Article

The Women's Movement in Uganda: History, Challenges and Prospects

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... According to Tripp (2002): ...
... As a result of its extreme resource constraints, the Ministry became primarily dependent on foreign donors, such as Danish International Development Agency and UNICEF, which restricted its activities to primarily following donor priorities (Smyth and Payne, 1998). Tripp (2002) notes that the increasing numbers of women participating in Ugandan politics have resulted in few legislative changes that benefit them. She further points out that: ...
... Indeed, Tripp (2002) suggests that: ...
Article
This thesis looks at how civil society organizations (CSOs) are working to address the issue of violence against women in Uganda. Specifically, it examines what types of organizations are working to address this issue, where their efforts fit into the public health ecological model for violence prevention, and to what extent they adopt a feminist perspective. In addition, I investigate how operational environments affect CSOs and what the organizations consider they have learned from their experiences. The study is primarily based on interviews conducted in the field with CSO representatives from various parts of Uganda. The findings suggest that the majority of the CSOs studied are grassroots or other indigenous women’s organizations that undertake activities in multiple categories and thus adopt a holistic approach in addressing the issue of violence against women. Based on the public health ecological model for violence prevention, the overall picture that emerges is that the CSOs focus on primary level interventions, specifically concentrating their efforts on sensitization, awareness-raising, advocacy, and lobbying activities. In regards to their level of operations, my findings indicate that organizations favor community level interventions. All of the CSOs in the sample aim to address multiple at risk factors and most adopt a focus on multiple types of violence. In terms of the target population, the majority of interventions are universal, whereas both selective and indicated interventions primarily target women and girls. The study results indicate that the majority of the organizations adopt a feminist approach, either explicitly or implicitly. As a result, the CSOs focus on women’s and girls’ strategic interests and work towards the equal enjoyment of rights and opportunities. In addition, a majority of the activities that aim to address women’s practical needs do so in ways that have high transformatory potential. Those interviewed report that CSOs face a variety of constraints from their operational environments. Inadequate human and financial resources, negative cultural and political climates, as well as competition between CSOs are impeding their efforts to end violence against women in Uganda. Only two positive factors were identified that contribute to the performance of CSOs – their dedicated members/staff/volunteers and networking with other organizations. From the CSO interview responses some common lessons emerged. These include addressing the causes instead of the symptoms of violence against women, in particular, addressing gender inequality and consequently involving men and other community members in violence prevention efforts. The organizations also emphasize the importance of appropriate methods and communication strategies when dealing with sensitive issues. Finally, although facilitating behavioral change is a long-term and arduous process, interventions that promote lasting change are considered critical in order to end gender-based violence.
... The women's movement in a very short period became one of the major societal forces in Uganda and has played a significant role in improving the status of women. It has also addressed more general social justice issues, and has worked to advance the interests and rights of the poor, the disabled, children and other vulnerable groups (Tripp and Kwesiga 2002). ...
... Some provided women with credit, legal aid, publishing assistance or education to address the historic neglect of women in the mainstream institutions. At the other end of the spectrum, the national organizations were often linked to Africa-wide associations like Forum for Africa Women Educationalists (FAWE) and international associations like International Federation of Women Lawyers (Tripp and Kwesiga, 2002). There have been many gains, however small, which are indicative of broader transformations that are taking place throughout the society, and the widespread impact of the women's movement in Uganda. ...
... Uganda had the first woman vice president in Africa; Dr. Specioza Wandira Kazibwe (Tripp and Kwesiga, 2002). The constitution provides that the parliament shall consist of one woman representative for every district. ...
... Most over 13 years are in primary classes meant for younger children. This has major implications not only for the education, in an academic sense of achievements in literacy and numeracy, but also for young women's exposure to the wider benefits of education; such as access to health and social programmes, including HIV/AIDS education (Tumushabe, Barasa et al. 1999;Tripp and Kwesiga 2002;Kakuru 2006;Meinert 2009). Kakuru (2006) in her study of Ugandan education and gender, noted that male pupils are allocated more talking-time, and were more confident to participate in class. ...
... There have been legal and educational gains in relation to gender inequality in Uganda . But, there is still much to be done, including addressing issues of access and quality of young women's educational experience; legal changes concerning property and women's rights; and considerable progress needs to be made on matters of sexual violence (Mirembe and Davies 2001;Tripp and Kwesiga 2002;IPPF 2006). ...
... The implications of this new agenda for HIV prevention programmes is the need to go beyond current norms to support young women's growing self awareness and confidence as well as change to adult, institutional and community roles and attitudes. Whilst abstinence and condom use are still important messages, these need to be delivered within more complex, contextual and wide ranging programmes, which go further than narrow disease related goals to support cross sectoral working, creation of strategic alliances in the interests of young women, building an appropriate poliitcal base, managing the media, and other aspects of effective activism and empowerment (Spivak 1988;Neema 2002;Tripp and Kwesiga 2002;. ...
... Most over 13 years are in primary classes meant for younger children. This has major implications not only for the education, in an academic sense of achievements in literacy and numeracy, but also for young women's exposure to the wider benefits of education; such as access to health and social programmes, including HIV/AIDS education (Tumushabe, Barasa et al. 1999;Tripp and Kwesiga 2002;Kakuru 2006;Meinert 2009). Kakuru (2006) in her study of Ugandan education and gender, noted that male pupils are allocated more talking-time, and were more confident to participate in class. ...
... There have been legal and educational gains in relation to gender inequality in Uganda . But, there is still much to be done, including addressing issues of access and quality of young women's educational experience; legal changes concerning property and women's rights; and considerable progress needs to be made on matters of sexual violence (Mirembe and Davies 2001;Tripp and Kwesiga 2002;IPPF 2006). ...
... The implications of this new agenda for HIV prevention programmes is the need to go beyond current norms to support young women's growing self awareness and confidence as well as change to adult, institutional and community roles and attitudes. Whilst abstinence and condom use are still important messages, these need to be delivered within more complex, contextual and wide ranging programmes, which go further than narrow disease related goals to support cross sectoral working, creation of strategic alliances in the interests of young women, building an appropriate poliitcal base, managing the media, and other aspects of effective activism and empowerment (Spivak 1988;Neema 2002;Tripp and Kwesiga 2002;. ...
... While they are the major contributors to basic needs of the family unit, females in Uganda are not only less involved in the decision-making process, but many also lack access to inputs, land, and sources of income (Snyder 2000;Tripp and Kwesiga 2002). As indicated by Snyder's 2000 study of women in African economies, though their participation in MFO opportunities is changing the present circumstances, female agriculturists and farmers in countries like Uganda within sub-Saharan Africa produce 80% of food crops, but are minimally involved in household and family decisions (Mayoux 2001;Tripp and Kwesiga 2002;Arku and Arku 2009). ...
... While they are the major contributors to basic needs of the family unit, females in Uganda are not only less involved in the decision-making process, but many also lack access to inputs, land, and sources of income (Snyder 2000;Tripp and Kwesiga 2002). As indicated by Snyder's 2000 study of women in African economies, though their participation in MFO opportunities is changing the present circumstances, female agriculturists and farmers in countries like Uganda within sub-Saharan Africa produce 80% of food crops, but are minimally involved in household and family decisions (Mayoux 2001;Tripp and Kwesiga 2002;Arku and Arku 2009). ...
... Microvessels provides significant incentive and opportunity for females to reach a more level socio-economic playing field in communities like Kaliro. As a result of community-supported programme participation, women are able to more easily access the necessities for increasing agricultural output and household and resource management, both of which are essential to rural community development (Snyder 2000;Tripp and Kwesiga 2002). ...
Article
Full-text available
This article assesses the effects of microfinance on food security, using data from a group of Ugandan women from two rural villages: Bulike and Kaliro. Approximately 130 in-person questionnaires were completed over the summer of 2013. Statistical modelling techniques are used to shed light on the variability of access to food and additional income. Specifically, researchers identify latent effects of MFO participation-based literature and test these constructs using survey data collected from women who are about to begin participation in an MFO. Results provide evidence that a structural linkage exists between women’s social capital, empowerment, and collective action and access to additional income.
... While the institutionalization of gender mainstreaming might be helpful for gaining legitimacy and public awareness on the matter, other strategies will likely need to be in place for its success. The effects of gender-mainstreaming exercises in policy could be enhanced, for example, by placing a stronger focus on promising practices already shaping gender relations in specific territories (Njuki et al., 2016); by increasing the attention to women's rights movements (Tripp & Kwesiga, 2002); by establishing stronger monitoring and evaluation processes of gender-transformative programs (Hillenbrand et al., 2015); or by lessening the influence and dependence on donor gender requirements, and prioritizing policy action on context specific gender issues constraining local equitable development (Siachitema, 2010). This, however, would require willingness for gender-transformative change and strong gender analysis capabilities from policy-makers at all levels. ...
... As shown in chapter 5, proposed local solutions for gender equality in agriculture and climate change do not necessarily imply a (re)politization of gender issues, and often perpetuate gender inequalities and do not aim at challenging root causes of gender inequality. Southern forms of feminism and women's right movements are especially well positioned to spearhead this change (Tripp & Kwesiga, 2002), provided they are linked to mainstream local politics and are able to meaningfully influence policy-making processes (Chapter 5). It seems fundamental to also capitalize on practices that are already proving successful at shaping gender relations at local levels in different contexts (Njuki et al., 2016) and to provide the necessary normative space and independence to allow new local strategies for gender equality to emerge and be tested. ...
... Moreover, in Uganda, the environmental and women's movements have been especially successful in both mobilizing citizens and influencing legislation (Tripp 2010, 105). All the forms of association that can be identified in contemporary Uganda have roots in historical precedents of association, but changes in them have also been affected by broader dynamics beyond Uganda, such as the international human rights and women's movements, as well as donor funding (Tripp 2002). ...
... Action for Development (ACFODE), a Ugandan, gender-advocacy NGO, has provided a fruitful entry point to exploration of the dynamics of learning and wrestling, and is the case study discussed in this chapter. Over three decades of operation, it has changed from a participant in the transformative Ugandan women's movement (Tripp & Kwesiga 2002) into a more reformist professional organization, altering its strategies and organizational forms in response to encountering the above-mentioned general tensions. ACFODE describes itself as follows: ...
... Moreover, in Uganda, the environmental and women's movements have been especially successful in both mobilizing citizens and influencing legislation (Tripp 2010, 105). All the forms of association that can be identified in contemporary Uganda have roots in historical precedents of association, but changes in them have also been affected by broader dynamics beyond Uganda, such as the international human rights and women's movements, as well as donor funding (Tripp 2002). ...
... Action for Development (ACFODE), a Ugandan, gender-advocacy NGO, has provided a fruitful entry point to exploration of the dynamics of learning and wrestling, and is the case study discussed in this chapter. Over three decades of operation, it has changed from a participant in the transformative Ugandan women's movement (Tripp & Kwesiga 2002) into a more reformist professional organization, altering its strategies and organizational forms in response to encountering the above-mentioned general tensions. ACFODE describes itself as follows: ...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter describes selected features of the contemporary Tanzania that form the context for learning of citizenship in civil society. The chapter grasps the contextual conditions and circumstances of citizenship in Tanzania by looking at historical evolvement of the notion of development, maendeleo, over the period from colonial eras to the postcolonial single-party system to the contemporary multiparty democracy. The chapter continues with analyses of the moments of donor enthusiasm for civil society and NGOs and the recent debates on the shrinking space of civil society. Essentially, different stages present different idea of an ideal citizen and also different efforts in order to shape citizens by state and civil society organizations. It further reflects on how the traces of these developments might show in today’s citizenship habits including patterns of participation and citizenship identities, not only vis-á-vis the state but also other groups and forums where rights and responsibilities are negotiated, and thus, active citizenship is constructed.
... The Republic of Uganda (a name designated by the British, derived from the largest tribe, the Ganda, in the country) is a developing nation where a social movement for gender equality is gaining prominence (Tripp & Kwesiga, 2002). Research on gender equality and economic opportunity has been commissioned by the Ugandan government (Ellis, 2005;Mvududu, 2001). ...
... In addition to agriculture, women engage in small-scale business enterprises such as making and selling handicrafts, rearing small animals, or providing salon services (World Bank, 2005). Domestic chores such as cooking and child care make up a great portion of the daily time commitments of most Ugandan women (Tripp & Kwesiga, 2002;World Bank, 2005). ...
Article
The purpose of this phenomenological study was to expand the predominantly ethnocentric definitions of leisure by exploring the meaning of leisure among women in the developing East African nation of Uganda. Semi-structured interviews were used to understand the perspectives of 38 Ugandan women, and main themes were developed from the data using the constant comparative method. Our analysis revealed the core variable of perceiving choice emerging from themes including fortifying, restoring, and enjoying. Ugandan women used leisure to enhance their sense of identity, improve their health, build relationships and network, enhance their professional skills, strengthen family and community, refresh from daily work, and enjoy life. While leisure was often co-occurring with emotional and physical labour, women considered activities to be leisure when they perceived participation was freely chosen. The findings challenge the dichotomous relationship between work and leisure.
... Moreover, in Uganda, the environmental and women's movements have been especially successful in both mobilizing citizens and influencing legislation (Tripp 2010, 105). All the forms of association that can be identified in contemporary Uganda have roots in historical precedents of association, but changes in them have also been affected by broader dynamics beyond Uganda, such as the international human rights and women's movements, as well as donor funding (Tripp 2002). ...
... Action for Development (ACFODE), a Ugandan, gender-advocacy NGO, has provided a fruitful entry point to exploration of the dynamics of learning and wrestling, and is the case study discussed in this chapter. Over three decades of operation, it has changed from a participant in the transformative Ugandan women's movement (Tripp & Kwesiga 2002) into a more reformist professional organization, altering its strategies and organizational forms in response to encountering the above-mentioned general tensions. ACFODE describes itself as follows: ...
... Moreover, in Uganda, the environmental and women's movements have been especially successful in both mobilizing citizens and influencing legislation (Tripp 2010, 105). All the forms of association that can be identified in contemporary Uganda have roots in historical precedents of association, but changes in them have also been affected by broader dynamics beyond Uganda, such as the international human rights and women's movements, as well as donor funding (Tripp 2002). ...
... Action for Development (ACFODE), a Ugandan, gender-advocacy NGO, has provided a fruitful entry point to exploration of the dynamics of learning and wrestling, and is the case study discussed in this chapter. Over three decades of operation, it has changed from a participant in the transformative Ugandan women's movement (Tripp & Kwesiga 2002) into a more reformist professional organization, altering its strategies and organizational forms in response to encountering the above-mentioned general tensions. ACFODE describes itself as follows: ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Social accountability monitoring (SAM) is an approach widely employed by many civil society organizations to promote active participation of people in governance processes, especially in the context where government traditionally is dominant governance actor. This chapter scrutinizes certain attempts to promote change in current citizenship habits obtained through different forms of participation. It discusses how implementation of SAM initiatives encounters multiple context-based factors that affect the expected outcomes. The discussions draw illustrative experiences from local NGO working in Kondoa district to promote change of state-citizens relations in order to improve service delivery in the health sector. The chapter analyses the ways in which the implementation of SAM both promotes and hinders citizens’ active participation focusing on the balance between ideal model and reality during its implementation in Tanzania.
... Moreover, in Uganda, the environmental and women's movements have been especially successful in both mobilizing citizens and influencing legislation (Tripp 2010, 105). All the forms of association that can be identified in contemporary Uganda have roots in historical precedents of association, but changes in them have also been affected by broader dynamics beyond Uganda, such as the international human rights and women's movements, as well as donor funding (Tripp 2002). ...
... Action for Development (ACFODE), a Ugandan, gender-advocacy NGO, has provided a fruitful entry point to exploration of the dynamics of learning and wrestling, and is the case study discussed in this chapter. Over three decades of operation, it has changed from a participant in the transformative Ugandan women's movement (Tripp & Kwesiga 2002) into a more reformist professional organization, altering its strategies and organizational forms in response to encountering the above-mentioned general tensions. ACFODE describes itself as follows: ...
Book
See reviews on: https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/e/9780429279171?fbclid=IwAR1BbsU0jLo1dmk_ZO16eCBaolp-RoHLTsSysUACNptfuMwgYhOf69cE3aU
... Moreover, in Uganda, the environmental and women's movements have been especially successful in both mobilizing citizens and influencing legislation (Tripp 2010, 105). All the forms of association that can be identified in contemporary Uganda have roots in historical precedents of association, but changes in them have also been affected by broader dynamics beyond Uganda, such as the international human rights and women's movements, as well as donor funding (Tripp 2002). ...
... Action for Development (ACFODE), a Ugandan, gender-advocacy NGO, has provided a fruitful entry point to exploration of the dynamics of learning and wrestling, and is the case study discussed in this chapter. Over three decades of operation, it has changed from a participant in the transformative Ugandan women's movement (Tripp & Kwesiga 2002) into a more reformist professional organization, altering its strategies and organizational forms in response to encountering the above-mentioned general tensions. ACFODE describes itself as follows: ...
Book
Full-text available
See: https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/e/9780429279171?fbclid=IwAR1BbsU0jLo1dmk_ZO16eCBaolp-RoHLTsSysUACNptfuMwgYhOf69cE3aU
... Moreover, in Uganda, the environmental and women's movements have been especially successful in both mobilizing citizens and influencing legislation (Tripp 2010, 105). All the forms of association that can be identified in contemporary Uganda have roots in historical precedents of association, but changes in them have also been affected by broader dynamics beyond Uganda, such as the international human rights and women's movements, as well as donor funding (Tripp 2002). ...
... Action for Development (ACFODE), a Ugandan, gender-advocacy NGO, has provided a fruitful entry point to exploration of the dynamics of learning and wrestling, and is the case study discussed in this chapter. Over three decades of operation, it has changed from a participant in the transformative Ugandan women's movement (Tripp & Kwesiga 2002) into a more reformist professional organization, altering its strategies and organizational forms in response to encountering the above-mentioned general tensions. ACFODE describes itself as follows: ...
Chapter
Full-text available
According to the pragmatist framework of this book, practices in which citizenship is constructed are embedded in certain environments and, accordingly, current citizenship habits have been formulated in the course of a continuity of experiences and in interaction with existing circumstances (Holma & Kontinen, this volume). In this chapter, we provide a short overview of Uganda in so far as it is relevant for understanding the experiences and practices of citizenship: both vocal political engagement and the everyday processes of addressing matters of local importance. In contemporary Uganda, citizenship is manifest, on the one hand, in the upfront contestation and mobilization of visible opposition figures with increased popular support, and, on the other, continuously in mundane everyday life where problems are solved and shared issues are addressed together. The chapter thus contextualizes subsequent empirical chapters on gendered citizenship (Ndidde et al.), localized citizenship (Ahimbisibwe et al.), subdued citizenship (Alava) and critical education (Bananuka & John) in Uganda, and provides inspiration for reflecting on prevalent liberal ideas of citizenship in light of lived experience of politics in the country. The chapter proceeds as follows: an overview of Ugandan history is followed by discussion of some of its contemporary characteristics, after which we conclude with reflection on the multiple spaces for citizenship learning in Uganda.
... Moreover, in Uganda, the environmental and women's movements have been especially successful in both mobilizing citizens and influencing legislation (Tripp 2010, 105). All the forms of association that can be identified in contemporary Uganda have roots in historical precedents of association, but changes in them have also been affected by broader dynamics beyond Uganda, such as the international human rights and women's movements, as well as donor funding (Tripp 2002). ...
... Action for Development (ACFODE), a Ugandan, gender-advocacy NGO, has provided a fruitful entry point to exploration of the dynamics of learning and wrestling, and is the case study discussed in this chapter. Over three decades of operation, it has changed from a participant in the transformative Ugandan women's movement (Tripp & Kwesiga 2002) into a more reformist professional organization, altering its strategies and organizational forms in response to encountering the above-mentioned general tensions. ACFODE describes itself as follows: ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The chapter examines self-help groups in rural Tanzania as practices in which citizenship habits are formed. Self-help groups are referred as locally organized groups established to address the needs and challenges of the members. From the point of view of pragmatism, self-help groups provide concrete examples of a specific form of associated life and of a general human activeness in addressing shared problems. Based on interviews and focus-group discussions conducted in Kondoa district with local self-help groups, the characteristics of these practices are analyzed through three themes: the kinds of shared problems the groups address, the governance of internal interaction of the groups, and the sorts of participants included. Based on our analysis, we suggest a habit of contributing citizenship emerging out of the participation in self-help groups.
... Moreover, in Uganda, the environmental and women's movements have been especially successful in both mobilizing citizens and influencing legislation (Tripp 2010, 105). All the forms of association that can be identified in contemporary Uganda have roots in historical precedents of association, but changes in them have also been affected by broader dynamics beyond Uganda, such as the international human rights and women's movements, as well as donor funding (Tripp 2002). ...
... Action for Development (ACFODE), a Ugandan, gender-advocacy NGO, has provided a fruitful entry point to exploration of the dynamics of learning and wrestling, and is the case study discussed in this chapter. Over three decades of operation, it has changed from a participant in the transformative Ugandan women's movement (Tripp & Kwesiga 2002) into a more reformist professional organization, altering its strategies and organizational forms in response to encountering the above-mentioned general tensions. ACFODE describes itself as follows: ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Drawing on ethnographic research in the Acholi town of Kitgum in northern Uganda, this chapter illustrates how citizenship practices are embedded in particular relationships between the state and its citizens. Two key arenas for learning are identified: the everyday, which in this region is tinged by memories of past violence and fears of its recurrence, and moments of spectacular state performance such as the burial of a prominent politician. The chapter shows how practices of citizenship are learned through embodied experiences: by taking part in public debate, by voting or by greeting a flag, but also by running away from a soldier or by staying quiet due to fear. The chapter’s overall aim is to show why any attempts to foster growth into citizenship must commence from recognition and analysis of the everyday practices and spectacular events through which existing modes of citizenship have emerged.
... Brouwers (2013, 32) has emphasised the importance of context, arguing that 'locally formulated priorities' and the 'involvement of and ownership by partner countries' are essential for effective gender policy in development initiatives. In decentralised governance systems, bridging the gap between local normative stances and nationally mandated gender policy becomes fundamental in cases where local political elites might apparently engage with gender equality discourse but in practice pursue partial interests and act within the limits of community culture, resulting in continued discrimination and subordination of women (Ahikire 2007;Tripp and Kwesiga 2002). ...
Article
Full-text available
Building on the conceptualisation of 'the local' in gender and development discourse, we explore how national and sub-national policy actors in Uganda perceive gender equality policy in the context of agriculture and climate change, to assess the potential of localised solutions to achieve gender equality. Using data from national and sub-national policy actors in Uganda (37 semi-structured interviews, 78 questionnaires), the study found that policy actors largely adhered to global gender discourses in proposing context-specific solutions to gender inequality. Our results show that although local actors identified local norms and culture as major barriers to gender equality, their proposed solutions did not address local gender norms, focussed on formal policy and did little to address underlying causes of gender inequalities. Based on the findings, we suggest that 'the local' should be reconstructed as a deliberative space where a wide variety of actors, including local feminist organisations, critically engage, assess and address local gender inequality patterns in agriculture and climate change adaptation processes.
... Women"s activism in Uganda begun to flourish in the mid-1980"s when the National Resistance Movement"s (NRM) increased women"s involvement in leadership through the implementation of affirmative action in political decision-making (Tripp, 2002). The NRM government established the then Ministry of Women in Development (currently Ministry of Gender Labor and Social Development) in 1986. ...
Article
Full-text available
In Uganda, various stake holders including the government, NGOs, and women activists have undeniably played important roles in the combat for gender equality in primary education. However, there is evidence that success has not yet been realized. This article is based on research conducted to discover why gender inequalities in Uganda's Universal Primary Education persist despite deliberate measures to eradicate them. Two questions are addressed, namely: does HIV/AIDS contribute to the persistence of gender inequality in rural areas? What is the importance of linking theory and practice in women's activism in such a context? The findings reveal that HIV/AIDS affects household access to essential livelihood assets prompting responses and pathways incompatible with girls' schooling. These included girls' involvement in sex for economic gains, which obviously exposed them to the risk of contracting HIV. A vicious cycle of HIV/AIDS and gender inequality therefore exists despite women's protracted engagement in activism even in the era of HIV/AIDS. I argue that there is a need to refocus women's activism towards more practical rather than theoretical engagement. Apparently, there has been too much theorizing about the need to perceive the achievement of gender equality as a social justice issue. Such a perception must be accompanied by corresponding practice rather than just rhetoric. For example, the vicious cycle of HIV/AIDS and inequality could possibly be broken by a radical feminist movement capable of, not only advocating for, but also instituting practical measures to eradicate gendered discrimination at the household level to begin with. In addition, there is a need for the provision of better HIV/AIDS medical care and children's school requirements particularly in rural areas. There after, we shall comfortably count the achievements of women activism for educational gender equity in Uganda and Africa at large.
... While the institutionalization of gender mainstreaming might be helpful for gaining legitimacy and public awareness on the matter, other strategies will likely need to be in place for its success. The effects of gender mainstreaming exercises in policy could be enhanced, for example, by placing a stronger focus on promising practices already shaping gender relations in specific territories (Njuki, Parkins, & Kaler, 2016); by increasing the attention to women's rights movements (Tripp & Kwesiga, 2002); by establishing stronger monitoring and evaluation processes of gender transformative programs (Hillenbrand, Karim, Mohanraj, & Wu, 2015); or by lessening the influence and dependence on donor gender requirements, and prioritizing policy action on context specific gender issues constraining local equitable development (Siachitema, 2010). This, however, would require willingness for gender transformative change and strong gender analysis capabilities from policymakers at all levels. ...
Article
Full-text available
While the international norm on gender mainstreaming, UN-backed since 1995, has been widely adopted in national policies, gender inequalities are rarely systematically addressed on the ground. To explain this limited effectiveness, this paper takes a discourse analytical perspective on gender policy and budgeting, with a focus on the translation of the international norm into domestic norms and policies. An in-depth, inductive analysis of 107 policy documents in Uganda examines how the gender mainstreaming norm has been translated at three administrative levels: national, district, sub-county. The analysis finds five processes that reduce the norm's transformational potential: neglecting gender discourse, gender inertia, shrinking gender norms, embracing discursive hybridity and minimizing budgets. Overall, gender mainstreaming largely stopped at the discursive level, and often paradoxically depoliticized gender. The findings explain why gender mainstreaming might be helpful but not sufficient for advancing gender equality and suggest additional focus on promising practices, women's rights movements and stronger monitoring.
... By necessity, I turned to both Ugandan/African and Indian postcolonial feminist scholarship on gender, nationalism and patriarchal violence to analyse the Joshi-Sharma case, working against the grain of area studies and national boundaries by integrating and synthesising segmented bodies of scholarship. While African feminisms have helped to theorise the relationships among European empire, colonialism, nationalism and gender-based violence (see especially Mama, 1997), Ugandan gender and feminist scholarship includes the study of colonial and postcolonial gender ideologies (Musisi, 2001;Kyomuhendo and McIntosh, 2006), gender, violence, war and militarisation (Tibatemwa-Ekirikubinza, 1998;Decker, 2014); and the study of women's movements, formal political participation and legislative reform (Tamale, 2000;Tripp, 2000;Tripp and Kwesiga, 2002); and the study of the possibilities and limitations of liberal human and women's rights frameworks (Oloka-Onyango and Tamale, 1995;Tamale, 2001). In terms of Ugandan gender-based activism, global feminist frameworks emanating from international institutions continue to dominate the public sphere. ...
Article
This article examines the development of a multidimensional, transnational feminist research approach from and within Uganda in relation to a high-profile case of domestic violence and femicide of a middle-class, upper-caste Indian migrant woman in Kampala in 1998. It explores indigenous Ugandan public and Ugandan Asian/Indian community interpretations and the dynamics of cross-racial feminist mobilisation and protest that emerged in response to the Joshi-Sharma domestic violence case. In doing so, it advocates for a transnational feminist research approach from and within Uganda and the Global South that works against the grain of nationalist and nativist biases in existing feminist scholarly trends. This approach lays bare power inequalities and internal tensions within and across racialised African and Asian communities, and thus avoids the romanticisation of cross-racial feminist African-Asian solidarities.
... Whilst abstinence and condom use are still important messages, the narratives provided evidence of the need for more complex and contextualised programmes. Campbell, Cornish, Gibbs, & Scott (2010) suggest a model which supports cross-sectoral working, creation of strategic and political alliances, managing the media, and other aspects of effective activism and empowerment Neema, 2002;Tripp & Kwesiga, 2002). In relation to young women's empowerment and sexuality such a model offers a valuable approach to change which explicitly addresses power relations recognising the multi-dimensional nature of their lives. ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract This paper describes a study which explored the lives of young Ugandan women through their voices, and related the findings to HIV prevention paradigms. The research was conducted in the context of the continuing vulnerability of young Ugandan women to HIV; reflected in disproportionately high prevalence compared to young men. The participants of the study were 15 young women aged 15-19 years, from Busoga Region in Eastern Uganda. Given the focus on young women's voices within norms of gender inequality, a narrative methodology was used as a safe space for participants to speak about their lives, expanding on research experiences with young people. The methods used included drawing; written stories and drama; aspirational writing and diary keeping. Forty-eight narratives, in image and word form, represented everyday experiences in young women's lives, as well as difficult experiences of inequality and resistance. Young women portrayed considerable social barriers to empowerment, and a challenging environment of poverty and educational limitations. Young women's representations were analysed using a gender empowerment and positive sexuality framework. The resulting analysis was then critically applied to HIV prevention paradigms. Evidence from the study showed that prevailing HIV prevention paradigms reinforce the difficulties faced by young women in their sexual lives. This research adds to calls for alternative and wider approaches to HIV prevention, underpinned by gender empowerment. Alternative approaches need to build young African women's voices in the spaces of homes, schools and communities. It is vital, however, that such efforts are embedded in more radical change leading to social environments receptive to the needs of young women.
... Also, there is a need to actively seek ways to bring about gender equality and young women's empowerment within and beyond HIV-related programmes. The gender empowerment movement is working vigorously in Uganda (Tripp and Kwesiga, 2002), and needs to be supported to go further with greater emphasis on young women for HIV prevention. ...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the many studies of HIV/AIDS in Uganda and other African countries there is little in the literature which connects directly with young women’s experiences representations and voices. A research programme on this theme was conducted by the guest editors and a group of British medical students in partnership with Straight Talk Foundation (STF) Uganda. STF is a health communication NGO working with young people and communities to promote safe sex in the context of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Uganda. STF’s experience of working with young people is that in some Ugandan cultures and locations young men demonstrate confidence and are vocal yet young women remain silent and have little visibility. A starting point for the research therefore was recognition that young women’s voices were not being heard for the purposes of HIV prevention. The research aimed through use of participatory methodologies to focus strongly on young women’s voices: in this case eliciting representations of their everyday lives in the context of HIV/AIDS. Bettina Aptheker provides a supporting rationale for the study of women’s representations of their daily lives: “If we map what we learn connecting one meaning or invention to another we begin to lay out a different way of seeing reality. This way of seeing is what I refer to as women’s standpoint”. Learning from women about their lives focusing strongly on their standpoint brings us closer to a different kind of knowledge; one that not only informs us in a different way but also one that may have greater potential for empowerment. For the purposes of HIV prevention we argue here that exploring young women’s lives through their voices as well as through the voices of young men can offer a contribution to positive and empowering change. (excerpt)
Article
Full-text available
Discussions of human rights in Africa often turn on a clash between western assumptions about the sovereign individual and African kin-based identities sustained through ties of reciprocity. While this framing has proved useful in troubling notions of universal rights, it has also obscured complex African engagements with contemporary rights discourse. An important step in mapping these more nuanced dynamics is examining the intimate politics of rights in everyday social interaction. Drawing on ethnographic research of long-term, intimate relationships in urban Uganda, this article shows that intricate negotiations over men’s authority and women’s agency occur in these relationships as women’s rights are remade within the local context. This article, therefore, provides much needed attention to the intimate politics of women’s rights, both in terms of how intimate relationships shape the meaning of rights as well as how rights shape intimacy in urban Africa.
Article
Full-text available
Micro, small and medium enterprises play a pivotal role in the country which can contribute to women empowerment providing them employment opportunity. It is a key force in improving the economic condition of women providing employment to highly qualified as well as less qualified women for their overall development and helps to recognize their inherent ability to be engaged in the non-agricultural sector when employment in the agricultural sector is static. The present study attempts to assess the socio-economic empowerment of women through entrepreneurship and identify several problems faced by them in managing the enterprise. A total of 100 samples were surveyed for the purpose of the study. Simple random sampling has been used to collect data from 30 registered entrepreneurs. Through snowball sampling, 70 unregistered entrepreneurs were interviewed in the area. Both quantitative and qualitative data have been collected through a structured questionnaire using direct interview method. OLS regression and ordered logistic regression models have been used to explore the determinants of empowerment. Again, different constraints the entrepreneurs confronted during initiation and current management have been explored. The key economic variables are income, expenditure and enterprise decision making that are likely to increase the economic empowerment scores. All social empowerment variables except physical mobility are likely to increase social empowerment scores. The prime constituents of obtaining high overall empowerment status are income, self-employment, participation in domestic decision-making, independently managing personal matters, credit management, leisure, unpaid work, confidence in one’s own self, and social recognition. The study found that finance is the key challenge in start-ups and running expenses of enterprises. In addition, work-life and family imbalance, and marketing are recognized as prominent, followed by lack of lucrative price and heavy workloads.
Article
Full-text available
New conservation approaches challenge us to go beyond parks and protected areas to conservation in a matrix of land uses. Promoting the use of trees and woody species in landscapes and on farms is a frequently used but under-studied aspect of this approach. This article synthesizes recent field research at six sites in Africa on agroforestry in and around protected areas. It finds that the complex interactions among people, parks, and trees show that for agroforestry to contribute to conservation and livelihoods, policy, technology, and human rights issues have to be addressed.
Article
Full-text available
Feminist scholars seeking to maintain the link between theory and practice face multiple challenges as a result of the complex nexus between diverse gender politics and international development formulae. The most salient of these arise from the tension between the liberal strategy of entering mainstream institutions and networks, and the radical politics that emanate from feminist analyses of local conditions. Feminists in African contexts therefore face the intense challenges of developing innovative intellectual, pedagogical and institutional strategies, despite their weak organisational bases. The transformative capacity of feminist studies has so far depended on the capacity of African feminist thinkers to navigate the increasingly fraught intersections between local institutional demands, global development imperatives and their own visions of gender-just societies.
Article
Scholars, politicians and women activists today share a concern for the limited representation of women in different political bodies. Statistics comparing female representation in sub-Saharan African legislatures suggest that a small group of countries in Sub-Sahara Africa contribute to the relatively high female representation. Uganda is one of these, with 24% women in parliament. This article is based on my master thesis ”Can you really fail to support the one who feeds you? An analysis of female representation in the Parliament of Uganda”. The data is collected from interviews with 20 (total of 74) female parliamentarians’ summer 2002, newspaper reports and secondary sources.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.