Deposition, Diagenesis, and Porosity Relationships Within Noodle Creek Limestone (Wolfcampian), Rough Draw Field, Fisher County, Texas: ABSTRACT

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Noodle Creek limestone reservoirs of Rough Draw field represent tabular biostromes that contain the same biota found in phylloid algal mounds. The Noodle Creek contains three carbonate intervals, separated by shales, which range in thickness from 25 to 30 ft. Production occurs from the lower two carbonates. In ascending order, Noodle Creek limestones exhibit a vertical sequence of four subtidal deposition facies: (1) algal-plate-boundstone, (2) algal-intraclast-boundstone, (3) peloid-foraminiferal-boundstone/grainstone, and (4) foraminiferal grainstone facies. The principal binder-encruster, which formed the boundstone fabric, is an enigmatic, tubular, branched, nonseptate foram or alga. Other binder-encrusters include tubiphytes and several encrusting forams. Relatively soon after deposition, each Noodle Creek carbonate interval was exposed subaerially and subjected to freshwater diagenesis. Dissolution of aragonitic phylloid algae created much secondary porosity in the lower intervals. Vadose cements, consisting of scalenohedral crusts and meniscoid patterns, were followed by phreatic cements consisting of blocky equant calcite, ferroan calcite, and ferroan dolomite, which occluded most porosity in many intervals. Most oil is produced from grainstones and phylloid algal-rich facies wherein residual primary and secondary porosity was enhanced by late-stage dissolution that occurred during burial diagenesis.

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Haftkel and Masjed-I-Soleiman oilfields, setting in Dezfool embayment at Zagros Basin, are the most important oilfields in south-western Iran. Asmari Formation, the most famous reservoir in the Middle East, is a reservoir of these oilfields. In order to palaeoenvironments and sequence stratigraphy correlation, the subsurface sedimentary successions of the Asmari Formation have been studied using cores and thin sections obtained from the well no. 28 of Haftkel and well no. 186 of Masjed-I-Soleiman oilfields. 18 carbonate and 1 carbonate/evaporate microfacies and 2 noncarbonated microscopic facies were recognized, based on the petrographic study. These microfacies and microscopic facies were grouped in 6 facies associations (include: Tidal Flat, Lagoon, Bar, Restricted marine, Open marine, and Mid ramp). Obtained facies associations, comparing them with standard facies models and statistical analyses, indicate that Asmari Formation was deposited in the inner and middle of a homoclinal carbonate ramp. Correlating Asmari association facies in Haftkel and Masjed-I-Soleiman oilfields showed that Haftkel oilfield has been in the shore-ward and Masjed-I-Soleiman oilfield has been in sea-ward of that ramp. Sequence stratigraphy studies express that the succession of Haftkel oilfield could be discriminated to six third order deposition sequences (Sq1- Sq6). Incorporation of the sequence stratigraphy criteria of Asmari successions in this oilfield with its previous biostratigraphy data reviles that Sq1 and Sq2 occurred during Aquitanian time and Sq3 to Sq6 during Burdigalian age. Correlating of Asmari sequences of this oilfield with the Asmari sequences of Masjed-I-Soleiman, based on cyclostratigraphy data, show the sequences of Masjed-I-Soleiman occurred in Burdigalian time. Also, the correlation expresses the steep of proposed ramp was toward Masjid-I-Soleiman area. The sequence correlation with global sea level fluctuations shows Burdigalian depositional sequences occurred based on eustasy in these oilfields.
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