ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

In this article, we discuss peer coaching as a relatively new form of coaching practice that expands the relational resources available to individuals focused on change. Peer coaching is a helping relationship that facilitates mutual learning and development to accomplish specific tasks or goals. It is most effective when participants establish high-quality relationships and connections by focusing on both content and process. To enhance such capability we integrate the theory of coordinated management of meaning, a relational communication approach that emphasizes how meaning and learning are created through interpersonal interactions. Coordinated management of meaning models applied in our three-step model of peer coaching demonstrate the value of their application. We then assume a balcony perspective to deepen understanding by incorporating conceptual and empirical work. We conclude by inviting scholars and practitioners to adopt our integrated model to enhance positive outcomes for both individuals and organizations.
Content may be subject to copyright.
The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science
1 –22
© The Author(s) 2015
Reprints and permissions:
DOI: 10.1177/0021886315573270
A Relational Communication
Approach to Peer Coaching
Polly Parker
, Ilene Wasserman
, Kathy E. Kram
and Douglas T. Hall
In this article, we discuss peer coaching as a relatively new form of coaching practice
that expands the relational resources available to individuals focused on change. Peer
coaching is a helping relationship that facilitates mutual learning and development
to accomplish specific tasks or goals. It is most effective when participants establish
high-quality relationships and connections by focusing on both content and process.
To enhance such capability we integrate the theory of coordinated management of
meaning, a relational communication approach that emphasizes how meaning and
learning are created through interpersonal interactions. Coordinated management
of meaning models applied in our three-step model of peer coaching demonstrate
the value of their application. We then assume a balcony perspective to deepen
understanding by incorporating conceptual and empirical work. We conclude by
inviting scholars and practitioners to adopt our integrated model to enhance positive
outcomes for both individuals and organizations.
peer coaching, coordinated management of meaning, relational learning
Peer coaching is a relatively new entrant in the field of contemporary approaches to
coaching in management and organizational behavior. Peer coaches engage in a
University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland, Australia
Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA
ICW Consulting Group, Penn Valley, PA, USA
Boston University, Boston, MA, USA
Corresponding Author:
Polly Parker, University of Queensland Business School, St Lucia, Queensland 4072, Australia.
573270JABXXX10.1177/0021886315573270The Journal of Applied Behavioral ScienceParker et al.
at BOSTON UNIV on May 5, 2015jab.sagepub.comDownloaded from
2 The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science
mutually beneficial relationship that leverages the social context for learning and
development. The relationship is also a powerful influence for change. This article
addresses the unique learning potential of this new form of coaching, and connects the
coaching literature with a communication perspective, namely the coordinated man-
agement of meaning (CMM; Pearce, 2007), a theoretically grounded approach to com-
munication that can greatly enhance the effectiveness of a peer coaching relationship.
Coaching relationships inherently provide fruitful contexts for learning of all kinds,
behavioral, cognitive, and emotional. As a multidisciplinary helping process, coaching
has many manifestations: formal or informal; conducted by professionals or volun-
teers, short- or long-term focus and is associated with sports, teaching, executive per-
formance, and leadership development. At the forefront of topics addressed by
leadership coaching are interpersonal skill development, stress management, and stra-
tegic thinking (Bono, Purvanova, Towler, & Peterson, 2009).
Historically, peer coaching has been used in areas such as nursing (Waddell &
Dunn, 2005), education (Buzbee Little, 2005; Lu, 2010), and physiotherapy
(Ladyshewsky, 2010). Whatever the context, coaching aims to promote learning that
supports and sustains desired change in behavior, cognition, and/or emotion. In the
field of management and organizational behavior, peer coaching is a relatively new
form of coaching that is gaining recognition and respect given both the positive
outcomes and cost-effective aspects reported by individuals and organizations alike
(Bennett & Bush, 2014; Parker, Hall, & Kram, 2008; Van Oosten & Kram, 2014).
Measures of success for such peer coaching activities may include heightened self-
awareness, greater adaptability, more active listening and inquiry, more authentic
and effective interpersonal connections, and effective leadership (Parker et al.,
In previous work, we have defined peer coaching as “a type of helping relationship
in which two people of equal status actively participate in helping each other on spe-
cific tasks or problems, with a mutual desire to be helpful” (Parker et al., 2008, p. 499).
Distinguished by equality in the relationship, the lack of power dynamics and the
absence of a professionally trained coach who supports the learning of a designated
client, peer coaching is a relational process grounded in attributes of mutual growth,
learning, and development of both parties. Those who have studied leadership coach-
ing have demonstrated that both parties—not just the client—experience positive out-
comes when the relationship is grounded in an orientation for learning with compassion
rather than compliance (Boyatzis, Smith, & Blaize, 2006). Similar mutual benefits
accrue from effective peer coaching.
Peer coaching is most successful when the participants have the capability to build
relationships of high quality and when they take the time to do so (Parker, Kram, &
Hall, 2012). However, building such peer coaching connections is more complex than
it may initially appear. Certain risk factors need to be identified in order to be avoided
or overcome (Parker et al., 2012). Positive organizational scholars have described how
active learning within relationships not only minimizes risk but also produces more
positive performance, satisfaction and growth outcomes (Cameron, Dutton, & Quinn,
2003; Dutton & Heaphy, 2003; Dutton & Ragins, 2007). High-quality relationships
at BOSTON UNIV on May 5, 2015jab.sagepub.comDownloaded from
Parker et al. 3
promote increasing levels of trust, support, and openness that when combined with
high-quality communication produce high-quality connections (Gittell, 2003) and
positive outcomes.
Another key success factor for peer coaching is the context in which it occurs.
Outcomes of peer coaching are influenced by the broader environment which shapes
and influences peers’ interactions. For example, peer coaching could be helpful if a
desired goal was for increased vitality for both individuals and organizations. However,
a competitive environment that leads to only one peer being able to achieve a certain
reward would not be conducive to effective peer coaching. Thus, attention to both the
relationship between the peer coaches and the context in which the relationship is
embedded is necessary for effective peer coaching processes.
In this article, we draw on the theory of CMM (Pearce, 2004) as a relational commu-
nication approach (Pearce, 2007; Wasserman & Gallegos, in press). We see that CMM
promotes higher quality peer coaching interactions by raising awareness and enhancing
the quality of relational processes. CMM views meaning as continuously emerging in
the process of relating through coordinated action between people. CMM provides sev-
eral practical models that help the parties answer four basic questions: (1) What are we
making together? (2) How are we making it? (3) What are we becoming? (4) How do we
make better social worlds? These questions illustrate the joint construction of meaning
within peer coaching relationships that occurs through the stories that peers live and tell
within their coaching interactions. These questions also assist peer coaches to clarify the
patterns, meaning, and intentions that lead to effective peer coaching outcomes.
Our article proceeds as follows. First, we discuss relational approaches to learning
within which coaching, and specifically the unique form of peer coaching, is embed-
ded. Then we introduce and expand the CMM approach applying specific models
within peer coaching through the unfolding relationship of “Sabitha” and “Jim.” We
conclude with a perspective on peer coaching that integrates relational approaches of
CMM and offer questions for further inquiry.
Relational Approaches
The value of relationships and the discourse of relational theory have become more
prominent over the past half century. An excellent history of organizational learning
and the role of relationships in social change can be found in Mirvis’s (2014) review
of the field as reported in publications over the 50-year life span of the Journal of
Applied Behavioral Science. A relational approach epitomizes the key life dimension
of seeking meaningful connections with others. Emanating from developmental psy-
chologist Bowlby’s (1988) theory of attachment relational approaches have been
developed comprehensively through the work of feminist scholars. They are particu-
larly evident in relational cultural theory. Relational cultural theory is a unique frame-
work that delineates the processes and outcomes associated with high-quality
relationships, and analyzes these within the larger cultural and societal contexts in
which they occur (Jordan, 1997; Jordan, Kaplan, Miller, Stiver, & Surrey, 1991; Miller,
2004; Miller & Stiver, 1997).
at BOSTON UNIV on May 5, 2015jab.sagepub.comDownloaded from
4 The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science
The increasing emphasis on relational perspectives reflects the changing nature of
work and focuses on its social embeddedness in our global society (Friedman, 2005).
Ever-increasing complexity in our social world calls for an expanded capacity to
engage differences and demands improved forms of relating among people and to
work in organizations.
In all that we say and do, we manifest conditions of relationship. In whatever we think,
remember, create, and feel—in all that is meaningful to us—we participate in relationship.
The word “I” does not index an origin of action, but a relational achievement. (Gergen,
2009, p. 133)
The term relational appears in a wide range of intellectual domains reflecting the
breadth of theoretical underpinnings. Although specific application of the term is
“often unfocussed or highly circumscribed” (Blustein, Schultheiss, & Flum, 2004,
p. 426), it features within domains of careers and working (Blustein et al., 2004; Collin
& Young, 2000), job design (Freeney & Fellenz, 2013; Grant, 2007; Grant & Parker,
2009), feminist theories (Jordan et al., 1991), psychology (Ray & Miller, 1994) and
sociology (Gergen, 2009). These diverse perspectives “cohere along the assumption
that relationships are central to human functioning and that relational life is inter-
twined throughout our lives, reaching into domains such as leisure, work and citizen-
ship” (Blustein et al., 2004, p. 426).
Relational Practice
Relational practice (Fletcher, 1999) is a particular way of working that uses a rela-
tional approach to support learning and development, identity, and self-esteem. In dis-
cussing leadership as a relational practice, Fletcher (2010) identifies three elements of
the construct: skills that underpin good working relationships, a process which empha-
sizes the social interaction, and outcomes including coordinated action and learning.
Relational practice through peer coaching facilitates co-creating knowledge by apply-
ing these three elements in mutually beneficial relationships that lead to positive
High-quality relationships are characterized by a heightened sense of positive
energy, and a sense of mutual positive regard and caring in connection (Stephens,
Heaphy, & Dutton, 2011). High-quality relationships are distinguished from high-
quality connections with regard to duration. High-quality connections are short-term,
dyadic positive interactions at work, characterized by affect, actions, and outcomes
emanating from them (Dutton, 2003; Dutton & Heaphy, 2003). High-quality relation-
ships are composed of multiple high-quality connections over time. Both high-quality
relationships and connections embody the capacity to create the conditions for learn-
ing, growth, and change. Peer coaching provides a medium to experience high-quality
connections and relationships and furthermore, the preconditions to deepen the capa-
bility, and a mind-set to enhance awareness, skill, and openness in self and with
at BOSTON UNIV on May 5, 2015jab.sagepub.comDownloaded from
Parker et al. 5
Relational Learning
Learning is a lifelong endeavor necessary to respond and adapt to a continuously
changing environment. A relational perspective on learning explicitly highlights the
social context in which it occurs and supersedes the view of an individual activity.
Relationships provide the context for support, feedback, meaning making, and identity
formation (Dalton, 1999; Smith, Van Oosten, & Boyatzis, 2008). Thus, mutual respon-
siveness and responsibility are critically important (McNamee & Gergen, 1999;
Pearce, 2004). Interdependent social behavior that engages participants in active con-
struction of meaning has long been recognized to underpin development and growth
in work, organizational, and psychotherapeutic settings (Hall & Associates, 1996;
Phillips, Christopher-Sisk, & Gravino, 2001; Weick, 1995).
Considerable progress has been made in the field of relational learning since the
foundations of mentoring identified the ways that relationships provided a context for
learning and career support (Kram, 1985). Initially, traditional mentoring focused on
dyadic pairs in which an “older, wiser” person shared their experiences or gave advice
to the “younger less experienced” person. Subsequently, the benefits for mentors was
also recognized highlighting reciprocal positive outcomes (Allen, Eby, Poteet, Lentz,
& Lima, 2004; Allen, Lentz, & Day, 2006).
Dyadic partnerships were broadened to identify developmental networks, “the set of
people a protégé names as taking an active interest in and action to advance the proté-
gé’s career by providing developmental assistance (Higgins & Kram, 2001, p. 268).
Thus, multiple relationships provided both career and psychosocial functions where the
primary purpose of the relationship seems to support the learning of one partner rather
than both. D’Abate, Eddy, and Tannenbaum (2003) identified 13 types of developmen-
tal relationships that while varied across categories or dimensions, all support individ-
ual learning and career growth for one or both parties to the relationship.
A traditional focus of coaching on career and performance outcomes also expanded
to cover a broader range of personal and professional outcomes that enable people to
adapt to rapidly changing circumstances and build resilience during change and adver-
sity. Emotional and social as well as technical skills are required for success (Boyatzis,
McKee, & Goleman, 2002). In today’s environment characterized by increasing vola-
tility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity, known as VUCA (Johansen, 2012), it is
advantageous to supplement traditional forms of support with broader possibilities for
learning and development such as peer coaching that are characterized by inherent
mutuality and reciprocity. The interactive learning provided by peer coaching repre-
sents a “multiplier effect,” a kind of social intelligence that produces more learning
than the sum of what the two parties alone could generate.
Peer Coaching as Relational Learning: A Three-Step
We have characterized peer coaching as an accelerator of learning, a relational process
with the potential to address cognitive, affective, and social career–related challenges
at BOSTON UNIV on May 5, 2015jab.sagepub.comDownloaded from
6 The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science
in a focused way (Parker et al., 2008). We acknowledge that while originally focused
on career learning, the current VUCA environment necessitates learning that is deeper
and broader than what “career learning” implies. The characteristics of peer coaching
include people of equal status; focus on a specific task, problem or decision; a mutual
desire to be helpful; time bounded; serving as a “critical friend” to each other; involves
processes to establish and maintain trust; and support for mutual sense making.
Peer coaching emphasizes providing reciprocal support to meet identified learning
and development objectives of each peer. The focus on mutuality and reciprocity of
outcome is a distinguishing factor that sets peer coaching apart from other types of
coaching relationships (Bennett & Bush, 2014). In traditional coaching and mentoring
the goal is for a positive outcome for the client or mentee whereas in peer coaching the
explicit intention is for both partners to benefit. This is accomplished through a pro-
cess marked by shared curiosity and inquisitiveness of each other, which fosters more
questions and accepting, nonevaluative feedback (Rogers, 1951).
Relational learning is robust when participants have the relational competence to
apply to the process (Cherniss, 2007). The process will only be as robust as the skills
and capabilities of the peers allow. In traditional coaching where the relationship is
also interpersonal, interactive and dynamic, and collaborative (Jowett, O’Broin, &
Palmer, 2010), the responsibility for the dynamic and successful outcome largely rests
with the professional. In peer coaching there is an added pressure as the peers are equal
in status, and must negotiate through mutual engagement throughout the process with-
out necessarily entering into coaching with relational competence. Even peers who
have equal status in a coaching relationship may experience power differentials on a
dimension other than job status as a result of diversity in age, gender, race, ethnicity,
and/or technical experience (McManus & Russell, 2007). Such issues may be difficult
to address, and without sophisticated integration of skills and process knowledge can
potentially compromise positive outcomes (Parker et al., 2012).
An effective peer coaching relationship unfolds in a three-step process (Parker
et al., 2008). The three steps in peer coaching are the following:
Step 1: “Building the relationship and creating a positive environment”—This
step involves selecting a peer and negotiating the rules of engagement.
The process of forming the peer relationships requires focused attention.
Whether peers are self-selected or assigned, there has to be an adequate
process that provides good information for matching, as well as some
degree of participation by the peers themselves.
Step 2: “Creating success”—This step involves creating concrete-valued positive
outcomes through the peer coaching dynamic that the two parties gener-
ate. It is important that they be able to see some “wins” along the way, as
they move toward their overall peer coaching objectives. This entails
building relational skills and competence and reflecting on the coaching
process, and, most important, seeing the progress that they have jointly
constructed. Getting to Step 2 can involve providing skills training to par-
ticipants, as well as facilitating the work process of the peers (e.g., setting
at BOSTON UNIV on May 5, 2015jab.sagepub.comDownloaded from
Parker et al. 7
goals, agreeing on methods and processes), that maximize the chances of
success. Balcony view observations by a third party may accelerate peers’
insights that can be subsequently incorporated into their process.
Step 3: “Internalizing the skills”—This final step involves deepening the relation-
ship between the pairs and helping them develop a perspective on peer
coaching, such that they see it as an internalized skill, part of their “per-
sonal tool kit” that they can use in other settings to enhance communica-
tion and relationships. In other words, with experience of peer coaching
participants are consciously or even unconsciously competent in processes
that lead to high-quality connections, and they will tend to naturally peer
coach on their own, without being prompted by a third party (for details,
see Parker, Kram, & Hall, 2014).
In the following section, we introduce and apply the theory of coordinated manage-
ment of meaning (CMM; Pearce, 2004, 2007). Within each of the three steps of the peer
coaching model we offer specific practical models that can enhance the quality of peer
coaching by increasing both coaching skills and awareness of the process. We illustrate
the models through vignettes of “Jim” and “Sabitha” who apply them in their peer coach-
ing relationship that followed a leadership development program they both attended.
Our focus is first to elaborate on both the theory and practice of CMM to organiza-
tional development practitioners who may introduce peer coaching to clients. We sug-
gest questions to facilitate a robust process for peer participants who can engage in
reciprocal peer coaching without necessarily being cognizant of the theoretical under-
pinnings. After excerpts from Jim and Sabitha’s peer coaching interactions, we adopt a
“balcony view” (Heifetz & Linsky, 2002), which allows for third-party observations of
the processes and their application. The balcony view builds deeper understanding of
theoretical perspectives that enhance high-quality connections through peer coaching.
Ideally, we would simultaneously speak to peer coaches themselves. However, the abil-
ity to step away from being in peer interactions to reflecting on them as a way to enhance
the quality of their process is more likely to occur in Steps 2 and 3 of our model.
Coordinated Management of Meaning and Peer Coaching
CMM (Pearce, 2004, 2007) expands the notion of communication from a simplistic
transmission metaphor like a tennis ball tossed from one player to another to an ongoing
process of relating and coordinated action through which people continuously cocreate
meaning (Cronen, Pearce, & Lannamann, 1982; Pearce, 2004). This emphasis highlights
the relational qualities of meaning making by suggesting that the associated style, pace,
and mood of the message content are all relevant to the dynamic affecting trust, compas-
sion, and accountability. The peer coaching relationship provides a container for peers to
examine and expand insights into actions in other areas of their lives. For example,
people construct narratives to make sense of their experiences and often consider that
their perspective is the only way possible. In an unfolding peer coaching process multi-
ple possibilities to change the present and future dynamic may emerge (Pearce, 2007).
at BOSTON UNIV on May 5, 2015jab.sagepub.comDownloaded from
8 The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science
Meaning and coordinated actions emerge continuously through “episodes,” which
are made by a cluster of turns or speech acts over time in a relationship. Episodes
frame meaning by attributing a beginning, middle, and end. Examples include creating
compassion, making a constructive breakthrough, engaging conflict or fostering col-
laboration. Meaning is influenced in the context of the preceding and subsequent
speech acts with each response (or turn) refining and defining what has been previ-
ously said.
The focus on the communication process highlights the reciprocal engagement
between peers and the emergent mutual responsibility for outcomes from shared inter-
actions. Specific questions raise awareness of the dynamic occurring in and of conver-
sations by inviting reflection “on the conversation” such as “What are we doing? What
episode are we creating? What do you notice?” facilitating joint consideration of the
process rather than merely attending to the spoken words. This enhanced awareness
enables individuals to increase their capacity to expand personal frames of reference
and change the habits of interpersonal responses in real time (Wasserman, 2005;
Wasserman & Gallegos, 2009).
CMM additionally offers models to develop capabilities in relating processes which
are particularly applicable to peer coaching. We introduce four models to demonstrate
their utility in our three-step peer coaching model. First, the Daisy model looks at the
various perspectives and influences brought to bear on episodes and stories told.
Second, the Serpentine model assists mapping episodes made in the successive turns
in a story. Third, the LUUUTT model highlights the various complexities and tensions
among the story told, the story lived, and/or the various “U”s: stories that are untold,
unheard, unknown, or untellable. Fourth, the hierarchy of meaning model emphasizes
that communication acts always occur in multiple contexts, namely the actual episode,
one’s sense of self, the importance of the relationship, the cultural stories, and rituals
in which the relationship is embedded.
Each model highlights a different aspect within the ongoing process of relating to
reveal how aspects of meaning making and coordinated action emerge in each moment.
In the following section, we introduce peer coaches Jim and Sabitha, and elaborate on
how they apply the CMM models to enhance their interpersonal process.
Applying the Models of CMM
Jim and Sabitha met at a one-week leadership development program for high potential
employees at their company. At the end of the three-day program participants selected a
peer coach with whom they could develop a personal action plan for their own leadership
development, and hold each other accountable for implementing the plan. The facilitator
offered some worksheets to guide the peer coaching conversations.
Step 1: Building the Relationship. The facilitators first invitation was to share something
of their leadership development experience in the program, the anticipated impact, any
past experiences related to peer coaching, and hopes for future outcomes.
at BOSTON UNIV on May 5, 2015jab.sagepub.comDownloaded from
Parker et al. 9
Jim started and suggested that although he hadn’t spoken a lot to Sabitha during the
program, they knew each other a little from previous work in the company. He had
applied for the leadership program as a way to get promoted and develop the kind of
leader he wanted to be while also being recognized by the organization. He was pleased
with the program, had enjoyed it, and learned a lot about himself and his leadership style.
He saw his goals as personally rather than organizationally focused. He had no previous
experience of peer coaching but thought that working with someone from a different part
of the organization would give rise to different and useful perspectives.
Sabitha said that an important goal for her was working toward career growth. She shared
that she was not particularly happy in her current role and thought that she was ready to
move on. She had some experience in peer coaching and found it was helpful.
The Daisy model. The facilitator then suggested that they share with each other
aspects of their backgrounds and their careers relevant to their peer coaching goals by
first drawing a diagram in the shape of a daisy, using the petals of the daisy to depict
how they would describe themselves (Figure 1). Petals would also include key influ-
ences that have helped shape their narrative. Examples of questions or prompts each
model provokes are presented in Table 1.
Jim named his petals, beginning with being an ambitious leader and seeking to balance
his work and personal life better. He spoke about how he and his wife have to negotiate
who drops their daughter off at pre-school and how that affects his schedule. He mentioned
that his father had little to do with him and his brother when they were young, and that he
wanted to be the best father he could be—more fully present with his children than his
own dad was. He also felt strongly about modeling these values for his team.
Sabitha was looking for career development. Her petals included her academic
qualifications (MSc and MBA), feedback from teammates and her current boss and the
growth assignments she wanted to pursue. She shared that she was feeling some pressure
to advance more rapidly given her qualifications and her age, and thought she might
benefit from exploring that with her peer coach. She also shared that she would also like
more of a personal life and to be in better physical shape, but had put both on hold to
pursue her career goals.
The feelings of success that both Jim and Sabitha identified from these personal
insights and learnings, in addition to building the relationship (Step 1), have also
begun to move them into Step 2, since they have created some successes together. We
will discuss this more when we focus on Step 2.
The balcony view. In CMM terms, the Daisy model prompts the peers to reflect
on and bring in aspects of the story told through the various perspectives, goals, and
influences that each brought to their focus area. The petals of the daisy they identified
include the experiences they have had in the past related to peer coaching, and what
influences relate to their stated objectives. Jim was seeking to balance his work and
at BOSTON UNIV on May 5, 2015jab.sagepub.comDownloaded from
10 The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science
personal life better. His petals included his two direct reports who are affected by his
work commitments and his wife who is affected by his personal commitments. One
petal was for his father and the poor role modeling he had for personal work–life bal-
ance. Other petals identified his goals and aspirations for his life as a whole. Sabitha’s
petals showed her focus on her career aspirations, her interest in having more of a
personal life without sacrificing her ambitions, and to be in better physical shape.
The Daisy petals enable peers to explore relevant elements of the person’s life
structure or identity. The petals are not necessarily constant. As with the petals of real
daisies there are aspects of narratives that are in the background initially yet may be
foregrounded at another step in the coaching relationship. For example, at a later point
in their relationship, Sabitha may share an earlier opportunity for career advancement
for which she was passed over. Probing questions may reveal how a contributing fac-
tor such as taking care of her mother at the time, may have hurt her career advance-
ment. Jim may bring up his concerns about the company’s demands for travel and how
that might influence his family commitments.
Desire for more active personal life
A committed spouse
Desire to be a good and supportive manager
Ambitious leader
Jim’s father
Direct reports
Expectations for advancement
Physical shape
Figure 1. (A) Jim’s daisy. (B) Sabitha’s daisy.
at BOSTON UNIV on May 5, 2015jab.sagepub.comDownloaded from
Parker et al. 11
The Serpentine model. The Serpentine model (see Figure 2) depicts the unfolding
turns in one’s narrative, the temporal aspect, which may be broken up into different
episodes. In Jim’s story, the first episode was the part in which he and his wife negoti-
ate their work schedules and childcare (Episode A). The episode expanded in meaning
as he shares more of his past; his fathers lack of availability influences how different
he wants to be with his children (Episode B). The episodes expand further when he
shares that he reluctantly accepted a stretch assignment with the potential for a lot of
international travel and his worry that will affect his children (Episode C). Each suc-
cessive expansion of what was the beginning, middle, and end of the episode reshapes
the meaning. For example, Episode A may be titled: Collaborating. Episode B might
be titled: Being the father my father was not. Episode C might be titled: Defining suc-
cess in the context of the father I want to be.
Sabithas story was about her desire for career advancement. In the first episode,
she shared how difficult it had been to get helpful feedback on how she might prog-
ress (Episode A). As Jim inquired, Sabitha shared that she has felt blocked from
advancing to similar positions she has held in other organizations and that she is
hopeful that there will be different opportunities in this organization (Episode B). In
the next turn, Sabitha shared her concern about the personal sacrifices she might
have to make to achieve her career aspirations (Episode C). Her episodes may be
entitled: (A) flying without a map, (B) new growth opportunities, and (C) gaining
The second invitation to share something of their background helps the peers to
include an issue preceding the development program and consider and articulate a
Table 1. Prompts/Questions for Using Coordinated Management of Meaning Models.
Model Prompt or sample question
Daisy  What are the different influences/voices/perspectives that are
influencing me?
 What are the different influences/voices/perspectives that are
influencing the other person? (We can learn that by asking.)
Serpentine  What do I want to make in the next turn?
 How am I marking the beginning and end of this episode?
 How would it be different if I went further back? Further forward?
LUUUTT  What is the story telling?
 What is the story that is not told? Not heard? Not known? Not
Hierarchy of
meaning model
 What are the different contexts that are happening simultaneously?
 Which layers are most foregrounded or relevant?
 How are they shifting as you share your story?
 How might I be personalizing this . . . too much? Not enough?
Note. Adapted from Pearce (2007). LUUUTT = stories Lived, Untold stories, Unheard stories, Unknown
stories, stories Told, and story Telling.
at BOSTON UNIV on May 5, 2015jab.sagepub.comDownloaded from
12 The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science
desired future. Jim explained how he came to be on the program, highlights his goal of
promotion, and mentions his wife and her hopes for him. Sabitha heard a connection
between the goal Jim articulated and the influence of his spouse. She responded by
reflecting that to him and asked him to contextualize this goal. As Jim considered
Sabitha’s question he realized that he may be less committed to being promoted than
to his concern about his wife’s expectations. Clarifying the goal in the context of Jim’s
personal relationship helped them both name Jim’s unfolding episode which related to
his wife’s aspirations for him. Furthermore, they are developing a pattern together of
empathy and support.
The Daisy and the Serpentine models interplay with each other in ways that help
the peer coaches draw a rich and textured story of where each has been, who they are,
and who they aspire to be. The Daisy model invites reflection on peers’ internal iden-
tity structure, the different issues, and self-perceptions that make up their life space.
This model also elaborates on the influences and internal dialogue each brings to the
episodes that subsequently influence the next turn. The Serpentine model adds a time
dimension and allowed Jim and Sabitha to frame and name the episodes that helped
them understand their current situations. An episode of Sabitha’s unfulfilled hopes
may be expanded into a future episode focused on how hopes motivated a role or
career shift. An episode of Jim’s concern about how a new assignment might affect his
children might be expanded into how a new assignment opens up opportunities for
new adventures for his family.
Figure 2. The Serpentine model.
at BOSTON UNIV on May 5, 2015jab.sagepub.comDownloaded from
Parker et al. 13
Together these interactions build trust and rapport, both critical aspects of Step 1 in
peer coaching. After the initial contracting and building their relational peer coaching
foundations, Jim and Sabitha are keen to progress their reciprocal learning and they
work toward task accomplishment. As the peer coaching progresses, Jim and Sabitha
are offered additional models to enhance their communication and meaning making.
Step 2: Creating Success. In Step 2 of the peer coaching model, the parties, as a result
of their working together begin to create successes which helps them see the value and
goal attainment they get from their process. The focus moves to the relational skills
and the consciousness that each participant has of their own competence and how they
apply that within the peer coaching dynamic. Peers learn to self-reflect while relating
and working with a peer, and move toward explicitly reflecting on the process together,
which in turn deepens their relationship. We introduce CMM’s LUUUTT and hierar-
chy of meaning models to deepen the relational interaction of the peer coaches.
The LUUUTT model. The focus of the LUUUTT model (see Figure 3) is the man-
ner of storytelling, the tensions between and among the story told, the story lived, and
or the various “U”s: the untold, unheard, unknown, untellable stories. The LUUUTT
model helps the peer coach deepen his or her partners self-reflection thus enriching
their relationship by increasing trust and opening up new paths of exploration. As the
dialogue continues both individuals deepen their self-awareness and broaden possible
opportunities to address their originally stated goals for the relationship.
Jim and Sabitha spoke more about their goals. Jim made an offhand remark about his
wife choosing his life and his future aspirations. Sabitha asked him what this says about
the story of their relationship and its influence on his ambitions. In listening to Jim,
Sabitha hears that he articulates this goal because his spouse has identified this as a
problem, a point she asks him to consider via a question. Jim realizes that he is concerned
stories Lived
stories Told
Untold stories
Unheard stories
Unknown stories
Figure 3. LUUUTT model.
at BOSTON UNIV on May 5, 2015jab.sagepub.comDownloaded from
14 The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science
about his personal relationship and satisfying his wife’s expectations. Clarifying the goal
in the context of Jim’s personal relationship helped Sabitha highlight what had been an
“untold” story enabling her to better support him. Articulating the story helped Jim see
how his wife’s desires and aspirations have become his.
The balcony view. Sabitha’s hunch about what was not being said enabled her to
ask Jim for further clarification (How do your wife’s ambitions for you affect your
ambitions Jim?). The unknown story that was worrying Jim was—how might his new
assignment affect his family’s life? The untellable story is that Jim has a concern about
his wife’s health and carries that worry along with his other concerns. Sabitha’s untold
story is how disappointed she is that she has felt successful neither in her professional
life nor in her personal life. The unknown story is how she might pursue some of her
many interests and ambitions that may be different from her current career path.
In CMM terms, Jim and Sabitha have created the opportunity to reflect with each
other and in so doing are more attentive to patterns in their relationships. Wasserman
(2005) showed that people who engaged in reflective processes together using the
CMM models, were better able to see patterns and make better choices about how to
interact together. For Jim, this represented success in terms of his goal of learning
more about himself. For Sabitha the dialogue with Jim helped her see that these new
self-reflective and analytic skills could be viewed as career-enhancing personal growth
Hierarchy of meaning model. The hierarchy of meaning model (see Figure 4;
Pearce, 2007) emphasizes the multiple contexts in which communication acts are
always occurring. The contexts are typically stories of personal and group identity,
Figure 4. Hierarchy of meaning model.
at BOSTON UNIV on May 5, 2015jab.sagepub.comDownloaded from
Parker et al. 15
of relationships among the people involved in the communication event, of the epi-
sode itself, and of the institutions, organizations, or cultures involved (Pearce, 2004).
Listening for the stories told expands perspective taking. For example, as Sabitha
shares her story of having difficulty with someone at work, Jim may notice how in
telling the story, she personalizes the episode and in so doing may not be taking into
consideration something that is happening in the larger context. Thus, while she may
have believed that she did not receive a promotion because of how her capability
and readiness were being assessed, Jim might help her explore other factors that may
have influenced the decision such as what was happening in the business unit and the
competitive market at the time. Such questions offer a different and perhaps more
helpful perspective.
The balcony view. In Jim’s told story his identity as a spouse was central. This epi-
sode of peer coaching was to consider how the larger context within which Jim and
Sabitha’s mutual relationship was being developed. Consideration of the embedded-
ness of every interaction enables more complex understanding of particular challenges
that each peer faces.
Peer coaching relationships provide a kind of “container,” to attend to both content
and process. High-quality peer coaching relationships provide reciprocal opportunities
to observe in a clearly structured way, to hold up the mirror for each other and reflect
back individual assumptions and behaviors. These actions help identify taken-for-
granted assumptions, perspectives, and how they can create undesirable patterns.
Peers can draw on the LUUUTT model to explore other stories and explanations,
consider alternative ways to respond which enables them to create new, more desirable
patterns. In turn, pattern awareness promotes better learning opportunities and struc-
tured practice events, to try other perspectives including deepening empathy for other
people, departments, functions, and hierarchies. Through this process of supporting
peer discovery, both partners strengthen the capacity to see systems and understand
how unintentional actions can have unintended and unanticipated impacts. Any move
from blame to curiosity creates more openness and less defensive responses which
facilitate learning (Argyris, 1991).
Peers can learn through facilitating the mutual process to become more adept at
listening to and engaging with each other in a way that encourages them to bring
themselves more fully to the workplace and offer deeper commitment to each other’s
well-being. These shifts in perspective encourage greater accountability for commit-
ments. With practice, the peer coaching relationship can deepen and the necessary
skills and attitudes that foster mutual learning and growth can be enhanced. At this
point, peers can consciously transfer these learning to other contexts and continue to
build high-quality connections with others, the third step of the peer coaching
Step 3: Internalizing the Skills. In Step 3 of the peer coaching model, participants assume
responsibility for recognizing the centrality of relational competence to effective inter-
personal interactions. With practice in Step 2, peers’ relational skills gradually move
at BOSTON UNIV on May 5, 2015jab.sagepub.comDownloaded from
16 The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science
from a state of conscious competence to unconscious competence (Burch, 1970;
Flower, 1999). Over time, each participant internalizes the self-disclosure, reflective
practices, and probing questions that come from using the four CMM models. This
significant change enhances their peer relationship and can also lead to high-quality
connections with a range of people in different contexts. We revisit Sabitha and Jim
after they have worked together and deepened their relational connection. They articu-
late the value attributed to their relationship, which has become an integral part of their
individual growth and development. They continue to work together after the official
peer coaching sessions have ended to support each other’s commitment to helping not
only themselves and each other but also others they work with.
Jim and Sabitha discuss how their self-disclosure supported mutual trust in their
coaching relationship. Upon reaching the stage where each could bring in several models
to support the process, each was able to invite the other to explore different dimensions
of storytelling, such as inviting the untellable and unknowable stories. They also
explored what taken for granted forces make alternative ways of seeing things most
The balcony view. As depicted in Steps 1 and 2, the CMM models highlight different
aspects of coordinating meaning in the turns and processes of relating between peer
coaches. The models also overlap which stimulates deepening of meaning and reveals
the complexity of effective meaning making. When Sabitha listened to Jim share his
goals, she was curious about something that was not fully clear for her. She acted on
her hunch and curiosity and in so doing helped Jim identify an untold story. Once told,
that story shifted how he contextualized his coaching goals. He shifted from pleasing
his spouse, to owning the goal as something important to him.
Jim and Sabitha used the LUUUTT and the hierarchy of meaning models to self-
reflect and help them in critical moments in the peer coaching process as well as inter-
vene when misunderstandings develop with others. The models may be applied
subsequently at any stage of the peer coaching process rather than restricted to the
illustrative steps provided above. For example, the Daisy may help illuminate the vari-
ous influences present at each turn noted in the Serpentine model. The Daisy model
can also identify the part people play in episodes and amplify meanings in the emer-
gence of identities, episodes, relationships, cultures through the mutual pattern of
communicating. In addition, the LUUUTT model helps shape questions that explore
the storytelling and the untold, unheard, unknown, and untellable stories. Exploring
those possibilities expands and potentially deepens the reflecting of peer coaches
within their coaching relationship.
In Step 3, participants may apply any CMM model in other relationships at work
and beyond. Peer coaches who use CMM find that they become better listeners, dem-
onstrate greater curiosity, and gain greater self-awareness, self-reflection, and self-
management skills that enable them to build effective high-quality relationships with
others. A critical mass of individuals equipped with these models can contribute to
building a developmental culture within the organization where they work.
at BOSTON UNIV on May 5, 2015jab.sagepub.comDownloaded from
Parker et al. 17
All these CMM models are designed to show how actions and interactions create pat-
terns. Working together in relationship enhances the capacity to self-reflect and hold
up the mirror to peers. We have applied four models into the peer coaching process:
the Daisy, the Serpentine, the LUUUTT, and the hierarchy of meaning. Each model
individually, or in some combination, can help peers develop the capacity to attend to
the patterns of interaction. Additionally, these models highlight the interplay between
the stories that we and others have and those that “have us” (Garvey-Berger, 2013) as
we co-construct our relationships and develop a wider range of responses. We suggest
that the conscious application of CMM might be especially useful in a peer coaching
engagement under certain circumstances:
In Step 1, “Building the relationship and creating a positive environment,” potential
peer coaches can explore their background experiences, find differences that would
promote new learning, and identify some similarities that would contribute to behav-
ioral comfort and trust. The different CMM models provide concrete methods for peer
coaches to be intentional and self-aware about the qualities and strengths that each
brings to the relationship.
In Step 2, “Creating success,” peers can develop more sophisticated skills to attend
to both content and process. CMM is useful for dealing with the inevitable conflicts
that arise when two people are learning collaboratively and where both are working in
new unexplored territory, possibly feeling vulnerable or anxious. Pausing to con-
sciously engage in CMM activities can help uncover and release blockages and con-
flicts resulting from competing commitments.
In Step 3, “Internalizing the skills,” with more experience peers are able to expand
their identities, self-belief, and conscious competence to coach peers in future tasks.
CMM provides them with models to assist self-reflection as learners and future peer
coaches. We also present CMM as an approach that peers can use intentionally to deal
with a specific need in their peer coaching relationship. The activities of CMM are not
ends in themselves: They provide a means to an end by enhancing the work of peer
coaches to achieve their objectives. Specific timing when CMM models are particu-
larly appropriate are first, when there is a clear problem in the relationship that is
blocking progress; and second, when there is a mutual desire to pause, self-reflect as a
dyad even when the dynamic seems to be working well. Deeper exploration at this
point could deepen mutual understanding and commitment, thus further developing
the relationship and the quality of their peer coaching. Ultimately, peer coaching
becomes a readily available and effective tool to address new personal and profes-
sional challenges as they emerge.
It is important to note that self-awareness and relational skills develop as peer
coaches work together and even more so when a facilitator helps train and launch such
relationships. Thus, at the outset some of the CMM models will be easier to use than
others. For example, the peer coaching relationship may not yet be sufficiently devel-
oped to support sharing of sensitive personal stories using the LUUUTT model. Part
of the groundwork for peer coaching should include the fact that relationships develop
at BOSTON UNIV on May 5, 2015jab.sagepub.comDownloaded from
18 The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science
over time with intention and practice. A note of caution is warranted to alert peers that
sometimes issues that may arise that are beyond their comfort zone or the scope of
their expertise. Specific examples include Jim’s demanding wife and Sabitha’s perva-
sive feelings of failure. In such cases, the most appropriate response is to acknowledge
the complexity of the issue, including any discomfort that it creates for either peer
coach and to enlist professional support.
Are we suggesting that CMM be used in all peer coaching processes? No, we do not
think that would be appropriate. For example, in a very short process, such as a week-
end workshop, there may not be enough time to go this deeply into these individual
stories and the ways that they interplay. In the context of a group application, it might
get too complex to work with group-level stories. It would be important for the two
parties in the peer coaching process and the facilitator (if there is a facilitator) to think
through in advance whether the investment in the time and complexity of CMM would
be worth the expected payoffs from using it.
This raises one last issue to consider: Does there need to be a facilitator? The answer
here is No, as well. Our case of Jim and Sabitha reflects the context of a facilitator-led
workshop. However, everything that we have described about CMM and its associated
models could be used independently by two parties working together as peer coaches
on a project. They would need to be already familiar with CMM, or they would have
to learn its basics as part of their peer coaching engagement, but in our opinion the
CMM process is robust and amenable to independent learning.
Our intention has been to show how applying a communication perspective to our
theorizing and practice can enhance the potential of peer coaching to support and sus-
tain individual change. We began by distinguishing peer coaching as a unique form of
coaching that accelerates learning and provides potential users with a low-cost alterna-
tive to executive and professional coaching (Parker et al., 2014; Van Oosten & Kram,
2014). In our review of the literatures on relational learning and high-quality connec-
tions, it became clear that our prior work had only begun to delineate the practical
tools for building high-quality peer coaching relationships (Parker et al., 2014)
The introduction of CMM (Pearce, 2004; Wasserman & Gallegos, in press) offers
models to guide individuals through the three-step peer coaching process of building
the peer coaching relationship, creating success (e.g. meaningful, reciprocal learning),
and internalizing the relational skills to build such connections at work and elsewhere
(Parker et al., 2014). Using the example of Jim and Sabitha as peer coaches in action
we illustrated how reflective practices shaped by the questions that are grounded in the
Daisy, Serpentine, LUUUTT, and hierarchy of meaning models, foster heightened
self-awareness, effective listening, and inquiry. Ultimately integrating CMM models
into the process deepens the peer coaching relationship and can generate other high-
quality connections in the future.
Perhaps most exciting is the prospect that peer coaching can significantly support
leaders and leadership development in a variety of settings. Leaders will experience
at BOSTON UNIV on May 5, 2015jab.sagepub.comDownloaded from
Parker et al. 19
transformational learning as they build new relationships that lead to mutual learning
and development and experience the benefits related to sustainable change. We predict
that evidence of greater numbers of high-quality connections will increase. Just as lead-
ership coaching with an orientation to learning with compassion enhances the well-being
of both the coach and the coachee (Boyatzis et al., 2006), effective peer coaching will
support the learning and problem-solving of the participants and their organizations.
Currently, empirical research regarding peer coaching practices and outcomes is
limited (Bennett & Bush, 2014; Parker et al., 2008). However, many organizations are
experimenting with this developmental tool to create low cost and readily available
relational learning opportunities for individuals at different career stages and hierar-
chical positions. Such initiatives hold much promise to enhance the quality of devel-
opmental relationships and networks. Joint partnering between researchers and
practitioners to systematically assess the actual relational practices and positive out-
comes associated with peer coaching will further contribute to the value of this coach-
ing alternative.
Finally, we have outlined how the practices we have proposed here may lead to the
positive peer coaching outcomes suggested by positive organizational scholarship,
mentoring, and relational learning scholars. We propose that with the necessary self-
awareness, reflective capabilities, and interpersonal skills outlined here, positive out-
comes related to performance, self-esteem and self-efficacy, and transformational
learning will occur. Integrating the relational communication perspective of CMM in
to the three-step process of peer coaching has sharpened our vision of the potential to
create high-quality relationships and connections that underpin successful coaching
interactions. We hope that these ideas have generated interest in pursuing this impor-
tant line of inquiry further.
Declaration of Conflicting Interests
The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship,
and/or publication of this article.
The author(s) received no financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of
this article.
Allen, T. D., Eby, L. T., Poteet, M. L., Lentz, E., & Lima, L. (2004). Career benefits associ-
ated with mentoring for protégés: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89,
Allen, T. D., Lentz, E., & Day, R. (2006). Career success outcomes with mentoring others:
A comparison of mentors and nonmentors. Journal of Career Development, 32, 272-285.
Argyris, C. (1991). Teaching smart people how to learn. Harvard Business Review, May-June,
Bennett, J. L., & Bush, W. M. (2014). Coaching for change. London, England: Routledge.
at BOSTON UNIV on May 5, 2015jab.sagepub.comDownloaded from
20 The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science
Blustein, D. L., Schultheiss, D. E. P., & Flum, H. (2004). Toward a relational perspective of the
psychology of careers and working: A social constructionist analysis. Journal of Vocational
Behavior, 64, 423-440.
Bono, J. E., Purvanova, R. K., Towler, A. J., & Peterson, D. B. (2009). A survey of executive
coaching practices. Personnel Psychology, 62, 361-404.
Bowlby, J. (1988). A secure base: Parent-child attachment and healthy human development.
New York, NY: Basic Books.
Boyatzis, R. E., McKee, A., & Goleman, D. (2002). Reawakening your passion for work.
Harvard Business Review, April, 87-94.
Boyatzis, R. E., Smith, M. L., & Blaize, N. (2006). Developing sustainable leaders through
coaching and compassion. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 5, 8-24.
Burch, N. (1970). The four stages for learning any new skill. Solana Beach, CA: Gordon
Training International.
Buzbee Little, P. F. (2005). Peer coaching as a support to collaborative teaching. Mentoring and
Training, 13, 83-94.
Cameron, K. S., Dutton, J. E., & Quinn, R. E. (Eds.). (2003). Positive organizational scholar-
ship: Foundations of a new discipline. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler.
Cherniss, C. (2007). The role of emotional competence in the mentoring process. In B. Ragins
& K. E. Kram (Ed.), Handbook of mentoring at work: Theory, research and practice
(pp. 427-446). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Collin, A., & Young, R. A. (Eds.). (2000). The future of career. Cambridge, England: Cambridge
University Press.
Cronen, V. E., Pearce, W. B., & Lannamann, J. (Eds.). (1982). The coordinated management of
meaning: A theory of communication. New York, NY: Harper & Row.
D’Abate, C. P., Eddy, E. R., & Tannenbaum, S. I. (2003). What’s in a name? A literature-based
approach to understanding mentoring, coaching, and other constructs that describe develop-
mental interactions. Human Resource Development Review, 2, 360-384.
Dalton, M. (1999). Learning Tactics Inventory. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.
Dutton, J. E. (2003). Energize your workplace: How to create and sustain high quality connec-
tions at work. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Dutton, J. E., & Heaphy, E. D. (2003). The power of high quality connections. In K. S. Cameron,
J. E. Dutton, & R. E. Quinn (Eds.), Positive organizational scholarship (pp. 263-278). San
Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler.
Dutton, J. E., & Ragins, B. (Eds.). (2007). Exploring positive relationships at work: Building a
theoretical and research foundation. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Fletcher, J. (1999). Disappearing acts: Gender, power, and relational practice at work.
Cambridge: MIT Press.
Fletcher, J. (2010). Leadership as relational practice. In K. A. Bunker, D. T. Hall, & K. E. Kram
(Eds.), Extraordinary leadership: Addressing the gaps in senior executive development
(pp. 121-136). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Flower, J. (1999). In the mush. Physician Executive, 25(1), 64-66.
Freeney, Y., & Fellenz, M. R. (2013). Work engagement, job design and the role of the social
context at work: Exploring antecedents from a relational perspective. Human Relations,
66, 1472-1445.
Friedman, T. L. (2005). The world is flat: A brief history of the globalised world in the twenty-
first century (updated and expanded ed.). London, England: Allen Lane.
Garvey-Berger, J. (2013). Changing on the job: Developing leaders in a complex world.
Stanford, CA: Stanford Business Books.
at BOSTON UNIV on May 5, 2015jab.sagepub.comDownloaded from
Parker et al. 21
Gergen, K. J. (2009). Relational being beyond self and community. Oxford, England: Oxford
University Press.
Gittell, J. H. (2003). A theory of relational coordination. In K. Cameron, J. E. Dutton, & R.
E. Quinn (Eds.), Positive organizational scholarship (pp. 279-295). San Francisco, CA:
Grant, A. M. (2007). Relational job design and the motivation to make a prosocial difference.
Academy of Management Review, 32, 393-417.
Grant, A. M., & Parker, S. K. (2009). 7 Redesigning work design theories: The rise of relational
and proactive perspectives. Academy of Management Annals, 3, 317-375.
Hall, D. T., & Associates. (1996). The career is dead: Long live the career. San Francisco, CA:
Heifetz, R., & Linsky, M. (2002). Leadership on the line: Staying alive through the dangers of
leading. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Higgins, M., & Kram, K. E. (2001). Reconceptualizing mentoring at work: A developmental
network perspective. Academy of Management Review, 26, 264-288.
Johansen, B. (2012). Leaders make the future. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler.
Jordan, J. (1997). A relational perspective for understanding women’s development. In J. Jordan
(Ed.), Women’s growth in diversity (pp. 9-24). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Jordan, J., Kaplan, A., Miller, J. B., Stiver, I., & Surrey, J. (1991). Women’s growth in connec-
tion. London, England: Guilford Press.
Jowett, S., O’Broin, A., & Palmer, S. (2010). On understanding the role and significance of a
key two-person relationship in sport and executive coaching. Sport & Exercise Psychology
Review, 6(2), 19-30.
Kram, K. E. (1985). Mentoring at work: Developmental relationships in organizational life.
Glenview, IL: Scott Foresman.
Ladyshewsky, R. K. (2010). Building competency in the novice allied health professional
through peer coaching. Journal of Allied Health, 39(2), 77E-82E.
Lu, H.-L. (2010). Research on peer coaching in preservice teacher education–A review of litera-
ture. Teaching and Teacher Education, 26, 748-753.
McManus, S. E., & Russell, J. E. A. (2007). Peer mentoring relationships. In B. R. Ragins &
K. E. Kram (Eds.), The handbook of mentoring at work: Theory, research, and practice
(pp. 273-297). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
McNamee, G., & Gergen, K. J. (1999). Relational responsibility: Resources for sustainable
dialogue. London, England: Sage.
Miller, J. B. (2004). Preface. In J. Jordan, L. Hartling, & M. Walker (Eds.), The complexity of
connection (pp. i-iv). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Miller, J. B., & Stiver, I. (1997). The healing connection. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.
Mirvis, P. H. (2014). JABS at 50: Applied behavioral science and something more? Journal of
Applied Behavioral Science, 50, 371-400.
Parker, P., Hall, D. T., & Kram, K. E. (2008). Peer coaching: A relational process for accelerat-
ing career learning. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 7, 487-503.
Parker, P., Kram, K. E., & Hall, D. T. (2012). Exploring risk factors in peer coaching: A multi-
level approach. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 49, 361-387.
Parker, P., Kram, K. E., & Hall, D. T. (2014). Peer coaching: An untapped resource for develop-
ment. Organizational Dynamics, 43, 122-129.
Pearce, W. B. (2004). The coordinated management of meaning (CMM). In W. B. Gudykunst
(Ed.), Theorizing about communication and culture (pp. 35-54). Thousand Oaks, CA:
at BOSTON UNIV on May 5, 2015jab.sagepub.comDownloaded from
22 The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science
Pearce, W. B. (2007). Making social worlds: A communication perspective. Oxford, England.:
Phillips, S. D., Christopher-Sisk, E. K., & Gravino, K. L. (2001). Making career decisions in a
relational context. The Counseling Psychologist, 29, 193-213.
Ray, E. B., & Miller, K. I. (1994). Social support, home/work stress, and burnout: Who can
help? Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 30, 357-373.
Rogers, C. R. (1951). Client-centered therapy. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
Smith, M. L., Van Oosten, E. B., & Boyatzis, R. (2008). Coaching for sustained desired change.
In R. W. Woodman, W. A. Pasmore, & A. B. Shani (Eds.), Research in organization devel-
opment and change (Vol. 17, pp. 145-173). Bingley, England: JAI Press.
Stephens, J. P., Heaphy, E., & Dutton, J. (2011). High-quality connections. In K. Cameron &
G. Spretzer (Eds.), Oxford handbook of positive organizational psychology (pp. 385-399).
New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Van Oosten, E., & Kram, K. E. (2014). Coaching for change. Academy of Management Learning
& Education, 13, 295-298.
Waddell, D. L., & Dunn, N. (2005). Peer coaching: The next step in staff development. Journal
of Continuing Education in Nursing, 36, 84-89.
Wasserman, I. C. (2005). Discursive processes that foster dialogic moments: Transformation in
the engagement of social identity differences in dialogue (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved
from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 3168530)
Wasserman, I. C., & Gallegos, P. V. (2009). Engaging diversity: Disorienting dilemmas that
transform relationships. In B. Fisher-Yoshida, K. D. Geller, & S. A. Schapiro (Eds.),
Innovations in transformative learning: Space, culture, and the arts (pp. 156-176). New
York, NY: Peter Lang.
Wasserman, I. C., & Gallegos, P. V. (in press). Enacting integral diversity: A relational commu-
nication approach. In T. Gregory, M. Forman, & M. Raffanti (Eds.), Integral approaches
to diversity dynamics: Exploring the maturation of diversity theory and practice. Albany:
SUNY Press.
Weick, K. E. (1995). Sensemaking in organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
at BOSTON UNIV on May 5, 2015jab.sagepub.comDownloaded from
... The majority of business-focused research on peer coaching in organizations has been conducted by a small group of academics and researchers from across the globe, including Polly Parker, Kathy Kram, Douglas Hall and Ilene Wasserman. Such work has predominantly focused on the role of peer coaching in staff and career development, how peer coaching impacts relational communication, the risks that peer coaching can generate when in use, and a number of other related topics (Parker et al., 2015). Little appears to have been explored as to whether peer coaching can provide similar value as has been measured through other types of coaching such as executive and leadership coaching. ...
... Challenges here can exist when the relational competence within peer coaching is compromised. Particularly, if the relationship is partially or wholly derived from organizational status structures (e.g., a manager-employee relationship, or one where a clear organizational distinction in levels renders one person in the dyad as an authority figure to the other), an imbalance in the relationship can exist from the start because one or both individuals are unable to develop and maintain a strong relationship due to continuous concern about the difference in authority within the dyad (Parker et al., 2008(Parker et al., , 2015. There can also be power differentials unrelated to job status, within the frame of differences in age, race or ethnicity, gender, technical expertise or experience (McManus & Russell, 2007). ...
... They may hold the same or similar title (e.g., Director, Assistant Manager, Analyst). If one or both individuals perceive, at any point during the coaching relationship, that they are in competition for another role or other important organizational attributes such as resources, salary increases or rewards, recognition or visibility, it is possible that ill will or dissatisfaction may infiltrate the relationship, breaking down the positive nature of the coaching (Parker et al., 2015). There is also the possibility that purposeful introduction of competition (perceived or real), may occur. ...
Peer coaching is a type of coaching under-represented and infrequently utilized within organizations, yet offers opportunity for organizations to improve employee wellness, build deeper connections between employees and develop stronger competencies in areas such as communication, collaboration and inclusion. This capstone seeks to reveal the myriad benefits and opportunities inherent to implementing a peer coaching program in the workplace, through a secondary research of available literature and proposal of a peer coaching framework that can be implemented with ease, at low cost and to maximum organizational benefit. Through the course of analysis of the literature, both the existing research as well as the gaps in the literature with regard to peer coaching are made visible, thus creating space for a conceptual peer coaching framework that focuses on trust and transparency along with key intersections of authenticity and psychological safety, suited for organizations of any size or type to implement.
... Dans ce chapitre, mes co-auteurs et moi-même examinons une forme spécifique de soutien aux entrepreneurs, le conseil, qui permet le transfert de connaissances utiles (Carlile, 2002(Carlile, , 2004Chandler, Kram, & Yip, 2011 ;Cross, Borgatti, & Parker, 2001 ;Kuhn & Galloway, 2015). Dans En suivant la littérature sur les relations développementales, nous désignons tant les aidants que les tierces personnes ayant une plus grande expérience de vie ou professionnelle comme des mentors et ceux ayant une expérience de vie ou professionnelle similaire comme des pairs (Birrell & Waters, 1999 ;Kram & Isabella, 1985 ;Parker, Wasserman, Kram, & Hall, 2015). Par définition, il est supposé que les aidants mentors sont plus compétents et, par extension, sont plus avisés pour conseiller les entrepreneurs. ...
... Ahsan, Zheng, DeNoble, & Musteen, 2018;Goswami et al., 2018;St-Jean & Audet, 2012;St-Jean & Mathieu, 2015). However, studies have also shown that supporters who are at similar stages in their careers are also sources of advice because of their intimate understanding of the advisee's challenges (Kram & Isabella, 1985;Kuhn & Galloway, 2015;Parker et al., 2015) Paired with the above assumption that superior professional experience would be a source of useable knowledge, we suspect that such peer supporters gain knowledge from more experienced third parties. Therefore, we observe whether supporters have greater professional experience than entrepreneurs and whether third parties have greater professional experience than supporters. ...
Starting from the notion that entrepreneurs' supporters, willingly provide resources, this thesis asks the question, "why do supporters willingly support entrepreneurs and their projects?" The investigation searches for the answer in relational mechanisms around the supporters. This thesis observes how a supporter's own relationships enable their response to an entrepreneur's needs. Instead of seeing network relationships as channels through which resources flow, this thesis approaches networks as relational contexts where entrepreneurs' challenges can be developed through actions that reconfigure these contexts. The mechanisms presented in this thesis reveal a social experience that guides supporters in their own lives, where support to an entrepreneur makes sense to the supporters and improves their own lives. Our conclusions show that entrepreneurs can improve their access to resources when they encourage their supporters to deepen and enrich their own relationships, both within the theme of entrepreneurship and in their general issues.
... The practice of facilitated peer coaching has emerged more recently, primarily in the education and nursing fields, as a cost-efficient and effective process to enhance leadership development, teamwork, and mutual support at the same time (McFarland, 2018;Parker, Wasserman, Kram, & Hall, 2015). A professional facilitator guides the development of the participants while also modeling and encouraging them to coach each other. ...
... The research on facilitated peer coaching for leadership development is extremely limited, and what does exist primarily comes from the education field. Demonstrated outcomes of facilitated peer coaching for leadership include enhanced growth and skill development, greater trust, support, confidence, and empowerment among participants, and better self-reported work performance (Goldman, Wesner, & Karnchanomai, 2013;Parker, Kram, & Hall, 2014;Parker et al., 2015). McFarland's (2018) qualitative research of sixteen business mid-level managers who participated in facilitated peer coaching highlighted the process of "creating community" (p. ...
... Komunikasi dimulai dalam garis bergelombang dalam dunia sosial dengan salah satu peserta percakapan yang bergerak ke tindakan yang orang berikutnya lakukan membentuk percakapan yang ditafsirkan dengan orang lain membentuk pola mengkristal. Jenis model ini membawa perlunya berpikir tentang tindakan selanjutnya dengan terus dalam pola ular ini (Parker et al. 2015). ...
Full-text available
Masyarakat Indonesia sejak awal pandemi Corona Virus Disease 2019 (Covid-19), Januari 2020, tidak memiliki prediksi akan mengalami kondisi ketidakstabilan sosial, ekonomi juga politik. Pada tanggal 30 April 2020, pemerintah Indonesia Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia Nomor 9 Tahun 2020 menerapkan Pembatasan Sosial Berskala Besar (PSBB) adalah kegiatan-kegiatan tertentu penduduk di suatu wilayah yang sedemikian rupa untuk mencegah kemungkinan penyebaran Covid -I9. Kebijakan pemerintah Indonesia yang mewajibkan masyarakat vaksin, menerima, yakni patuh, ragu-ragu dan menolak.Penelitian deskriptif kualitatif ini, menggunakan sumber-sumber data yang berasal dari jurnal ilmiah, literatur digital, website berita, situs web resmi, media sosial Facebook, wawancara pada sumber yang dipilih berdasarkan profesi dan usia tertentu, untuk memperoleh kesimpulan sikap masyarakat pada kewajiban melaksanakan vaksin di Kota Makassar. Hasil yang diperoleh masyarakat memutuskan untuk menjalani vaksin Covid-19, karena kewajiban, kesadaran akan informasi yang akurat dan tekanan, karena wajib vaksin sebagai prasarat untuk pengurusan perizinan di kantor pemerintah, bahkan untuk pembelian tiket penerbangan.
... Peer coaching allows teachers to observe each other's teaching, share ideas to improve their teaching and reflect on their teaching process (Kohler et al., 1995). Peer coaching has a powerful influence on change as it uses the social context for learning and development (Parker, et al., 2015). Peer-coaching practices also contribute to instructional skills (Hendry & Oliver, 2012;Hsieh et al., 2021;Kuru Gönen, 2016;Sullivan, et al., 2012;Sider, 2019), engagement (Jao, 2013;Lofthouse and Hall, 2014), personal development and self-confidence (Margarita et al, 2012;Murphy, 2012;Lofthouse & Hall, 2014) and motivation (Hendry & Oliver, 2012;Murphy, 2012). ...
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to investigate the views of lecturers about the effectiveness of the implementation of the peer-coaching practice conducted at the school of foreign languages of a foundation university. The lecturers who took part in the peer coaching practice in the academic year 2019-2020 acted as the participants in this case study. The qualitative data was collected via interviews and document analysis. Content analysis and descriptive analysis methods were used in the process of data analysis. The findings from the analysis showed that peer-coaching practice consisted of lesson observations, pre and post-observation meetings, and reflection stages. It was concluded that peer-coaching contributed to the instructional and classroom management skills of the lecturers as well as improving relations between colleagues and solidarity in the school. It was also concluded that providing sufficient time and resources and training lecturers about effective communication were essential for the peer-coaching practice to be effective.
... Komunikasi dimulai dalam garis bergelombang dalam dunia sosial dengan salah satu peserta percakapan yang bergerak ke tindakan yang orang berikutnya lakukan membentuk percakapan yang ditafsirkan dengan orang lain membentuk pola mengkristal. Jenis model ini membawa perlunya berpikir tentang tindakan selanjutnya dengan terus dalam pola ular ini (Parker et al. 2015). ...
Full-text available
Since the beginning of the CoronaScale Social Restrictions (PSBB) which are restrictions on certain activities of residents in an area suspected of being infected in such a way as to prevent the possible spread of Covid-I9. The Indonesian government's policy of requiring the public to vaccinate has received mixed responses, namely compliance, hesitation and refusal. This qualitative descriptive study, using data sources from scientific journals, digital literature, news websites, official websites, social media Facebook, interviews with selected sources based on certain professions and ages, to obtain conclusions about public attitudes towards the obligation to carry out vaccines in Indonesia. Makassar city. The results obtained by the community decided to undergo the Covid-19 vaccine, due to obligations, awareness of accurate information and pressure, due to mandatory vaccines as a prerequisite for obtaining permits at government offices, even for purchasing flight tickets.
... Leadership development scholars have shown that collective learning contributes to a higher level of skill and capacity building, behavior change, and greater shifts in mindset (Gill, 2010;Hamman & Spayd, 2015;Moldoveanu & Narayandas, 2019). Collective leadership learning has more recently taken the forms of peer-to-peer, team, and collaborative coaching (Parker, Kram, & Hall, 2014;Parker, Wasserman, Kram, & Hall, 2015). ...
Peer learning is a quality initiative used to identify potential areas of practice improvement, both on a patient level and on a systemic level. Opportunities for peer learning include review of prior imaging studies, evaluation of cases from multidisciplinary case conferences, and review of radiology trainees' call cases. Peer learning is non-punitive and focuses on promoting life-long learning. It seeks to identify and disseminate learning opportunities and areas for systems improvement compared to traditional peer review. Learning opportunities arise from peer learning through both individual communication of cases reviewed for routine work, as well as through anonymous presentation of aggregate cases in an educational format. In conjunction with other tools such as root cause analysis, peer learning can be used to guide future practice improvement opportunities. This guide provides definitions of terms and a synthetic evidence review regarding peer review and peer learning, as well as medicolegal and jurisdictional considerations. Important aspects of what makes an effective peer learning program and best practices for implementing such a program are presented. The guide is intended to be a living document that will be updated regularly as new data emerges and peer learning continues to evolve in radiology practices.
Using findings from both traditional and positive psychology research, this chapter focuses on how coaching is conceptualised and the motivations for coaching as it is delivered to individuals in community and organisational settings. The differences among coaching and other interventions such as mentoring, counselling, supervision, and training are detailed. The theoretical evidence for coaching from the disciplines of psychology and education, as well as from management research, are summarised. Coaching in contemporary practice is goal-oriented and solution-focused. Developmental, humanistic, and positive psychology techniques are used to address the client’s needs and promote their mental and emotional wellbeing. Coaches utilise cognitive behavioural psychology to assist clients reframe their mental model and dispel limiting beliefs. Within educational research, coaching is positioned as a developmental, learning opportunity for clients to develop self-efficacy so they become motivated to achieve behavioural change. Clients who believe in their ability to learn, perform, or change as a result of effort, persistence and, at times, assistance, are malleable. Within management, coaching approaches focus on the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies to enhance leadership and executive development, job satisfaction, motivation and work performance, and interpersonal and team relationships. This research evidence supports the emergence of coaching as a profession and contributes to a growing body of knowledge and theory into the development of coaching as a discipline.
This chapter focuses on coaching as a dynamic, relational, and social process that helps clients increase their personal and professional effectiveness. Coaches partner with clients in a trusting, working relationship to help them find solutions to their problems and facilitate behavioural change to achieve their goals. As a developmental intervention, the coaching process helps clients identify the specific problem to be addressed and the opportunities available to them when their situation is resolved. Coaches use coaching skills to shift clients’ perspectives, stimulate exploration and discovery, and identify ways they can solve their own problems. Since coaching is applicable to clients in any occupation or business, it is a meta-process that can be applied to any situation in which a client feels the need for improvement or a desire to achieve a specific goal which they have been unable to attain as a result of their own efforts. Professional guidelines ensure that the coaching process is conducted ethically, with competence and integrity, and with total respect for the client and their dignity.
Anticipating and preparing for the future before it arrives can provide leaders (political, corporate, religious, and nonprofit) with great advantage. Leaders from many domains will shape the future of aging. Ten necessary leadership skills for success require intense future study and an ability to engage with radical change. Some of these skills are: Exploit your inner drive to build, grow and connect; see through complications to a future others can't envision; turn dilemmas into opportunities; learn from unfamiliar worlds; see things from nature's point of view; bring calm to tense situations; nurture purposeful business or social-change networks.
Current research indicates that approximately 70% of all organizational change initiatives fail. This includes mergers and acquisitions, introductions of new technologies, and changes in business processes. Leadership is critical in initiating, driving and sustaining change to produce business results, and executive coaching is the best way to support leaders at all levels. Coaching for Change introduces a model for executive coaching that provides the tools and resources to support leaders in driving organization change.
In traditional Western psychological theories of development, the “self” has long been viewed as the primary reality and unit of study. Typically, the self has been seen as separated out from its context, a bounded, contained entity that has both object and subject qualities. Clinical and developmental theories generally have emphasized the growth of an autonomous, individuated self. Increasing self-control, a sense of self as origin of action and intention, an increasing capacity to use abstract logic, and a movement toward self-sufficiency characterize the maturation of the ideal Western self. Although most theorists have struggled with the issue of reification of the self, all have to some degree succumbed to the powerful pull to de-contextualize, abstract, and spatialize this concept. I will examine some of these models in terms of their limited applicability to the psychology of women and suggest an alternative conceptualization of self, a “relational self” or, as Jean Miller has suggested, a model of “being in relation” (Miller, 1984).