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Dasypus novemcinctus

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... No se consideran las posibles subespecies de Dasypus dado que las condiciones de gran tamaño, amplia distribución geográfica y contemporaneidad de las muestras son difícilmente satisfechas (Simpson 1943). La diagnosis de las especies vivientes incorporan solamente datos osteológicos, a fin de hacerlas comparables con aquellas de los taxones fósiles; diagnosis que contemplen tejidos blandos y/o genéticas para las especies de Dasypus pueden ser encontradas en McBee & Baker (1982), Wetzel & Mondolfi (1979), Wetzel (1985) y Wetzel et al. (2007). ...
... Comentarios: El nombre del género es derivado del griego dasypodis (liebre o conejo) y está basado en la traducción del nombre azteca Ayotochtli (por veces escrito incorrectamente como Azotochtli, e.g., McBee & Baker 1982), que significaría tortuga-conejo. Este término fue empleado por el conquistador español Francisco Hernández, que también mencionó otros nombres referidos al animal: "Dasypode Cucurbitino", "Tatou" y "Armadillo" (Hernández 1651: 314). ...
... La especie tipo del género es Dasypus novemcinctus por tautonomía lineana, una vez que el término Dasypus figura en la lista sinonímica de esta especie (Linnaeus 1758;Alexander et al. 1998;ICZN 1999, artículo 68.5;Gardner & Hayssen 2004). Así, la designación de Dasypus septemcinctus como especie tipo por Wetzel & Mondolfi (1979), también reportada por McBee & Baker (1982), es inválida. Fue Thomas (1911) quien notó que el nombre Dasypus se refería originalmente al grupo de especies relacionadas a D. novemcinctus y que esta debería ser la especie tipo del género. ...
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The Dasypodini are one of the most basal clades of cingulates according to morphologic and molecular phylogenetic analyses. Its living representatives are the group of armadillos with most species and the widest latitudinal geographic distribution, occupying distinct biomes aproximatelly between 40° N and 40° S. In this context, this paper aims to review the diversity of Dasypodini, providing diagnoses and updating the geographic and chronologic distributions of taxa. For that, numerous specimens of cingulates were analyzed and compared. The following species are considered to be valid: Anadasypus hondanus Carlini et al., 1997 (middle Miocene of Colombia); A. aequatorianus Carlini et al., 2014 (late Miocene of Ecuador); Pliodasypus vergelianus Castro et al., 2014 (middle Pliocene of Venezuela); Propraopus sulcatus (Lund, 1842) (Pleistocene–early Holocene of Argentina, Brazil, Venezuela, Uruguay, Bolivia, and Ecuador); Dasypus bellus (Simpson, 1929) (late Pliocene–late Pleistocene of the United States and Mexico); D. punctatus Lund, 1840 (late Pleistocene–early Holocene of Brazil); and the extant species D. novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758; D. septemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758; D. hybridus (Desmarest 1804); D. kappleri Krauss, 1862; D. sabanicola Mondolfi, 1967; D. mazzai Yepes, 1933; and Cryptophractus pilosus Fitzinger, 1856, some of them with records since the late Pleistocene. Based on that, we briefly discuss evolutive, biogeographic, and environmental aspects. We corroborate that the extant Dasypodini are more diverse and larger in low latitudes. Lastly, the fossil records show that the group has been historically rectricted to temperate warm tropical and subtropical environments of the American continent.
... The nine-banded armadillo is a living mammal that has ossified dermal plates covering the sides, back, tail and top of the head. The dorsal carapace is divided into a scapular shield across the shoulders and a pelvic shield covering the hips and a series of 8 or 9 movable bands between the two shields that offer flexibility (McBee and Baker, 1982;Eisenberg and Redford, 1999;Feldhamer et al., 1999;Nowak, 1999). ...
... Likewise, some authors have described the osseous anatomy of the axial skeleton by diagnostic imaging in xenarthrans (Endo et al., 2007(Endo et al., , 2009Nyakatura and Fischer, 2010;Bogoevich, 2011). Although the xenarthrae vertebra (Flower, 1885;Gaudin and Biewener, 1992;Gaudin, 1999;Nowak, 1999;Galliari et al., 2010) and dentition (Flower, 1885;Hamlett, 1939;Talmage and Buchanan, 1954;McBee and Baker, 1982) of the D. novemcinctus have been studied as to their form and function, to present day, it is difficult to be found descriptive data using the radiography and/or CT examinations in nine-banded armadillos. However, there exists a report with a short description of the nine-banded armadillo pelvis using radiography, CT and 3D reconstruction (Alves et al., 2015). ...
... Xenarthrans have peculiar dentition features, such as the absence of enamel in the adult (Talmage and Buchanan, 1954;McBee and Baker, 1982;Vizca ıno et al., 2004) and deciduous teeth (Vizca ıno et al., 2004), which in the newborn armadillo of this study can be noted with the same number and shape as that of the adult animals. Several authors describe the teeth of an armadillo as 'peglike' (McBee and Baker, 1982;Nowak, 1999;Vizca ıno and Loughry, 2008), because they are small and simple, unlike other xenarthrans that have lobated teeth (Vizca ıno et al., 2006). ...
... Tatu-galinha, tatu-verdadeiro, tatu-preto, tatuetê, tatufolha, tatu-nove-bandas, tatu-veado, tatu-liso Cachicamo, mulita-grande, tatú Nine-banded armadillo, Common long-nosed armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus é a segunda maior espécie do gênero Dasypus, menor em tamanho apenas do que o tatu-de-quinze-quilos. O comprimento do corpo varia de 39,5 a 57,3 cm, o da cauda de 29 a 45 cm e o peso varia de 3,2 a 4,1 kg, podendo chegar até 7,7 kg (McBee & Baker, 1982). No entanto, indivíduos jovens desta espécie podem ser confundidos com os adultos de D. septemcinctus. ...
... A cauda possui de doze a quinze anéis de escudos dérmicos, que decrescem em tamanho rumo à porção distal, onde estão distribuídos de maneira irregular. Possuem quatro dedos em cada membro anterior e cinco em cada membro posterior (McBee & Baker, 1982). Apesar de sua ampla e popularmente conhecida distribuição (Feijó et al., 2018), ainda não existem estudos concluídos ou parâmetros morfométricos para esta espécie no Pantanal. ...
... Dasypus novemcinctus possui a maior distribuição geográfica entre todas as espécies de Xenarthra (Superina & Aguiar, 2006). Ocorre desde o sul dos Estados Unidos, atravessando a América Central até o noroeste da Argentina e do Uruguai (McBee & Baker, 1982;Feijó et al., 2018). Os biomas brasileiros de ocorrência desta espécie são Amazônia, Caatinga, Cerrado, Mata Atlântica, Pantanal e Campos Sulinos (G. ...
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Xenarthra contém duas ordens, seis famílias, 14 gêneros e 38 espécies viventes. A ordem Cingulata (tatus) representa 22 das espécies de xenartros e seis destas são encontradas no Pantanal (Dasypus novemcinctus, Cabassous tatouay, C. squamicaudis, Tolypeutes matacus, Euphractus sexcinctus e Priodontes maximus). Os tatus se diferem de outros mamíferos por terem uma carapaça formada por placas ósseas articuladas que, como um escudo, cobrem a cabeça e o dorso. Neste artigo, baseamo-nos em extensa revisão bibliográfica e décadas de trabalho realizado pelos autores para descrever o estado do conhecimento sobre ecologia, biologia, características morfológicas, saúde, estado de conservação e distribuição dos tatus no Pantanal. Visando dar subsídios a futuros trabalhos com as espécies, também descrevemos melhores práticas para a captura e o manejo (e.g., anestesia e coleta de material biológico) das espécies em campo. Apesar do recente aumento do número de estudos, ainda restam diversas lacunas de informação sobre a ecologia e a biologia da maioria das espécies de tatus do Pantanal. Sendo assim, esperamos que as informações e os métodos descritos aqui sirvam de estímulo e base para o desenvolvimento de novos estudos, que aumentem nosso conhecimento sobre estas espécies na região do Pantanal e permitam o planejamento de estratégias de conservação eficientes.
... The pan-American nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus) presents the largest distribution of any living xenarthran species (McDonough & Loughry, 2013), and constitutes an interesting model for Neotropical phylogeography. Several subspecies (five to seven) have been recognized within this species but their delineation and recognition are not consensual (Cabrera, 1958;McBee & Baker, 1982;Wetzel et al., 2008;McDonough & Loughry, 2013). In fact, most potential diagnostic characters for these subspecific distinctions are seldom detailed, often inconstant, or based on a limited number of observations (e.g.,Peters, 1864;Allen, 1911;Lönnberg, 1913;Hamlett, 1939;Hooper, 1947;Russell, 1953). ...
... Most importantly, the variation within the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus) allowed clearly separating three distinct geographical groups based on the pattern of paranasal cavities (Fig. 6). These individual subsets do not exactly correspond to traditional subspecies proposed for the nine-banded armadillo (McBee & Baker, 1982) though the distinction between the Northern and Central American (Northern morphotype) and the Southern American (Southern morphotype) groups may recall some subspecific boundaries (see below). In fact, although bone transparency often offers the possibility to observe the boundaries between the frontal sinuses and recesses, it seems that these characters have long been overlooked in cingulate systematics. ...
... The discovery of discrete paranasal characters supporting this purportedly distinct species demonstrates the necessity to study internal anatomy for a truly integrative taxonomy. The number and delimitation of subspecies recognized within D. novemcinctus has long been a matter of debate among armadillo taxonomists (Cabrera, 1958;McBee & Baker, 1982;McBee, 1999;Wetzel et al., 2008;McDonough & Loughry, 2013). Alongside the Guianan morphotype, the study of paranasal cavities also permitted to distinguish a mostly North and Central American morphotype (Northern group) and another South American morphotype (Southern group), which largely comes from the Amazon area (Fig. 6). ...
Article
Background With their Pan-American distribution, long-nosed armadillos (genus Dasypus ) constitute an understudied model for Neotropical biogeography. This genus currently comprises seven recognized species, the nine-banded armadillo ( D. novemcinctus ) having the widest distribution ranging from Northern Argentina to the South-Eastern US. With their broad diversity of habitats, nine-banded armadillos provide a useful model to explore the effects of climatic and biogeographic events on morphological diversity at a continental scale. Methods Based on a sample of 136 skulls of Dasypus spp. belonging to six species, including 112 specimens identified as D. novemcinctus , we studied the diversity and pattern of variation of paranasal cavities, which were reconstructed virtually using µCT-scanning or observed through bone transparency. Results Our qualitative analyses of paranasal sinuses and recesses successfully retrieved a taxonomic differentiation between the traditional species D. kappleri , D. pilosus and D. novemcinctus but failed to recover diagnostic features between the disputed and morphologically similar D. septemcinctus and D. hybridus . Most interestingly, the high variation detected in our large sample of D. novemcinctus showed a clear geographical patterning, with the recognition of three well-separated morphotypes: one ranging from North and Central America and parts of northern South America west of the Andes, one distributed across the Amazonian Basin and central South America, and one restricted to the Guiana Shield. Discussion The question as to whether these paranasal morphotypes may represent previously unrecognized species is to be evaluated through a thorough revision of the Dasypus species complex integrating molecular and morphological data. Remarkably, our recognition of a distinct morphotype in the Guiana Shield area is congruent with the recent discovery of a divergent mitogenomic lineage in French Guiana. The inflation of the second medialmost pair of caudal frontal sinuses constitutes an unexpected morphological diagnostic feature for this potentially distinct species. Our results demonstrate the benefits of studying overlooked internal morphological structures in supposedly cryptic species revealed by molecular data. It also illustrates the under-exploited potential of the highly variable paranasal sinuses of armadillos for systematic studies.
... Likewise, they probably play an important role as a vector for nutrients crossing the boundary between water and terrestrial realms, i.e. mediating lateral diffusion of nutrients (Wolf et al., 2013). For instance, D. novemcinctus and P. maximus have been shown to feed primarily on land in riparian habitats (McBee & Baker, 1982;Carter, Superina & Leslie, 2016;Aya-Cuero et al., 2017), but to excrete and move in or close to freshwater (Clark, 1951;Civita, 1970;McBee & Baker, 1982;Carter et al., 2016;Aya-Cuero et al., 2017), potentially creating a nutrient flux into the water. Furthermore, the high consumption of invertebrates by armadillos may affect important drivers of ecosystem processes, such as decomposition rates (Yang & Gratton, 2014). ...
... Likewise, they probably play an important role as a vector for nutrients crossing the boundary between water and terrestrial realms, i.e. mediating lateral diffusion of nutrients (Wolf et al., 2013). For instance, D. novemcinctus and P. maximus have been shown to feed primarily on land in riparian habitats (McBee & Baker, 1982;Carter, Superina & Leslie, 2016;Aya-Cuero et al., 2017), but to excrete and move in or close to freshwater (Clark, 1951;Civita, 1970;McBee & Baker, 1982;Carter et al., 2016;Aya-Cuero et al., 2017), potentially creating a nutrient flux into the water. Furthermore, the high consumption of invertebrates by armadillos may affect important drivers of ecosystem processes, such as decomposition rates (Yang & Gratton, 2014). ...
... For instance, Dasypus, Cabassous, Tolypeutes, and Priodontes species rarely chew their food, i.e. they swallow it whole and undamaged (Redford, 1985), suggesting that their capacity to destroy seeds will be low. Likewise, the morphology of some armadillos' teeth is not adapted to destroy seeds (McBee & Baker, 1982). In fact, up to 300 seeds of an unidentified plant species were found in P. maximus stomach contents (Barreto et al., 1985). ...
Article
Awareness of the natural ecological processes provided by organisms that benefit human well‐being has significantly progressed towards the goal of making conservation a mainstream value. Identifying different services and the species that provide them is a vital first step for the management and maintenance of these so‐called ecosystem services. Herein, we specifically address the armadillos, which play key functional roles in terrestrial ecosystems, including as ecosystem engineers, predators, and vectors of invertebrates and nutrients, although these roles have often been overlooked. Armadillos can control pests, disperse seeds, and be effective sentinels of potential disease outbreaks or bioindicators of environmental contaminants. They also supply important material (meat, medicines) and non‐material (learning, inspiration) contributions all over the Americas. We identify key gaps in the understanding of ecosystem services provided by armadillos and areas for future research required to clarify their functional role in terrestrial ecosystems and the services they supply. Such information will produce powerful arguments for armadillo conservation.
... Based on size differences, Hagmann (1908) described the subspecies Dasypus novemcinctus mexianae, which he thought was restricted to a small area close to the mouth of the Amazon River. Lönnberg (1913) defined Dasypus novemcinctus aequatorialis from Ecuador, which McBee & Baker (1982) later proposed considering a probable synonym to Tatusia granadiana Gray (1873). Lönnberg's comparisons were based on morphological characteristics of the carapace, Dasypus novemcinctus aequatorialis showing differences in the occipital portion of the frontal shield, as well as different proportions of the scales of the shoulder and pelvic shields. ...
... Our multivariate analyses suggest the absence of sexual dimorphism in the shape of the cranium and a slight sexual dimorphism in the mandibular morphology. McBee & Baker (1982) proposed that male nine-banded armadillos tend to be slightly larger than females. However, Loughry & McDonough (2013) pointed out that McBee and Baker based this assertion on a paper that only examined a very small number of animals, and reach the more general conclusion that there is no sexual dimorphism in this species using measurements of hundreds of specimens. ...
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Background. The systematics of long-nosed armadillos (genus Dasypus ) has been mainly based on a handful of external morphological characters and classical measurements. Here, we studied the pattern of morphological variation in the skull of long-nosed armadillos species, with a focus on the systematics of the widely distributed nine-banded armadillo ( D. novemcinctu s). Methods. We present the first exhaustive 3D comparison of the skull morphology within the genus Dasypus , based on µCT-scans. We used geometric morphometric approaches to explore the patterns of the intra- and interspecific morphological variation of the skull with regard to several factors such as taxonomy, geography, allometry, and sexual dimorphism. Results. We show that the shape and size of the skull vary greatly between Dasypus species, with D. pilosus representing a clear outlier compared to other long-nosed armadillos. The study of the cranial intraspecific variation in D. novemcinctus evidences clear links to the geographic distribution and argue in favour of a revision of past taxonomic delimitations. Our detailed morphometric comparisons detected previously overlooked morphotypes of nine-banded armadillo, especially a very distinctive unit circumscribed to the Guiana Shield. Discussion. As our results are congruent with recent molecular data and analyses of the structure of paranasal sinuses, we propose that D. novemcinctus should be regarded either as a polytypic species (with three to four subspecies) or as a complex of several distinct species.
... As espécies estão ordenadas em ordem decrescente de abundância. (Chiarello, 2000b;Peres, 2000;Sanches, 2001;Aguiar, 2004), além de também serem vítimas frequentes de atropelamentos rodoviários (Vieira, 1996;Fischer, 1997 (Layne & Glover, 1977;McBee & Baker, 1982;Encarnação, 1987). Os primatas apresentaram distância perpendicular média mais elevada do que as demais espécies amostradas e isso se deve ao habitat arborícola e forrageamento em bando, sendo geralmente mais barulhentos quando ativos (Emmons & Feer, 1997;Eisenberg & Redford, 1999), o que facilita a visualização destas espécies a uma maior distância, principalmente as espécies que se organizam em grupos sociais maiores (S. robustus e C. geoffroyi). ...
... As duas espécies de tatus amostradas no presente estudo, D. novemcinctus e E. sexcinctus, apresentaram tamanho populacional e densidade populacional semelhante a estudos realizados em outras regiões (McBee & Baker, 1982;Encarnação, 1987). O tamanho populacional e a densidade baixa dessas espécies estão diretamente relacionadas com a biologia das mesmas (Nowak, 1999). ...
... Given the reality that the ecology of D. pilosus is unknown, it is worth emphasizing descriptions associated with two specimens. First, MUSM-7504 was a female with four embryos, suggesting that this species might exhibit polyembryony with identical quadruplets, like D. novemcinctus (McBee & Baker, 1982). Second, MSB49990 was a juvenile caught on a ridge top, in a hole with three other individuals, indicating that D. pilosus may inhabit high elevations and build burrows, like other Dasypus armadillos (Sawyer, Brinkman, Walker, Covington, & Stienstraw, 2012;Trovati, 2015). ...
... Also, since MSB-49990 was a juvenile sharing the burrow with three other individuals, it is possible that they were from the same litter. Because Dasypus taxa generally show monozygotic polyembryony (Wetzel, 1982), and they generally do not share burrows except as young litter mates (McBee & Baker, 1982;McDonough & Loughry, 2008;Vizcaı´noVizcaı´no & Loughry, 2008), the two specimens provide evidence for reproduction through polyembryony with identical quadruplets in D. pilosus as well. ...
Article
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The hairy long-nosed armadillo (Dasypus pilosus) is endemic to the Andes in Peru and rarely studied, thus more investigations are needed. To gain a better understanding of this species? distribution and to facilitate future surveys and conservation management, we compiled available information on specimens of D. pilosus, provided an ecological biogeography perspective of these specimens, and estimated suitable areas for D. pilosus using ecological niche modeling. We compiled 25 specimen records from six departments in Peru and extracted the climatic and elevation conditions for records with coordinates. We concluded that D. pilosus may occupy relatively high elevation sites, hiding in a relatively cool climatic niche at tropical latitude. We suggested possible upper and lower temperature limits for D. pilosus and lower precipitation limit for the genus Dasypus. The ecological niche model estimated that about half of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) range map was not suitable for D. pilosus and predicted additional suitable areas outside the IUCN range map in Amazonas and Cajamarca departments, Peru. We recommend that future field surveys or conservation management efforts prioritize regions associated with suitable areas predicted by our model and with species? available records (e.g., R?o Abiseo).
... Based on size differences, Hagmann (1908) described the subspecies Dasypus novemcinctus mexianae, which he thought was restricted to a small area close to the mouth of the Amazon River. Lönnberg (1913) defined Dasypus novemcinctus aequatorialis from Ecuador, which McBee & Baker (1982) later proposed considering a probable synonym to Tatusia granadiana Gray (1873). Lönnberg's comparisons were based on morphological characteristics of the carapace, Dasypus novemcinctus aequatorialis showing differences in the occipital portion of the frontal shield, as well as different proportions of the scales of the shoulder and pelvic shields. ...
... Our multivariate analyses suggest the absence of sexual dimorphism in the shape of the cranium and a slight sexual dimorphism in the mandibular morphology. McBee & Baker (1982) proposed that male nine-banded armadillos tend to be slightly larger than females. However, Loughry & McDonough (2013) pointed out that McBee and Baker based this assertion on a paper that only examined a very small number of animals, and reach the more general conclusion that there is no sexual dimorphism in this species using measurements of hundreds of specimens. ...
Article
Background The systematics of long-nosed armadillos (genus Dasypus ) has been mainly based on a handful of external morphological characters and classical measurements. Here, we studied the pattern of morphological variation in the skull of long-nosed armadillos species, with a focus on the systematics of the widely distributed nine-banded armadillo ( Dasypus novemcinctus ). Methods We present the first exhaustive 3D comparison of the skull morphology within the genus Dasypus , based on micro-computed tomography. We used geometric morphometric approaches to explore the patterns of the intra- and interspecific morphological variation of the skull with regard to several factors such as taxonomy, geography, allometry, and sexual dimorphism. Results We show that the shape and size of the skull vary greatly among Dasypus species, with Dasypus pilosus representing a clear outlier compared to other long-nosed armadillos. The study of the cranial intraspecific variation in Dasypus novemcinctus evidences clear links to the geographic distribution and argues in favor of a revision of past taxonomic delimitations. Our detailed morphometric comparisons detected previously overlooked morphotypes of nine-banded armadillos, especially a very distinctive unit restricted to the Guiana Shield. Discussion As our results are congruent with recent molecular data and analyses of the structure of paranasal sinuses, we propose that Dasypus novemcinctus should be regarded either as a polytypic species (with three to four subspecies) or as a complex of several distinct species.
... On the other hand, it is remarkable that the referred "Ameghinian" methodology lacks a correlation with the taxonomic criteria used for the classification of recent Dasypodidae. Some very particular features, like those previously referred for the osteoderms, do not seem to have significant weight in the descriptions of the exoskeleton for extant genera and species, these being differentiated by other morphological diagnostic patterns, such as body length, skull length and proportions, dental formula and morphology, number of mobile bands, size and shape of the cephalic shield, length of the ears or presence of sebaceous gland in the pelvic shield (Mcbee and Baker, 1982;Redford and Wetzel, 1985;Hayssen et al., 2013;Hayssen, 2014a;b;Superina and Abba, 2014). ...
... As an example, it is worth noting that in extant armadillos the number of caudal rings varies not only among different species but also in an intraspecific way (e.g. D. novemcinctus and Euphractus sexcinctus, see McBee and Baker, 1982;Perea, 2005). ...
... ΔAICc The sign (+) indicates additive effects and the sign (*) indicates interactive effects between 2 covariates. differences in availability of soil invertebrates, which are the most important food source for this armadillo (Fitch et al., 1952;McBee and Baker, 1982;Sikes et al., 1990). Although we did not evaluate differences in the insect community within and outside closed-canopy forests, changes in insect community composition and abundance have been recorded in croplands due to their simplified plant community (Franco et al., 2016) and pesticide use (Vasconcelos, 1999;Duelli et al., 1999;Narendra et al., 2011). ...
... On the contrary, watercourse use by nine-banded armadillos was consistent with our prediction, since these armadillos appear to need direct access to fresh water to survive (Loughry and McDonough, 2013;Ferreguetti et al., 2016) and/or may take advantage of the availability of food resources in areas closest to water (McBee and Baker, 1982). The possible impact on water quality resulting from agriculture activities (runoff water rich in pesticides and chemical fertilizers, among other sources of water pollution; Tanaka et al., 2016;Taniwaki et al., 2017) is apparently not compromising the use of nearby areas by ninebanded armadillos in our agricultural landscapes. ...
Article
Given the accelerating worldwide expansion of agriculture, biofuel production and managed forest plantations, the future of many tropical mammals depends on understanding why or when some species successfully survive in anthropogenically modified habitats, while others do not. Armadillos are potentially able to adapt to agricultural landscapes and play a key role as ecosystem engineers. However, it is not clear how dependent arma-dillos are on natural areas in agricultural landscapes and, more specifically, how or if armadillos can use sugar cane or managed forests as alternative habitats. Here, we assessed the relative effects of landscape features, composition and configuration, anthropogenic impacts and degree of protection, as potential predictors of landscape occupancy of the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus). We deployed 203 camera trap stations in three agricultural landscapes of the Brazilian Cerrado, where sugar cane or managed forest cover most (> 50%) of the landscape. We found that cover by native forests and proximity to watercourses strongly and positively affect the occupancy of nine-banded armadillo. In contrast, managed forests mostly composed of Eucalyptus spp. had a negative effect on this armadillo's landscape occupancy. We did not detect the effect of sugar cane, although this particular result might be biased due to our sampling design. Overall, our findings indicate that even disturbed native forest strips, particularly those close to watercourses, are important habitats for this armadillo in agricultural matrices, demonstrating the utmost importance of native forests existing both within and outside protected areas. The Brazilian Forest Code protects native vegetation existing in rural private properties in Brazil, but adherence to this law by rural owners is still weak. Therefore, our study supports the strategic role this law plays in conservation in Brazil. Although not endangered by extinction, maintaining the nine-banded armadillo is important for a broader biota because of its putative role as an ecosystem engineer. The effective implementation of the Forest Code is therefore key not only to maintain this armadillos' populations but also to increase ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes.
... Para a identificação do material, foram realizadas comparações com espécimes de coleções científicas, tais como a Coleção Renato Kipnis, do Laboratório de Estudos Evolutivos Humanos (LEEH) do Departamento de Genética e Biologia Evolutiva do Instituto de Biociências da Universidade de São Paulo (USP), e coleção de mamíferos do Museu de Zoologia da USP, e consultaram-se as obras: Paula Couto (1979), McBee & Baker (1982), Redford & Wetzel (1985), Eisenberg & Redford (1999), Bonato et al. (2008), Feijó & Cordeiro-Estrela (2016) e Feijó et al. (2018. ...
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RESUMO A Gruta Cuvieri, na região de Lagoa Santa, MG, preservou significativa quantidade de material osteológico passado. Entre o material de vertebrados observado, estão ossos e osteodermos pertencentes a um indivíduo de Euphractus sexcinctus. O presente estudo comenta sobre esse espécime e sua preservação. Os ossos foram encontrados em níveis diferenciados, com idade entre o Holoceno inicial e final, porém devem ser muito mais recentes, por causa do hábito escavador dessa espécie. Por isso, a ocorrência de determinadas partes ósseas suas em níveis mais antigos não seria um indicativo de sua idade. O espécime provavelmente pereceu no local em que foi encontrado, porém deve ter ficado exposto mais tempo que os demais, o que causou desarticulação e espalhamento de suas partes ósseas. ABSTRACT Gruta Cuvieri, in the region of Lagoa Santa, MG, Brazil, preserved a significant amount of past osteological material. Among the vertebrate material observed, there are bones and osteoderms belonging to an individual of Euphractus sexcinctus. The present study comments on this specimen and its preservation. The bones were found at different levels, aged between the early and later Holocene, but they must be much more recent, due to the excavating habit of this species. Therefore, the occurrence of certain bone parts at older levels would not be an indicator of its age. The specimen probably perished where it was found, but it must have been exposed longer than the other specimens, which caused disarticulation and spreading of its bony parts.
... Nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) feed mostly on arthropods such as beetles, termites, and ants, but also consume bird eggs and "unusual items" such as fruits, fungi, and small vertebrates (McBee & Baker, 1982;Wetzel, 1991;Carrillo et al., 1999;Loughry & McDonough, 2013). Snakes have been reported in the diet of the armadillo in Louisiana, Alabama, and Florida in the U. S. (Fitch et al., 1952;Breece & Dusi, 1985;Wirtz et al., 1985), and in Bolivia (Salazar-Bravo et al., 2010), but no observations have been reported regarding the manner in which such prey, or any other vertebrate prey, is captured (Loughry & McDonough, 2013:130). ...
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We describe the manner in which a nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus) killed a Central American coral snake (Micrurus nigrocinctus) that it subsequently ate. The armadillo repeatedly ran towards, jumped, flipped over in mid-air, and landed on top of the snake with its back until the snake was dead. Depredación de una serpiente de coral de América Central (Micrurus nigrocinctus) por un armadillo de nueve bandas (Dasypus novemcinctus) en el Parque Nacional Santa Rosa, Costa Rica Resumen En esta nota describimos la manera en que un armadillo de nueve bandas (Dasypus novemcinc-tus) mató a una serpiente de coral de América Central (Micrurus nigrocinctus) que posteriormente comió. El armadillo corrió varias veces hacia adelante, saltó, se dio vuelta en el aire y aterrizó sobre la serpiente con la espalda hasta que la serpiente estuvo muerta.
... Scholars have studied the relationship between D. bellus and extant armadillos through various morphological characteristics . Dasypus bellus is regarded as osteologically identical to D. novemcinctus (Slaughter 1961; McBee and Baker 1982), or at least highly morphologically similar (Voorhies 1987). Klippel and Parmalee (1984) found that the scute of D. bellus is at least twice as large as that of D. novemcinctus, and thus proposed the same relationship for body size. ...
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The similar geographic distributions of an extinct (Dasypus bellus) and an extant (D. novemcinctus) armadillo species have long been of interest to scholars because of the unresolved phylogeny. The relationship between the two species has been investigated through morphological and phylogenetic studies, whereas the ecological perspective has been overlooked, the importance of which is more and more acknowledged in speciation events. Here, we used ecological niche models to study the climatic niche similarity of three species of Dasypus (D. bellus, D. novemcinctus, and D. kappleri) and provide new insights on the relationship among them. The climatic niche similarity was compared in two ways: hindcast of ecological niche models based on occurrences and climatic layers, and direct niche boundary comparison along bioclimatic axes. The fossil records of D. bellus were not predicted suitable by the ecological niche models of the two extant armadillos. The direct comparison of niche boundary showed that D. bellus lived in colder and relative dryer climates, with high temperature variation and low precipitation variation. Our results did not support the previously assumed ecological similarity of D. bellus and D. novemcinctus based on their geographic distributions and emphasized the possibility of a cold adapted characteristic of the life history of D. bellus.
... The lack of difference between observed and simulated C-Score (Tables 1 and 2) shows less segregation between species, indicating higher co-occurrence. Our results are different from those with evidence of spatial segregation between predators and prey (Currier 1983;McBee and Baker 1982;Goulart et al. 2009). No spatial segregation means that the distribution of prey is not influenced by the spatial distribution of predators. ...
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Time and space are niche dimensions that allow a local coexistence of predators and their prey. Daily activity patterns are a crucial component of mammalian ecology and behavior, being temporal avoidance often the most important mechanism of coexistence among species. Animal’s daily activity patterns (temporal specialization) can be classified in diurnal, nocturnal, crepuscular or cathemeral. Temporal overlap alone does not define the vulnerability of the prey or the preference of the predator, since there must also be spatial segregation, which can alleviate possible hostile interactions among the animals. In this study, we test if there are any significant differences among the daily activity patterns of predators and prey. We used the camera-trapping data to test if the predator’s species have less occurrence than expected by chance on the trails. The study area is the Parque Nacional da Serra dos Órgãos (PARNASO). C-score is used to determine the spatial segregation and the exact test to determine the temporal segregation between predators and prey. Our results suggest spatial segregation among predators and prey in PARNASO. Also, the exact test showed that predators have cathemeral activity while prey are mainly nocturnal, as expected, probably to avoid predators. Despite its importance, the theory of how predation affects species differences and diversity is much less developed than the competition theory, which shows that more studies like this one need to be done
... Armadillos are terrestrial mammals that belong to the order Cingulata. They exhibit a semifossorial habit and differ from other mammals because they have ossified dermal scutes (McBee & Baker, 1982). Among Cingulata, Dasypus is the genus with the largest number of species (nine) (Feijó & Cordeiro-Estrela, 2016), and is represented by armadillos with an elongated snout, long tail, and carapace formed by six to 11 movable bands (Wetzel et al., 2008 ). ...
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This work is a case report of the consumption of an armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus) by a tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier), which was reported by fishermen and confirmed by an image showing the armadillo in the digestive tract of the gutted shark. The shark was captured by fishermen in Pedras de Una, Bahia State, Brazil. Two hypotheses are suggested: (1) the armadillo was eaten while crossing an estuarine region, or (2) during a rainstorm the animal was washed into the sea and the shark consumed the carcass. This is the first scientific record of the consumption of an armadillo by a shark. Consumo de tatu por tubarão tigre: uma contribuição da etnozoologia Resumo Aqui apresentamos um relato de caso onde houve o consumo de tatu (Dasypus novemcinctus) por um tubarão-tigre (Galeocerdo cuvier). O consumo foi relatado por pescadores e comprovado por fo-tos onde o tatu aparece no trato digestivo de um tubarão eviscerado. O tubarão foi capturado por pesca-dores em Pedras de Una, Bahia, Brasil. Duas hipóteses foram assumidas: a primeira, o tatu foi predado ao cruzar região estuarina e, na segunda, o animal foi arrastado pela chuva até o mar, onde o tubarão consumiu sua carcaça. Esta é a primeira vez que o consumo de tatu por tubarões foi registrado na ciência.
... El tepezcuintle (Cuniculus paca) es uno de los roedores más grandes del mundo y está catalogado por la UICN como de Menor Preocupación [129,41], se encuentra en una amplia gama de tipos de bosques en áreas húmedas junto con distribución desde el sur de México hasta la región de las Pampas de Brasil y Uruguay [129,7,59,84]. El armadillo de nueve bandas (Dasypus novemcinctus) es una especie catalogada como de menor preocupación [90], ampliamente distribuida desde la mayor parte de México y el sureste de los Estados Unidos hasta Argentina y Uruguay, es muy adaptable y está presente en una amplia variedad de hábitats [104,50]. ...
Thesis
The main interest of this dissertation is to study the relationship between habitat use and the environmental space (the ecological niche), measured in terms of the probability of site occupancy and climatic suitability, respectively, to advance the understanding of the distribution of animal species. First, I made a review of the concepts related to occupancy and the ecological niche, where according to Soberón the fundamental Grinnellian niche is defined as the set of environmental (climatic) conditions where the intrinsic growth rate is positive, on the other hand, habitat use is defined as the area occupied by a species, this is measured through occupancy models (Chapters 1 and 2). Given that the position in the niche space is related to the intrinsic growth rate and the habitat use with occupancy, both suitability and occupancy have been considered as indirect measures of abundance, this thesis is based on the conjecture that greater climatic suitability will imply a greater probability of habitat use. In Chapter 3 I modeled both habitat use and Grinnellian niche for three neotropical mammal species with so-called occupancy and niche models. Habitat use is estimated by the basic occupancy model (single-season, single species) with covariates, where field data were collected through biological sampling with camera traps in the region known as La Chinantla in Oaxaca, Mexico, as well as data from the Tropical Ecology Assessment and Monitoring Network (TEAM Network) at five different sites throughout the Neotropics located in four countries: Costa Rica, Peru, Brazil, and Suriname. Habitat suitability values and occupancy probability were correlated for the margay (Leopardus wiedii), spotted paca (Cuniculus paca), and nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus). The results indicate that the Ecological Niche Models are significantly correlated with the Occupancy Models. It should be noted that this relationship is variable throughout the different species and geographic areas analyzed, so we consider that local factors influence this relationship, for this purpose in Chapter 4 I evaluated if the presence of large predators affected the relationship between use of habitat and suitability in Leopardus wiedii, to do this, the three hypercarnivores that perform the greatest predation on other carnivorous mammals species throughout the Neotropics were selected: ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), puma (Puma concolor) and jaguar (Panthera onca). The results of the thesis are discussed in terms of ecological niche theory and hierarchical resource selection.
... Macho: 5 a 7 kg Identificación: tamaño pequeño a mediano. Los lados, la espalda, la cola y la parte superior de la cabeza están cubiertos con placas dérmicas osificadas que están cubiertas por una piel correosa, produciendo un caparazón parecido a una tortuga que representa aproximadamente el 16% del peso corporal (Szabuniewicz & McGrady, 1969), con 9 bandas transversales, la cabeza está cubierta con escamas gruesas que están estrechamente unidas al cráneo; la cabeza se reduce a un hocico rosado, parecido a un cerdo; los ojos son pequeños; las patas son cortas, robustas y bien adaptadas para la excavación; tiene cuatro dedos en la parte delantera y cinco en la parte posterior, sus dedos, especialmente los mediales, están equipados con garras grandes, afiladas y ligeramente curvas (McBee & Baker, 1982). Rastro: las patas delanteras presentan cinco garras fuertes, siendo las centrales las fuertes. ...
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Las técnicas de estudios en mamíferos han ido cambiando y adaptándose al igual que otras ciencias de la vida a nuevos y mejorados procedimientos en campo y de análisis. Por lo tanto, el presente texto está dirigido a estudiantes, docentes e investigadores que realizan trabajos del área de la mastozoología, teniendo como objetivo principal el explicar de manera muy pragmática cómo se realizan los estudios en campo y laboratorio de mamíferos en general; con un mayor enfoque en especies de la costa ecuatoriana. Esta obra está divida en cuatro capítulos, cuyos autores pertenecena diferentes especialidades en esta rama de la biología. En el capítulo número uno de la obra se presenta los diferentes métodos de estudio empleados para mamíferos en campo, en particular las técnicas de trampeo más comunes para la captura, toma de huellas y fotografía de mamíferos en general. Además, en este capítulo se toma en consideración la fase de análisis de datos obtenidos en campo con el programa estadístico “R”. En el siguiente capítulo, se encontrará una guía ilustrada de huellas y pelos de 64 especies de mamíferos de la zona occidental ecuatoriana. En esta se explica la morfología y morfometría tanto de los pelos como de las huellas. La importancia de esta guía radica en que este tipo de análisis han ido tomando mayor relevancia en los estudios de mastofauna, por lo que se encuentra esta explicada de la manera más sencilla para optimizar su manejo. La tercera sección del libro está enfocada a temas relacionados a los bosques más representativos de la costa ecuatoriana y la mastofauna que esta alberga, al mismo tiempo se ha tomado parte de esta sección para dar a conocer las políticas y el estado de conservación de los bosques del pacífico ecuatorial. En el último apartado se presentan dos casos de estudios puntuales en bosques de la costa de Ecuador, utilizando los diversos tipos de trampeo y análisis empleados para investigaciones con mamíferos, estas zonas son: Bosque Protector Cerro Blanco y Reserva Ecológica Arenillas. En estos trabajos se analizan la efectividad de los métodos de trampeo y la diversidad mastozoofaunística en ambas zonas.
... Table 1 List of the species analysed in the present study. The classification of each species was made on the basis of the current knowledge about the ecology of armadillos, mainly based on stomachs contents (Soibelzon et al., 2007;Redford, 1985;Redford & Wetzel, 1985;Sikes, Heidt & Elrod, 1990;Bolkovi, Caziani & Protomastro, 1995;Smith, 2008;Da Silveira Anacleto, 2007;Superina et al., 2009;Abba et al., 2011;Loughry & McDonough, 2013;Borghi et al., 2011;Superina, Pagnutti & Abba, 2014;Dalponte & Tavares-Filho, 2004;Hayssen, 2014;McBee & Baker, 1982). The geometric properties and the applied forces at the Masseter and Temporalis muscles are also provided. ...
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Background In this paper, we propose a new method, named the intervals’ method, to analyse data from finite element models in a comparative multivariate framework. As a case study, several armadillo mandibles are analysed, showing that the proposed method is useful to distinguish and characterise biomechanical differences related to diet/ecomorphology. Methods The intervals’ method consists of generating a set of variables, each one defined by an interval of stress values. Each variable is expressed as a percentage of the area of the mandible occupied by those stress values. Afterwards these newly generated variables can be analysed using multivariate methods. Results Applying this novel method to the biological case study of whether armadillo mandibles differ according to dietary groups, we show that the intervals’ method is a powerful tool to characterize biomechanical performance and how this relates to different diets. This allows us to positively discriminate between specialist and generalist species. Discussion We show that the proposed approach is a useful methodology not affected by the characteristics of the finite element mesh. Additionally, the positive discriminating results obtained when analysing a difficult case study suggest that the proposed method could be a very useful tool for comparative studies in finite element analysis using multivariate statistical approaches.
... Esta especie se alimenta preferentemente de escarabajos y hormigas, aunque complementa su dieta con pequeños anfibios, reptiles, tubérculos, e incluso huevos de aves (McBee & Baker, 1982;Redford, 1986;Tyler et al., 1996;Layne, 2003;Butler et al., 2004;Staller et al., 2005). Se aparea una vez al año, y se reportan temporadas reproductivas de junio a agosto en el hemisferio norte (Job et al., 1984;Layne, 2003;Mengak, 2005), y entre agosto y noviembre en el hemisferio sur (Neris et al., 2002;CONANP, 2014). ...
... For this reason, such high metabolic and energetic constraints may be a limiting factor on extensive periosteal cortical thickening and the resorption of CCCB. These constraints might even be stronger than in other burrowing anteaters, since aardvarks start digging their own burrows at six months of age, when they are still actively growing-adult size being reached at about one year of age (Shoshani, Goldman & Thewissen, 1988)-while other large anteaters such as armadillos only start burrowing on their own when close to adult size (McBee & Baker, 1982;McDonough et al., 2000). The large amount of energy required by this digging process during the phase of active growth (Hildebrand, 1985;McNab, 2002) may begin to constrain periosteal bone growth from six months old. ...
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Bone microstructure has long been known as a powerful tool to investigate lifestyle-related biomechanical constraints, and many studies have focused on identifying such constraints in the limb bones of aquatic or arboreal mammals in recent years. The limb bone microstructure of fossorial mammals, however, has not been extensively described. Furthermore, so far, studies on this subject have always focused on the bone histology of small burrowers, such as subterranean rodents or true moles. Physiological constraints associated with digging, however, are known to be strongly influenced by body size, and larger burrowers are likely to exhibit a histological profile more conspicuously influenced by fossorial activity. Here, we describe for the first time the limb bone histology of the aardvark (Orycteropus afer), the largest extant burrowing mammal. The general pattern is very similar for all six sampled limb bones (i.e., humerus, radius, ulna, femur, tibia, and fibula). Most of the cortex at midshaft is comprised of compacted coarse cancellous bone (CCCB), an endosteal tissue formed in the metaphyses through the compaction of bony trabeculae. Conversely, the periosteal bone is highly resorbed in all sections, and is reduced to a thin outer layer, suggesting a pattern of strong cortical drift. This pattern contrasts with that of most large mammals, in which cortical bone is of mostly periosteal origin, and CCCB, being a very compliant bone tissue type, is usually resorbed or remodeled during ontogeny. The link between histology and muscle attachment sites, as well as the influence of the semi-arid environment and ant-eating habits of the aardvark on its bone microstructure, are discussed. We hypothesize that the unusual histological profile of the aardvark is likely the outcome of physiological constraints due to both extensive digging behavior and strong metabolic restrictions. Adaptations to fossoriality are thus the result of a physiological compromise between limited food availability, an environment with high temperature variability, and the need for biomechanical resistance during digging. These results highlight the difficulties of deciphering all factors potentially involved in bone formation in fossorial mammals. Even though the formation and maintaining of CCCB through ontogeny in the aardvark cannot be unambiguously linked with its fossorial habits, a high amount of CCCB has been observed in the limb bones of other large burrowing mammals. The inclusion of such large burrowers in future histological studies is thus likely to improve our understanding of the functional link between bone growth and fossorial lifestyle in an evolutionary context.
... The lack of difference between observed and simulated C-Score (Tables 1 and 2) shows less segregation between species, indicating higher co-occurrence. Our results are different from those with evidence of spatial segregation between predators and prey (Currier 1983;McBee and Baker 1982;Goulart et al. 2009). No spatial segregation means that the distribution of prey is not influenced by the spatial distribution of predators. ...
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Time and space are niche dimensions that allow local coexistence of predators and their prey. Daily activity patterns are a crucial component of mammalian ecology and behavior, and temporal avoidance is often being regarded as the most important mechanism of coexistence among species. However, temporal overlap alone does not define the vulnerability of the prey or the preference of the predator, since there must also be spatial segregation, which can alleviate possible hostile interactions among animals. In this study, we tested whether there are any significant differences between temporal and spatial activity patterns of predators (Leopardus wiedii and Puma concolor) and prey (Sylvilagus brasiliensis, Cuniculus paca and Didelphis aurita). We used the camera-trapping data to test if the predator's species had less occurrence than expected by chance in Parque Nacional da Serra dos Órgãos (PARNASO), a protected area of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We used a measure of spatial segregation (C-score) and a Kernel Density Function to determine predators and preys time of activity and whether a pair of species occurred simultaneously. In addition, we calculated a coefficient of overlap between predators and prey. We found low values of C-Score in all analyses, which means high spatial co-occurrence and lack of spatial segregation among predators and their potential prey. Also, the Kernel Density Function showed that predators had more cathemeral activity while prey were mainly nocturnal. We thus show that temporal segregation is more important than spatial segregation in the study area. Our results suggest that predators are most likely to adjust their activity patterns based on the behavior of their main prey rather than to avoid competition with other species.
... Dasypus novemcinctus (nine-banded armadillo) extensive fusion was seen between the ulna and radius (McBee & Baker, 1982). In B. suillus and H. glaber, the distal half of the ulna and radius are tightly connected by the interosseous ligament which limits the pronationsupination function of the antebrachium despite the presence of m. pronator quadratus in both species. ...
Article
Bathyergus suillus (Cape dune mole‐rat) and Heterocephalus glaber (naked mole‐rat) are two species of subterranean burrowing rodents. Bathyergus suillus occurs in soft sandy soils and is regarded as a scratch‐digger, while H . glaber is found in hard, compact soils and is a chisel‐tooth digging species. The present study aimed to determine musculoskeletal differences in the forelimb of these two species. The muscles of the forelimb, back and neck were dissected to the points of origin and insertion in the left and right forelimbs, B . suillus (n = 7) and H . glaber (n = 5). Dissected muscles were photographed before maceration to demonstrate muscle attachments. The scapular spine, acromion process and clavicle were relatively straight in B . suillus . In comparison a curved scapular spine, acromion process and clavicle were observed in H . glaber . In both species, the clavicle rested on the greater tuberosity of the humerus. In B . suillus , the deltoid tuberosity was prominent and situated more distally on the humeral shaft compared to the indistinct, more proximally situated deltoid tuberosity in H . glaber . A prominent bony structure underlying the thenar pad as well as a cartilaginous protrusion beneath the hypothenar pad were observed on the palmar surface of the manus in B . suillus . Prominent claws were observed in B . suillus . A robust m . sternohyoideus was observed in H . glaber while mm . tensor fasciae antebrachii and coracobrachialis were absent. The flexors of the antebrachium of B . suillus had additional and enlarged attachment sites. The forelimb of B . suillus may be morphologically adapted for scratch‐digging with relatively large and additional forelimb muscles and robust bones. In comparison, H . glaber had a reduction in the relative size, amount of muscles as well as number of attachment sites in the forelimb muscles, while the well‐developed ventral neck muscles may facilitate neck and head stabilisation during chisel‐tooth digging.
... Armadillos have dispersed through vast areas of heavy agricultural use in Arkansas, Georgia, Oklahoma, and Texas [3,8]. Illinois is crossed by the 40th parallel, which is presumed to act as the northernmost limit for the dispersal. ...
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The nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus) has become a recent addition to the local fauna of Illinois as a response to habitat alteration and climate change. This range expansion has resulted in the presence of armadillos in areas not predicted by earlier models. Although these models have been revised, armadillos continue to move north and have reached areas of heavy agricultural use. We identified conditions that favor the presence of armadillos and potential corridors for dispersal. Identifying the distribution of the armadillo in Illinois is a vital step in anticipating their arrival in areas containing potentially sensitive wildlife populations and habitats. Armadillo locations (n = 37) collected during 2016–2020 were used to develop a map of the potential distribution of armadillos in southern Illinois. Environmental data layers included in the model were land cover type, distance to water, distance to forest edge, human modification, and climactic variables. Land cover type was the most important contributing variable to the model. Our results are consistent with the tenet that armadillo activity and dispersal corridors are centered around riparian areas, and that forested cover may provide corridors an agricultural mosaic.
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Background: This study aimed to survey the knowledge and use of mammals by the residents of the rural community of Capivara in the municipality of Solânea (Paraíba State, Northeast Brazil) and to propose a new method of using the use value as a tool for data analysis in ethnozoological surveys. Methods: The uses attributed to mammals were recorded through semi-structured interviews conducted with the breadwinners (men and women) living in the community. The species were identified through guided tours, by descriptions made by the interviewees, and using specimens donated by them, as well as by comparison with the pertinent scientific literature (morphological and ecological). Through the use value differentiated analysis, it was possible to distinguish the current use value of the species (effective use) from their potential use value (knowledge, but no effective use) to determine their real importance related to the uses cited by the studied group. Results: Nineteen species were cited; however, only 17 of them were identified and then distributed in 13 families. The other species were identified at the genus level Leopardus sp. and order Rodentia. The species were classified into 6 categories of use: food, captive breeding, zootherapeutic, artisanal, magic/religious, and veterinary purposes. Conclusions: This article discusses possible conservation solutions, given the irregular exploitation of some species, warning about the biodiversity, and traditional knowledge conservation.
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The evolutionary history of the Cingulata, as for many groups, remains a highly debated topic to this day, particularly for one of their most emblematic representatives: the glyptodonts. There is no consensus among morphological and molecular phylogenies regarding their position within Cingulata. As demonstrated by recent works, the study of the internal anatomy constitutes a promising path for enriching morphological matrices for the phylogenetic study of armadillos. However, internal cranial anatomy remains understudied in the Cingulata. Here we explored and compared the anatomy of intracranial osseous canals and cavities in a diverse sample of extant and extinct cingulates, including the earliest well‐preserved glyptodont crania. The virtual 3D reconstruction (using X‐ray microtomography) of selected canals, that is, the nasolacrimal canal, the palatine canal, the sphenopalatine canal, the canal for the frontal diploic vein, the transverse canal, the orbitotemporal canal, the canal for the capsuloparietal emissary vein and the posttemporal canal, and alveolar cavities related to cranial vascularization, innervation or tooth insertion allowed us to compare the locations, trajectories, and shape of these structures and to discuss their potential interest for cingulate systematics. We tentatively reconstructed evolutionary scenarios for eight selected traits related to these structures in which glyptodonts often showed a close resemblance to pampatheres, to the genus Proeutatus, and/or to chlamyphorines. This latter pattern was partly congruent with recent molecular hypotheses, but more research is needed on these resemblances and on the potential effects of development and allometry on the observed variations. Overall, these comparisons have enabled us to highlight new anatomical variation that may be of great interest to further explore the evolutionary history of cingulates and the origins of glyptodonts on a morphological basis.
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Enrichment is a powerful tool to improve the welfare of animals under human care. Stress-related health and behavioral problems, as well as reproductive failure, are frequent in armadillos (Xenarthra, Cingulata, Dasypodidae) under human care, which hinders the development of successful ex situ conservation programs. Nevertheless, scientific studies on the effect of enrichment programs on armadillos are virtually non-existent. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of an enrichment program on the behavior of armadillos under human care. The behavior of 12 individuals of three species (Dasypus novemcinctus, D. sabanicola, and Cabassous unicinctus) maintained at Finca El Turpial, Villavicencio, Colombia, was recorded using scan sampling during three daily time blocks of 2 hr each before (4 weeks) and after (4 weeks) implementing an enrichment program. Enrichment did not stimulate the armadillos to change or extend their activity period. In general, activity levels were low during the entire study, and virtually no activity was recorded in the morning in any species, neither without nor with enrichment. The latter did, however, improve welfare by reducing abnormal and increasing natural foraging behaviors. All species were attracted by artificial termite mounds. Dasypus spp. showed special interest in cardboard boxes with food, while Cabassous was mainly attracted to hollow plastic balls filled with food. Our results suggest that separate enrichment programs need to be developed for different armadillo species, and that they should be applied during the time of day at which they are most active. Zoo Biol. XX:XX-XX, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Chaetophractus vellerosus (Gray, 1865) is commonly called Piche llorón or screaming hairy armadillo. Chaetophractus has 3 living species: C. nationi, C. vellerosus, and C. villosus of Neotropical distribution in the Bolivian, Paraguayan, and Argentinean Chaco and the southeastern portion of Buenos Aires Province. C. vellerosus prefers xeric areas, in high and low latitudes, with sandy soils, but is able to exist in areas that receive more than twice the annual rainfall found in the main part of its distribution. It is common in rangeland pasture and agricultural areas. C. vellerosus is currently listed as “Least Concern” by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources and is hunted for its meat and persecuted as an agricultural pest; however, the supposed damage to agricultural-farming lands could be less than the beneficial effects of its predation on certain species of damaging insects.
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A comunidade Awá-Guajá, do estado do Maranhão, é um dos últimos povos de caçadores coletores da Amazônia. Uma assembléia osteológica proveniente de depósitos de descarte alimentício desta comunidade contém significativa diversidade da Superordem Xenarthra que são representadas por duas Ordens; Cingulata (tatus) e Pilosa (tamanduás e preguiças). O objetivo desta contribuição é o estudo taxonômico e tafonômico deste grupo de importantes mamíferos sul-americanos coletados nesta comunidade. Foram identificadas cinco famílias; Dasypodidae, representada pelo gênero Dasypus, Chlamyphoridae, espécie Euphractus sexcinctus, Myrmecophagidae, Tamandua tetradactyla, Bradypodidae, espécie Bradypus variegatus, e Megalonychidae, espécie Choloepus didactylus. A ordem mais abundante em número de ossos é representada pelos Cingulata da família Dasypodidae, mas a família com maior número de indivíduos é Megalonychidae. O material osteológico possui marcas relacionadas ao preparo dos alimentos e não às atividades culturais. The Awá-Guajá community, in the state of Maranhão, is of the last hunter-gathering peoples in the Amazon. An osteological assembly from food waste deposits in this community contains significant diversity from the Superorder Xenarthra. Represented by two Orders, Cingulata (armadillos) and Pilosa (anteaters and sloths) are very common in the Neotropics. The purpose of this contribution is the identification and taphonomic study of this group of important South American mammals. Five families were identified; Dasypodidae, represented by the genus Dasypus, Chlamyphoridae, species Euphractus sexcinctus, Myrmecophagidae, Tamandua tetradactyla, Bradypodidae, Bradypus variegatus, and Megalonychidae, Choloepus didactylus. The most abundant order in number of bones is represented by the Cingulata of the family Dasypodidae, but that family with the largest number of individuals is Megalonychidae. Osteological material has marks related to food preparation and not cultural activities.
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In July, 1998, the Center for Archaeology Research (CAR) at the University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA) was awarded a contract by the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) for artifact analysis and report composition on archaeological investigations at a Spanish Colonial period site in Karnes County in south Texas. The data for this analysis and interpretation was recovered during 1985 TxDOT excavations at site 41KA26. Forty-five test units and seven shovel tests were excavated resulting in the recovery of approximately 4000 artifacts including over 1000 peives of animal bone, 445 Native American pottery sherds, 404 pieces of Spanish ceramics, and 256 lithics. Five features, including a faunal refuse dump, a Native-American ceramic dump, and the remnants of an early nineteenth-century jacal structure were identified in moderately well-preserved stratigraphic context.
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The study of predator-prey interactions is commonly analyzed using functional responses to gain an understanding of predation patterns and the impact they have on prey populations. Despite this, little is known about predator-prey systems with multiple prey species in sites near the equator. Here we studied the functional response of cougars (Puma concolor) in Sierra Nanchititla Natural Reserve (Mexico), in relation to their main prey, armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), coati (Nasua narica) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Between 2004 and 2010, cougar scats were collected along five transects to estimate the consumption of different prey species. A relative abundance index (RAI) was calculated for each prey species and cougar using 18 camera traps. We compared Holling type I, II and III functional response models to determine patterns in prey consumption based on the relative abundance and biomass of each prey species consumed. The three main prey species comprised 55% (armadillo), 17% (coati) and 8% (white-tailed deer) of the diet. Type I and II functional responses described consumption of the two most common prey species armadillos and coati similarly well, while a type I response best characterized consumption of white-tailed deer. A negative correlation between the proportions of armadillo versus coati and white-tailed deer biomass in cougar scats suggests switching to consume alternative prey, confirming high foraging plasticity of this carnivore. This work represents one of the few studies to compare functional responses across multiple prey species, combined with evidence for prey-switching at low densities of preferred prey. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Xenarthrans (armadillos, anteaters, sloths, and their extinct relatives) are unique among mammals in displaying a distinctive specialization of the posterior trunk vertebrae—supernumerary vertebral xenarthrous articulations. This study seeks to understand how xenarthry develops through ontogeny and if it may be constrained to appear within pre-existing vertebral regions. Using three-dimensional geometric morphometrics on the neural arches of vertebrae, we explore phenotypic, allometric, and disparity patterns of the different axial morphotypes during the ontogeny of nine-banded armadillos. Shape-based regionalization analyses showed that the adult thoracolumbar column is divided into three regions according to the presence or absence of ribs and the presence or absence of xenarthrous articulations. A three-region division was retrieved in almost all specimens through development, although younger stages (e.g., fetuses, neonates) have more region boundary variability. In size-based regionalization analyses, thoracolumbar vertebrae are separated into two regions: a prediaphragmatic, prexenarthrous region, and a postdiaphragmatic xenarthrous region. We show that posterior thoracic vertebrae grow at a slower rate, while anterior thoracics and lumbars grow at a faster rate relatively, with rates decreasing anteroposteriorly in the former and increasing anteroposteriorly in the latter. We propose that different proportions between vertebrae and vertebral regions might result from differences in growth pattern and timing of ossification. Highlights Xenarthrans are unique vertebral xenarthrous articulations. We use three-dimensional geometric morphometrics to explore phenotypic, allometric, and disparity patterns of vertebrae through development, and characterize vertebral regions of the xenarthran spine and how they develop.
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Originally endemic to South America, the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus) has recently expanded its range northward to Illinois. With this range expansion comes concern regarding potential incoming pathogens; our research, conducted during 2012-2020, consisted of screening armadillos for the presence of helminths, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Mycobacterium leprae. We screened for the presence of T. cruzi and M. leprae, 2 pathogens known to infect humans, using polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. All 80 samples screened for T. cruzi and all 25 samples screened for M. leprae were negative. No parasite specific to the nine-banded armadillo, such as Aspidodera sogandaresi, was detected. This lack of infection is consistent with the idea that animals may be isolated from their common parasites during periods of range expansion. Lack of infection by T. cruzi in an endemic area suggests that these mammals may not be exposed to the infective stages at this early phase of their colonization. Presently, the armadillo has become established in Illinois, yet they have not introduced their parasites into the area. Our study represents the first effort to document the parasitological record of the expanding armadillo within 30 yr of their initial record in Illinois and the American Midwest. This helminthological record of armadillos in Illinois sets the timeline to observe the establishment of A. sogandaresi in the Midwest.
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Top-down and bottom-up controls are hypothesized to regulate population structures in many ecosystems. However, few studies have had the opportunity to analyze both processes in the natural environment, especially on large carnivores like the cougar (Puma concolor). Previously, studies show that cougar diet in the Sierra Nanchititla Natural Reserve (SNNR), central Mexico, is mainly armadillo, coati, and white-tailed deer. We assess whether top-down and/or bottom-up control regulate this endangered food web: (a) we predicted that seasonal per capita changes in abundance (pca) of cougar will be positively affected by the abundance of their main prey; (b) primary productivity in SNNR will affect the pca of prey species, driving bottom-up control; and (c) armadillo, coati, and white-tailed deer pca will be affected by the abundance of cougar, generating top-down control. Using 15 camera traps for 6 years in the SNNR, we calculated a relative abundance index (RAI) and pca for cougar and each of the focal prey, and we used the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) as a proxy of primary productivity. We constructed multiple regression models and selected the best linear models based on ranking the AICc values. Our analysis suggests that P. concolor pca is best explained by bottom-up control and intraspecific feedback. White-tailed deer and armadillo pca were both significantly affected by cougar abundance, indicating top-down control for these prey species, but NDVI was not retained in any of the models selected for prey pca. Our results indicate that both bottom-up and top-down control are involved in regulating this endangered food web in the SNNR, Mexico.
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We report for the first time the presence of 2 shrew species (Sorex altoensis and S. emarginatus) and 4 rodent species (Peromyscus merriami, P. schmidlyi, Reithrodontomys zacatecae, and Sigmodon leucotis) in the state of Nayarit, Mexico, as well as the occurrence of P. carletoni and P. schmidlyi in Jalisco and Zacatecas. We extend the known distribution range of the squirrel Sciurus aureogaster to northern Nayarit and report the presence of 2 subspecies of P. eremicus and 3 of Neotoma mexicana in near sympatry. We also confirm the presence of Tlacuatzin sinaloae and P. micropus in Nayarit. Finally, we document the presence of Dasypus novemcinctus in the highlands of the Sierra Madre Occidental in Durango; these are the first records of the nine-banded armadillo in Durango in 57 years. Our results highlight the importance of continuing biological surveys and inventories in the least-explored areas of Mexico.
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For species widely distributed on the American continent, we can expect to find divergent lineages because historical events, such as the Andean uplift, the emergence of the Panama isthmus, and the Milankovitch climate cycles, affected genetic connections among populations, as well as population sizes. There are only one mammalian species on the American continent, which shows a transcontinental distribution (from South to North America) and had a South American origin, the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus). By sampling 242 D. novemcinctus from 16 countries, we explored the number of mitochondrial lineages across its complete range and assessed the climatic distribution and demographic history. We found four well-supported and highly divergent monophyletic lineages, which show a parapatric distribution. The geographic distribution of three of those lineages is wide, and the climatic conditions that they occupy are very different. In the middle of the Pleistocene, strong demographic expansions occurred in populations from three lineages, while in the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), population sizes of the four lineages apparently were stable, despite the dramatic changes detected in available areas with a suitable habitat. The geographic distribution of the mitochondrial lineages does not correspond with the six subspecies defined by morphological characteristics. Our results provide tools for planning future studies utilizing ecological, morphological, and genomic analyses to elucidate the number of taxonomic units, which should be recognized. A clear delineation of the distribution and status of these units will be invaluable for the conservation management of the nine-banded armadillo.
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Intra-cortical bone remodelling is a cell-driven process that replaces existing bone tissue with new bone tissue in the bone cortex, leaving behind histological features called secondary osteons. While the scaling of bone dimensions on a macroscopic scale is well known, less is known about how the spatial dimensions of secondary osteons vary in relation to the adult body size of the species. We measured the cross-sectional area of individual intact secondary osteons and their central Haversian canals in transverse sections from 40 stylopodal bones of 39 mammalian species (body mass 0.3–21 000 kg). Scaling analysis of our data shows that mean osteonal resorption area (negative allometry, exponent 0.23,R² 0.54, p<0.005) and Haversian canal area (negative allometry, exponent 0.31,R² 0.45, p<0.005) are significantly related to body mass, independent of phylogeny. This study is the most comprehensive of its kind to date, and allows us to describe overall trends in the scaling behaviour of secondary osteon dimensions, supporting the inference that the osteonal resorption area may be limited by the need to avoid fracture in smaller mammalian species, but the need to maintain osteocyte viability in larger mammalian species.
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Xenarthra is one of the most peculiar mammalian groups to have originated in South America, where most of its evolutionary history has taken place. Xenarthrans have experienced significant climatic changes and also geographical isolation for most of the Cenozoic. Thus, the cranial morphology of xenarthrans may reflect the different pressures that the group is currently undergoing. Our objective is to identify the drivers of phenotypic variation of the skull (both shape and size) in widespread representatives of the superorder Xenarthra throughout South America. We tested the influence of allometry and neutral and niche processes on three extant species, using a geometric morphometric approach: the three-toed sloth Bradypus variegatus, the lesser anteater Tamandua tetradactyla, and the armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus. Our results show that allometry is present, but has a weak effect on shape variation. Geography has a greater impact than allometry in explaining the size variation of T. tetradactyla and the shape of B. variegatus which is, interestingly, the only studied species that follows Bergmann’s rule. Most importantly, the environment drives most of the variation in the shape and size of the three species studied. The responses of B. variegatus and T. tetradactyla to geographical space are congruent with their low mobility and more limited dispersal. The environment mainly affected B. variegatus (e.g., following Bergmann’s rule), probably because of its particularly low metabolism, and D. novemcinctus, due to its high dispersal capacity.
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Having accurate information about population parameters of armadillos (Mammalia, Cin-gulata) is essential for the conservation and management of the taxon, most species of which remain poorly studied. We investigated whether we could accurately identify 4 armadillo species (Euphractus sexcinctus, Dasypus novemcinctus, Cabassous tatouay, and Cabassous unicinctus) based on burrow morphometry. We first selected published studies that reported measurements of width, height, and angle of the burrows used by the 4 species of armadillos. Then, using such data we simulated burrow measurements for each of the 4 species of armadillos and we created predictive models through supervised machine learning that were capable of correctly identifying the species of armadillos based on their burrows' morphometry. By using classification algorithms such as Random Forest, K-Nearest Neighbor, Support Vector Machine, Naive Bayes, and Decision Tree C5.0, we achieved the overall accuracy for the classification task by about 71%, including an overall Kappa index by about 61%. Euphractus sexcinctus was the most difficult species to discriminate and classify (approximately 68% of accuracy), whereas C. unicinctus was the easiest to discriminate (approximately 93% of accuracy). We found that it was possible to identify similar-sized arma-dillos based on the measurements of their burrows described in the literature. Finally, we developed an R function (armadilloID) that automatically identified the 4 species of armadillos using burrow morphology. As the data we used represented all studies that reported the morphometry of burrows for the 4 species of armadillos, we can generalize that our function can predict armadillo species beyond our data.
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The occurrence of five juvenile nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) is reported from a trail-camera picture. This photo was taken as part of a larger study investigating the dynamics of a medium-sized mammal community in an urban area. While quadruplets through polyembryony are the normal number of offspring born in a litter, the occurrence of more than four juveniles with an adult is documented along with a snapshot of the interaction between two of the juveniles.
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Dasypus is the most speciose genus of the order Cingulata, including approximately 40% of known living armadillos. Nine species are currently recognized, although comprehensive analyses of the entire genus have never been done. Our aim is to revise the taxonomy of the long-nosed armadillos and properly define the taxa. We examined 2126 specimens of Dasypus preserved in 39 different museum collections, including 17 type specimens. Three complementary methods were applied to explore morphological datasets both qualitatively and quantitatively. Qualitative morphological variation in discrete characters was assessed by direct observations of specimens. Linear morphometric variation was based on external data and cranial measurements of 887 adult skulls. The shape and size of the skull was abstracted through two-dimensional geometric morphometric analyses of dorsal, lateral and ventral views of respectively 421, 211, and 220 adult specimens. Our results converge on the recognition of eight living species (D. beniensis, D. kappleri, D. mazzai, D. novemcinctus, D. pastasae, D. pilosus, D. sabanicola, and D. septemcinctus), and three subspecies of D. septemcinctus (D. s. septemcinctus, D. s. hybridus, and a new subspecies from Cordoba described here). Information on type material, diagnosis, distribution, and taxonomic comments for each taxon are provided. We designate a lectotype for D. novemcinctus; and a neotype for Loricatus hybridus (= D. septemcinctus hybridus).
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This paper presents unique data on the reproductive behavior of the rare giant armadillo ( Priodontes maximus ), including gestation, inter-birth intervals, number of offspring and parental care. It also describes a potential non-parental infanticide. The study used telemetry, camera traps and track observations for over 7 years in a 300-km ² area in the central Brazilian Pantanal. Females with young were recorded 5 times. Reproductive events did not appear to be seasonal. A 5-month gestation period was estimated. Parental care is long, as the offspring is completely dependent on its mother’s milk until 6–8 months of age. Weaning was estimated to occur at 11–12 months, but the offspring continued to be dependent on its mother’s burrows until 18 months old. Three births were recorded over a 6-year period for one individual. The offspring from the first birth recorded was killed at 4 weeks of age in a potential infanticide, but 7 months after the first birth, a second offspring was born. A third birth was recorded 3 years after the second birth. Results from this study suggest that the population growth rate of giant armadillos is very low and the species can therefore easily be locally extirpated.
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Recent studies have used occupancy models (OM) and ecological niche models (ENM) to provide a better understanding of species’ distributions at different scales. One of the main ideas underlying the theoretical foundations of both OM and ENM is that they are positively related to abundance: higher occupancy implies higher density and more suitable areas are likely to have more abundant populations. Here, we analyze the relationship between habitat use measured in terms of occupancy probabilities from OM and environmental suitability derived from ENM in three different Neotropical mammal species: Leopardus wiedii, Cuniculus paca, and Dasypus novemcinctus. For ENM, we used climatic and vegetation cover variables and implemented a model calibration and selection protocol to select the most competitive models. For OM, we used a single-species, single-season model with site covariates for camera-trap data from six different sites throughout the Neotropical realm. Covariates included vegetation percentage, normalized difference vegetation index, normalized difference water index, and elevation. For each site, we fit OM using all possible combinations of variables and selected the most competitive (ΔAICc < 2) to build an average OM. We explored relationships between estimated suitability and occupancy values using Spearman correlation analysis. Relationships between ENM and OM tended to be positive for the three Neotropical mammals, but the strength varied among sites, which could be explained by local factors such as site characteristics and conservation status of areas. We conjecture that ENM are suitable to understand spatial patterns at coarser geographic scales because the concept of the niche is about the species as a whole, whereas OM are more relevant to explain the distribution locally, likely reflecting transient dynamics of populations resulting from many local factors such as community composition and biotic processes.
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Prey remains found in carnivore scats provide generalised dietary profiles of sampled populations. The profile may be biased if individual diets differ and some individuals are over- or under-represented in the sample. Quantifying individual contributions allows us to recognise these potential biases and better interpret generalised profiles. Knowing the dietary differences or similarity between individuals can help us to understand selection pressures and identify drivers of distribution and abundance. Using the results of individual faecal genotyping, we re-interpreted our previously-published generalised dietary profile of an elusive, neotropical felid, the jaguar (Panthera onca; Foster et al. (2010)). We quantified individual sample sizes, assessed whether the generalised profile was influenced by the inclusion of scats originating from the same individual and prey carcass (pseudo-replication), and quantified the distribution of prey species among individuals. From an original sample of 322 jaguar scats from a high-density jaguar population in Belize, we identified 206 prey items (individual prey animals) in 176 independent scats representing 32 jaguars (26 males, 3 females, 3 unknown sex). The influence of pseudo-replication in the original dietary profile was minimal. The majority of scats (94%) came from male jaguars. Eight males accounted for two-thirds of the prey items, while 24 jaguars each contributed
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Twenty-one animal illustrations (zoomorphs) were identified in the Voynich Codex and the geographical location of their origins was determined. The species included invertebrates (jellyfish, crayfish), amphibians (frog or toad, caecilian), reptiles (three lizards), birds, and mammals (armadillo, coatimundi, jaguarundi, ocelot, paca, cattle, and sheep). All animals were present in Mesoamerica in the sixteenth century as either Spanish introductions (cattle and possibly sheep) or as native or indigenous New World species. Four images of animals – alligator gar, armadillo, coatimundi, and jaguarundi – clearly depict unique animals only found in Mexico and Central America. Presented together with other animals, plants, and a mineral, this information provides support for a Mesoamerican origin of the Voynich Codex.
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