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Point of View in Fiction: The Development of a Critical Concept

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... Para suprimir este obstáculo, a través de cuya conciencia se resume y se recuenta la historia, la mejor forma narrativa consiste en lo que Norman Friedman (1955Friedman ( :1164 señala como la narración asumida por un personaje pero en tercera persona, fórmula que recuerda al monólogo interior empleado por James Joyce. De esta forma, el lector concibe la acción tal como si se filtrara a través de la conciencia de uno de los personajes 79 Los términos de telling (contar) y showing (mostrar) se convierten en una de las referencias normativas paradigmáticas en la crítica literaria anglosajona a partir del final de siglo XIX, a pesar de la crítica recibida que forma también una valiosa parte de la teoría. ...
... Explica de la siguiente manera: "It is chiefly that the one renders thoughts, perceptions, and feelings as they occur consecutively and in detail passing through the mind (scene), while the other summarizes and explains them after they have occurred (narrative)." (Friedman, 1955(Friedman, :1176. Por otra parte, la expresión que toma Graciela Reyes podría resumir con precisión este tipo de narración: "Se trata de una pluralidad de personajes cuyas enunciaciones se entremezclan en la voz de un 'él' poliforme" (Reyes, 1984:129-30). ...
... involucrados, y lo hace de forma directa tal y como si influyera en esta conciencia, evitando de este modo la distancia que implica necesariamente la narración retrospectiva en primera persona(Friedman, 1955(Friedman, :1164. En el mismo trabajo en que resume las opiniones de Lubbock, Friedman enumera, por su parte, ocho clases de situaciones narrativas en función de la posición del narrador: narración con punto de vista ilimitado, o dicho de otro modo, omnisciente, distinguiéndose entre sí por la presencia o ausencia de autor, y que correspondería al caso de Guerra y paz (el autor relata impersonalmente en tercera persona) o Tess, la de los d'Urberville (en la que el autor jamás editorializa con su propia voz); narración en primera persona, de narrador-protagonista (Jane Eyre) o narrador-testigo (El gran Gatsby); narración con omnisciencia selectiva, con punto de vista limitado único (Retrato del artista adolescente) o con punto de vista limitado múltiple (Al faro); narración objetiva o modo cámara, al que Bertil Romberg denomina posteriormente como relato objetivo de estilo behaviorista en el que el autor registra y archiva con "camera-eye"(Romberg, 1962: 88), y el modo dramático, como lo hace en La edad ingrata(Friedman, 1955(Friedman, :1169(Friedman, -1179.Respecto al punto de vista narrativo, Todorov utiliza una conocida tipología para distinguir diferentes clases de percepción recognoscibles en el relato con el término "aspecto" desde la perspectiva del conocimiento o información del narrador y su personaje. ...
Thesis
El presente trabajo intenta explorar la noción de polifonía como clave conceptual que conecta y relaciona las obras de Julio Cortázar y José Sanchis Sinisterra. La afinidad entre los dos autores se debe, en primera instancia, a la influencia del escritor argentino en la constitución de premisas estéticas de Sanchis Sinisterra, pues este último se declara explícitamente deudor de la herencia cortazariana, pero también a un compartimiento de principios éticos y políticos que enlazan a los dos autores bajo la misma búsqueda: la de desbarrar fronteras, de edificar un mundo literario donde proliferen diversas conciencias y voces que dialoguen sin ser concluidas o silenciadas por el discurso predominante del poder. Tales rasgos, identificables en ambos autores, establecen una correlación subyacente entre sus praxis literarias, lo cual puede contrastarse desde diferentes enfoques estéticos formales. El aspecto más fácilmente reconocible de esta relación es el comprobable en la estructura narrativa de sus obras. Al analizar sistemáticamente cuestiones sobre el modo y la voz en las obras de Cortázar y de Sanchis Sinisterra, y teniendo en cuenta las diferentes manifestaciones y funciones de los enunciadores entre el relato y el texto teatral, se detecta en ambos el uso recurrente de una multiplicidad de voces que se complementan, se citan o se contradicen. Dentro de los textos cuya narración se sustenta aparentemente por un solo enunciador se percibe, en ocasiones, un efecto coral, bien por la ironía o la parodia perceptible en la enunciación del narrador, lo cual delata el discurso subterráneo del autor implícito —o el dramaturgo ficticio, en el caso del teatro— que establece un contrapunto con los narradores propiamente dichos, bien por la alteración de focalización que otorga a la misma narración varios puntos de vista desde donde contemplar e interpretar el receptor. El conjunto de estos mecanismos narrativos convierte los textos de Cortázar y Sanchis Sinisterra en fecundos territorios para la investigación de la polifonía narrativa. Mientras que hemos subrayado la correspondencia entre algunas obras de los autores donde la plasmación de dicha polifonía muestra ostensibles similitudes, cabe reconocer la manifestación extensiva y panorámica en sus obras. Ambos autores experimentan la narración con infinitas posibilidades, sometiendo la palabra literaria a un juego de voces, perspectivas y percepciones. Interpelan, de esta forma, a la transparencia y la linealidad del discurso sospechando su capacidad para reflejar las complejas conciencias humanas y las dimensiones menos comunicables de la realidad. La ruptura con la estructura narrativa convencional es, además, uno de los elementos estéticos recurrentes en Cortázar y Sanchis Sinisterra destinado a la incitación del receptor activo. Para Cortázar, la renovación formal de la literatura conlleva como objetivo la involucración del lector en el proceso creativo, En el caso de Sanchis Sinisterra, el desafío de la escritura dramática reside en devolver al receptor su labor creativa en la construcción del sentido. El dramaturgo, seguidor activo de los progresos de las teorías de la recepción, matiza una serie de métodos dramatúrgicos dentro de su denominada “dramaturgia de la recepción” con los que elaborar obras en función de las tres fases de la experiencia del espectador: despegue, cooperación y mutación. Dentro de estos métodos se encuentran algunos conceptos comunes que nos retornan, también, a la obra de Cortázar: la atenuación de lo explícito tanto en la fábula como en el lenguaje, la eliminación elementos superfluos, la trasgresión de la lógica racional, la implicación de lo permeable y lo traslúcido de la realidad y la citada multiperspectiva narrativa. En las obras de ambos autores se identifica una sustitución de la postura dominante del creador por la dialéctica autor-receptor cuya reciproca interacción concreta la función ética de la literatura. En este camino hacia la complicidad del lector y el potenciamiento de la enunciación polifónica, los dos autores han optado por recurrir al silencio como modo alternativo para la constitución de la significación discursiva. Al analizar las variadas manifestaciones que hemos clasificado bajo el amplio espectro del silencio —el callar, el mutismo, la interrupción, las lagunas del discurso etc.—, hemos descubierto que el silencio, en vez de ser la sombra de la palabra, participa fértilmente en la polisemia y en la interpretación múltiple del texto. La ironía, la metáfora y el humor, por otra parte, pertenecen a esta dimensión lacónica de la palabra por su capacidad de desviar el sentido y de insinuar lo no dicho a través de lo dicho. Estos recursos, entendidos como formas comunicativas no literales, dejan entrever una voz figurada y transmitir el subtexto del discurso que la palabra expresiva no es capaz de verbalizar. De esta forma, el texto se vuelve permeable en donde los diversos discursos resuenan y combaten dentro de la misma enunciación. La incorporación de las infinitas variedades del silencio refleja la actitud compartida de Cortázar y Sanchis Sinisterra hacia el lenguaje. El reconocimiento de los límites y la precariedad del lenguaje como vehículo entre el mundo y su representación engendra la búsqueda de expresiones alternativas, menos condicionadas por las reglas y por matrices inscritas en las estructuras lingüísticas para hacer surgir lo inefable de la experiencia humana. El desfase entre palabra y mundo, entre la aprehensión intelectual y la realidad que sustentan los principios estéticos de los dos autores justifica, además, su opción en algunas obras de tratar la realidad cotidiana mediante la violación de las leyes físicas y de la lógica. Para Cortázar, la sospecha de la existencia de otra realidad y la búsqueda de una vivencia más abierta y plena se traduce en su obra en la abolición de la oposición entre lo que se considera real y lo que se califica como fantástico. En el caso de Sanchis Sinisterra, el dramaturgo plantea lo inverificable de la realidad en su obra mediante la analogía con el universo onírico, en donde la violación de los fundamentos miméticos describe la conciliación del orden de la realidad inmediata con el de otra menos visible.
... The same problem applies to Norman Friedman who has proposed eight types of points of view: editorial omniscience, neutral omniscience, "I" as witness, "I" as protagonist, multiple selective omniscience, selective omniscience, the dramatic mode, and the camera. Neutral omniscience features the absence of authorial intrusions; on the contrary, editorial omniscience means that "it is the author's voice which dominates the material, speaking frequently as 'I' or 'we'" [3]. "I" as witness and "I" as protagonist are two forms of the first person narration; they differ in that the former tells others' stories, while the latter tells his own story. ...
... One thing that needs to be pointed out is that Genette is not the first to stress the issue of focalization. In both literary writing and criticism, Henry James is fascinated "by the problem of finding a 'centre,' a 'focus,' for his stories," and the problem is to a large degree resolved by "considering how the narrative vehicle could be limited by framing the action inside the consciousness of one of the characters within the plot itself" [3]. Taking his inspiration from James's novelistic practice and theory, Percy Lubbock distinguishes between showing which dramatizes events, and telling which describes events, arguing that showing is a better fiction craft: ''other things being equal, the more dramatic way is better than the less. ...
... It is indirect, as a method; but it places the thing itself in view, instead of recalling and reflecting and picturing it'' [5]. The major method to achieve showing is "to have the story told as if by a character in the story, but told in the third person" [3]. In this way, readers perceive events in the story as they filter through the consciousness of a certain character, yet perceive them directly as they impinge upon "that consciousness, thus avoiding that removal to a distance necessitated by retrospective first-person narration" [3]. ...
... When an author surrenders in fiction, he does so in order to conquer; he gives up certain privileges and imposes certain limits in order the more effectively to render his story-illusion, which constitutes artistic truth in fiction. (Friedman, 1967(Friedman, [1955, 137). ...
... When an author surrenders in fiction, he does so in order to conquer; he gives up certain privileges and imposes certain limits in order the more effectively to render his story-illusion, which constitutes artistic truth in fiction. (Friedman, 1967(Friedman, [1955, 137). ...
... Having established that Maria D^browska is certainly not a Modernist, one still doubts whether the 'neutral omniscience'2 in her Another trend hostile to story-telling was represented by the quasi-documentary novel, defended by some writers and critics. This term and its understanding follow Friedman (1967Friedman ( [1955, 123-4). roman-fleuve, Noce i dnie (Nights and Days, 1931-4), strictly follows Eliza Orzeszkowa and other classics of traditional Realism. ...
... Desde los trabajos de los formalistas rusos (Todorov, ed., 1965;García Berrio, 1973: 199-283) hasta los análisis y reflexiones del neoformalismo estructuralista (VV. AA., 1974;García Berrio, 1973: 199-283;Bal, 1985;Prince, 1982;Pozuelo Yvancos, 1988a: 226 y ss.; Albaladejo, 1984a: 168-183) y contando con las aportaciones tradicionales de la crítica anglosajona de la narrativa (James, 1975;Lubbock, 1972;Friedman, 1955), se ha construido un completo instrumental teórico-analítico que da cuenta de las estructuras del texto narrativo. De este modo se ha establecido dentro de la semiótica narrativa una coherente sintaxis semiótica que permite la explicación de los textos de este género tanto en su constitución como conexión de funciones o motivos cuanto en la reordenación de dicha conexión y en la configuración de su presentación, ya con implicaciones pragmáticas. ...
... Así como la ficcionalidad, que es de origen referencial, se proyecta sobre el espacio textual de la obra narrativa, la organización de mundos posibles de la estructura de conjunto referencial se articula textualmente en la macroestructura narrativa, que de este modo queda dividida en diversas secciones correspondientes a los mundos de la extensión que aparecen representados en el texto. A la organización de mundos del texto narrativo están vinculadas, por un lado, la articulación textual del narrador (Friedman, 1955;Baquero Goyanes, 1972: 157-188;1975: 121 y ss.;Genette, 1972: 225 y ss.;Bourneuf, Ouellet, 1975: 89 y ss.;Tacca, 1978: 34 y ss.) y del elemento focalizador (Genette, 1972;206 y ss.;Bal, 1977;Pozuelo Yvancos, 1988b: 119-139;Albaladejo, 1986a: 142 y ss., 273 y ss.) y, por otro lado, la de la presencia del receptor en el texto (Genette, 1972: 265-267;Prince, 1973;1982: 16 y ss.;Bourneuf, Ouellet, 1975: 89 y ss.;Pozuelo Yvancos, 1988b: 83-117;Villanueva, 1984). ...
... Although he does not play a critical and direct role in the story, he is in charge of crafting the entire metafictional apparatus of the novel. His relevance has been stressed by critics such as Norman Friedman (1955Friedman ( : 1172, who has thought Quarles to be Huxley's alter ego in the story. In this sense, Quarles is analogous to the anonymous novelist in At Swim-Two-Birds; that is, Quarles becomes the author of Point Counter Point at the same time that the Irish student is the author of At Swim-Two-Birds. ...
... On the contrary, there is an upward direction rather than downward: Philip Quarles' notebooks, apparently pertaining to the story, actually constitute the matrix narrative level. This idea has also been suggested by Friedman (1955Friedman ( : 1172 and observed by Murray Roston (1977: 379); the latter accurately claims that "the novel being planned by Philip Quarles is actually the outer novel, Point Counter Point, in which he is a participant". Quarles wants to write a novel based on the following premise: ...
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Irish writer Brian O’Nolan, better known as Flann O’Brien (1911-1966), among other pseudonyms, published At Swim-Two-Birds, his first novel, in 1939. Early reviewers and contemporary critics alike have hailed it as a metafictional masterpiece, relevant for its mise en abyme narrative structure, lawless characters and mock-epic bravado. However, little attention has been devoted to how such an innovative design was originally conceived by its author in the first place. This article holds the belief that Huxley’s fourth novel, Point Counter Point (1928), stands as a major intertext among the many literary sources O’Brien might have perused when composing At Swim-Two-Birds. Apart from the presence of several direct references to Point Counter Point within O’Brien’s novel, Huxley’s text encompasses metafictional mechanisms that function in a similar way to those at work in O’Brien’s novel. Although there is no factual proof that O’Brien had read Huxley’s novel before he wrote At Swim-Two-Birds, this article endeavours to prove the existence of formal links between both metafictional assemblages by means of a detailed comparative analysis, ultimately concluding that O’Brien had indeed read Point Counter Point before setting out to write his first novel and found the self-referential features of Huxley’s work potentially productive.
... La CS describe un suceso a partir de una serie de entradas que vehiculizan observaciones sucesivas efectuadas por el sujeto de la enunciación. La noción de punto de vista, surgida en el campo de los estudios literarios (Friedman, 1955;Uspensky, 1973), y desarrollada por la semiótica greimasiana (Fontanille, 1994(Fontanille, , 2001Greimas, 1997;Zilberberg, 2009), permite conceptualizar algunas de las operaciones de producción de sentido por medio de las cuales la CS imprime rasgos particulares a la construcción del acontecimiento; fundamentalmente, la representación de un objeto como resultado de un trabajo perceptivo y cognoscitivo que se despliega en el tiempo. ...
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This research aims at the analysis of Brazilian documentaries Violência S.A (Newton Cannito, Eduardo Benaim and Jorge Jafet, 2005); Jesus no mundo maravilha (Newton Cannito, 2007); Um lugar ao Sol (Gabriel Mascaro, 2009); Pacific (Marcelo Pedroso, 2009); Banco imobiliário (Miguel Antunes Ramos, 20016) and Turn off (Carlos Segundo, 2013). By looking at these films, which present ironic or sarcastic assertions about social issues and/or the discourse of their interviewees, the research intends to reflect on fundamental themes in documentary theory. The main questions that will be addressed are: how these discursive strategies diverge from the tradition of "speeches of sobriety"; what are the specificities of the contract established between the documentary filmmaker and the social actors of ironic and/or sarcastic documentaries and what are the causes and consequences of using humor to discuss social issues.
Thesis
Do quinhentismo à contemporaneidade, a literatura brasileira é atravessada pela figuração do elemento indígena. O levantamento das ocorrências de tais representações aponta para a predominância do autóctone na posição de personagem e raramente na de narrador. Ser narrador é ocupar uma posição particular na economia textual; é, em outras palavras, ser a consciência ficcional que filtra e ordena o discurso narrativo. Partindo dessa constatação, esta tese empreende um estudo sobre o narrador índio em um corpus composto por três textos da literatura brasileira – “Meu tio o iauaretê” (1961), de Guimarães Rosa; Maíra (1976), de Darcy Ribeiro e Yuxin (2009), de Ana Miranda –, procurando localizar o que seria o dispositivo narrativo índio, um conjunto de estratégias e mecanismos textuais utilizados a fim de criar um efeito de indianidade. A fim de identificar os elementos que integram um tal dispositivo, privilegiaram-se como frentes a serem abordadas as particularidades dos campos da enunciação e das linguagens envolvidas na recriação ficcional da voz índia. De caráter transdisciplinar e combinando métodos tais como a análise de conteúdo, o estudo lexical, além de questões relativas ao suporte escrito e à iconografia, concluiu-se que a característica que predomina na colocada em discurso da voz narrativa índia é o questionamento em diferentes níveis das bases sobre as quais a tradição ocidental se encontra assentada, sobretudo no que concerne ao pensamento metafísico e às dicotomias que a estruturam.
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The purpose of this paper is to analyze the literary and journalistic characteristics in Chico Mendes: Crime e Castigo [Chico Mendes: Crime and Punishment] by Brazilian journalist Zuenir Ventura. This study seeks to understand how this reportage book uses literary elements to compose the journalistic-literary narrative. We focus on the assimilation of a specific feature of the narrative, centered on scene-by-scene construction. This study is based on the theories of Mikhail Bakhtin and the Circle, which help to understand the overlap of journalistic, historical and literary narratives.
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This paper offers a focalization reading of Michael Chabon’s The Final Solution, attempting to uncover the way the author narrates the Holocaust with both animal and human perspectives. Drawing on the existing scholarship regarding focalization, it engages with the parrot’s and the old man’s points of view, and looks at their significance to the representation of the protagonist’s Holocaust memories. Aided by Holocaust imagery and consciousness representation techniques, the parrot’s animal and the old man’s Holmesian perspectives evoke the scenes of the Holocaust and the Nazi images, and show a Holocaust that is irrational, unknowable and unspeakable, that is, Chabon reconfigures the focalization structure of Holmesian canon to demonstrate the inability of Holmesian reason to solve the mystery of the Holocaust, and the inability of human language to speak about the horror and trauma of the Holocaust. For Chabon, this unique focalization pattern helps to present the trauma and existential crisis of the protagonist, and narrate his Holocaust memories artistically.
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The present thesis, which is entitled An Analysis of the Narrative Structure of Some Selected American Short Stories, aims at introducing narrative discourse and analysing the narrative structure of three short stories by O. Henry. The short stories are ‘A Strange Story’, ‘The Robe of Peace’ and ‘The Ransom of Red Chief’. To achieve these aims, the following hypotheses are made: (1) Narrative texts can be regarded as long sentences. Sentence structure and narrative structure share common features. (2)The structure of oral narratives is, to some extent, similar to that of written ones. In order to test the first hypothesis, Greimas’ (1966) and Genette’s (1972) structural models are to be adopted. Labov’s (1972) linguistic model is to be followed for testing the second one. This study falls into five chapters. Chapter one is an introduction. It includes the issue, aims, hypotheses, adopted models, delimitation, procedure and value of the study. Chapter two provides a theoretical overview of narrative discourse. Here, some terms such as, discourse/text, discourse analysis, narrative, narratology and short story are defined. Then, a brief classification of narrative types and roles is made. The relationship between linguistic schools and narratological models is also explained. Later, a historical background about narrative and narratology is presented. At the end of this chapter, the three adopted models, as well as the formalist model—the Proppian model are illustrated. The selected short stories are summarized in chapter three. Then, each of them is analysed in terms of Greimas’ six-actant model. Through the analysis, the researcher has found that all the actants: subject, object, sender receiver, helper and opponent, are found in each of the stories. The short stories are also analysed in the light of Genette’s model. This model, like Greimas’, borrows grammatical terms such as, tense, mood, and voice, for the analysis of narrative structure. Chapter four introduces Labov’s six-element model to the structure of the short stories. In order to assess its applicability to written narratives in general and the selected short stories in particular; the short stories are analysed into their free and narrative clauses, as far as Labov’s model is concerned. In this chapter, it is shown that the model is relevant to the structure of written narratives, as it is to that of the oral ones. The last chapter, chapter five, is a summary of the concluding points at which the study arrives, and also some suggestions are made for further studies. This study concludes that narrative structure, like sentence structure, is complex and rule governed. The existence of an intensive relationship between linguistic schools and narratological theories is reinforced. It is also mentioned that Greimas’ model, though applicable, is not that successful for analysing narrative structure. It concludes that Genette’s schema is applicable to some degree, while the best model is the one of Labov’s. Labov’s model is more applicable to the personal experience narratives, ‘The Ransom of Red Chief’, for example, than to the non-personal experience ones, ‘A Strange Story’. A list of the sources consulted in writing this work is provided in the references section. Finally, the study ends with the abstract in Kurdish and Arabic
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Pensar como a literatura e as artes em geral têm se situado frente à concepção hegemônica de natureza representa um desafio à crítica. A definição tornada corrente, em seu caráter eminentemente dissociativo, haja vista a separação e independência entre o que se entende por humano e natural, tem sido com recorrência associada à intensificação de ações predatórias contra a vida. Não espanta, portanto, que demandas e urgências contemporâneas, especialmente ao se considerar a gravidade das transformações ambientais e as expectativas preocupantes quanto ao futuro do planeta e dos seres humanos, venham exigindo uma profunda revisão de posicionamentos. Nesse contexto, os modos de representação e performatividades artístico-literárias, tendo em vista inserções históricas e culturais particulares, são relevadores das implicações do dualismo e do abstracionismo subjacentes à determinação de categorias como humanidade e natureza. Isso está manifesto em experiências literárias que têm desenvolvido perspectivas ecológicas e, portanto, mais relacionais, bem como explorado o atravessamento de conhecimentos disciplinares a favor de um saber de fronteiras, de uma reflexão aguda sobre a ciência, o alcance das novas tecnologias e a convergência entre o biológico e o social. São muitas as direções possíveis quando se trata de refletir sobre a relação da literatura com as mudanças epistemológicas atreladas à maneira como os seres humanos têm se situado no mundo. Sem a pretensão de reduzir a produção literária a um fator único ou de buscar uma totalidade inalcançável, principalmente quando se trata do espaço exíguo de um artigo, parece pertinente propor um percurso orientado pelo dualismo humano-natureza, levando-se em conta a importância de considerar sua hegemonia desde sua vinculação histórica, cultural e geográfica de origem. A contribuição de reflexões como as que vêm sendo oferecidas pela Antropologia contemporânea, bem como as possibilitadas por cosmologias não ecocidas cujo conhecimento foi historicamente apropriado e depreciado, tem demonstrado a parcialidade da ideia mesma de natureza tal como foi conformada nas sociedades ocidentais. Reconhecer seu caráter cultural e histórico constitui, portanto, um primeiro passo para sua problematização. À inquirição da ideia de natureza no Ocidente moderno atrela-se um conjunto de questões no campo da literatura e da crítica, como vêm indicando experiências que envolvem um grupo múltiplo de propostas normalmente reconhecidas sob a rubrica de ecocrítica ou formulações estabelecidas a partir de um “descentramento” estético e epistemológico associado ao Sul Global. Apresentam-se, em todo caso, como caminhos investigativos empenhados em posições contra-hegemônicas. Desse modo, os estudos pós-coloniais e decoloniais vêm balizando uma produção crítico-literária comprometida com expressões, linguagens e políticas que evidenciam não apenas o caráter geopolítico da concepção de natureza como também propõem a pertinência e viabilidade de formas distintas de percepção da vida.
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O capítulo discute a definição de distopia enquanto gênero literário, suas características formais, suas relações com outros gêneros e seu desenvolvimento ao longo do tempo.
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This thesis interrogates Jon McGregor’s trauma-laden writings by tapping into an approach informed by diverse psychological theories and the ethics of alterity. What it has aimed to demonstrate is how McGregor’s poetics is evocative of the disruptive effects that trauma has on cognition and self-identity—the two mainstays of the ego. That is why it has been postu-lated that the author’s narratives have an ethical potential. Indeed, by exposing readers to traumatic material beyond their cognitive powers and self-identities, these narratives serve as eye-openers. They awaken readers to their ontological vulnerability, which is the key step towards being considerate of other beings in the world, including the most minuscule and the apparently frivolous. Paradoxical as it may sound, the author’s fiction is also an epitome of egocentrism, in Jean Piaget’s acceptance of the term, i.e. the cognitive propensity among preoperational agents, especially children under seven, to reduce whatever they experience to one perspec-tive—their own. As propounded in the thesis, such a cognitive demeanour is a defence mechanism whereby traumatised characters attempt to eschew their eerie pasts, which makes their capacity to access otherness problematical. Indeed, they demonstrate a ceaseless impulse towards openness to alterity, very much in line with the Levinasian conception of an ethical relation. Still, such an impulse is one which is always inchoate, as it is persistently counteracted by the characters’ proclivity for a cognitive demeanour reminiscent of egocentrism.
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,,Cartea pe care o avem în faţă este o lucrare amplă apărută ca rezultat al unei cercetări inter- şi transdisciplinare, care acoperă o plajă largă de domenii, de la literatură comparată la lingvistică comparată şi chiar istorie socială comparată. Ana-Maria Ionescu studiază literatura din perspectivă predominant lingvistică, dar nicidecum exclusiv lingvistică, demonstrând importanţa analizei lingvistice nu numai în sine şi pentru sine, ci mai ales ca instrument util şi necesar de lucru în atâtea alte discipline umaniste. Metodele de cercetare sunt împrumutate cu precădere din pragmatica lingvistică (mai ales teoria enunţării şi teoria actelor de limbaj, care conduc la analiza discursului şi analiza conversaţiei), dar nu este neglijată nici teoria literaturii (mai ales naratologia). Investigaţia autoarei se află însă explicit (la fel ca şi teoria actelor de limbaj, pe care se sprijină) la confluenţa dintre lingvistică generală, semiotică, sociolingvistică, sociologia comunicării, demersul său constituindu-se astfel şi într-o contribuţie la filozofia limbajului" Mariana Neț
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This paper scrutinizes the conflict between the familiar and the unfamiliar in James Joyce‟s “Eveline” (1914), centering on the protagonist‟s dilemma which is deepened by a profound sense of helplessness. On the one hand, Eveline desires to stay with the familiar, namely, the home and the family in which she grew, due to the obscurity of the future and marriage. On the other hand, she cannot help but see marriage as a way to escape from her tiresome life and to be saved by the unfamiliar. This complicated the decision-making process, where she perpetually compares the past and the present time and renders the future within the limitations of her perception, reminds the stream of consciousness technique, which is frequently associated with the early 20th century modernist writings. It seems that James Joyce, as a modernist writer, sowed the seeds of the stream of consciousness technique in “Eveline” through the protagonist‟s flow of consciousness before he properly used it in his later novels. This can be deduced not only from the implementation of similar narrative tools but also from the inclusion of thematic concerns such as “psychic self-dissection” and “escape” (Bradbury and McFarlane 197). Accordingly, this study analyzes Eveline‟s temporal-causal flow of consciousness within the framework of literary theorist Gérard Genette‟s narrative order, distance and perspective concepts in order to demonstrate how the text problematizes the unfamiliar, and ultimately, it aims to unearth the forces that motivate Eveline to remain within the boundaries of the familiar.
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This essay locates Christopher Isherwood’s radical energy in the use of emergent visual technologies to curate a space for queer desire in his works Goodbye to Berlin (1939) and Prater Violet (1945). Isherwood subverts the heteronormative cinematic discourses by pausing them and preparing Instantaneous Photographs out of small moments that engage in a play of stillness and movement. The pauses enable the narratives to constantly draw attention toward themselves as well as the namesake narrators who voice their queer desire in those moments. This presents to us the unique esthetics of Isherwood wherein the visual does not only serve the novelistic in being a narrative strategy but becomes an epistemological mode through which the visual constructs queer subjectivity, in a world witnessing the rise of fascist forces. In short, the “queer camera,” seizing the grand narrative of history, forges queer time and queer voice, and, thereby, an alternative history that acknowledges queer presence.
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Jerome David Salinger'ın 1955 tarihli öyküsü “Franny”, Amerikan öykücülüğünün en çok bilinen ve çok tartışılan eserlerinden olsa da tartışmalar sadece eserin içeriğine odaklanmıştır. Öykünün anlatı yöntemi ve biçemine dair hiçbir çalışma yapılmamıştır; anlatıcısından sadece üçüncü tekil şahıs ilâhi anlatıcı diye bahsedilmiştir. Oysa, ilâhi anlatıcı detaylandırılmaya muhtaç bir kavramdır; çünkü öykü ve roman türünde kullanılan bütün ilâhi anlatıcılar aynı özelliklere sahip değildir. “Franny”de kullanılan anlatıcı ilâhi anlatıcının kimi özelliklerine sahip olsa da salt bu kavramla hakkıyla tanımlanamaz. Diğer anlatıbilim kavramlarıyla ilişkilendirildiğinde öyküdeki anlatıcının hem yorumları hem de sözel biçemi itibariyle fâni bir anlatıcı gibi göründüğünü ve böylece hem öyküdeki aracılık hissinin azaldığını hem de okur ve metin arasındaki mesafenin kısaldığını görürüz.
Chapter
What is narrative? A narrative is a narrator’s account of a sequence of events, presented in a certain language, following a certain narrative structure. “Modes,” according to John G. Cawelti, “are ways in which specific cultural themes and stereotypes become embodied in more universal story archetypes” (Cawelti in Adventure, mystery, and romance. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, p. 6, 1976). To put it briefly, modes are patterns of conventions that are specific to a particular culture or context. And a literary mode is a combination or synthesis of a number of specific cultural conventions with a more universal story form or archetype. With the above definition of “mode” as a starting point, we can define “narrative mode of fiction” as “the functional framework through which the fictionists recount stories in a given language in the course of their narrative production.” So far a lot of research on fiction narratology has already been done by scholars in China and in the West. In this chapter we will apply some of their findings to the narrative production process of Chinese and Western popular fiction in an effort to explore the similarities and differences of narrative modes between Chinese and Western popular fiction from the angles of narrative time and narrative perspectives.
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