, which was shown to be monophyletic in its current
circumscription (Ronse et al. 2010). Subclade B3 was mainly formed by African taxa, with a lineage containing the
genus Deverra (1 pp, 96 bs), one more lineage with the genus Billburtia (1 pp, 100 bs), and a third highly hierarchized
lineage (1 pp, 99 bs). This latter lineage included the genera Ammi, Petroselinum and Sclerosciadium together with the
species Stoibrax involucratum and Seseli webbii. Ammi majus is sister to the Azorean endemics A. seubertianum and
A. trifoliatum (0.94 pp), whereas Petroselinum crispum is sister to Stoibrax involucratum (1 pp, 97 bs).
The analysis of the rps16 matrix (Fig. 2) revealed members of the Anethum alliance” unresolved and basal,
whereas the rest of the tribe was recovered monophyletic in a single clade (clade a; 0.98 pp, no bootstrap support).
Within this clade, six well-supported subclades were found: Stoibrax s.s. (subclade b; 1 pp, 100 bs), Apium (displaying
Naufraga sister to Apium; subclade c; 1 pp, 98 bs), two subclades with different species of Deverra (subclades d
and e; 1 pp, no bootstrap support; and 1 pp, 99 bs, respectively), Billburttia clade (subclade f; 1 pp, 99 bs), and a
last heterogeneous lineage (subclade g; 1 pp, support) with Ammi, Petroselinum, Sclerosciadium, Seseli webbii and
Stoibrax involucratum).
Fruit morphology
The carpological features observed in the different taxa, together with those reported in the literature, are summarized
in Table 2. Photographs of external mericarps of representatives of all the Apieae genera (except for Billburttia)
are shown in Fig. 3, and their sections in Fig. 4. The fruits displayed a varied morphology, even within genera or at
low differentiation levels (sister taxa). Fruits always consisted of two symmetrical mericarps that tend to separate at
maturity, except in Naufraga (see below). The fruits vary considerably in size, Anethum and Foeniculum having the
biggest ones (up to 6(-9) mm; Figs. 3A,B, 4B,I), and Naufraga the smallest ones (0.7–1 mm, Figs. 3D, 4J) (see also
Tutin 1968; Arenas Posada & García Martín 1993; Nieto Feliner et al. 2003; El Alaoui Faris & Ibn Tattou 2007). The
morphology of the primary ribs (those that contain vascular bundles; see Fig. 4C) is also variable, inconspicuous in
Naufraga (Figs. 3D, 4J), not clearly prominent but visible in Pseudoridolfia, Ridolfia and Stoibrax involucratum (Figs.
3F,H,K, 4L,M,Q), and conspicuous and prominent in most of the Apieae species. No clear differences exist between
the median and the two lateral ribs in any of the species. Marginal ribs (those at the borders of the commissure; see
Fig. 4I) are mostly similar in size and form to the dorsal ones, being more prominent than these (narrowly winged)
in Foeniculum vulgare (Figs. 3A, 4I) and Anethum foeniculoides (Figs. 3B, 4B), and widely winged in Anethum
graveolens (Figs. 3C, 4C). In Sclerosciadium the ending of the primary and commissural ribs at the top form a sepal-
like appendage (Figs. 3N), whereas in the rest of the species the ribs are attenuated towards the stylopodium. In
a few taxa, the valleculae (i.e., the space between primary ribs) is convex and forms a low secondary rib, as in
Anethum graveolens, Deverra denudata, Petroselinum crispum, and Stoibrax s.l. (Figs. 4C,G,K,P,Q,R). Most genera
lack epidermic pubescence. Representatives of Deverra (Figs. 3O,P, 4F,G,H) display hairy fruits, and to some extent
also Stoibrax pomelianum (Fig. 4R), whereas those of Stoibrax dichomum, Stoibrax involucratum. (Figs. 3H,L, 4P,Q)
and Sclerosciadium nodiflorum (Figs. 3N, 4N) are finely tuberculate. Also, Seseli webbii has very low tubercles in the
valleculae (Fig. 4O). The epidermis was formed by small cells, flt to rnd in cross section. The extent of the commissure
is intermediate in most taxa, but it is narrow in Naufraga, Petroselinum, Seseli webbii, Sclerosciadium and Stoibrax s.l.
(Fig. 4J,K,N,O,P,Q,R). Placement of the vascular bundles in the primary ribs ranges between the base and the middle of
the rib. Vascular bundles were homomorphic or heteromorphic, from almost rnd to deltoid in cross section. The vittae
(oil ducts) were also monomorphic (except for Naufraga, see below). We observed the typical vittae arrangement of
a single main vitta in each vallecula and two commissural vittae (see Fig. 4B). This is mostly in agreement with the
observations of Arenas Posada & García Martín (1993) for Iberian Apiaceae. Apart from the morphology, number and
arrangement of the vittae are considered of taxonomic importance in Apiaceae (Ronse et al. 2010). However, they do
not appear to be key characters shared by all the taxa of tribe Apieae, as a higher number of main commissural vittae
has been reported as characteristic for Billburttia (5–6 commisural vittae; Magee et al. 2009b) and also for Apium
graveolens (2–3 vittae in each intercostal space; Arenas Posada & García Martín 1993). We observed accessorial vittae
in the Petroselinum crispum samples (cultivated and wild; Fig. 4K), a structure also observed in Apium graveolens and
66 Phytotaxa 212 (1) © 2015 Magnolia Press
demonstrated to be branches of the main oil ducts (Ronse et al. 2010). Endosperm varies from flat to forming a broad
shallow groove, being a bit deeper in Stoibrax s.s. taxa. No crystalline inclusions like those observed in Billburttia
(Magee et al. 2009b) were found among our samples. However, the presence of such crystals should not be excluded
completely because these inclusions may have been not visible due to our staining method.
FIGURE 2. Majority rule consensus tree obtained from the Bayesian analysis of the rps16 matrix with coded indels. Bayesian posterior
probabilities are given in regular typeface next to the respective branches when greater than 0.9; bootstrap values from the corresponding
maximum parsimony consensus tree are given in italics when greater than 75%. Well supported major clades and subclades are named
according Results. The white arrows at right point the placement of the different accessions of Stoibrax. The black arrows point the
placement of the different accessions of Seseli.
TAXONOMY OF THE TRIBE APIEAE Phytotaxa 212 (1) © 2015 Magnolia Press 67
TABLE 2 Main characters of the fruit of the tribe Apieae chosen from our own observations and literature. Characteristics of epidermic cells, marginal ribs, vittae, and vascular bundles are described
based on the cross-sections (see Figs 3–4). Character descriptions follow the standardized terminology given by Kljuvkov et al. (2004), with the following abbreviations: acc-vtt (accessorial vittae),
cms (commissural), drs (dorsal), h-morph (heteromorphic), flt (flattened), glb (glabrous), hry (hairy), m-morph (monomorphic), rct (rectangular), rounded (rnd), subeq (subequal), tbc (tuberculated),
vb (vascular bundles), vlc (vallecula/vallecular), vtt (vittae)
Taxon External characters Cross-section characters
(and proposed name) Dorsal ribs1Valleculae2Marginal
Section Epidermis Vittae4Vascular bundles5
Ammi majus Conspicuous,
Convex Conspicuous,
Medium Not
glb, rugulose, mostly flt
vlc-vtt 1 per vlc; cms-vtt, 2; m-
morph, oblong to ± rnd; vlc-vtt
width ~ ½ vlc.
m-morph, ± rnd to oblong,
width slightly > than vtt
Anethum foeniculoides
(= Schoenoselinum
Flt to scarcely
Medium Slightly
glb, ± lignified, flt cells vlc-vtt 1 per vlc; cms-vtt 2; m-
morph, oblong; vlc-vtt width > ½
vlc width
h-morph, drs-vb rnd to oblong,
widht = vtt; cms-vb deltoid,
width > than vtt
Anethum graveolens Conspicuous,
Flt to convex
and forming
secondary ribs
Medium Slightly
glb, flt cells vlc-vtt 1 per vlc; cms-vtt 2; m-
morph, oblong; vlc-vtt width < ½
h-morph; drs-vb rnd, widht =
vtt; cms-vb oblong, placed ~ ½
of the wing
Apium anuum Conspicuous,
Flt to scarcely
Medium Not
glb, mostly rct cells vlc-vtt 1 per vlc; cms-vtt 2; m-
morph, oblong; vlc-vtt width > ½
m-morph, oblong, width > vtt
Apium graveolens Conspicuous,
Flt to scarcely
Medium Not
glb, ± lignified, flt cells vlc-vtt 1 per vlc; cms-vtt 2;, rarely 3
vtt in each vlc and several cms-vtt6;
m-morph, oblong; vlc-vtt width ~ ½
vlc; sometimes acc-vtt present7
m-morph, subdeltoid, width
slightly > vtt
Apium insulare and A.
broadly keeled
between the
adjacent ribs
Medium Not
glb, prominently corky vlc-vtt 1 per vlc; cms-vtt 2; m-
morph, oblong; vlc-vtt width > vlc
m-morph, oblong, width > vtt
Billburttia capensoides
and B. vaginoides9
Flt to concave
Medium Slightly
glb, rugulose, lignified in
the ribs, rct cells; crystalline
inclusions observed
vlc-vtt 1–2 per vlc, 5–6 cms-vtt; m-
morph; vlc-vtt widht < vlc
m-morph, ~ rnd width ~ vtt,
located at the tips of the ribs
Deverra aphylla Conspicuous,
Flt to convex Conspicuous,
Medium Not
Sparcely hry, lignified, rct to
rnd cells
vlc-vtt 1 per vlc; cms-vtt 2; m-
morph, oblong; vlc-vtt widht = ½
m-morph, ~ rnd, width = vtt
Deverra denudata Conspicuous,
Convex, forming
secondary ribs
Medium Not
± rnd
hry, lignified, rct cells vlc-vtt 1 per vlc; cms-vtt 2; m-
morph, oblong; vlc-vtt = ½ vlc
Subeq, oblong, drs-vb width =
vtt, filling most the rib llumina,
cms-vb width > vtt
.......continued on the next page
68 Phytotaxa 212 (1) © 2015 Magnolia Press
TABLE 2. (Continued)
Taxon External characters Cross-section characters
Deverra intermedia Conspicuous, slightly
Flt to convex Conspicuous,
Medium Not compressed,
± rnd
Densely hry,
lignified rnd
vlc-vtt 1 per vlc; cms-vtt 2; m-
morph, ± rnd; vlc-vtt width = vlc
m-morph, ± rnd, width = vtt
Foeniculum vulgare Conspicuous, keeled Flt to scarcely
Medium Slightly compressed,
glb, ± lignified,
rct cells
vlc-vtt 1 per vlc; cms-vtt 2; m-
morph, oblong; vlc-vtt widht < ½ vlc
h-morph, drs-vb ± rnd, width
slightly > vtt; cms-vtt oblong,
width > vtt
Naufraga balearica Inconspicuous,
Mostly flt Conspicuous,
Narrow Not compressed, ±
rnd, asymmetrical
glb, rugulose,,
flt cells
vlc-vtt 1, cms-vtt absent or 17;
h-morph; drs-vlc-vtt ± rnd, lateral
vlc-vtt flt
Subeq, reduced, one of the cms-
vb apparently lost
Conspicuous, keeled Convex Conspicuous,
Narrow Not compressed, ±
rnd to pentagonal
glb, rct cells vlc-vtt 1 per vlc; cms-vtt 2; m-
morph, oblong; vlc-vtt width = or >
½ vlc; acc-vtt observed
m-morph, oblong to subdeltoid,
width = or slightly > vtt
Inconspicuous, not
keeled but visible as
Flt to scarcely
Obsolete, scarcely
Medium Not compressed,
± rnd
glb, formed by
flt cells
vlc-vtt 1 per vlc; cms-vtt 2; m-
morph, oblong; vlc-vtt width < ½ vlc
m-morph, ,± rnd, width = vtt
Ridolfia segetum Inconspicuous, not
keeled but visible as
Inconspicuous Obsolete, scarcely
Medium Not compressed,
± rnd
glb, lignified,
formed by flt
vlc-vtt 1 per vlc; cms-vtt 2; m-
morph, rnd; vlc-vtt width < ½ vlc
h-morph, ± rnd to oblong, drs-
vb width = vtt, cms-vb > vtt
Narrowly winged,
ending in a sepal-like
appendage, at the top
Flt Narrowly winged Narrow Not compressed,
Sparsely tbc on
vlc, lignified,
mostly flt cells
vlc-vtt 1 per vlc; cms-vtt 2; m-
morph, oblong to ± concave; vlc-vtt
width ~ ½ vlc
m-morph, subdeltoid, width >
vtt, filling most the rib llumina
Seseli webbii
(= Canaria tortuosa)
Narrowly winged Flt Narrowly winged Narrow Not compressed,
Very finely tbc,
lignified, formed
by fattened cells
vlc-vtt 1 per vlc; cms-vtt 2; m-
morph, oblong; vlc-vtt width > or
= vlc
Subeq, deltoid, width > vtt,
filling most the rib llumina; drs-
vb width < cms-vb
Conspicuous, keeled Convex, forming
secondary ribs
Narrow Not compressed, ±
rnd to subpentagonal
tbc, mostly flt
vlc-vtt 1 per vlc; cms-vtt 2; m-
morph, oblong; vlc-vtt width < ½ vlc
m-morph, ± rnd, width < or = vtt
(= Modesciadium
Inconspicuous, not
keeled but visible as
Flt Obsolete Narrow Not compressed,
tbc, flt cells vlc-vtt 1 per vlc; cms-vtt 2; m-
morph, oblong; vlc-vtt width ~ ½ vlc
m-morph, ± rnd, width = vtt
Conspicuous, keeled Convex, forming
secondary ribs
Narrow Not compressed,
± rnd
tbc, mostly rct
vlc-vtt 1 per vlc; cms-vtt 2; m-
morph; oblong; vlc-vtt width ~ ½ vlc
m-morph, ± rnd, width < vtt
1Fig. 4C pr. 2Fig 4O v. 3Fig 4I mr. 4Fig 4B cv, vv. 5Fig 4F vb. 6Arenas Posadas & García Martín (1993) 7Ronse et al. (2010) 8Data taken from Short (1974) 9Data taken from Magee et al. (2009b)
TAXONOMY OF THE TRIBE APIEAE Phytotaxa 212 (1) © 2015 Magnolia Press 69
FIGURE 3. Mericarps of species representing of all the genera of tribe Apieae (except Billburttia). Pictures represent the adaxial view
of a single mericap unless specified otherwise. A. Foeniculum vulgare. B. Anethum foeniculoides, C. Anethum graveolens. D. Naufraga
balearica (two mericarps on the pedicelle). E. Petroselinum crispum (lateral view). F. Ridolfia segetum. G. Ammi majus. H. Stoibrax
involucratum. I. Apium graveolens. J. Apium annuum. K. Pseudoridolfia fennanei. L. Stoibrax dichotomum. M. Seseli webbii. N.
Sclerosciadium nodiflorum. O. Deverra denudata. P. Deverra aphylla (two mericarps kept together).
70 Phytotaxa 212 (1) © 2015 Magnolia Press
FIGURE 4. Transverse section of the mericarps of species representing of all the genera of tribe Apieae except Billburttia. All the
photographs show mericarps in cross section except for Naufraga (J) which is a complete schizocarp. Scale bar = 1 mm. Lower cases
indicate in the different slides the main carpological features commented in this work: c, commissure; mr, marginal ribs; pr, primary
dorsal ribs; sr, secondary ribs; v, vallecula; cv, commissural vitta; vv, vallecular vitta; vb, vascular bundles. Dash lines in figures C and
O depicts the break of fruit layers due to manipulation. For voucher information see Table 1. Species are provided in alphabetical order.
A. Ammi majus. B. Anethum foeniculoides. C. Anethum graveolens, arrow depicts the vascular bundles within a broken winged marginal
rib. D. Apium anuum. E. Apium graveolens. F. Deverra aphylla. G. Deverra denudata. H. Deverra intermedia. I. Foeniculum vulgare (A.
Aparicio & J. G. Rowe s.n., MA). J. Naufraga balearica, arrow depicts commissural vascular bundles. K. Petroselinum crispum, arrow
depicts an accessorial vitta (E. San Miguel ESM278, MA). L. Pseudoridolfia fennanei (paratype J. Mathez 6979ter, MPU). M. Ridolfia
segetum. N. Sclerosciadium nodiflorum. O. Seseli webbii. P. Stoibrax dichotomum. Q. Stoibrax involucratum. R. Stoibrax pomelianum.
TAXONOMY OF THE TRIBE APIEAE Phytotaxa 212 (1) © 2015 Magnolia Press 71
The interesting modified morphology of Naufraga balearica differs notably from all the other studied taxa, as it
has been previously noted (Ronse et al. 2010). The analysed mericarps were asymmetrical in cross section (Fig.4J),
and tend to keep together instead to separate when ripe. The commissural vittae seemed to be missing, in contrast to
a sample reported by Ronse et al. (2010). Perhaps these vittae are very short and are not retrieved in the midpoint
transverse section. The two vittae placed towards an abaxial position were almost rnd in cross section, whereas the
two lateral ones were flt. All the vascular bundles were extremely reduced, especially the commissural ones. No well
developed ribs were observed.
Morphological character evolution
Character reconstruction reveals that the key characters used in the taxonomy of Apieae have been very dynamic in
the course of evolution (Fig. 5). Although none of the morphological characters turned out to be synapomorphic, some
supported certain groupings. Apart from monotypic genera, the genera best supported by the selected characters were
Ammi (characterized by the eight characters), followed by Deverra and Stoibrax s.s. (seven characters) and Apium (6
characters). Remarkably, Deverra is quite heterogeneous in petal colour whereas Apium is so in the development of
the dorsal and commissural ribs.
These results indicate that not only molecular phylogenies are incongruent with taxonomy, but also that
morphological characters do not support genera in their current circumscription. The splitting of genera and creation
of new taxa somehow circumvent this conflict.
FIGURE 5. Reconstruction of the eight selected morphological characters on the majority consensus tree obtained from the Bayesian
analysis of the ITS matrix. Only clades belonging to tribe Apieae, and one terminal per species are displayed. A. Life form; B. Leaf blade
shape; C. Presence and persistence of bracts; D. Presence and persistence of bracteoles; E. Flower colour; F. Mericarp indumentum; G.
Mericarps dorsal ribs morphology; H. Mericarps marginal ribs morphology. Legend for G is as follow: a, ribs keeled; b, ribs narrowly
winged; c, ribs not prominent but visible as lines; d, ribs inconspicuous. At the right, accepted taxa names are showed in regular italics.
72 Phytotaxa 212 (1) © 2015 Magnolia Press
A high degree of morphological variation has been found not only between genera but also between species of the
same genera. This led to the interpretation that morphological characters have been very labile during differentiation
of Apieae.
Fruit variability and taxonomy
The broad variability of fruit features observed in the tribe Apieae, together with the absence of unique characters for
some clades and the incongruence between phylogenies, make it difficult to describe synapomorphies supporting natural
groups. Despite other tribes or genera having been readily morphologically delimitated, the lack of morphological
synapomorphies is a common pattern in Apiaceae (Downie et al. 2001; Hardway et al. 2004). Two external characters,
marginal ribs and mericarp induments, broadly used in Apiaceae, turned out to be highly homoplastic. Only one
taxon, Anethum graveolens, displayed well developed fruit wings (Figs. 3C, 4C), whereas four monophyletic groups
displayed tubercles or hairs on the fruit surface (Deverra, Sclerosciadium-Seseli webbii clade, Stoibrax s.s., and Stoibrax
involucratum; (Figs. 3H,L,N–P, 4F–H,N,P–R, 5). As these ornamentation characters are mostly absent in most fruits
of Apieae, when present they have been given great importance and misled the taxonomy of the group. The clearest
example is the inclusion of Stoibrax involucratum in Stoibrax because of the the presence of epidermic tubercles. This
illustrates the intricate taxonomy of this tribe that has historically had a complex generic delimitation.
Phylogenetics and a taxonomic proposal for the tribe Apieae
Phylogenetic analysis also indicates taxonomic complexity. The nearly complete taxonomic coverage for the
phylogenetic reconstructions, together with the taxonomic characters revisited and the information provided by
previous studies, help to circumscribe Apieae genera and species. Although it has been early stated that ITS was not
an accurate marker for phylogenetic studies in Apiaceae (Downie et al. 1998; Katz-Downie et al. 1999), the results
are in accord with the current, extensive usage of this marker (Downie et al. 2010). Indeed, despite ITS reconstruction
display incongruences with rps16 reconstruction, the ITS tree disagree mainly with inter-generic relationships rather
than with the delimitation of genera, which help to evaluate generic circumscription. In any case, we only focused on
congruent results between nuclear and plastid sequences. Representatives of three genera of Apieae have been found
to be non-monophyletic in any of the phylogenetic reconstructions: Seseli (previously noted by Spalik et al. (2004) and
Reduron et al. (2009)), Anethum and Stoibrax. In addition, our morphological analysis (Figs. 3–5) reveals that some
fruit characters were externally similar, but a closer study displayed differences. The morphological characters chosen
here (Fig. 5) readily allowed distinction of the different genera as well as supported the split of those species from non-
monolyphyletic genera from their closest relatives, rather than including these in previously recognized genera.
In Apiaceae, it has been stated that both monotypic and very large genera should not be taxonomically considered
(Spalik et al. 2004). In most cases, failure to find synapomorphies for single species lineages is not helped by combining
them into larger genera. This is a historical problem. Indeed, the taxonomic trend in the tribe Apieae has been to consider
small or monotypic genera, and only Apium and Deverra have been considered well defined to morphologically
circumscribe some species. The three major disagreements between phylogenetic analysis and taxonomy are described
Perhaps the most striking case is this found within the Anethum alliance (Figs. 1–2), which actually comprises
monotypic genera all previously treated under Anethum (except the recently described Pseudoridolfia fennanei).
Characters that readily define the Anethum alliance species as different from other Apieae are linear leaf segments
(although these are evanescent in A. foeniculoides), absence of bracts and bracteoles, yellowish flowers and fruits without
hairs or tubercles (Fig. 5; Tutin 1968; Nieto Feliner et al. 2003; El Alaoui Faris & Ibn Tattou 2007). The redefinition
of a broader morphologically conceived genus Anethum could be a reasonable solution if the observed carpological
character had not resulted to be so heterogeneous, and relationships among these genera were not unresolved in the
rps16 phylogeny. The morphologically distinct fruits of Anethum graveolens (Figs. 3C, 4C) together with the strong
differences in mericarp size and rib morphology of Ridolfia and Pseudoridolfia (Figs. 3F,G, 4L,M) when compared
with the Anethum foeniculoides and Foeniculum vulgare (Figs. 3A,B, 4B,I), do not lead to consider all these taxa under
a single genus. Given such situation we suggest splitting Anethum into two and placing A. foeniculoides in a different
genus. Future phylogenetic and taxonomic studies should include the rare taxon Anethum theurkauffii, only known
from the depauperate type specimen (Theurkauff 38, MPU).
TAXONOMY OF THE TRIBE APIEAE Phytotaxa 212 (1) © 2015 Magnolia Press 73
Previous phylogenetic analyses indicated that Seseli webbii neither grouped together with other Seseli species nor
was part of the tribe Selineae (Spalik et al. 2004). However, S. webbii was never formally transferred to other genera
since its original description. Phylogenetic reconstructions show that Seseli webbii is closely related to Sclerosciadium
nodiflorum and Stoibrax dichotomum (Figs.1–2), from which it shows significant morphological differences (Fig 5).
Surprisingly, Stoibrax involucratum has been revealed to be unrelated to Stoibrax but related to Petroselinum crispum
(parsley) in the ITS reconstructions and to Sclerosciadium nodiflorum and Seseli webbii in the rps16 reconstruction.
Reduction of characters and the small size of Stoibrax species has probably led to a misinterpretation of this genus.
Indeed, the single South African representative of the genus, Stoibrax capense (Lam.) B.L. Burtt, was recently
transferred to the tribe Tordylieae (as Dasispermum capense (Lam.) Magee & B.-E. van Wyk; Magee et al. 2009a).
The case of S. involucratum seems to be similar within tribe Apieae, and with fruit features similar to those of Stoibrax
s.s. (Figs. 3H,L, 4P–R). However, the presence of umbel bracteoles, a character generally considered relevant in
Apiaceae taxonomy, appears to have been overlooked by most authors when treating this taxon within Stoibrax.
Stoibrax involucratum displays marked differences in reproductive characters from its true phylogenetic relatives
(Figs. 3–4), as well as differences in vegetative features (e.g. leaf shape; El Alaoui Faris & Ibn Tattou 2007) (Fig. 4).
This, together with its incongruent phylogenetic placement, prevented the circumscription of this species within any of
the already existing genera. Because of that, we propose the creation of a new monotypic genus, Modesciadium (see
below), to accommodate S. involucratum in the evolutionary and taxonomic context of tribe Apieae.
Some other taxonomic conclusions can be drawn. The consideration of many Deverra taxa at subspecies rank
by Podlech’s (1986) is discordant with their placement in the phylogenetic scheme of the genera. In particular, the
independent species status is fully supported for D. aphylla and D. intermedia in the ITS phylogeny (previously
considered subspecies of D denudata and D. triradiata respectively). Given these findings, the relationships of the
remaining D. scoparia subspecies (subsp. tripolitania, not included in the present study) should also be tested in order
to evaluate its taxonomic rank.
Opposed to this, other taxa lack sufficient phylogenetic resolution to evaluate their species rank. The holophyly
(monophyly s.s.; Hörandl & Stuessy 2010) alone should not be taken as an indispensable prerequisite to consider a
species as “natural” (e.g. island endemics and their relationships with their continental counterparts, e.g. Azorean Ammi
in Figs.1, 2). However, our phylogenetic results may indicate phylogenetic discrepancies with previous taxonomic
treatments. The two studied Stoibrax s.s. taxa (S. dichotomum and S. pomelianum) are not resolved in the phylogenetic
reconstructions (Figs. 1, 2). The three species considered in this paper under Stoibrax s.s. (S. dichotomum, S. hanotei,
and S. pomelianum) were described on the basis of characters difficult to observe (presence of hairs or tubercles on
fruits, presence of crystalline inclusions on pedicels, shape of leaves and sheaths; Maire 1926; Braun-Blanquet &
Maire 1931; El Alaoui Faris & Ibn Tattou 2007) and, in fact, the identification of Stoibrax materials is problematic due
to the intermediate features detected in many materials (pers. obs.). In our opinion, testing the existence of taxonomic
units within Stoibrax is desirable in order to evaluate if the detected variation is clinal or there are real discrete
morphological units. The same consideration could be made for Deverra juncea, which is associated with D. denudata
in our study (Fig. 1). This taxon is described as a poorly branched plant with small terminal umbels (Podlech 1986).
Future studies using multi-gene phylogenetic reconstructions may provide a better resolution to determinate whether
it represents a proper taxon or just depauperated forms of D. denudata.
On the basis of our results we propose a revised taxonomic treatment for the tribe Apieae (Table 3). In particular,
we propose to consider the above cited Apium and Deverra subspecies at species level, as well as the description of three
additional genera, Canaria gen. nov. (former Seseli webbii), Modesciadium gen. nov. (former Stoibrax involucratum)
and Schoenoselinum gen. nov. (former Anethum foeniculoides) on the basis of their morphological distinctiveness
from its closest relatives. We provide a key to genera to depict the new generic circumscription of the tribe after our
taxonomical proposal.
1. Canaria Jim.-Mejías & P.Vargas, gen. nov. Type:—Canaria tortuosa (Webb & Berthelot 1834: 161, t. 77) Jim.-
Mejías & P. Vargas.
A new genus similar in fruit morphology to Sclerosciadium, from which can be distinguished by the absence of apical
sepal-like appendages on the mericarps, larger size and yellowish petals.
74 Phytotaxa 212 (1) © 2015 Magnolia Press
Etymology:—The genus is named after the Canary Islands, using the Latin denomination “Canaria”, which is the
earliest reference to the archipelago, given by Pliny the Elder in his “Naturalis Historiae”.
TABLE 3 Revised taxonomic scheme of the tribe Apieae
Genus Species Genus Species
Ammi A. majus (incl. A. procerum1)Deverra D. aphylla
A. seubertianum D. battandieri
A. trifoliatum D. burchellii
Anethum A. graveolens D. denudata
A. theurkauffii2D. intermedia
Apium A. anuum D. juncea2
A. australe D. reboudii3
A. commersonii D. scoparia (subsp. scoparia and subsp. tripolitania2)
A. chilense D. tortuosa
A. decumbens D. triradiata
A. fernandezianum Foeniculum F. vulgare
A. filiforme Modesciadium M. involucratum (= Stoibrax involucratum)
A. graveolens Naufraga N. balearica
A. insulare Petroselinum P. crispum
A. larranagum2Pseudoridolfia P. fennanei
A. panul Ridolfia R. segetum
A. prostratum Schoenoselinum S. foeniculoides (= Anethum foeniculoides)
A. sellowianum Sclerosciadium S. nodiflorum
Billburttia B. capensoides Stoibrax S. dichotomum
B. vaginoides S. hanotei2
Canaria C. tortuosa
(= Seseli webbii)
S. pomelianum2
1 Ammi procerum was described from Madeira (Lowe 1868). However, the characters that distinguish it from A. majus (both are reported
from Madeira) overlap with those given for populations from mainland Europe (see Nieto Feliner et al. 2003). After the examination of
the type material (Gonçallo 994, K) we suggest to consider A. procerum just a big-sized form of A. majus.
2 Taxa in need of revision (see Discussion).
3 Although we have not studied materials of this taxon, it is morphologically strongly divergent from the other Deverra species (Podlech
1986) and its taxonomical autonomy and conservation of species rank should be expected.
Distribution:—This monotypic genus comprises only Canaria tortuosa (see below); it is a Canarian endemic
occurring on cliffs and rocky soils close to the coast (Branwell & Branwell 1990), particularly from the islands of El
Hierro, La Palma, La Gomera, Tenerife, and Gran Canaria (Hand 2011).
Canaria tortuosa (Webb & Berthelot) Jim.-Mejías & P.Vargas, comb. nov.
Basionym: Ferula tortuosa Webb & Berthelot (1834: 161, t. 77). Holotype: Webb & Berthelot 1834: t. 77. Epitype (here designated):—
CANARY ISLANDS. “Teneriffa, in rupestribus convallis Tamadaya”, 22 Jun 1855, Bourgeau 1353 (WAG!; iso-G, MPU, photo!).
Seseli webbii Cosson (1856: 57).
Notes:Canaria tortuosa was originally described by Webb & Berthelot (1834) as Ferula tortuosa and later transferred
to Seseli as S. webii by Cosson (1856) on the basis of the fruit characters. The genus Seseli was long considered to
be polyphyletic and several attempts to divide it in different genera have been already made (cf. Spalik et al. 2004).
However, S. webbii was never transferred to another genus, despite its distant relationship with the remaining members
of the genus, which was already noted by several authors (Spalik et al., 2004; Reduron et al., 2009). According to
previous results (see above), our phylogenetic reconstructions show that Canaria may be closely related to the SW
Moroccan endemic Sclerosciadium nodiflorum, which is also corroborated by the carpological features (Fig. 3M,P).
TAXONOMY OF THE TRIBE APIEAE Phytotaxa 212 (1) © 2015 Magnolia Press 75
The presence of well-developed apical sepal-like appendages and conspicuous tubercles in Sclerosciadium (El Alaoui
Faris & Ibn Tattou, 2007), which are respectively absent and inconspicuous in Canaria, as well as the differences in
petal color (white vs. yellow), supports the consideration of both as independent genera.
In the original description of Ferula tortuosa, Webb & Berthelot (1834) included a question mark (“Ferula ?
tortuosa”) and did not include a Latin diagnosis, but was accompanied by an analytical drawing. None of these apparent
irregularities affect the valid publication of the name (ICN, McNeill et al 2012; see Art. 36.1 for names published with
a question mark, and Arts. 38.5, 38.7 and 38.9 for the valid publication of names based on illustrations). The analytical
drawing must be considered the original description and therefore the holotype (Cheek 1989). When transferred to
Seseli by Cosson (1856), the new name Seseli webii was given, to avoid homonymy with the already existing Seseli
tortuosum L.
Webb & Berthelot (1834) clearly stated in the protologue of Ferula tortuosa that they did not observe fruits
(“Fructu ignoto…”). In concordance, the holotype plate lacks fruits too, although the taxon can be unambiguously
recognized among Canarian umbellifers by the habit and leaf morphology. To avoid further taxonomical problems,
and to ensure the precise application of the species name, we propose the designation of an epitype (ICN McNeill et
al. 2012, art. 9.7; see also Martín-Bravo & Jiménez-Mejías (2009) for further discussion in epitipification). We select
an specimen with ripe fruits (Bourgeau 1353), which was cited by Cosson (“…in convalle Tamadaya (…) Bourgeau
pl. Can. Exsicc.”; 1856) as epitype.
2. Modesciadium P.Vargas & Jim.-Mejías, gen. nov. Type:Modesciadium involucratum (Maire 1922: 186) Vargas
& Jim.-Mejías.
A new genus similar to Stoibrax, from which can be distinguished by the presence of bracteoles at the base of the
second-level umbels.
Etymology:—The genus is named after our friend and colleague Modesto Luceño, Spanish botanist specialized in
the Cyperaceae and flora of the Iberian Central Range, also expert in mosses and especially in male sexual structures.
The etymology of the name indicates his nickname “Modes”, combined with the ancient Greek word Sciadium, which
means “umbrella” together forming Modesciadium as an acronym.
Distribution:—This monotypic genus only comprises Modesciadium involucratum (see below). It is endemic to
central southwestern Morocco (from Zaïane to N Sahara) where it inhabits forest clearings, steppes and rocky places,
mainly in basic soils (El Alaoui Faris & Ibn Tattou 2007).
Modesciadium involucratum (Maire) P.Vargas & Jim.-Mejías, comb. nov.
Basionym: Trachyspermum involucratum (Maire 1926: 186). Lectotype (here designated):—MOROCCO. “Maroc, Marrakech, rochers
calcaires du Gueliz”, 7 April 1921, Maire (P, photo!).
Brachyapium involucratum (Maire) Maire (1932: 186).
Stoibrax involucratum (Maire) Burtt (1989: 146).
Notes:—This taxon resembles superficially forms of Ammoides pusilla (Brot.) Breistroffer (1947), with tuberculate
fruits (Nieto Feliner et al. 2003), from which it can be easily distinguished by the dimorphic bracteoles (three linear
and two to three conspicuously spatulate), whereas all the bracteoles of M. involucratum are linear or linear-lanceolate.
Two other alternative genera have been considered for North African Stoibrax species: Trachyspermum Link, and
Brachyapium (Baill.) Maire. However, Trachyspermum is typified on T. ammi (tribe Pyramidoptereae; Downie et
al. 2010), and Brachyapium, based on Carum sect. Brachyapium Baill., is typified on Ptychotis didyma Sond. (tribe
Tordylieae; Magee et al. 2010b).
3. Schoenoselinum Jim.-Mejías & P.Vargas, gen. nov. Type:Schoenoselinum foeniculoides (Maire & Wilczek
1936: 66) Jim.-Mejías & P. Vargas.
A new genus similar to Anethum and Foeniculum, from which can be distinguished by the shrubby habit and rod-like
leafless flowering stems.
Etymology:—The etymology of the name comes from Schoenos “rush”, combined with the latin word Selinum,
which means “celery”.
Distribution:—This monotypic genus comprises only Schoenoselinum foeniculoides (see below). It is an endemic
76 Phytotaxa 212 (1) © 2015 Magnolia Press
from southwestern Morocco (from Chtouka to N Sahara) where it inhabits subcoastal ravines and rocky places on
sandstones (El Alaoui Faris & Ibn Tattou, 2007).
Schoenoselinum foeniculoides (Maire & Wilczek) Jim.-Mejías & P. Vargas, comb. nov.
Basionym:—Anethum foeniculoides Maire & Wilczek (1936: 66). Lectoype (here designated):—MOROCCO. “Maroc,
in rupestribus arenaceis secus flumen Noun infra Abouda”, 4 April 1935, Maire 2556 (P, photo!).
Notes:—The name Anethum foeniculoides was first published by Maire & Wilczek (1946), and again as a “new
species” several months later by Maire (1936), which has led to some nomenclatural confusion. It was described as
being similar in habit to fennel, but was included within Anethum based on the narrowly winged mericarps.
Key to the genera of tribe Apieae (Apiaceae)
1. Shrubs or subshrubs ......................................................................................................................................................................… 2
- Herbs ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4
2. Mericarps conspicuously hairy ............................................................................................................................................. Deverra
- Mericarps glabrous .......................................................................................................................................................................… 3
3. Bracts and bracteoles present; commisural vittae 5–6 ....................................................................................................... Billburttia
- Bracts and bracteoles absent; commissural vittae 2 .................................................................................................. Schoenoselinum
4. Primary ribs forming sepal-like appendages at the top of the mericarp ................................................................ Sclerosciadium
- Mericarps without sepal-like appendages ......................................................................................................................................... 5
5. Mericarps conspicuously hairy or tuberculate ..............................................................................................................................… 6
- Mericarps glabrous, except sometimes very low papillae confined to valleculae ............................................................................ 7
6. Bracteoles absent ................................................................................................................................................................... Stoibrax
- Bracteoles present ........................................................................................................................................................ Modesciadium
7. Mericarps didym; dorsal ribs completely inconspicuous, not visible; leaf segments ovate to suborbicular, entire, rarely 2-lobed ....
.............................................................................................................................................................................................. Naufraga
- Mericarps not didym; dorsal ribs conspicuous or at least visible as lines on mericarp surface; leaf segments linear to broad, several
times divided to dentate, rarely distal ones entire, but then segments narrow elliptic ...................................................................... 8
8. Leaf segments linear or filiform; bracts and bracteoles absent ....................................................................................................… 9
- Leaf segments broader, flat; bracts and bracteoles absent or present .........................................................................................… 12
9. Commisural ribs broadly winged .................................................................................................................................... … Anethum
- Commisural ribs not broadly winged ...........................................................................................................................................…10
10. Plants perennial ................................................................................................................................................................ Foeniculum
- Plants annual … ............................................................................................................................................................................... 11
11. Mericarps ovoid … ...................................................................................................................................................... Pseudoridolfia
- Mericaps elliptic to oblong .................................................................................................................................................... Ridolfia
12. Distal leaf segments elliptical, ovate, or oblanceolate, with margins entire to serrate or dentate ........................................ … Ammi
- Distal leaf segments lobate, pinnatifid or pinnatisect ..................................................................................................................... 13
13. Bracts present ................................................................................................................................................................. Petroselinum
- Bracts absent ................................................................................................................................................................................... 14
14. Bracteoles absent; flowers whitish .......................................................................................................................................... Apium
- Bracteoles deciduous; flowers yellowish ............................................................................................................................. Canaria
We are very grateful to the editor and two anonymous reviewers for their comments, all of which highly improved
the quality of this manuscript; curators of the M, MA, MADM, MEL, MSB, RNG, and UPOS herbaria for the loan
of materials and granting permission for DNA extraction; J. Mathez and J.-P. Reduron from MPU for the materials of
a paratype specimen of Pseudoridolfia fennanei; H. Schaefer and S.R. Downie for kindly sending DNA of Azorean
Ammi species and Southern Hemisphere Apium respectively; E. Cano and A. Herrero from the Real Jardín Botánico
(Madrid), and J.L. Ribas from CITIUS (Seville) provided technical support; C. Baranda and the technical staff of MA
for all the managing of herbarium specimens needed; M. Fernández-Mazuecos, J.C. Zamora and J.V. Sandoval helped
during analysis and image processing, and gave comments on earlier versions of this manuscript. This study has been
made within the project “Do all endangered species hold the same value?: origin and conservation of living fossils of
flowering plants endemic to Spain”, funded by a Fundación General CSIC-Banco Santander research project.
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... diffusum (Roxb. ex Sm.) Santapu & Wagh] and Apieae (S. webbii Coss.) [15,17,[19][20][21]. However, these molecular fragments contained too few informative sites. ...
... Then, we reconstructed the phylogeny of Seseli based on plastomes and nrDNA sequences. Both CDS-based and nrDNA-based phylogenetic trees indicated that the Seseli taxa did not form a monophyletic group, which was consistent with previous studies using molecular fragments [15][16][17][18][19][20][21]. The eleven newly sequenced Seseli taxa did not cluster with S. tortuosum, in which S. delavayi clustered with Eriocycla belonging to Echinophoreae and the others belonging to Selineae. ...
... However, S. diffusum belonging to Pimpinelleae has been treated as Psammogeton difusum (Roxb ex Sm.) Rech.f. ex Pimenov [20], while S. webbii belonging to Apieae has been treated as Canaria tortuosa (Webb & Berthelot) Jim.-Mejías & P.Vargas [21]. Consequently, the remaining Seseli taxa still belong to Selineae. ...
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Background The genus Seseli L., which consists of 125–140 species distributed in the Old World from western Europe and northwestern Africa to China and Japan, is one of the largest and most taxonomically difficult genera of Apiaceae Lindl. Although several previous studies have been conducted on Seseli based on limited morphological characteristics and molecular fragments, a robust and comprehensive phylogeny of Seseli remains elusive. Plastomes provide abundant genetic information and have been widely used in studying plant phylogeny and evolution. Consequently, we newly generated the complete plastomes of eleven Seseli taxa. We combined plastome data and morphological characteristics to investigate the phylogeny of Seseli . Results In our study, we observed that the genome length, gene numbers, IR/SC borders, and repeat composition of the eleven Seseli plastomes were variable. Several appropriate mutation hotspot regions may be developed as candidate DNA barcodes for evolution, phylogeny, and species identification of Seseli . The phylogenetic results identified that Seseli was not a monophyletic group. Moreover, the eleven newly sequenced Seseli taxa did not cluster with S. tortuosum (the type species of Seseli , belonging to the tribe Selineae), where S. delavayi clustered with Eriocycla belonging to the tribe Echinophoreae and the other ten belonged to Selineae. The comparative plastome and morphological characteristics analyses confirmed the reliability of the phylogenetic analyses and implied the complex evolution of Seseli . Conclusion Combining molecular and morphological data is efficient and useful for studying the phylogeny of Seseli . We suggest that “a narrow sense” of Seseli will be meaningful for further study and the current taxonomic system of Seseli needs to be revised. In summary, our study can provide new insights into the phylogenetic relationships and taxonomic framework of Seseli .
... Both Apium and Foeniculum are the members of Apiaceae which are the largest family in the order of Apiales and have been well known as the medicinal and consumable plants [12]. Nevertheless, this family is currently under the major taxonomic rearrangements [13]. Therefore, the aim of this research is to reveal the phylogenetic position as well as the connection with the secondary metabolites content between Apium and Foeniculum. ...
... The phylogenetic reconstruction of the Indonesian Apium and Foeniculum with several member of family[13] using maximum likelihood tree with 100 bootstrap replications. Ammoides pusilla is used as out-group ...
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BACKGROUND: The emergence of COVID-19 in the late of 2019 resulted in the massive screening of drugs, including natural products, to support the current vaccines. Apium and Foeniculum vegetables are members of the Apiaceae family that potentially used to be natural immunosuppressant. AIM: The purpose of this research is to analyze the phylogenetic position between these two plants as well as find out their secondary metabolites potency against COVID-19 main protease (Mpro) and the papain-like protease (PLpro). METHODS: The phylogenetic analysis of Apium and Foeniculum from Indonesia was carried out based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the bioactive virtual screening assay was completed through AutoDock Vina software. CONCLUSION: Overall, Apium and Foeniculum have close relationships among the members of Apiaceae after maximum likelihood analysis. Furthermore, it also has 70 similar bioactive compounds that some of these potentially inhibit both of COVID-19 proteases.
... The majority of the species of this genus are narrow endemics, growing in arid conditions, in calcareous rocks and on rocky slopes (Lyskov et al. 2018). Recent molecular studies clearly show the polyphyletic nature of the genus Banasiak et al. 2013;Jimenez-Mejias and Vargas 2015;Pimenov et al. 2019). Most of the species of Seseli are placed in the tribe Selineae (Banasiak et al. 2013 Pimenov), have been found in other groups (Jimenez-Mejias and Vargas 2015;Pimenov et al. 2019). ...
... Recent molecular studies clearly show the polyphyletic nature of the genus Banasiak et al. 2013;Jimenez-Mejias and Vargas 2015;Pimenov et al. 2019). Most of the species of Seseli are placed in the tribe Selineae (Banasiak et al. 2013 Pimenov), have been found in other groups (Jimenez-Mejias and Vargas 2015;Pimenov et al. 2019). Another obscure group of species with such an unusual phylogenetic position is Seseli sect. ...
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Based on molecular and morphological evidence, two species of Seseli sect. Eriocycla subsect. Cordata are described as a new genus, Shomalia. The new genus is related to the Iranian endemic genus Azilia; the taxa have the following common diagnostic features: similar plant architecture, imparipinnate leaves, leaf segments ovate or orbiculate, with obtuse or cuneate basis and dentate or dissected margin coming down over abaxial surface, up to five linear bracts present, and late blooming and fruiting. At the same time, Shomalia, gen. nov. differs from Azilia in carpological features: it has elongated or lanceo-late mericarps, terete in cross-section, covered with non-branching simple hairs or glabrous (vs. elliptic glabrous mericarps strongly compressed from the dorsal side in Azilia), morphology of the underground part (multi-branched woody rootstock vs. thickened and non-branching rootstock), and number of stems (numerous vs. solitary).
... We have lately studied [23] the anatomy of Modesciadium involucratum, Stoibrax dichotomum, and S. pomelianum fruits using bright field light microscopy and have identified small crystals on the commissural side and in the exocarp. The genera Ammi, Modesciadium, and Stoibrax have also recently been studied by molecular phylogenetics, all of which have been assigned to the clade Apieae: Stoibrax to subclade A, and Ammi and Modesciadium to subclade B3 [24,25]. The authors noted that they used acids to prepare anatomical slides of the fruits, and it was therefore impossible to determine the presence/absence of calcium oxalate crystals. ...
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Crystals in the fruits of Apiaceae are of great importance for taxonomy. The presence/absence and location of large prismatic crystals, druses, and spherical aggregates characterize genera, tribes, and subfamilies. When the fruits of Apiaceae split into mericarps, cell separation occurs, and probably cell death and the destruction of their walls. In clades Saniculeae and Scandicinae, this process is accompanied by the accumulation of calcium oxalate crystals in the abscission layer. However, reports of smaller crystals are rare, and their taxonomic significance is unknown. To fill this gap, we started research with four species of the clade Apieae: Ammi majus, Modesciadium involucratum, Deverra aphylla, and Rutheopsis tortuosa; in the last two species, crystals were described for the first time. We also studied crystals in Chaerophyllum bulbosum from the clade Scandicinae, and in Sanicula rubriflora from the clade Saniculeae. Conventional optical and polarizing microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were used. In the clade Apieae, the studied species contained crystals in the exocarp and on the commissure, and often in the mesocarp parenchyma as well; the shapes of the crystals are small druses and crystal sand. The calcium content in the crystals was determined as 10–31%; crystals contain also carbon and oxygen and are most likely composed of calcium oxalate. In the fruits of Apiaceae studied, the silicon content is low (<0.3%).
... (Allioni 1773: 28) and Meum segetum Guss. (Gussone 1827: 346), both belonging to this "Anethum alliance" (as defined by Jimenez-Mejias &Vargas 2015 andFrankiewicz et al. 2021), to better define some nomenclatural and taxonomic aspects. In addition to the typifications, we propose here the current correct names (in bold) for both the binomials. ...
... Apiaceae is one of the largest families of plants with 466 genera; it is especially diverse in temperate Eurasia and North America (Plunkett et al. 2018). To reveal an infra-familial classification in Apiaceae, phylogenetic studies continue to make comprehensive contributions to the understanding of relationships among the taxa (Calviño and Downie 2007;Nicolas and Plunkett 2009;Downie et al. 2010;Jiménéz-Mejías and Vargas 2015). According to recent studies, Apiaceae are divided into four subfamilies: Apioideae, Saniculoideae, Azorelloideae, and Mackinlayoideae (Calviño et al. 2016). ...
In this study, the Aegean endemic genus Microsciadium was first evaluated in light of both ribosomal and chloroplast DNA datasets. According to the literature, Microsciadium minutum was determined as Cuminum minutum, then transferred to Carum (as C. minutum), and then Azorella (as A. minuta). Interestingly, these three genera belong to different tribes, even to different subfamilies. Since the phylogenetic position of Microsciadium was unknown, we analyzed this monotypic genus with a broad sampling of Apiaceae based on rps16 intron and an internal transcribed spacer. Microsciadium is well nested in the tribe Pyramidoptereae in Apioideae based on both datasets. Also, this genus is closely related to Hellenocarum. In addition, the detailed description, photographs, and micrographs of M. minutum are presented. The name is lectotypified here.
... These traditional Apiaceae classification systems were largely based on fruit anatomy and morphology. Apiaceae is undergoing a major taxonomic rearrangement within the angiosperms given that current systematic knowledge has changed in light of molecular phylogenetics (e.g., Jiménez-Mejías & Vargas 2015). A comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis of tribal classification of Apiaceae, based on DNA sequences, showed that Oliveria is sister to Trachyspermum within Pyramidoptereae (Mousavi et al. 2020). ...
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Oliveria is a little-known, monotypic genus of the family Apiaceae. The only accepted species, O. decumbens, is distributed throughout Mesopotamia. It is an annual, aromatic plant that has been used in traditional medicine since ancient times. The aim of this study was to examine morphological, micromorphological, and anatomical characters of O. decumbens in order to increase the current botanical knowledge of this genus.
... Carum atlanticum demonstrate affinity within the tribe Pyramidoptereae, whereas C. proliferum, C. jahandiezii and C. lacuum fall within the tribe Apieae. To determine more precisely the phylogenetic position of the studied species, the published nrITS datasets from Zakharova et al. (2012), Fernández Prieto andCires (2014), Jiménez-Mejías andVargas (2015) and Doğru-Koca et al. (2020) were modified and used. The final set of samples was increased to include representatives of the tribe Careae, which comprises the generitype Carum carvi, and the Conioselinum chinense Clade, which includes Meum athamanticum connected with Carum atlanticum in its taxonomic history. ...
In Northwest Africa (Morocco), Carum (Apiaceae/Umbelliferae) is represented by six little known species. In order to clarify the relationships of these species within Carum, we conducted detailed morphological studies and molecular sequence analysis of four species (C. atlanticum, C. jahandiezii, C. lacuum and C. proliferum) based on the nuclear DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and plastid rps16 intron (rps16) regions. According to the molecular data, the Moroccan Carum species form three isolated evolutionary lines distant from that of the generitype C. carvi. The morphological study demonstrated that fruits of C. atlanticum belong to a carpological type markedly different from that of other Carum species. Based on the correlation of obtained carpological and molecular data, we propose to transfer C. atlanticum to the new monotypic genus Berberocarum, endemic to the High Atlas Mountains.
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Main conclusion Members of Apiales are monophyletic and radiated in the Late Cretaceous. Fruit morphologies are critical for Apiales evolution and negative selection and mutation pressure play important roles in environmental adaptation. Abstract Apiales include many foods, spices, medicinal, and ornamental plants, but the phylogenetic relationships, origin and divergence, and adaptive evolution remain poorly understood. Here, we reconstructed Apiales phylogeny based on 72 plastid genes from 280 species plastid genomes representing six of seven families of this order. Highly supported phylogenetic relationships were detected, which revealed that each family of Apiales is monophyletic and confirmed that Pennanticeae is a member of Apiales. Genera Centella and Dickinsia are members of Apiaceae, and the genus Hydrocotyle previously classified into Apiaceae is confirmed to belong to Araliaceae. Besides, coalescent phylogenetic analysis and gene trees cluster revealed ten genes that can be used for distinguishing species among families of Apiales. Molecular dating suggested that the Apiales originated during the mid-Cretaceous (109.51 Ma), with the families’ radiation occurring in the Late Cretaceous. Apiaceae species exhibit higher differentiation compared to other families. Ancestral trait reconstruction suggested that fruit morphological evolution may be related to shifts in plant types (herbaceous or woody), which in turn is related to the distribution areas and species numbers. Codon bias and positive selection analyses suggest that negative selection and mutation pressure may play important roles in environmental adaptation of Apiales members. Our results improve the phylogenetic framework of Apiales and provide insights into the origin, divergence, and adaptive evolution of this order and its members.
Este trabajo se presenta en tres capítulos: el primer capítulo abarca una descripción general sobre la arracacha (A. xanthorrhiza). El segundo capítulo presenta el artículo publicado sobre la estandarización y selección de los marcadores microsatélites para el análisis de variabilidad genética de arracacha. Finalmente, el capítulo 3 aborda el estudio de la diversidad genética de siete cultivares de la arracacha de Boyacá.
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A morphological study of a new species of Apiaceae and a molecular systematic analysis based on ITS sequences has led to the description of the new genus Pseudoridolfia that is related to Foeniculum, Ridolfia and Anethum. The new species, P. fennanei, occurs in the Tetraclinis articulala formations of the semi-arid valleys located on the northern fringe of the Central Plateau of Morocco.
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Previous molecular systematic investigations into the higher-level relationships of Apiaceae subfamily Apioideae have revealed a strongly supported clade recognised as tribe Oenantheae Dumort. These plants may have clusters of fibrous or tuberous-thickened roots, corky-thickened fruits, and other adaptations for existence in wet or aquatic habitats. In some species, the leaves may be finely dissected or linear-septate and much reduced. We have initiated collaborative studies to produce a comprehensive estimate of phytogeny of the tribe, but such investigations are thwarted because information on the composition of the tribe is lacking. Herein, tribe Oenantheae is circumscribed to include the following genera: Afrocarum, Berula, Bifora (pro parte), Cicuta, Cryptotaenia (pro parte), Cynosciadium, Daucosma, Helosciadium, Lilaeopsis, Limnosciadium, Neogoezia, Oenanthe, Oxypolis, Perideridia, Ptilimnium, Sium and Trepocarpus. Relationships inferred from phylogenetic analyses of nuclear rDNA ITS sequences from 64 accessions representing all 17 genera reveal that four genera are not monophyletic. Bifora and Cryptotaenia have members that fall outside of the tribe; Berula and Sium each comprise two or more lineages within Oenantheae. The St Helena endemics, Sium bracteatum and S. burchellii, ally with African Berula erecta; this clade is sister to the African endemic species Sium repandum and Afrocarum imbricatum, and this entire group is allied closely with north temperate Berula erecta. Nomenclatural changes are in order, but must await further study. Representatives of eight genera native to North America comprise a monophyletic group, and results from relative rate tests suggest that this lineage is evolving much faster than any other major clade recognised within the tribe.
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Taxonomically important structural characters and their states are given in an attempt to clarify and standardise the confusing and ambiguous terminology that is currently used in descriptions and identification keys of Umbelliferae taxa. The proposed terms to be used for characters and character states are listed, illustrated and discussed.
Despite the broad acceptance of phylogenetic principles in biological classification, a fundamental question still exists on how to classify paraphyletic groups. Much of the controversy appears due to (1) historical shifts in terminology and definitions, (2) neglect of focusing on evolutionary processes for understanding origins of natural taxa, (3) a narrow perspective on dimensions involved with reconstructing phylogeny, and (4) acceptance of lower levels of information content and practicability as a trade‐off for ease of arriving at formal classifications. Monophyly in evolutionary biology originally had a broader definition, that of describing a group with common ancestry. This definition thus includes both paraphyletic and monophyletic groups in the sense of Hennig. We advocate returning to a broader definition, supporting use of Ashlock's term holophyly as replacement for monophyly s.str. By reviewing processes involved in the production of phylogenetic patterns (budding, merging, and splitting), we demonstrate that paraphyly is a natural transitional stage in the evolution of taxa, and that it occurs regularly along with holophyly. When a new holophyletic group arises, it usually coexists for some time with its paraphyletic stem group. Paraphyly and holophyly, therefore, represent relational and temporal evolutionary stages. Paraphyletic groups exist at all levels of diversification in all kingdoms of eukaryotes, and they have traditionally been recognized because of their descent‐based similarity. We review different methodological approaches for recognition of monophyletic groups s.l. (i.e., both holophyletic and paraphyletic), which are essential for discriminating from polyphyly that is unacceptable in classification. For arriving at taxonomic decisions, natural processes, information content, and practicability are essential criteria. We stress using shared descent as a primary grouping principle, but also emphasize the importance of degrees of divergence plus similarity (cohesiveness of evolutionary features) as additional criteria for classification.
In a Miscellany in Honor of Merrit Lyndon Fernald, Woodson (1947) discussed the "Historical Factor" in plant geography. Now almost twenty years later it seems appropriate to continue the discussion in a miscellany in honor of Robert Everard Woodson. For years Woodson was intrigued by the relations of paleography to present patterns of distribution and variation, particularly of Apocynaceae and Asclepiadaceae, and we engaged in many discussions on possible interpretations of Angiosperm distributions. The Angiosperm family Umbelliferae is cosmopolitan primarily in temperate areas where it exhibits many interesting patterns of distribution and variation (Fig. 1, 2, 3, 4). Even though the fossil record for the family is inadequate it may be informative to generalize and speculate on the evolution of some of the present distributional patterns. The two families Araliaceae and Umbelliferae are a closely related and natural group probably derived from a pro-araliaceous stock. Baumann's (1946) comparative study of the fruit of the New Caledonia genus Myodocarpus (Araliaceae) and of the Umbelliferae supports this view and indicates that the Umbelli
It is shown here that names validated by analytical plates unaccompanied by text should, according to the articles of the current Code, be typified by using the plates as holotypes rather than by attempting to select, as lectotypes, specimens on which the plates might be based.