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Prevalence of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungi (AMF) Colonization in Medicinal Plant Root and Response of Prevalence with Some Selected Medicinal Plants Rhizosphere Soil Properties in BCSIR Forest, Chittagong, Bangladesh


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The studied was conducted in Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research forest area of Chittagong, Bangladesh to evaluate the prevalence of AMF colonization in plant root and response with rhizosphere soil properties. Root samples with rhizosphere soil of fifteenth medicinal plants were collected. Root colonization and soil characterization wereperformed by following method and percentage of root colonization was recorded. The highest AMF colonization was found in Chukrasia valutina A. Juss(100±7.12%) under the family of Meliaceaefollowed by T. chebula (91.67±7.32%) and least percentage of AMF was observed in Ocimum basilicum L. var.purpurescence(20.83±8.91%) under thefamily of Lamiaceae. But the AMF root colonization was varied differently with different rhizospheric soil parameters. AMF colonization was differed positively with K, Ca and moisture content and varied negatively with Na, P and soil salinity but differed randomly with pH, SOM of rhizosphere soil ofmedicinal plant at BCSIR of Bangladesh.
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JOURNAL OF PURE AND APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY, March 2015. Vol. 9(1), p. 131-140
Prevalence of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungi (AMF) Colonization
in Medicinal Plant Root and Response of Prevalence with Some
Selected Medicinal Plants Rhizosphere Soil Properties in BCSIR
Forest, Chittagong, Bangladesh
Milton Halder1, Samina Akhter1, Abu Sayeed Mohammad Mahmud1, Faridul
Islam1, Romel Mullick3, Jagadish Chandra Joardar2, Md. Sadiqul Amin2, Rezaul
Karim4, Hridika Talukder1 and Md. Saidur Rahman1
1Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Chittagong-4220, Bangladesh.
2Soil Science Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna-9208, Bangladesh.
3Inspector of Drugs, Directorate General of Drug Administration, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
4Institute of Food Science and Technology, Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research,
Dhaka-1205, Bangladesh.
(Received: 10 September 2014; accepted: 15 November 2014)
A study has been conducted in Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial
Research laboratory of Chittagong in Bangladesh to evaluate the prevalence of AMF
colonization in medicinal plant root and response with rhizosphere soil properties.
Fifteen medicinal plant's root samples with rhizosphere soil were collected from 0-30 cm
depth. Root colonization and soil characteristics were determined by following different
standard methods and percentage of root colonization was recorded. The highest AMF
colonization was found in Chukrasia velutina A. Juss (100±7.12%) under the family of
Meliaceae followed by Terminalia chebula (Gaertn.) Retz. (91.67±7.32%) and least
percentage of AMF infection was observed in Ocimum basilicum L. var. purpurascens
Benth (20.83±8.91%) under the family of Lamiaceae. AMF colonization in root was varied
randomly with different rhizosphere soil parameters. AMF colonization was differed
positively with K, Ca and moisture content and varied negatively with Na, P and soil
salinity but response randomly with pH, SOM (Soil Organic Matter) of rhizosphere soil
of medicinal plant at BCSIR forest. Providing a suitable environment for proliferation of
AMF colonization is an efficient technique to use environment friendly Biofertilizer
instead of inorganic fertilizer.
Key words: Rhizosphere Soil, Mycorrhiza, Medicinal Plants, Root Colonization, Soil Properties.
Bangladesh Council of Scientific and
Industrial Research (BCSIR) is the largest
government research institute in Bangladesh.
Among three regional offices, Chittagong BCSIR
is specialized for research on medicinal and aromatic
plants. Total more than 1600 species of medicinal
plants are cultivated and identified. The forest of
BCSIR, in view of their floristic diversity and
numerous multipurpose species, are considered a
varietal storehouse of economically important
plants and beneficial microbial communities. The
most prevalent beneficial microorganisms
associated with plants, are soil inhabiting fungi
that form mutualistic association with plant-roots
referred to as mycorrhiza. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal
Fungi (AMF) is widespread throughout the world
and found in the majority of terrestrial ecosystems
(Smith & Read, 2008). They reduce soil erosion by
bringing together micro aggregates of soil particles
to form macro aggregates (Miller and Jastro, 1994).
They are obligate symbionts can improve plant
growth by up taking P and help plants to absorb
N, K, Ca, S, Cu, and Zn (Jiang et al., 2013); produce
glomalin (Guo et al., 2012); water absorption (Dhar
and Mridha, 2003); decrease disease incidence
(Linderman, 1994); enhance the salt tolerance (Evlin
et al., 2009); heavy metal sequestration (Tonin et
al., 2001); and showed diversity of structural
colonization (Chaudhry, et al., 2012) etc. Fungi
play a central role in many microbiological and
ecological processes, influencing soil fertility,
decomposition, cycling of minerals and organic
matter, as well as plant health and nutrition (Finlay,
2008). So, it is prominently important to encourage
AMF relationship with plant root and utilization of
Biofertilizer. Few works on Mycorrhiza fungi in
Bangladesh has been done but no work has been
performed in Bangladesh Council of Scientific and
Industrial Research (BCSIR). Some works on
Mycorrhizal diversity in different forest species
(e.g woody plants, spices plants, ornamental plants
etc.) in different region of Bangladesh has also
been investigated (Mridha and Dhar, 2007, Dhar
and Mridha, 2006, Dhar et al., 2005). Dhar and
Mridha, (2012) studied Arbuscular mycorrhizal
associations in different forest tree species of
Hazarikhil forestof Chittagong Bangladesh.But still
now research on Medicinal plants and mycorrhiza
colonization is in dark. Also no work on relationship
between soil properties and Mycorrhiza
colonization has been studied. So, relationship
between root Medicinal plants root colonization
by Mycorrhiza fungi and rhizosphere soil
properties is very important for fungal growth
which also assists Medicinal plant growth.
Information on the arbuscular Mycorrhizal status
in Medicinal plants root and relationship with the
soil properties are limited. Keeping these in minds
our present work was conducted to evaluate the
diversity of Mycorrhiza colonization in different
Medicinal plant roots of Chittagong BCSIR forest,
Bangladesh and relationship with rhizosphere soil
Study area and root sample collection
The studied area was located in BCSIR
laboratory Chittagong at 22°24’35.4"N 91°49’00.6"
which is located in the south east part of
Bangladesh, approximately 100 acres. Minimum
and maximum temperature of these months (March
and April) was from 30°C to 38 °C respectively.
Maximum rainfall was range from 0.02 to 3.31mm
and average 0.07mm. Name and family name of
selected 15highly medicinal plants are given below
Table 1. Root samples of 12 abundant family plants
were collected from 0-30cm depth of each plant
rhizosphere at different location of BCSIR forest
areas. After the collection of root it was carried out
to laboratory for analysis. Then the fresh root
samples were washed by distilled water and
preserver in 5% formalin. Roots preserved in 5%
formalin were washed well to remove the formalin
and chopped into 1cm pieces. Clean root samples
were cleared by 10% KOH solution for 10 min at
85"90°C and deeply pigmented roots were treated
with 10% H2O2 at room temperature for 10 min,
stained with0.05% aniline blue solution at 90°C for
90 min, and then stored in glycerol solution (Phillips
and Hayman 1970) with some modifications. A total
of 100 segments from each species were examined.
Roots segments were observed by a compound
microscope at 10×10 magnification. Percent root
colonization was calculated (Dhar and Mridha,
2003). Presence of mycelium was regarded as the
AM positive and total mycelial colonization was
treated as the total RC (Root Colonization)/PRC
(Percent Root Colonization) colonization. The root
colonization was calculated by using following
Soil Sample collection and sample preparation
Soil samples were collected from
rhizosphere zone of selected 15highly medicinal
plants (name is given above Table 1) at BCSIR,
Chittagong forest areas. Each soil sample was
replicated in three times. Soil sample brought to
soil science laboratory of BCSIR. At first the soil
samples were grinding to smaller ones then the
foreign material were removed from soil. At last the
soil samples were sieved at 2mm sieve and finally
preserved in polythene bags.
Soil samples analysis
Soil pH (soil: water ratio 1:2.5) and EC
(soil: water ratio 1:2.5) was determined on a soil/
water ratio (1/2.5) and available P (Jackson, M.L.
1973), SOM (Jackson, M.L. 1973), Available K, Ca,
Na (Jackson, M.L. 1973), Soil moisture were
determinedby gravimetric method.
Statistical analyses
Correlation analysis was performed to
evaluate the relationships between different soil
properties and PRC. All statistical analyses were
performed by SPSS 16.0 and Microsoft excels 2007.
Prevalence of AMFRoot colonization
Highest AMF colonization was observed
in C. valutina A. Juss(100±7.12%) followed by T.
chebula (Gaertn.) Retz (91.67±7.32%) under the
family of Meliaceae., Combretaceae
respectively.Least percentage of root colonization
was found in O. basilicum L. var.purpurescence
(20.83±8.91%) followed by A. indica A. Juss
(54.10±5.23%). Most of the medicinal plants showed
highly AMF colonized. All the plants except O.
basilicum L. percentage of colonization were more
than 50%.In same family member name A. indica
A. Juss, and C. valutina A. Juss under the family
Meliaceae but one was highest colonization and
other was half of colonization of highest that might
be due to the Ec (Olfat Khakpour and Jalil Khara,
2012, J. Beltrano et al., 2013), P concentration
(Abbott & Robson 1991, Rosilaine Carrenho et al.,
2007), K availability in rhizosphere soil (Furlan and
Bernier- Cardou, 1989).Most of the medicinal
plants showed more or less same percentage of
AMF colonization like as S. nux-vomica L.(
72.32±5.76%), B. acutangula L.( 75.00±11.2), P.
emblica Linn.(77.78±7.32%), A. paniculata Burm.f
(75.00±7.37%).Comparison among the prevalence
Table 1. List of studied Medicinal plants and their family name
Sl No. Scientific Name Family
1Andrographis paniculata Burm.f. Acanthaceae
2Azadirachta indica A. Juss Meliaceae.
3Barringtonia acutangula L. Lecythidaceae
4Catharenthus roseus var. angustus (Steenis) Bakh. F Apocynaceae
5Centella asiatica L. Umbelliferae
6Chukrasia valutina A. Juss Meliaceae.
7Coccinea grandis L. Cucurbitaceae
8Datura metel L. Solanaceae
9Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Crassulaceae
10 Ocimum basilicum L. var.purpurescence Lamiaceae
11 Phyllanthus amarus Schum. & Thonn Euphorbiaceae
12 Phyllanthus emblica Linn. Euphorbiaceae
13 Rauwolfia serpentina (L.)Benth. Ex Kurz Apocynaceae
14 Strychnos nux-vomica L. Loganiaceae
15 Terrminalia chebula (Gaertn.)Retz. Combretaceae
Fig. 1. Prevalence ofAMF colonization (%) in different medicinal plants root of BCSIR forest.Error bars represent
the standard deviations (SDs).
of AMF colonization of different medicinal plants
of BCSIR forestis shown below figure 1.
Response ofAMF Colonization to rhizosphere soil
Highest p concentration (mg/kg) was
found in rhizosphere soil of O. basilicum L.
var.purpurescencethe value was 64.6 (mg/
kg)compared to other medicinal plant’s rhizospheric
soil. But the RC (Root Colonization)of AMF was
lowest in the plant O. basilicum L.
var.purpurescence as 20.83±8.91%. The lowest
concentration of P was observed in rhizospheric
soilofC. valutina A. Juss the value was2.59(mg/
kg) but RC of AMF was reached peak at that plants
root.High P concentration reduces AMF
colonization. Our finding was identical with the
other researchers (Abbott & Robson
1991,Aliasgharzadeh et al., 2001-, Rosilaine
Carrenho et al., 2007). Statistically P concentration
was negatively and significantly correlated (r= -
0.609*, p<0.05) with RC (Root colonization) of AMF
Fig. 2. Prevalence of AMFcolonization (%) in medicinal plants rootand P concentrations (mg/kg)of different
medicinal plant rhizospheric soil at BCSIR forest in Bangladesh.Error bars represent the standard deviations
Table 2. Comparison between K concentration(mg/
kg) of some medicinal plants rhizosphere soil and
percentAMFcolonizationof some medicinal plants in
BCSIR forest.Mean ± S.D (Standard deviation), n=3.
Plant name Colonization K concentration
% ((mg/kg))
A. paniculata. 75.00±7.37 92.51±7.31
A. indica 54.10±5.23 48.13±4.32
B. acutangula. 75.00±11.2 55.00±3.76
C. roseus 60.23±4.57 52.43±2.35
C. asiatica 66.67±1.27 54.78±5.82
C. valutina 100.00±7.1 101.42±3.56
C. grandis. 56.00±7.9 50.32±2.31
D. metel. 64.00±4.57 67.04±2.45
K. pinnata 70.83±3.21 78.21±3.25
O. basilicum 20.83±8.91 30.34±3.68
P. amarus 58.33±2.48 45.52±8.32
P. emblica 77.78±6.12 92.45±4.97
R. serpentina 80.00±9.21 93.43±1.57
S. nux-vomica 72.32±5.76 82.82±5.36
T. chebula. 91.67±7.32 94.93±5.26
Table 3. Comparison between percentage root
colonization of AMF and percent soil moistureof
rhizosphere soil of medicinal plants at BCSIR
forest.Mean ± S.D (Standard deviation), n=3.
Plant name Colonization % Moisture
A. indica 54.10±5.23 7.2
A. paniculata 75.00±7.37 6.4
B. acutangula 75.00±11.2 6.7
C. grandis. 56.00±7.9 7.3
C. asiatica 66.67±4.57 8.1
C. roseus 60.23±4.57 7.1
C. valutina 100.00±7.1 9.7
D. metel. 64.00±6.12 7.3
K. pinnata 70.83±3.21 8.2
O. basilicum 20.83±8.91 2.3
P. amarus 58.33±2.48 6.2
P. emblica 77.78±7.32 7.3
R. serpentina 80.00±9.21 8.7
S. nux-vomica 72.32±5.76 6.2
T. chebula 91.67±7.32 8.6
prevalence.P concentration was also significantly
correlated with moisture percentage (r= -
0.549*,p<0.05) and Na concentration (r= 0.659**,
p<0.01). But our work was controverted with other
researchers(G. Feng et al., 2002).G. Feng et al.,
(2002) showed that the extent of AMF colonization
was not significantly affected P
treatments.Relationship between P concentrations
of rhizosphere soil of medicinal plant and AMF
colonization are shown in below figure 2.
Response of AMFColonization to rhizosphere soil
K concentration
K concentration was varied within (Table
2) a wide range of selected medicinal plants
rhizosphere soil from 30.34±3.68 (mg/kg) to
101.42±3.56(mg/kg) and percentage root
colonization was 20.83±8.91%in O. basilicum and
100±7.1% inC. valutinarespectively. So, Soil K is
often reported to have a stimulatory effect on
mycorrhization (Furlan and Bernier- Cardou, 1989),
and a minimum soil K is often a prerequisite for
mycorrhization in some plant species (Ouimet et
al., 1996) that might be the reason for 100 (C.
valutina) RC of AMF in high K concentration
retained rhizosphere soil and vise versa. K
concentration of rhizosphere soil significantly
(r=0.869**, p<0.01) correlated with the prevalence
of AMF colonization.Concentration of other
elements like as Ca (r=0.760**, p<0.01), Na (r=-0.552*,
p<0.05), P and moisture percentage(r=0.668**,
Fig. 3. Prevalence of AMFcolonization (%) in medicinal plants root and Na concentration (mg/kg)ofmedicinal
plants rhizosphere soil of BCSIR forest, Bangladesh.Error bars represent the standard deviations (SDs).
Table 4. Relationship among the prevalence of AMF colonization in different
medicinal plant roots and rhizosphere soil pH and soil organic matter
(SOM).Mean ± S.D (Standard deviation), n=3
Plant name Colonization (%) SOM (%) pH
A. indica 54.10±5.23 2.29 5.3
A. paniculata 75.00±7.37 2.42 6.3
B. acutangula 75.00±11.2 1.96 5.8
C. grandis. 56.00±7.9 2.42 5.9
C. asiatica 66.67±4.57 2.15 6.3
C. roseus 60.23±4.57 2.14 5.8
C. valutina 100.00±7.1 2.69 5.2
D. metel. 64.00±6.12 2.69 6.3
K. pinnata 70.83±3.21 3.12 5.9
O. basilicum 20.83±8.91 1.94 5.8
P. amarus 58.33±2.48 3.15 5.9
P. emblica 77.78±7.32 2.5 5.6
R. serpentina 80.00±9.21 2.5 5.5
S. nux-vomica 72.32±5.76 2.8 5.2
T. chebula 91.67±7.32 2.39 5.6
p<0.01), soil salinity (-0.657**, p<0.01) also
significantly correlated with K concentration. So,
K concentration is a dominant soil property to
control AMFinfection and also other soil property.
Response of MycorrhizaRoot Colonization to
rhizosphere soil Na concentration
Sodium concentration was more or less
same without some exceptional values throughout
all rhizosphere soil. Range of Na varied from 76.85
mg/kg to 41.61 mg/kg which retained highest and
lowest AMF colonization respectively and differed
within a narrow extent. Same family like as
Meliaceaehadtwo representativeas C. valutina
and O. basilicumbutdiffered each other inAMF
colonizationthat might be due to the different soil
characteristics.The highest Na percentage with low
AMF colonization was observed in O. basilicum
butC. valutina showed highest root colonization
but lowest sodium concentration. Statistically Na
concentration was significantly correlated with the
prevalence of AMF colonization (r=-0.824**, p<0.01),
Caconcentration(r=-0.574*, p<0.05), k concentration
(r=-0.552*, p<0.05), P concentration(r=-0.659*,
p<0.05), moisture percentage (r= -0.832**, p<0.01),
EC (r=0.640*, p<0.05).So, the prevalence of AMF
colonization was reduces with addition or rising of
Na concentration in rhizosphere soil. Our findings
agreed with the findings of other research (Ying-
Ning and Qiang-Sheng, 2011; Khaliel et al., 2011).
But our work was contradictory with the findings
of other researchers (G. Feng et al., 2002). G. Feng
et al., (2002) showed that the extent of mycorrhizal
colonization was not significantly affected by Na
salt treatments. The Na concentration of
Fig. 4. Prevalence of AMF colonization at different medicinal plants root and Ca concentrations of mycorrhiza
colonize root rhizosphere soil of medicinal plants at BCSIR forest.Error bars represent the standard deviations
Table 5. Pearson correlation co-efficient of AMF colonization with soil
properties of some medicinal plants rhizosphere at BCSIR forest in Bangladesh
RC K Ca Na Moisture SOM P EC pH
RC 1
K .869** 1
Ca .692** .760** 1
Na -.824** -.552*-.574*1
Moisture .865** .668** .713** -.832** 1
SOM .307 .361 .535*-.331 .325 1
P -.609*-.414 -.141 .659** -.549*.029 1
EC -.722** -.657** -.605*.640*-.481 -.610*.368 1
pH -.277 -.291 .124 .157 -.191 -.096 .409 .186 1
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level. P<0.01
*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level. P<0.05
rhizosphere soil with AMFcolonization is
represented below figure
Response ofAMFcolonizationwith rhizosphere
soil Ca concentration
Ca concentration was found highest in
therhizosphere soil of C. valutina(375 ± 9.28 mg/
kg)followed by T. chebula(355±2.31 mg/kg)and
lowest concentration was observed in O.
basilicum (120±4.21mg/kg ) followed by B.
acutangula (125±8.23mg/kg), A.
indica(125±5.32mg/kg).Ca concentration in some
medicinal plant species varied with in a little extent
but in AMF colonization percentage varied in large
extent as K. pinnata(300±4.58mg/kg), P.
amarus(305±3.47 mg/kg), C. asiatica(310±8.91mg/
kg)but colonization was70.83±3.21%, 58.33±2.48%,
66.67±4.57% respectively. Another group of
medicinal plants like as D. metel,A. paniculata,
R.serpentina, P. emblica Ca concentration
was335±10.21mg/kg, 337±2.71mg/kg, 340±2.36mg/
kg, 342±2.13mg/kg respectively and AMF
colonizationwas 64.00±6.12% ,
75.00±7.37%,80.00±9.21%, 77.78±7.32%
respectively. Two species same concentration of
Cae.g.S. nux-vomica, C. roseus as 250 mg/kg; but
AMF colonization was72.32±5.76%,
60.23±4.57%respectively but another 3 species little
bit differed inCa concentration but varied in AMF
colonizationin a large extent which express
earlier.Statistically Ca concentration significantly
correlated (r= 0.692**, p<0.01) with medicinal plants
AMF colonization. Also Ca concentration
significantly correlated with Na(r= -0.574*, p<0.05),
Moisture(r= 0.713**, p<0.01), SOM(r= 0.535*,
Fig. 5. Relationship between AMF colonizationof medicinal plant root and rhizosphere soil salinity of BCSIR
forest Chittagong, Bangladesh.Error bars represent the standard deviations (SDs).
p<0.05), EC(r= -0.605*, p<0.05).Mycorrhiza fungi
depends on certain level and its availability
ofexchangeable ions like Ca and Mg in the soil
(Proctor and Woodell, 1975; Mengel and Kirkby,
1980). In this current research AMFcolonization
also depends on Ca concentration positively. But
some deviation also occurred as little bit difference
in Ca or same level of Ca but differed in AMF
colonization for O. basilicum followed by B.
acutangula , A. indica, and S. nux-vomica, C.
roseusrespectively that represented earlier. This
may be due to the presence of fungitoxic
compounds in root cortical tissue or in root
exudates that may reduce susceptibility of plants
to mycorrhization (Tester et al. 1987).
Relationship between AMF colonization in
medicinal plants root and Ca concentrations in
different medicinal plants rhizosphere soil are given
below figure 4.
Response of Mycorrhiza colonizationwith
rhizosphere soil salinity
Highest electrical conductivity was found
in O. basilicumthat was173µS/cm and prevalence
of AMF colonization was 20.83±8.91%. The second
highest EC (Electrical Conductivity) was observed
in C. grandis (172µS/cm) rhizosphere soil but AMF
colonization was 56.00±7.9%. The lowest EC (41
µS/cm) was examined in the C. valutina plant
rhizosphere soil but AMF colonization was highest
there. Most of the soil contained more or less
similar electrical conductivity like as 41 to 49 µS/
cm butAMF colonization varied in wide range
(Figure 5).Infour soil (A. indica, C. grandis, C.
roseus, O. basilicum) samples EC values were
reached at peak compared to all other samples but
prevalence of AMF colonization was
relativelyhigher compared to O. basilicum AMF
colonization which is shown in below figure 5. This
might be due to the presence of fungitoxic
compounds in root cortical tissue or in root
exudates that may reduce susceptibility of plants
to mycorrhization in O. basilicum (Tester et al.
1987). So, statistically soil salinity significantly
correlated(Mostly negative) with AMFcolonization
(r=-0.722**, p<0.01), K concentration (r=-0.657**,
p<0.01), Na concentration(r=0.640*, p<0.05), Ca
concentration(r=-0.605*, p<0.05), and SOM (Soil
Organic Matter) (r=-0.610*, p<0.05).So, AMF
colonization was attenuated with increasing soil
salinity. Our findings agreed with the other
researchers(Ying-Ning and Qiang-Sheng, 2011;
Khaliel et al., 2011). But this result was
contradicted with the findings of G. Feng et al.,
(2002). Comparison between prevalence of AMF
colonization in medicinal plants root and EC are
given below figure 5.
Response of AMFcolonization in rootwith
rhizosphere soil moisture of medicinal plants
Soil moisture was varied with in a narrow
range from 2.3% to 9.7%. High percentage of soil
moisture was observed in C. valutina(9.7%) plants
rhizosphere soil followed by R. serpentina (8.7%)
and root colonization also high in C. valutina
plants root which is presented in Table 3.Without
these marginal values the root colonization of AMF
and moisture percentage were varied slightly
random way. But most of the root colonization of
AMF positively differed with moisture
percentage.David J. Burke et al., (2009) showed
that pH and moisture positively varied with
mycorrhiza colonization which was identical with
our observation. Variation of AMF colonization
with moisture percentage is depicted in Table 3.
Statistically moisture percentage significantly
correlated with prevalence of AMF colonization in
root(r=0.865**, p<0.01), Na(r= -0.832**, p<0.01),
Ca(r= 0.713**, p<0.01), K(r=0.668**, p<0.01) and soil
P concentration(r= -0.549*, p<0.05).
Response of AMFcolonization to medicinal plants
rhizosphere soil pH and SOM(soil Organic
Matter) at BCSIR forest areas.
pH in the soil of medicinal plants
rhizosphere zone differed with in a short range from
5.2 to 6.3 (Table 4). The entire sample’s soil pH is
moderately acidic. 100.00±7.1%AMF colonization
was occurred in C. valutina but pH of that soil
was 5.2 and lowest root colonization was observed
in pH 5.8 in plant O. basilicumbut our study was
opposed by the work of A. Sreevani and B. N.
Reddy (2004). They observed that mycorrhizal fungi
grow well in slightly alkaline soil. pH randomly
differed with the prevalence of AMF colonization
also other nutrients element.Statistically there was
no relationship with any other parameters as well
as AMF colonization.Soil organic matter percentage
also varied within a short range from 1.94 to 3.15.
SOM percentage varied unpredictable way with
AMF colonization but have a significant
relationship with EC (r=-.610*, p<0.05) and Ca
concentration of soil.Pearson correlation co-
efficient of response of prevalence of AMF
colonization with rhizosphere soil propertiesis
presented in Table 5.
Prevalence of AMF colonization in
medicinal plants root was significantly correlated
with rhizosphere soil properties. K, Ca and
Moisture content had a significant positive
correlation with percentage of AMF colonization.
But Na, P and soil salinity had a significant
negative correlation with AMF colonization. The
result of pH had a controversy with other
researchers but SOM varied randomly with AMF
The author gratefully acknowledges to
the Soil Management and Agronomical Research
Division, BCSIR laboratories, Chittagong,
Bangladesh. We all are grateful to the Director for
helping all of our research work.
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... Seasonal fluctuations and development of AMF fungus colonization has been investigated in several plant species and in several countries, including the Portugal (Carvalho et al., 2001), Great Britain (Merryweather and Fitter, 1998), Israel (He et al., 2002) and India (Muthukumar and Udaiyan, 2002). In contrast, this type of study is scarce in Bangladesh (Dhar and Mrida, 2003, 2006, 2012Halder et al., 2015). Halder et al. (2015) investigated mycorrhizal status in medicinal plants of BCSIR forest and identified relationships to edaphic factors. ...
... In contrast, this type of study is scarce in Bangladesh (Dhar and Mrida, 2003, 2006, 2012Halder et al., 2015). Halder et al. (2015) investigated mycorrhizal status in medicinal plants of BCSIR forest and identified relationships to edaphic factors. Mridha, 2003, 2006, 2012 conducted some research on forest trees in different parts of Bangladesh and determined AMF status, diversity and community structure of mycorrhiza fungi, spore population etc. ...
... for winter season. This symbiotic relationship has been previously demonstrated (Halder et al., 2015). Minimum root colonization levels were obtained in the dry season but maximum levels were observed during the wet season (Fig. 1). ...
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This study aimed to evaluate the effects of seasonality on mycorrhizal colonization characteristics as hyphal, vesicular and arbuscular colonization with some medicinal plants species of Chittagong BCSIR forest of Bangladesh. Ten highly valued medicinal plants were selected randomly from Chittagong BCSIR forest to conduct the research. Root samples were collected and examined to determine fungal colonization in three times (Dry, Rainy and Winter) during the year in 2014. The result revealed that the medicinal plants of BCSIR forest were mycorrhizal. The highest hyphal colonization was obtained during rainy season of the corresponding year but decreased during dry and winter season. Vesicular colonization was attenuated during rainy season but increased in dry and winter season but arbuscular colonization was higher proportion in rainy and
... The extraradical proliferation of hyphae may be aided by organic matter, which increases spore production [29,30]. A high level of soil phosphorus generally inhibits mycorrhizal infection [31][32][33][34] which might be the reason for current prevalence of mycorrhiza in Abelmoshcus esculentus. The potassium concentration might be suitable for mycorrhizal colonization in Bangladesh [35]. ...
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Plants roots are colonized by soil inhabitants known as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), which increase plant productivity, and enhance carbon storage in the soil. We found mycorrhizal vesicles, arbuscles, and mycelium in the root of more than 89% of the selected plants of University of Rajshahi campus, Bangladesh. The rate of their presence differed in plant to plant of a family and different families. The highest root colonization (98±1.0%) was found to be present in Xanthium strumarium (Asteraceae). Mycorrhiza was not found in the root of Sphagneticola calendulacea (Asteraceae), Cestrun nocturnum (Solanaceae), Acacia nilotica and Acacia catechu (Mimosoidae), Rorippa nasturtium , Brassica oleracla var botrytis (Brasicaceae), Punica granatum (Lythraceae), Tecoma capensis (Bignoniacea), Spinacia oleracia (Chenopodiaceae), Chenopodium album (Goosefoot). Result of soil analysis reveals that the rhizospheric soils were deficient in nutrients which might be suitable for mycorrhizal symbiosis with plants. In the rhizospheric soils, 22 species of Glomus , Scutelospora , Gigaspora , Archaeospora , and Acullospora were found. We also found the genera ’ Glomus ’ dominance in the plant root and rhizospheric soil. So, it can be concluded that the highly colonized roots as well as spores can be used to prepare mycorrhizal inoculum for future purposes.
... In conformity to our findings THAPA et al. (2015), documented a significant variation in percentage of root colonization following mycorrhization, which can be due to some components of the rhizospheric soil that might have favored arbuscu- lar mycorrhizal fungi growth. Similarly, the results of a carried out study indicated more percentage of root col- onization in a medicinal plant Valutina A. Juss compared to non-mycorrhizal plants ( SAMINA et al., 2015 ...
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of rice husk compost (RHC), rice husk biochar (RHB) and mycorrhization (MY) on some properties of Iranian Echium amoenum Fisch & C. A. Mey and also on some selected post-harvesting soil properties. A completely randomized design experiment was conducted with six treatments and six replications. Treatments comprised T1: control, T2: MY, T3: RHC, T4: RHB, T5: RHC + MY and T6: RHB + MY. Studied parameters included; shoot and root fresh weights, root and leaf length, shrub height, leaf number, shoot and root NPK content, shoot and root Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn concentration, root colonization percentage, soil NPK status, soil micronutrients concentrations, soil respiration and microbial biomass. Results revealed that application of RHC, RHB and MY individually or in combination with other treatments significantly affected studied parameters. In all cases except for root colonization, combined application (T5 and T6) had more satisfied impacts compared with a single application of treatments. DOI: 10.5073/JfK.2019.01.02,
... So, it is important to encourage AMF relationship with plant root and utilization of Biofertilizer. Although in Bangladesh, there are different types of forest tree species in Rajshahi BCSIR, very little work about the status of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) in forest tree species has been done in our country 11 . Some works on Mycorrhizal diversity and effects in different forest species (e.g vegetables, woody plants, spices plants, ornamental plants etc.) in different region of Bangladesh has also been investigated [12][13][14][15] . ...
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The present investigation has been conducted to assess the AMF (Arbusculr Mycorrhiza Fungi) colonization status along with rhizosphere soil properties of dominant plants and grass species in Rajshahi BCSIR forest of Bangladesh. Roots of six dominant plants (Psidium guajava, Swietenia mahagoni, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Manihot esculenta, Acalypha indica, Fragaria ananassa) and two grass species (Digitaria sanguinalis, Cynodon dactylon) were collected and rhizosphere soil samples were collected from rhizosphere zone. Mycorrhizal colonization percentages and edaphic factors (Soil pH, EC, N, P, Moisture and Soil Temperature) were documented. Highest colonization was obtained in Manihot esculenta (85±5%) followed by Swietenia mahagoni (78±10.36%) and lowest was observed in Acalypha indica (2±1.9%). Mycorrhizal structure as arbuscles, vesicles were present in Psidium guajava, Swietenia mahagoni, Manihot esculenta among the studied species. Research findings indicate that plants species of Rajshahi BCSIR forest is mycorrhizal but not well established as well as mycorrhizal infection is irregularly correlated with edaphic factors.
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Citrus plants are sensitive to salinity, and thus employing new approaches to alleviate salt damage are necessary. The present study evaluated the effect of two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), Glomus mosseae and G. versiforme, on leaf osmotic adjustment of trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata) seedings exposed to 100 mM NaCl. Salinity significantly inhibited mycorrhizal colonization, plant biomass and leaf relative water content, whereas the reduce of plant biomass was notably alleviated by the mycorrhizal colonization. Mycorrhizal seedlings exhibited significantly lower Na + and Ca 2+ concentrations, whilst also recorded higher K+ concentration and K +/Na +, Ca 2+/Na + and Mg 2+/Na + ratios at both salinity levels. Under salinity stress, mycorrhizal symbiosis markedly decreased sucrose concentrations of leaves and also increased glucose, fructose and proline concentrations of leaves. The results suggest that arbuscular mycorrhizas improved leaf osmotic adjustment responses of the seedlings to salt stress, thus enhancing salt tolerance of mycorrhizal plants.
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A survey of two aromatic grasses Cymbopogon jwarancusa and Veteviria zizanioides was conducted to determine the morphological diversity of mycorrhiza collected from various habitats of southern Punjab and northern areas of Pakistan. The mycorrhizal colonization has been categorized as extraradical and internal colonization along with Arum-type and Paris-type mycorrhiza. The extraradical phase consists of various types of hyphae while internal phase is comprised hyphae and a variety of endogenous structures (i.e. vesicles, arbuscules, hyphal coils and cuttings of hyphae in the cortical regions of the fine roots). Hyphal coiling was frequently observed in C. jwarancusa, coiled hypha were mostly aseptate, and coenocytic, while hyphal coiling was uncommon in V. zizanioides. No arbuscule had been observed in C. jwarancusa but feeder roots in V. zizanioides had extensive arbuscular colonization. Higher morphological diversity was observed in the roots of C. jwarancusa as compared to V. zizanioides. Both Paris and Arum type of Mycorrhiza were observed in the studied grasses. Many extraradical and intraradical non-mycorrhizal dark septate endophytic fungi along with unique type of hyphae with hyaline wall were also observed. The dark septate endophytic fungi had melanized hyphae and microsclerotia. The dimeter of microsclerotia ranged from 1.9 to 3.8µm.
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A study was conducted in a greenhouse, to investigate the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus intraradices), soil salinity and P availability on growth (leaf area and dry weight), nutrient absorption and ion leakage, chlorophyll, soluble sugar and proline content and alkaline phosphatase activity of pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.). Plants were grown at four levels of salinity (0, 50, 100 and 200 mM NaCl) and two P levels (10 and 40 mg kg(-1)). Colonisation was 80% to 51% in non-stressed and high salt-stressed plants, respectively. The mycorrhizal dependency was high and only reduced at the higher salinity level. Mycorrhizal plants maintained greater root and shoot biomass at all salinity levels compared to non-mycorrhizal plants, regardless the P level. Interactions between salinity, phosphorous and mycorrhizae were significant for leaf area, root and shoot dry mass. Non-mycorrhizal plants accumulated higher Na and lower K and P compared to mycorrhizal plants. The cell membrane integrity was greater in mycorrhizal plants than in non-mycorrhizal ones. The proline content increases with increasing salt stress and was significantly higher in leaves than in roots The results indicate that the mycorrhizal inoculation is capable of alleviating the damage caused by salt stress conditions on pepper plants, to maintaining the membranes stability and plant growth, and this could be related to P nutrition.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can enhance mineral nutrient and growth of host plants. In the paper, growth and mineral element absorption of Chenglù hybrid bamboo (Bambusa pervariabilis × B. grandis) seedlings inoculated with four AM fungi strains(Glomus intraradices, BEG Number193 and 141; G. mosseae, BEG Number167; G. etunicatum, BEG Number168) were studied. The results showed that AM fungi promoted the growth of bamboo seedlings. The biomass of Chenglù bamboo inoculated by AM fungi increased 1.84 (BEG167), 1.73 (BEG193), 1.59 (BEG168) and 1.54 times (BEG141) than that of the control respectively. Shoot number and diameter, total leaf area per plant, P and K concentration in plant as well were significantly increased by the inoculation of BEG167 and 193, which had better mycorrhizal effect and could make an important contribution to Chenglù bamboos production.
Control of mycorrhizal fungal penetration is probably exerted by interactions between the organisms at the level of the cell wall and (or) middle lamella. -from Authors
This chapter reviews three main aspects of K+ in crop production—namely, K availability in the soil, the function of K+ in the plant, and potash fertilizer application. The soil is considered as a source of K+ to plant roots. The use of K+ in practical crop production is also emphasized in the discussions on the physiological role of K+ in the plant and in fertilizer application. The potassium status of a soil may be assessed on its content of K+-bearing minerals because the amount of these minerals present in a soil gives some indication of the potential source of K+ to plants. However, in terms of the ability of the soil to supply K+ to plant roots, the quantity of K+-bearing minerals plays only an indirect role. More important in determining the K+ supply to plants are the soil K+ fractions. These fractions, which have been established experimentally using different extraction techniques, are soil solution K+, K+ adsorbed to clay minerals or humus, and K+ present in minerals.
Publisher Summary The chapter provides details of the chemistry of the minerals frequently present in ultramafic rocks, and discusses the ecology of serpentine soil. Serpentine is used by biologists to describe a group of ultramafic rocks and the soils derived from them. Three principal polymorphic forms of serpentine are recognized: chrysotile, antigorite, and lizardite. The processes by which serpentine rocks develop into soils depend on climate, time, relief, and biotic factors along with the chemical composition of the parent material. As a result many types of soil occur on serpentines. The characteristics of serpentine are briefly discussed. Serpentine vegetation has two major characteristics: Physiognomic differences from the vegetation of surrounding rocks, and rare species and combinations of species. The vegetation of serpentines presents a wide range of appearances. Biologists have concentrated on the situations where serpentine vegetation is in sharp contrast with that of the surroundings. Such contrasts do not always occur and when this happens the serpentine vegetation is often not documented. The more closely studied serpentines have many vegetation features in common but the causes of these similarities can be very different. There is much scope for further work in many fields on serpentines.
To understand the ecological significance of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) associations in arid ecosystem, the spatial patterns of AM fungi, glomalin and soil enzymes were surveyed at four sites located in the Otindag sandy land, northern China. Soil samples in the rhizosphere of Caragana korshinskii Kom. were collected at 0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40 and 40-50 cm depth in July 2009. The study showed that C. korshinskii Kom. could form strong symbiotic relationship with AM fungi. AM fungal colonization, spore density, total Bradford-reactive soil protein (T-BRSP) and easily extractable Bradford-reactive soil protein (EE-BRSP) significantly differed among four sites and soil depths. Correlation analysis showed hyphal colonization had positive correlation with soil urease (P < 0.01). Spore density, T-BRSP and EE-BRSP were positively correlated with soil organic carbon, available N and P, and soil urease, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase (P < 0.01). Based on stepwise regression, soil urease, available N and organic carbon were principal soil factors affecting the spatial distribution of AM fungi and glomalin. The results support the conclusion that glomalin may be an appropriate index for evaluating soil fertility. Moreover, the spatial distribution pattern of AM fungi and glomalin are useful to monitor desertification and soil degradation.