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Emotional and psychological well-being in children: the development and validation of the Stirling Children’s Well-being Scale

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Abstract

The Stirling Children’s Well-being Scale (SCWBS) was developed by the Stirling Council Educational Psychology Service (UK) as a holistic, positively worded measure of emotional and psychological well-being in children aged eight to 15 years. Drawing on current theories of well-being and Positive Psychology, the aim was to provide a means of measuring the effectiveness of interventions and projects designed to promote children’s well-being and emotional development. A total of 18 schools and 1849 children participated in the construction and validation of the scale, which ultimately emerged as a short, robust measure comprising 12 items. The scale is offered for use by educational and health professionals interested in promoting and measuring the emotional development and well-being of children and the effectiveness of interventions.

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... Another study conducted by Liddle and Carter (2015) combined these two welfare approaches. The measuring instrument components were developed to consist of positive emotional states as a hedonistic representation and a positive outlook to exemplify the eudaimonic aspect. ...
... The Stirling Children's Well-being Scale (SCWBS) is a measuring instrument developed by Liddle and Carter (2015) that has been used in research in various countries. A study by Godfrey et al. (2015) with 84 British respondents aged 8 to 18 years, with social and mental health problems, used the scale as one aspect of the intervention goal. ...
... Based on this background, this study seeks to offer a more comprehensive method to overcome these three limitations. Therefore, this investigation intends to adapt the SCWBS scale measurement tool (Liddle & Carter, 2015) in the analysis of late adolescence in Indonesia. This is the novelty of the research, and it attempts to balance the hedonistic and eudaimonic perspectives. ...
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The present study aimed to culturally adapt the Stirling Children’s Well-being Scale (SCWBS) for use in Indonesia with college student and to assess their psychometric properties in this population. This study investigated the dimensions, particularly the nature and number, of the Indonesian version of the SCWBS. Three hundred seventy-five Indonesian college students were recruited through WhatsApp. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed on two subsamples, which were randomly divided using IBM SPSS, and the reliability of the SCWBS was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha. An exploratory factor analysis extracted two dimensions, which explained 58.24% of the total variance. A confirmatory factor analysis was performed on the two-factor measurement model of the scale, along with one second-order factor. These were found to have good model fit. The final 10-item SCWBS had high reliability and acceptable construct validity. Therefore, the scale was found to have adequate psychometric properties and to be applicable in research and practice. For further refinement, the Indonesian version of the SCWBS should be tested in a wider age range and in various subgroups, for example, to analyze socioeconomic status. Furthermore, it is necessary to assess other construct validity, such as criterion validity.
... Efforts to promote well-being had been hindered by a lack of valid tools which were suitable for measuring these attributes in the general population. To promote children's well being, the Educational Psychology Service of England collaboration with Stirling Council, has a new scale named Stirling Children's Well-Being Scale (SCWBC) measuring emotional, psychological and social aspects of well-being (5) . The SCWBS, positively worded scale, provides a useful instrument for professionals to assess any changes in well-being from a positive psychological perspective. ...
... The lowest possible score is 15 and the highest possible score is 75. This finding is consistent with the original SCWBS's mean (44.14) and SD (7.55) (5) . The corrected item-total correlation coefficients presented in Table 1 shows highly significant correlation coefficient values for all items except one item (Item no. ...
... High alpha coefficient value (0.746) was indicative of high internal consistency (Table 2). This finding is consistent with the original SCWBS's Cronbach alpha value (0.795) (5) . The odd-even split-half reliability coefficient value (0.782) states satisfactory level of internal consistency of SCWBS. ...
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The purpose of this study was to adapt Stirling Children’s Well-Being Scale (SCWBS) for measuring well-being of children of Bangladesh. Data were collected from 238 students, ages between 10 to 16 years of three different schools of Dhaka city. Psychometric properties were measured through Cronbach’s alpha (0.746), split-half (0.782), test-retest (0.791), which were satisfactory, respectively at 0.05, 0.05, and 0.01 level of significance. The demonstration of construct validity with Beck Self-Concept Inventory for Youth (BSCI-Y) and Beck Anxiety Inventory for Youth (BAI-Y) (two subtests of Adapted Bangla Beck Youth Inventories of Emotional and Social Impairment Scale) were 0.668 and –0.350, respectively, and item-total correlation (0.258 to 0.451) was also satisfactory. Thus psychometric results support that Bangla SCWBS is suitable for use in Bangladesh context. Mental health professionals can use Bangla SCWBS as a useful tool to assess changes in children’s wellbeing from a positive psychological perspective. Dhaka Univ. J. Biol. Sci. 25(2): 161-167, 2016 (July)
... The SCWBS developed by Liddle and Carter [45] was one measure used to assess wellbeing. It is a 15 item positively worded self-report questionnaire designed to measure positive outlook (PO), which assesses psychological wellbeing, and positive emotional state (PES), which assesses subjective wellbeing. ...
... A social desirability subscale comprising of three items is also included in the measure to help identify any children who may be deliberately responding in a biased manner. Scores of 14-15 or 3 indicates scores which should be treated with caution in the analysis [45]. Finally, the scale indicates appropriate validity and reliability for the study. ...
... Participant demographic data LMPP Living Mindfully Primary Programme training group, WLC wait list control group', AC active control groupinternal reliability, Cronbach's alpha .83. and test-retest reliability (n = 701, r = .75). Construct validity was also indicated with significant positive correlations with the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing scale and the Dubois self-esteem scale (r = .75)[45]. ...
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Background: Mindfulness programmes as a potential avenue of enhancing pupil wellbeing are beginning to show great promise. However, research concerning the effectiveness of mindfulness training for primary aged school children (7-11 years of age) has been neglected. Methods: Building on methodological limitations of prior research, this study employed an active controlled design to assess the longer term wellbeing and emotion regulation outcomes after a 6 week mindfulness programme (Living Mindfully Programme, UK), for a group of school children aged between 9 and 10. The programme was delivered by class teachers as part of their normal curriculum entitlement. One hundred and eight children took part from across three schools in North East of England. Participants formed a treatment group (n = 64), active control (n = 19) and wait list control (n = 25). Self-report measures of wellbeing, mindfulness and emotion regulation were collected at pre and post training as well as at 3 months follow up. Results: Reliable findings, judged by medium to large effect sizes across both post intervention, follow-up and between both controls, demonstrated enhancement in a number of domains. Immediately after training and follow up, when compared with the wait list control, children who received mindfulness training showed significant improvements in mindfulness (d = .76 and .77), Positive Outlook (d = .55 and .64) and Life Satisfaction (d = .65 and 0.72). Even when compared to an active control, the effects remained although diminished reflecting the positive impact of the active control condition. Furthermore, a significant positive relationship was found between changes in mindfulness and changes in cognitive reappraisal. Conclusions: Taken together, this study provides preliminary evidence that the Living Mindfully Primary Programme is feasibly delivered by school staff, enjoyed by the children and may significantly improve particular components of wellbeing. Importantly, higher levels of mindfulness as a result of training may be related to effective emotional regulatory and cognitive reappraisal strategies.
... The data collection procedure lasted, on average, about 40 min per student and was conducted under the supervision of a research assistant. Students were asked to complete two questionnaires (see "Students"): the Liddle and Carter (2015) questionnaire and the BASC-3 (Reynolds and Kamphaus, 2015). The Liddle and Carter (2015) questionnaire was distributed in paper format and took students 10 min on average to complete. ...
... Students were asked to complete two questionnaires (see "Students"): the Liddle and Carter (2015) questionnaire and the BASC-3 (Reynolds and Kamphaus, 2015). The Liddle and Carter (2015) questionnaire was distributed in paper format and took students 10 min on average to complete. The BASC-3 required 30 min on average to complete. ...
... Students were asked to complete two self-reported questionnaires individually, the first measuring wellbeing at school using the Liddle and Carter (2015) questionnaire, and the second measuring mental health using the BASC-3 tool (Reynolds and Kamphaus, 2015), which reports on students' coping and behavioral functioning. ...
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While traditional seating (also known as fixed seating or fixed classroom ) remains the preferred classroom seating arrangement for teachers, a new type of seating arrangement is becoming more common in schools: the flexible classroom (also known as flexible seating ). The purpose of this type of arrangement is to meet the needs of students by providing a wide variety of furniture and workspaces, to put students at the center of learning, and to allow them to make choices based on their preferences and the objectives of the task at hand. This study aimed to examine the influence of flexible seating on the wellbeing and mental health of elementary school students. This article presents the results of exploratory research conducted in Quebec among Grade 5 and 6 students comparing the wellbeing and mental health of students in fixed and flexible classrooms. The study was conducted with 107 students in three Grade 5 and 6 flexible classrooms ( n = 51) and three Grade 5 and 6 fixed classrooms ( n = 56). It is based on a quasi-experimental, quantitative design with post-test only and a control group. The groups were matched based on natural conditions (i.e., from a convenience sample). Furthermore, the study included a gender-differentiated analysis for each group. The results showed that flexible classroom seating had a positive influence on the girls’ wellbeing and mental health. In contrast, for the boys, fixed classroom seating was most conducive to their wellbeing and mental health. However, our study has some limitations that are discussed in the article.
... The present study focuses on a specific form of well-being, subjective well-being, which can be of three types [6]: eudaimonic, hedonic and experiential or evaluative. Eudaimonic well-being focuses on the experience of personal functioning and the pursuit of meaningful goals and self-fulfilment [7]. The hedonic approach includes affective and cognitive elements, which relate to the balance of positive and negative emotions, and an overall evaluation of life, expressed in life satisfaction [6]. ...
... Finally, the experiential perspective refers to each person's overall assessment of their general well-being. These are all different ways of approaching the study of "subjective well-being", although this grammatical construct is usually used to refer only to hedonic subjective psychological well-being [7]. ...
... High levels of well-being reported by aggressors could be because the questionnaires used were self-reports, as in the present study, as could the low level of self-criticism shown by aggressors [5,25]. The fact that a positive, albeit weak, relationship between aggression and well-being appears raises the question about the meaning of this relationship, since we cannot specify whether well-being increases with aggression or, on the contrary, low levels of well-being promote aggression [7,20,25]. As for the bullying victims, the results found in this study show a negative relationship between well-being and people involved in bullying situations as victims and that they score significantly lower in well-being than people who are not victims. ...
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Bullying has a negative impact on adolescents’ emotional and social development, especially in the case of victims. This study aims to explore the association of engagement in bullying behaviours, for both the victim and aggressor, with psychological well-being. A non-experimental, cross-sectional and correlational quantitative study was designed, with the participation of 570 students between 14 and 15 years old (SD 0.99), of which 50.5% were girls and 49.5% boys, who were selected through stratified random sampling. Mean differences, bivariate correlations and multiple linear regressions were calculated to study the relationship between bullying and psychological well-being. Victims scored lower for subjective well-being, with the educational and social implications that this means. As for the aggressors, who scored higher on well-being than non-aggressors, the question is raised as to whether well-being increases with aggression or whether aggression is the result of lower levels of well-being. Female bullying victims belonging to the older age group are the participant profile with the lowest well-being scores. This gender perspective can be considered not only with regards to coexistence and bullying prevention plans but also shows the need to promote psychological well-being to educate towards equality.
... Well-being can be viewed from two perspectives: hedonic well-being (immediate states of pleasure and happiness) and eudaimonic well-being (the actualization of human potential) ( Ryan & Deci, 2001 ). The former pertains to subjective well-being (SWB), whereas the latter refers to psychological well-being (PWB) ( Liddle & Carter, 2015 ). Previous research uncovered the relationships between well-being and resilience ( Lindert et al., 2014 ), social support ( Lai & Ma, 2016 ), educational attainment ( Morozink et al., 2010 ), and medical conditions ( Friedman & Ryff, 2012 ). ...
... During the validation of the original SCWBS, Liddle and Carter (2015) examined its internal consistency, construct validity, and external validity through the test-retest method. After the translation and adaptation process, the Japanese version of the Stirling Children's Well-being Scale (J-SCWBS) should coincide with the original version on critical points, including item-to-scale correlation, internal consistency, reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness ( Beaton et al., 2000 ). ...
... The SCWBS is a measure of well-being designed by Liddle and Carter (2015) . This scale consists of 15 items that are divided into two dimensions: the first, Positive Emotional State, consists of six items measuring SWB; the second, Positive Outlook, consists of six items measuring PWB; and the remaining three items indicate the existence of social desirability. ...
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Japanese children manifest social-emotional difficulties due to increased absenteeism and bullying incidents at schools. Mental health services using evidence-based practices within school systems aim to promote mental health and well-being; therefore, there is a need to develop a well-being assessment scale for Japanese children. This study examined the reliability and validity of a child well-being scale adapted from the Stirling Children's Well-being Scale (SCWBS) for Japanese children, namely the J-SCWBS. It was verified for Japanese contexts in accordance with the guidelines concerning cross-cultural adaptations of self-report measures. Participants consisted of primary school children, aged 6–12 years. The results confirmed the scale's reliability and validity and its efficacy in assessing children's well-being within Japanese contexts.
... Each site worked with a different number of participants based on capacity. There was a broad spread of age ranges within the sample (7)(8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22), with an average age of 12.9 years. Attendance was captured using the Teampact app (https://teampact.co/ ...
... The evaluations utilized the Stirling Child Well-Being Scale (SCWS) to measure participant well-being before and after the course. This is a positively worded well-being measure developed by Stirling University in 2010 and has been demonstrated as both psychometrically reliable and valid for children aged 8 and above [13]. The SCWS involves a 12 item positively worded well-being scale, divided into Positive Emotional State and Positive Outlook sub-components. ...
... The SCWS is a validated and recognized tool for measuring child and youth wellbeing [13]. Despite its successful use in multiple studies, its genesis within a Western context (Scotland) should be recognized. ...
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Citation: Marshall, J.; Kamuskay, S.; Samai, M.M.; Marah, I.; Tonkara, F.; Conteh, J.; Keita, S.; Jalloh, O.; Missalie, M.; Bangura, M.; et al. A Abstract: Young people in post-conflict and post-epidemic contexts such as Sierra Leone face a range of mental health challenges as part of their daily life. An innovative approach to Sport for Development that could offer support to youth mental health is surf therapy. This research used an uncontrolled mixed methods approach to explore surf therapy pilots run by five youth-focused and community development organizations around Freetown. Four sites provided useable pre/post data using the Stirling Children's Well-Being Scale (n = 58, average age = 12.9). Three sites were associated with significant (p < 0.017) large effects (r = 0.65-0.84) on participant well-being. One site was associated with a non-significant (p < 0.380) small negative effect (r = −0.22). A synthesis of qualitative data within the five evaluations triangulated with quantitative findings and provided important context in terms of challenges to service delivery. This included low attendance as a plausible mediator for why one site saw very different results than other sites. Combined, these processes highlight the need for future research exploring possible dose-response relationships in surf therapy. This study also provides a foundation for more rigorous research in the future. These promising findings support continued and optimized delivery of surf therapy in Sierra Leone to support youth mental health.
... medication adherence, psychological wellbeing of children with HIV, caregiver burden, and psychological wellbeing of caregivers) in predicting disclosure of HIV status (outcome variable). In the first step, the following demographic variables (child's age, child's level of education, caregivers' level of education) were controlled for as these have been shown to significantly affect disclosure of status [15,[28][29][30]. In the second step, all the independent variables were entered into the model. ...
... This means the more parents do not disclose children's status, the less the children adhered to their medication intake. Previous studies have confirmed this association [15,28,33,34]. For instance, in Peru, Baker and colleagues [33] found that caregivers and health care professionals' frustrations about non-adherence to medication were compelled to disclose the status of their children living with HIV. ...
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Background The prevalence of disclosure of status to children living with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is low in most sub-Saharan African countries, leading to poor compliance and adverse psychological outcomes in these children. This study examined the influence of disclosure on health outcomes in children living with HIV and their caregivers. Methods Using a cross-sectional design, 155 HIV-positive children between age 6–15 years and their caregivers were administered standardized questionnaires measuring adherence to medication, children's psychological well-being, caregiver burden, and caregivers’ psychological health. Results Results indicated that only 33.5% of the children sampled knew their status. Disclosure of HIV status was significantly related to medication adherence, psychological wellbeing, the burden of caregiving, and the length of the disclosure. A child’s age and level of education were the only demographic variables that significantly predicted disclosure of HIV status. In a hierarchical analysis, after controlling for all demographic variables medication adherence, psychological well-being and burden of caregiving were found to be significant predictors of disclosure of status in children living with HIV. Conclusions Findings suggest the need for disclosure of status among children living with HIV for a positive impact on their medication adherence and psychological health. These findings underscore the need for the development of context-specific interventions that will guide and encourage disclosure of status by caregivers to children living with HIV.
... To measure children's emotional and psychological wellbeing, we used the Stirling Children's Wellbeing Scale, a positively worded, 12-item self-report measure that employs a 5-point Likert scale (Liddle and Carter 2015). It has good internal reliability (α=0.82-0.85), ...
... good test-retest reliability (r=0.75), and good concurrent validity with measures of self-esteem (r=0.69) and wellbeing (r=0.74) (Liddle and Carter 2015). We measured children's emotional and behavioral problems with the 35-item Pediatric Symptom Checklist, using a 3-point Likert scale (Jellinek et al. 1988). ...
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Evaluations of education technology (ed tech) interventions in humanitarian settings are scarce. We present a proof-of-concept study of Can't Wait to Learn, a digital game-based learning program that combines an experiential, active learning design with meaningful, competency-appropriate, and contextually relevant content. We assessed the feasibility of using this program to address the current education gap in Lebanon by implementing its mathematics component in basic literacy and numeracy classes (n=30) with out-of-school children (n=390) ages 10-14. We estimated changes in numeracy competency and psychosocial wellbeing and conducted focus group discussions (n=16) and key informant interviews (n=19) with children, facilitators, parents, and partner staff members to understand the lived experience, perceived impact, and implementation challenges of the program. Our findings support the feasibility of using ed tech programs to meet the needs of out-of-school children, as we saw significant improvements in numeracy, psychological symptoms, and self-esteem; positive reported experiences with the program; increased motivation among the children; and overall ease of implementation. Our suggested improvements to the game design and implementation model will support ongoing program adaptation and implementation, with the goal of increasing access to quality education for children living in humanitarian settings. Our findings will inform future studies that seek to conclusively determine the program's effectiveness.
... The RANY is a tool aimed at guiding the reestablishment of familial, social, and psychological health. Liddle and Carter (2015) explain that in the development and validation of an assessment instrument a number of key requirements should be met, specifically face validity, construct validity, internal reliability, external reliability, and sensitivity (Liddle & Carter ...
... Liddle and Carter go on to explain that internal reliability indicates whether the items in the scale consistently measure the same construct, and external reliability assesses whether the scale consistently measures the same construct over time. Finally, the sensitivity of the scale indicates whether it can measure any changes or discriminate between groups (Liddle & Carter).Liddle and Carter (2015) maintain that for there to be a good degree of face validity, not only does the scale need to look like it measures what it intends to but there also needs to be a clearly defined theoretical construct of what is being measured. This normally entails drawing upon current theoretical understanding and additionally undertaking qualitative research in order to determine what people's perception of the construct is(Liddle & Carter). ...
Article
While child neglect is the most substantiated form of child maltreatment, there is a lack of assessment tools leading to effective treatment, particularly among older victims of neglect. To date, the research has focused on younger victims and the subsequent disruption in the attachment relationship. Although development of child neglect assessment tools has been pioneered by an ecological model, the relational nature of this type of maltreatment also necessitates an assessment of relational factors that are highly correlated to child neglect. Because neglect occurs within the caregiver relationship, assessment of interpersonal impairments among older youth can best be guided by relational cultural theory, which postulates people grow and develop through relationships. Accordingly, the Relational Assessment of Neglected Youth (RANY) is a proposed assessment tool aimed at identifying the foundational elements of neglect, the incongruence between neglect and relational growth and development, and the psychological impact of neglect. The development of the RANY depends heavily on the identification of interpersonal elements and is driven by the need for youth and caregiver input. This article constructs a case for the development of the RANY, which proposes to fill the gap in assessment of older victims of neglect and the resultant relational and psychological impairment.
... Although, there is a wide range of instruments evaluating child subjective well-being, there are only a few measures related to psychological (eudaimonic) well-being. One of the most widely used is the Stirling Children's Well-being Scale which measures emotional and psychological well-being in children aged from 8 to 15 years (Liddle & Carter, 2015). This scale includes two subcomponents, Positive Emotional State and Positive Outlook which, according to the authors, correspond to Subjective (Hedonic) Wellbeing and Psychological (Eudaimonic) Well-being, consecutively. ...
... However, this measure has various limitations. It lacks factorial validity (Liddle & Carter, 2015), while it does not take into account purpose in life which is an important component of eudaimonic well-being (Ryff & Keyes, 1995). ...
Article
Background: Well-being has become a core concept in the study of positive child health, however, previous instruments for well-being evaluation have been centered mainly on the hedonic component. Therefore, the objective of this study was to adapt the Psychological Well-being Scales for assessing eudaimonic well-being in children and adolescents using a single-item per dimension approach. Method: A total of 312 participants (52.9% girls; ages 10-18) from Spain completed the Psychological Well-Being Scales Short Form, the WHO-5 Well-Being Index, and their psychological well-being was evaluated via a semi-structured interview by a developmental psychologist who was an expert in positive psychology. Results: Parallel analysis and exploratory factor analysis suggested a unidimensional structure that showed an excellent fit to the data. The new measure also demonstrated scalar invariance across gender and age. Moreover, the new scale significantly correlated with both WHO-5 and the expert’s ratings of psychological well-being, indicating adequate criterion validity. Conclusions: The Psychological Well-Being Scales Short Form is a useful, brief measuring instrument that reduces children cognitive fatigue during evaluation.
... In terms of measures, most of the studies adopted unidimensional measures of wellbeing as the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale (WEMWBS; Tennant et al., 2007), Satisfaction with life scale (SWLS; Diener et al., 1985), Flourishing scale (Diener et al., 2010), Student' s Life Satisfaction Scale (SLSS; , General Happiness Scale (Lyubomirsky & Lepper, 1999), or Sterling Children's wellbeing scale (SCWBS; Liddle & Carter, 2015). These measures assess mostly subjective wellbeing, excepting one study that adopts a broader measure that assesses both subjective and psychological wellbeing (Panayiotou et al., 2019). ...
... Frequency and duration of the intervention Six 1-h weekly sessions. Instrument used to measure wellbeing: Sterling Children's wellbeing scale (SCWBS;Liddle & Carter, 2015) ...
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This chapter focuses on children’s vulnerability manifested in economic and social context. Key aims are to examine the influence of economic and peer-group vulnerability on children’s subjective well-being and feelings of safety—a key domain of well-being. Data for this paper were obtained from over 2000 primary and secondary school children aged between 10 and 14 years in Bangladesh. For data collection, a questionnaire was developed and administered as part of the third Wave of the Children’s Worlds International Survey on Children’s Well-Being (ISCWeB). Children’s economic and peer-group vulnerability are found to have statistically significant influence on their assessment about their safety and subjective well-being. Vulnerability in material resource and peer-group victimisation appear to have respectively the first and second highest effect on self-perceived safety and children’s subjective well-being. Lower level of safety and well-being are associated significantly with those children who reported higher vulnerability in both material deprivation and peer-group relations. These findings are discussed in the context of previous empirical studies on child well-being, safety, and vulnerability. Suggestions for future research are also put forward.
... Lopez et al. (2018) stated that psychological well-being is composed of positive and negative affect in addition to the minimum symptoms of depression. Liddle and Carter (2015) defined psychological wellbeing in adolescents as a condition marked by the presence of positive emotions as well as a positive appearance. Tennant et al. (2007) formulated the concept of psychological well-being into 66. ...
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Previous findings on the relationship between parental marital quality and adolescent psychological well-being are inconsistent; thus, we conducted a meta-analysis of 23 relevant studies. Results revealed significant associations between: (1) positive parental marital quality and high psychological well-being; (2) positive parental marital quality and low psychological wellbeing; (3) negative parental marital quality and high psychological wellbeing; (4) negative parental marital quality and low psychological well-being. Future research implications will be discussed in this article. Subjects: Adolescent Development; Adulthood; Parenting and Families Keywords: marital quality; psychological well-being; meta-analysis Hepi Wahyuningsih ABOUT THE AUTHORS Hepi Wahyuningsih is currently lecturer and researcher in Departement of Psychology and Master of Professional Psychology at Faculty of Psychology and Socio-Cultural Studies, Universitas Islam Indonesia. She graduated from of Doctoral Program of Psychology, Universitas Gadjah Mada with dissertation focusing on marital quality. She teaches developmental psychology , child abnormal psychology, family psychology, statistics, and research methodology .Her current research interest includes marital quality, marital commitment, religiosity, educational psychology, family psychology, and measurement development. Fitri Ayu Kusumaningrum is currently lecturer and researcher in Departement of Psychology at Faculty of Psychology and Socio-Cultural Studies, Universitas Islam Indonesia. Her research interest includes parenting in children and adolescents. She is active in many social activities involving training and workshop on parenting and other relevant works. Resnia Novitasari is currently lecturer and researcher in Departement of Psychology at Faculty of Psychology and Socio-Cultural Studies, Universitas Islam Indonesia. She teaches developmental psychology, child abnormal psychology , and early childhood psychology. Her research interest includes well-being in children and adolescents, attachment and parenting, special needs children, and bullying. PUBLIC INTEREST STATEMENT This meta-analysis demonstrates the importance of marital quality in adolescent development. It is found that positive marital quality is most strongly related to high psychological wellbeing. But the weighted mean obtained was not highly convincing because of publication bias. Publication bias occurs because studies of marital quality in positive concepts related to psychological well-being in positive concepts are only three studies. This shows the importance of research on the relationship of marital quality with adolescent psychological well-being in a positive concept. In this meta-analysis study also found a sufficient correlation between the marital quality and psychological well-being in a negative concept with a low publication bias. This shows that adolescents who have low psychological well-being because they perceive the quality of parental relationships is not good. Results also may imply that therapy should not only focus on adolescent, but also on directly dealing with their parent.
... Well-being will be measured with the Stirling Children's Well-being Scale (for children aged 8-13 years) and the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (for youths aged 13-17 years). [48][49][50] The Stirling Children's Well-being Scale asks children 12 questions about their emotional and personal well-being (5-point response scale, total possible score of ...
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Introduction Children and youth with mental health and addiction crises are a vulnerable patient group that often are brought to the hospital for emergency department care. We propose to evaluate the effect of a novel, acute care bundle that standardises a patient-centred approach to care. Methods and analysis Two paediatric emergency departments in Alberta, Canada are involved in this prospective, pragmatic, 29-month interventional quasi-experimental study. The acute care bundle comprises three components, applied when appropriate: (1) assessing self-harm risk at triage using the Ask Suicide-Screening Questionnaire (ASQ) to standardise the questions administered, enabling risk stratification; (2) use of the HEADS-ED (Home, Education, Activities/peers, Drug/alcohol, Suicidality, Emotions and behaviour, Discharge Resources) to focus mental health evaluations for those who screen high risk on the ASQ; and (3) implementation of a Choice And Partnership Approach to enable shared decision making in care following the emergency department visit. The overarching goal is to deliver the right care at the right place and time for the patients. The study design involves a longitudinal collection of data 12 months before and after the introduction of the bundle and the use of quality improvement strategies such as Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles during a 5-month run-in period to test and implement changes. The primary study end-point is child/youth well-being 1 month after the emergency department visit. Secondary outcomes include family functioning, child/youth well-being at 3 and 6 months, satisfaction with emergency department care, and health system outcomes (hospital admissions, length of emergency department stays, emergency department revisits). Ethics and dissemination The study is registered at www.ClinicalTrials.gov and has received ethics and operational approvals from study sites. The results of the study will be reported in accordance with the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology statement. Results will be shared broadly with key policy and decision makers and disseminated in peer-reviewed academic journals and presentations at conferences. Trial registration number NCT04292379 .
... Some established and widely used measurement instruments are the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (Tennant et al., 2007), the Stirling Children's Well-Being Scale (Liddle & Carter, 2015), or the Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener et al., 1985). ...
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How can we live a good life both thanks to and despite the constant use of digital media? The presented proto-theory of digital well-being offers guidance for theory development and theory integration to enable a cumulative science of the impacts of digital media use on well-being. The proto-theory describes the nature of and connections between three relevant phenomena—digital practices, harms/benefits, and well-being—and creates a blueprint for explanatory theories. It focuses on the mechanisms between digital media use and well-being by analyzing the often concomitant harms and benefits arising from individual’s digital practices within structural conditions; these mechanisms are theoretically plausible causal chains that lead from a specific manifestation of digital practice to a relevant individual well-being outcome with some regularity. Future digital well-being studies should prioritize descriptive validity and longitudinal designs.
... Mental well-being was assessed using the Stirling Children's Well-Being Scale (SCWBS), which consisted of 15 items measuring positive emotion (n=6), positive outlook (n=6), and social desirability (n=3) subscales (Liddle & Carter, 2015). Each of the subscales provided a separate score. ...
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The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of the ‘Kick-Smart’ martial arts programme using a randomised controlled-trial conducted in one Australian primary school. Kick-Smart involved children 9-11yrs (n= 46) randomised into treatment or wait-list control conditions. Kick-Smart consisted of 2x60min curriculum sessions/week for 6-weeks during school hours. Positive feedback was received from students and teachers regarding program enjoyment, perceived benefits and future plans. Significant treatment effects favouring the Kick-Smart group for muscular fitness and mathematics achievement demonstrates preliminary efficacy. Findings indicate Kick-Smart is feasible for delivery in a primary school setting and effective for improving selected fitness and academic outcomes. Further evidence for the effectiveness of Kick-Smart via a larger randomised control trial is recommended.
... Stirling Children's Wellbeing Scale (SCWBS, Liddle & Carter, 2010): The SCWBS is a 15item self-report questionnaire that measures the positive aspects of emotional and psychological wellbeing. Participants are asked how they have been feeling and acting over the last couple of weeks. ...
Article
Mindfulness has recently shown promise in mental illness treatment and preventative contexts with school-aged young people. However, there is a shortage of studies investigating the effects of school-based mindfulness interventions on young people of a pre-adolescent and early-adolescent age. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a regional multi-site school-based mindfulness programme on wellbeing and resiliency in UK school children aged 9–12 years old. A total of 1,138 children who received mindfulness training completed the Resiliency Scale for Children and Adolescents and the Stirling Children’s Wellbeing Scale pre- and post-intervention. Results showed significant improvements following intervention delivery in positive emotional state, positive outlook, and resiliency, with resiliency effects maintained at a six-month follow-up assessment. Findings indicate that mindfulness delivered by school teachers can improve wellbeing and resiliency in children and young people.
... Students' well-being was measured using the Stirling Children's Well Being Scale (Liddle & Carter, 2015). This scale comprises 12 items, assessing both positive emotional state and positive outlook. ...
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The Faith and Wellness: A Daily Mental Health Resource is a school-based, teacher-led social-emotional learning (SEL) intervention resource for elementary students. It is designed to address the challenges faced by existing SEL interventions, including lack of time, training, and resources. Using a randomized control trial design, this study evaluates short-term outcomes associated with the use of this resource. Participants were elementary teachers (NT1 = 201, NT2 = 129) and students (NT1 = 242, NT2 = 183; ages 4-14; 47.5% girls) from 19 Catholic school boards in [PROVINCE]. Using multi-level models, significant small to medium effect sizes indicated that intervention group teachers: taught SEL more frequently; had higher confidence in teaching SEL; and had more positive perceptions of the classroom climate, students' SEL, and students' school engagement at Time 2 than comparison group teachers. Results for students were less robust, though there was indication of dosage effects. Results highlight the role of teachers and frequent delivery in effective SEL implementation. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12310-022-09538-x.
... The wellbeing of an individual has been argued by the World Health Organisation (WHO, 2014) to encompass an individual's ability to cope with normal stresses of life, work productively and fruitfully, and contribute to the community. Whilst there is no consensus around a single definition of wellbeing, it can include key psychological dimensions, such as the presence of a positive emotional state and positive outlook (Liddle and Carter, 2015), and the ability to make decisions and take responsibility in achieving a fulfilled life (Ager et al., 2015;Roscoe, 2009). Research on wellbeing of international students has largely focused on negative psychological constructs, such as stress and depression. ...
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Growth in the international school sector continues, with significant expansion of the sector in Asia. Whilst substantial research has been conducted on the adjustment experience of tertiary-aged students, limited research attention has been given to school-aged students in international schools. The environment, conditions and challenges experienced by school-aged international students can differ considerably from those of tertiary-aged international students. This can be heightened during early-adolescence with adjustment from school mobility linked to many negative developmental outcomes. The present study investigates wellbeing, engagement and resilience of 178 early-adolescent international school students (aged 10-14) from an international school in Singapore that offers the International Baccalaureate Diploma and the national curriculum of England. Results reported a positive significant association between wellbeing, engagement and resilience constructs. The study also identified demographic and mobility characteristics that were associated with lower levels of wellbeing, behavioural engagement and resilience. Findings of the study highlight a potential cohort of early-adolescent international students who could benefit from additional support.
... It means wellbeing is a concept that continues to experience change over time and also as a concept can be understood from various dimensions. Liddle & Carter (2015) said that the latest holistic view of well-being includes many dimensions. This is seen as a combination of subjective condition of relaxation, the presence of a positive mood and the absence of negative moods, and the existence of psychological conditions of personal growth, life satisfaction, social interactions with others, and personal relatedness with high-quality relations (Wyn, Cuervo and Landstedt, 2014). ...
... Age-appropriate questions were used to collect data on demographics, health and well-being, nutrition, living/home situation, and adverse childhood experiences. Mental well-being was assessed by age-appropriate validated measures: the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale (WEMWBS) 11 for secondary -school pupils or the Stirling Children's Well-being Scale (SCWS) 24 for primary school pupils. WEMWBS assesses eudemonic and hedonic well-being as well as psychological functioning and subjective well-being. ...
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Background Poor mental well-being is a major issue for young people and is likely to have long-term negative consequences. The contribution of nutrition is underexplored. We, therefore, investigated the association between dietary choices and mental well-being among schoolchildren. Methods Data from 7570 secondary school and 1253 primary school children in the Norfolk Children and Young People Health and Well-being Survey, open to all Norfolk schools during October 2017, were analysed. Multivariable linear regression was used to measure the association between nutritional factors and mental well-being assessed by the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale for secondary school pupils, or the Stirling Children’s Well-being Scale for primary school pupils. We adjusted all analyses for important covariates including demographic, health variables, living/home situation and adverse experience variables. Results In secondary school analyses, a strong association between nutritional variables and well-being scores was apparent. Higher combined fruit and vegetable consumption was significantly associated with higher well-being: well-being scores were 3.73 (95% CI 2.94 to 4.53) units higher in those consuming five or more fruits and vegetables (p<0.001; n=1905) compared with none (n=739). The type of breakfast or lunch consumed was also associated with significant differences in well-being score. Compared with children consuming a conventional type of breakfast (n=5288), those not eating any breakfast had mean well-being scores 2.73 (95% CI 2.11 to 3.35) units lower (p<0.001; n=1129) and those consuming only an energy drink had well-being scores 3.14 (95% CI 1.20 to 5.09) units lower (p=0.002; n=91). Likewise, children not eating any lunch had well-being scores 2.95 (95% CI 2.22 to 3.68) units lower (p<0.001; 860) than those consuming a packed lunch (n=3744). In primary school analyses, the type of breakfast or lunch was associated with significant differences in well-being scores in a similar way to those seen in secondary school data, although no significant association with fruit and vegetable intake was evident. Conclusion These findings suggest that public health strategies to optimise the mental well-being of children should include promotion of good nutrition.
... This field offers scales which can be adopted in settings, including schools, to measure the wellbeing of children. However, whilst there are some useful definitions of key terms, there is little research into the process or stages of the development of mental wellbeing by children and young people (Glover at al., 1998;Liddle and Carter, 2015). ...
Research
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‘Learning about Progression’ is a suite of research-based resources designed to provide evidence to support the building of learning progression frameworks in Wales. ‘Learning about Progression’ seeks to deepen our understanding of current thinking about progression and to explore different purposes that progression frameworks can serve to improve children and young people’s learning. These resources include consideration of how this evidence relates to current developments in Wales and derives a series of principles to serve as touchstones to make sure that, as practices begin to develop, they stay true to the original aspirations of A Curriculum for Wales – A Curriculum for Life. It also derives, from the review of evidence, a number of fundamental questions for all those involved in the development of progression frameworks to engage.
... Some established and widely used measurement instruments are the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (Tennant et al., 2007), the Stirling Children's Well-Being Scale (Liddle & Carter, 2015), or the Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener et al., 1985). ...
Article
How can we live a good life both thanks to and despite the constant use of digital media? The presented framework describes the nature of and connections between three relevant phenomena – digital media practices, harms/benefits, and well-being – and creates a blueprint for explanatory theories.
... Stirling Children's Well-being Scale. Developed by Liddle and Carter (2015) and adapted to the Turkish version by Akın et al. (2016), the scale measures the social and emotional well-being levels of primary, secondary and high school students. The scale consists of one dimension and 12 items. ...
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Background: This study aims to develop a valid and reliable tool to measure adolescents' peer relationships. Participants and Procedure:The research was carried out with 543 adolescents aged 11-18 studying in secondary schools and high schools. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to determine the construct validity of the scale. Based on the results of the exploratory factor analysis, a structure consisting of four sub-dimensions and 29 items was obtained. The sub-dimensions of the scale are named as intimacy , popularity, trust, and insightfulness. Results: As a result of the confirmatory factor analysis, the model fit indices were found to have a good fit. Significant relationships were found with the Peer Support Scale and the Stirling Children's Well-being Scale during the analysis of the scale's criterion validity. Cronbach's α internal consistency , split half reliability, and the test-retest method were used to assess the reliability of the scale. Cronbach's α internal consistency coefficient for the total score was found to be .93, the split-half reliability was .85, and the test-re-test reliability value was .82. Conclusions: It can be inferred that the scale, which was developed based on the results obtained from validity and reliability studies, is a measurement tool that can be used in studies involving adolescents studying at the level of secondary and high school. Key words: peer relations; scale development; child; adolescent
... The framework (Figure 1) is generalized and simplified in that it does not indicate the specific digital practice or measure of well-being, and it does not specify the concrete harms or benefits; these depend on the precise theories pertaining to the selected digital practices in each study. Established well-being instruments (Diener et al., 1985;Liddle and Carter, 2015;Tennant et al., 2007) can be selected and adapted to fit the temporality and level of the presumed effects of concrete harms and benefits of a specific digital practice. Crucially, the digital well-being framework keeps subjective well-being analytically separate from digital practices and harms and benefits. ...
Article
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Digital well-being concerns individuals’ subjective well-being in a social environment where digital media are omnipresent. A general framework is developed to integrate empirical research toward a cumulative science of the impacts of digital media use on well-being. It describes the nature of and connections between three pivotal constructs: digital practices, harms/benefits, and well-being. Individual’s digital practices arise within and shape socio-technical structural conditions, and lead to often concomitant harms and benefits. These pathways are theoretically plausible causal chains that lead from a specific manifestation of digital practice to an individual well-being-related outcome with some regularity. Future digital well-being studies should prioritize descriptive validity and formal theory development.
... The eudaimonic facet highlights cognitive-evaluative and psychosocial aspects of functioning, including self-acceptance, positive relations with others, autonomy, environmental mastery, purpose in life, and personal growth [1]. PWB connotes an individual's optimal psychosocial functioning [5]. ...
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Background: Promotion of psychological well-being (PWB) is an emerging social, educational, and health objective, especially for school-aged children. Few studies have examined key correlates and determinants of PWB in school-aged children. This study aimed to examine associations of cardiorespiratory fitness and cognitive function with psychological well-being in school-aged children. Methods: The study participants were 752 fourth-grade students (mean age = 9.61 years, SD = 0.608) recruited from six elementary schools. Students took the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run® test to assess their cardiorespiratory fitness, and the d2 Test of Attention to assess concentration performance, attention span, and attention accuracy. They also completed the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale to assess their psychological well-being (PWB). After removing missing values and outliers from the original data set, the final data set, consisting of 689 cases (370 boys vs. 319 girls), was used for data analysis. Data were analyzed by means of descriptive statistics, bivariate correlation, multiple linear regression models, and independent sample t-tests. Results: The results indicated that cardiorespiratory fitness and cognitive function are significant correlates of PWB (r = -0.069, r = 0.161). Further, the results found that cardiorespiratory fitness, concentration performance, attention span, and attention accuracy were significantly collective predictors of psychological well-being (F = 13.299, p = 0.000), accounting for 12% of the total variance. Cardiorespiratory fitness was the most significantly individual predictor of PWB (β = 0.174, p = 0.000), followed by the attention accuracy (β = -0.090, p = 0.031). The Welch's tests revealed that the high-PWB group scored significantly higher than the low-PWB group in cardiorespiratory fitness, concentration performance, and attention accuracy (t = 4.093, p = 0.000, Cohen's d = 0.310; t = 3.340, p = 0.001, Cohen's d = 0.256; t = -2.958, p = 0.003, Cohen's d = 0.130). Conclusions: Cardiorespiratory fitness and cognitive function are significant correlates and predictors of PWB among school-aged children. The students with a higher level of psychological well-being showed a higher cardiorespiratory fitness, concentration performance, and attention accuracy compared to the lower level of PWB group.
... Mental wellbeing was measured in the current study using age-appropriate standardized measures: the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale (WEMWBS) (for secondary school participants aged 11 + years) and the Stirling Children's Wellbeing Scale (SCWBS) (for primary school participants aged 8-11 years). The SCWBS and WEMWBS measure similar components of wellbeing using a positive and holistic approach, and there is a significant strong positive correlation between the two measures indicating construct validity (Liddle & Carter, 2013). WEMWBS is a 14-item scale measuring mental wellbeing in the general population which has been validated with English and Scottish children aged 13 years and above, with findings demonstrating the scale measures one strong underlying factor and has good internal consistency (a = 0.87) (Clarke et al., 2010). ...
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Globally, mental disorders are the leading cause of disability in children and adolescents. Previous research has demonstrated that supportive relationships are a key protective factor against poor mental health in children, particularly amongst those who have experienced adversity. However, fewer studies have examined the relative impact of different types of supportive relationships. The current study examined the association between level of family adult support, school adult support, and school peer support and mental wellbeing in a sample of children (age 8–15 years, N = 2,074) from schools in the UK. All three sources of support were independently associated with mental wellbeing. Analyses demonstrated a graded relationship between the number of sources of support and the odds of low mental wellbeing (LMWB), reflecting a cumulative protective effect. While all three sources of support were best, it was not vital, and analyses demonstrated a protective effect of school sources of support on LMWB amongst children with low family support. Peer support was found to be particularly important, with prevalence of LMWB similar amongst children who had high peer support (but low family and school adult support), and those who had high family and school adult support, (but low peer support), indicating that high peer support has an equivalent impact of two other protective factors. Findings from the study highlight the crucial context schools provide in fostering positive peer relationships and supportive teacher–student relationships to promote mental health and resilience for all children, including both those with and without supportive home environments.
... Initially, my pilot study, which targeted children's wellbeing and used more traditional self-reports, did not reveal many meaningful results. There was not much variance in the results when using well-established measures such as the Stirling's Children Wellbeing Scale (Liddle & Carter, 2015) and selected Kidscreen52 subscales (Ravens-Sieberer et al., 2001), and these measures did not encourage children with DLD to share their emotional wellbeing experiences. Therefore, I moved from the traditional selfreports to semi-structured interviews, which had to be complemented with adult reports, Although researchers tend to rely on adult proxies (Farmer, 2000;Yew & O'Kearney, 2015), Therefore, the Consulted and informed level of participation was not reached. ...
Thesis
Children with Developmental Language Disorder (DLD) have difficulties expressing or understanding language without having any other neurodevelopmental condition or physical impairment. DLD places affected children at risk of many undesired developmental outcomes. Peer relationships of children with DLD are impacted the most; however, many children with DLD are accepted by their peers and report having good quality friendships. To understand the links between language and peer relationships of children with DLD, scholars have examined children’s language, behaviour, and other psychosocial attributes. Research findings, however, are inconclusive about the relative contribution of these factors, and what is more, they tend to overly rely on adult informants whose reports of children’s language, behaviours, and social functioning vary. This doctoral research project actively involved children with DLD and their peers to learn directly from children about their peer relationships. These aims were delivered through two parts – analytical research synthesis (systematised literature review) and primary data collection (series of case studies). Both parts helped answer the project’s research questions: 1. What are the within-child characteristics promoting the peer relationships of children with DLD? 2. What research methods facilitate the participation of children with DLD in studies about their peer relationships in school? A mixed methods approach was taken to combine quantitative and qualitative data. In part one, the analytical research synthesis, identified studies were reviewed and categorised based on the levels of children’s participation in the research. A narrative analysis synthetised the studies’ findings about the within-child characteristics contributing to the peer relationships of children with DLD. Part two was conducted as a series of case studies, where each child with DLD (n=14) represented a case. Data were collected via parent and teacher reports, observations, sociometric methods, interviews with a friend, and one-to-one meetings that involved language and nonverbal ability assessments, friendship, and wellbeing interviews. A child-centred approach was adopted, including visual supports and art-based tools, to facilitate children’s active engagement in one-on-one meetings. Part two data were analysed through within and cross-case analyses, framework analysis, and friendship formation assessment. Findings from both parts are brought together in a discussion answering the overarching research questions. This project identified that the quantity and quality of language and behaviours of children with DLD need to be considered as distinct contributors to their peer relationships. It further specified self-perception and self-awareness as within-child factors contributing to the peer relationships of children with DLD. Finally, this project revealed peer’s inclusive attitudes as within-child factors promoting the peer relationships of children with DLD. Regarding methods facilitating the participation of children with DLD in studies about their peer relationships, this project identified few studies directly involving children. There are, however, excellent examples of visual support and art-based methods supporting the participation of children with DLD in research. This project updates our knowledge and existing models linking language and children’s social adjustments by identifying within-child factors that need to be considered in future studies. It further demonstrates that it is possible to elicit the voice of children with DLD in studies about their social lives. Together with their peers, children reveal factors that are meaningful to them and their peer relationships. These findings have direct implications for the social inclusion of children with DLD in school, their speech and language therapy outcomes, and future research. Children with DLD and their peers need to be considered as active agents in matters that impact their social lives.
... "Educational Stress Scale" developed by Sun, Dunne, Hou and Xu (2011) has been used in order to investigate students' educational stress. "Emotional and Psychological Well-Being Scale" developed by Liddle and Carter (2015) has been used in order to investigate students' emotional and psychological well-being. Results of the present study show that students' perception towards school culture is "high" at development culture and success culture subdimensions, whereas it is "average" at abiding the strict rules culture. ...
... Dans le cas présent, les élèves de 6 e année ont obtenu des pointages significativement plus bas pour toutes les échelles du MLSS que tous les autres niveaux scolaires. De fait, bien que contraires à ceux des auteurs originaux du MLSS ) et d'autres auteurs (Hospital et al., 2018;Morin, 2014;Osborne et al., 2015), ces résultats étaient attendus puisque le niveau de bien-être général des élèves du primaire tend à décroître lorsque les enfants avancent en âge selon plusieurs études (Andolfi et al., 2017;Buzaud et al., 2019;Gregory et al., 2018;Konu, 2006;Liddle et Carter, 2015;Tobia et al., 2019). Cette dévaluation est d'ailleurs habituellement marquée pour les mesures de satisfaction et d'appartenance (Andolfi et al, 2017;Gregory et al., 2018). ...
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Le bien-être de l’élève est partie intégrante du Programme de formation de l’école québécoise (PFÉQ) (Gouvernement du Québec, 2006). Toutefois, le contexte particulier des programmes pédagogiques particuliers (PPP) en Arts-études semble exposer les élèves à plusieurs situations de stress et d’anxiété. Or, l’anxiété occasionnée pourrait nuire au bien-être des musiciens (Kenny, 2016). Si certaines pratiques d’enseignement de la musique peuvent contribuer à une expérience positive en classe (Creech et Hallam, 2011; Patston et Waters, 2015; Roberts, 2015), d’autres pourraient cependant favoriser les manifestations d’anxiété de performance musicale (APM) chez les élèves (Kenny, 2016; Patston, 2014; Persson, 1996; Ryan et Andrews, 2009). Ainsi, l’objectif général de ce mémoire est d’analyser les pratiques d’enseignement de la musique et leur influence sur l’APM et le bien-être en classe des élèves du primaire inscrits à un PPP en Arts-études. Les objectifs spécifiques sont de 1) décrire les pratiques d’enseignement observées dans les PPP en Arts-études en musique au primaire; 2) décrire l’APM et le bien-être en classe des élèves et 3) d’examiner l’influence des pratiques observées sur l’APM et le bien-être en classe des élèves. Ce mémoire s’appuie sur la théorie du bien-être de Seligman (2011) et la conception du bien-être de l’enfant à l’école proposée dans l’avis du Conseil Supérieur de l’Éducation (CSÉ, 2020). Afin de répondre à notre objectif général de recherche, nous avons tout d’abord observé les pratiques d’enseignement de quatre enseignantes spécialistes en musique au primaire dans une école offrant un PPP en Arts-études. Nous avons ensuite mesuré l’APM et le bien-être en classe des 170 élèves de la 3e à la 6e année du primaire présents lors des observations. Les pratiques d’enseignement ont été analysées à l’aide de deux grilles d’observations (MCOF, Madsen et Yarbrough, 1985; MTRA, Moore, 1976). L’analyse a permis de mettre en lumière certaines particularités. Notamment, les enseignantes maintiennent un contact visuel avec les élèves et les accompagnent en jouant un instrument la plupart du temps. Elles rétroagissent plus fréquemment auprès des élèves du deuxième cycle que du 3e cycle et elles privilégient l’utilisation de marques de désapprobation au regard des comportements sociaux, mais utilisent équitablement les marques d’approbation et de désapprobation pour les comportements pédagogiques. L’APM et le bien-être en classe des élèves ont été mesurés par un questionnaire autorapporté constitué d’échelles préexistantes (MPAI-A, Osborne et Kenny, 2002; MLSS, Creech et Hallam, 2011; QESPP, Carpentier et al., sous presse). En ce qui a trait au questionnaire des élèves, la majorité d’entre eux rapportent expérimenter des symptômes d’APM (nervosité, crainte de commettre des erreurs, évitement des performances solos devant public et difficulté de concentration) indépendamment de leur niveau de bien-être en classe. On observe que les filles rapportent significativement plus d’APM, de plaisir et de motivation que les garçons. Dans l’ensemble, l’APM tend à être plus élevé chez les élèves plus âgés. On constate également que les élèves de 6e année indiquent éprouver significativement moins de plaisir, de satisfaction, de motivation, d’estime de soi et d’appartenance à la classe que ceux des élèves de 3e et de 4e année du primaire. L’origine de la participation au programme (suggestion des parents ou demande de l’enfant) semble influencer différemment l’APM et le bien-être des élèves en fonction du genre et du niveau scolaire. Lorsque la demande de participer au programme vient des enfants, les élèves du 3e cycle rapportent une APM plus élevée que ceux du deuxième cycle. De plus, les garçons rapportent plus de plaisir et de motivation que lorsqu’ils répondent à une suggestion de leurs parents; aucune différence n’est observée chez les filles. Or, lorsque la suggestion de participer au PPP est initiée par les parents, l’APM des élèves du deuxième cycle est plus élevée que celle des élèves du 3e cycle. Les niveaux de plaisir, de satisfaction et de motivation des garçons sont aussi significativement plus bas que ceux des filles. En dépit des variations observées chez les élèves, l’analyse n’a révélé aucune influence significative des pratiques d’enseignement de la musique sur l’APM et le bien-être en classe des élèves. Ce mémoire met en lumière certaines considérations méthodologiques et conceptuelles qui mériteraient d’être réinvesties dans le cadre de l’analyse de l’influence des pratiques d’enseignement sur l’APM et le bien-être en classe des élèves. Notamment, il appert pertinent de reconnaître l’influence de plusieurs types de variables afin de reconnaître justement l’influence qui relève des pratiques d’enseignement. Finalement, plusieurs recommandations sont formulées concernant les pratiques d’enseignement constatées en contexte d’enseignement-apprentissage musical. Une attention particulière doit être portée quant à la motivation des élèves et aux différences observées selon le genre et le niveau scolaire. Promouvoir la participation active des élèves et l’utilisation de marques d’approbation pourrait s’avérer des pistes d’actions intéressantes.
... The Alexithymia Questionnaire for Children (AQC) [61] measures the construct described by Sifneos [62] as the difficulty in identifying and communicating feelings, difficulty differentiating the somatic sensations experienced, a decrease in fantasy and imagination and an externally oriented cognitive style [63]. The questionnaire consists of 20 items and is based on a 3-point Likert scale (0 = not true; 1 = sometimes true; 2 = often true); in this study, the version of the scale validated in Italian was used. ...
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This study investigates the psychological effects of participation in Death Education (DeEd) by middle school children in two towns in northeast Italy in which suicides occur to a greater extent than in the rest of the region. The aims of the project “Beyond the Wall” were inherent to the prevention of suicide, address existential issues and enhance the meaning of life through positive intentions for the future and reflection on mortality. It involved eight classes (150 students in four classes in the experimental group; 81 in four classes in the control group) engaging with films, workgroup activities, photovoice and psychodrama. The constructs of resilience, emotional competency and psychological well-being were monitored with the Resilience Scale for Adolescents, the Hopelessness Scale for Children, the Alexithymia Questionnaire for Children and the Stirling Children’s Well-being Scale. The DeEd intervention was found to be significantly related to some of the variables investigated, improving the students’ ability to recognise emotions and communicate them verbally while maintaining stable initial characteristics, such as psychological well-being and positive expectations for the future.
... The preliminary PeSSKi scale consisted of 11 perceived stress statements and was presented with the insertion of two social desirability items, all measured on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (not at all) to 5 (a lot) using a star response system (see Supporting Information S1, which shows the 11-item PeSSKi with instructions and star response scoring These items were designed to reflect enhancement or denial as a function of social desirability (Paulhus & Reid, 1991) and were selected from the social desirability subscale of the Stirling Children's Well-being Scale (SCWBS) (Liddle & Carter, 2015) in order to assess any possible influence of social desirability on responses to the PeSSKi scale items. ...
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Perceived stress, a known risk factor for poor health, has been extensively assessed in adult populations. Yet an equivalent assessment tool for measurement of global perceived stress in children is lacking. This study aimed to develop and provide initial validation of a scale to measure perceived stress in children aged 7–11 years. Using a two‐phase design, we conducted semi‐structured interviews with thirteen child‐parent dyads for development of items. In a sample of 123 children (age range 7‐11 year, Mage = 9 years 7 months, 54.5% male) we administered the resulting Perceived Stress Scale for Kids (PeSSKi). Exploratory factor analysis of the 10‐item PeSSKi yielded support for both a one‐factor and a two‐factor solution (negative, positive item wording). The PeSSKi was associated positively with the Penn‐State Worry Questionnaire for Children (r =.748, p<.001) and negatively with the Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale (r =.381, p<.001) indicating strong convergent/divergent validity respectively. Girls showed higher scores on the PeSSKi than boys with no effects observed by age. Initial psychometrics suggest the PeSSKi provides a robust scale for assessment of perceived stress in children. Further validation is needed across different child populations, over time and with physical measures of stress and health outcomes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Since 2013, Hannah Devine-Wright and Cath Godfrey have developed and implemented an iterative evaluation programme for The Wave Project, a charity delivering surf therapy for young people across the UK. Hannah and Cath are currently investigating how surfing can be made available on prescription for young people within the UK's National Health Service, and how young people living outside coastal areas can benefit from surf therapy.
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Objective: The current research investigated attachment styles, psychological wellbeing and academic develop-ment among children in transnational family arrangements in Zimbabwe. Methods: Purposive sampling was employed to select 57 children in transnational family arrangements and 41 children in conventional two-parent households between 8 and 14 years old. Attachment Style Classification Questionnaire for latency age children, Stirling Children’s Well-being Scale, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, Questionnaire for Evaluation of Devel-opment and Behavior were applied. Results: The results revealed that there were no significant differences in attachment styles, conduct problems, hyperactivity and academic development between the transnational and conventional family group. Social desirability and prosocial behavior were significantly lower in the transnational group. Children with both migrant parents had significantly lower scores for psychological wellbeing and higher scores for emotional symptoms and literacy problems compared to children with one migrant parent or conventional families. Discussion: There was no difference in attachment styles and academic development which may be a reflection of the strength of the extended family in substituting parental care. However, children in transnational family arrangements scored poorly on the prosocial subscale of psychological wellbeing which is associated with family cohesion. Parental migration negatively impacts family cohesion especially when both parents migrate. When both parents migrate the children exhibited emotional symptoms, literacy problems, poor prosocial behaviors and poor psychological wellbeing because children receive reduced social support. This study reveals that the child’s age at parent’s departure, family cohesion and economic security are integral to ensuring the wellbeing of children in transnational family arrangements. Key words: transnational families, children, attachment, psychological wellbeing, educational development
Article
Physical exercise can enhance various aspects of character and education, but children may not engage due to a variety of barriers. Circus Skills Training (CST) is a novel approach to encourage participation in exercise and develop physical literacy. It delivers circus skills in a positive, non-competitive and supportive social atmosphere, making it particularly appealing to those who avoid traditional competitive team sports. In a between-subjects design we compared 2 groups of children (aged 9–12) on various measures of physical and psychological wellbeing at baseline, and again after one group had received 6 months of CST training as part of their school’s physical education classes. Significant differences between CST and none-CST children were found for teacher ratings of emotional problems, with the CST-group showing fewer such problems. CST could offer an innovative means of encouraging children to engage with exercise and provide wider benefits in terms of psychological wellbeing.
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Every individual needs to have a healthy life both in physiological and psychological aspects. It is more so in the case of teachers, as they are the role models to their wards and change agents to the community. Easily irritable teachers causes much damage to his/her students in their emotional life which is capable of affecting negatively all their expected growth in mental, emotional and social dimensions. Such an important characteristics feature of a teacher-Emotional Well-being is formed of Mental Health, Emotional Health, Emotional Resilience and Emotional Happiness as per the findings of the past researches. Treating all these emotional features as the constructs of emotional wellbeing, the researcher has developed a tool for assessing a tool Emotional Wellbeing of teachers. The researcher has reported the validity and reliability of the instrument with the final form of the tool and scoring scheme.
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Anak pemulung hidup dalam kondisi dan situasi yang terpaparkan dengan banyak kesulitan dan tekanan hidup dari berbagai aspek. Anak pemulung tersebut membutuhkan kemampuan untuk menghadapi dan menanggulangi keterpurukan tersebut secara baik dan mampu menyesuaikan diri ketika muncul hal-hal yang dapat memicu konflik. Kemampuan ini dikenal dengan istilah resiliensi. Resiliensi pada anak pemulung dapat dipengaruhi oleh dukungan keluarga dan hubungan pertemanan. Kedua hal tersebut merupakan faktor penting didalam children well-being. Berdasarkan latar belakang tersebut penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara children wellbeing dengan resiliensi pada anak pemulung di Gampong Jawa, Banda Aceh. Hipotesis penelitian ini adalah terdapat hubungan antara children well-being dengan resiliensi pada anak pemulung di Gampong Jawa, Banda Aceh. Subjek penelitian adalah 33 orang anak pemulung yang berusia antara 9-12 tahun dan tinggal di Gampong Jawa, Banda Aceh. Teknik sampling yang digunakan adalah sampling jenuh. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan menggunakan Skala Stirling Children WellBeing Scale yang disusun berdasarkan teori yang dikemukakan oleh Liddle dan Carter (2007). Skala Resilience Scale for Children and Adolescents mengacu pada teori Prince-Embury (2013). Hasil analisis data menggunakan teknik korelasi Pearson menunjukkan koefisien korelasi (r) sebesar 0,571 dengan nilai p = 0,000 (p<0,05). Hal ini dapat diartikan bahwa terdapat hubungan positif antara children well-being dengan resiliensi pada anak pemulung di Gampong Jawa, Banda Aceh.
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This study examined the approaches, discourses, and actions of religious authorities in Turkey (Directorate of Religious Affairs) and Indonesia (Nahdlat’ul Ulama or NU and Muhammadiyah) in the pandemic period. In this study, the authors wondered how religious authorities direct society and shape their actions under challenging processes such as pandemics. Therefore, in terms of giving the reader a theoretical framework, in the first chapter, the study discussed how religion in general and then Islam is dealt with and developed in sociology and the transformations of the sociological aspect of religion. In the second and third chapters, the study evaluated the relationship between religion and society to show Turkey's and Indonesia's religious agencies' impacts. The authors then discussed Turkey's and Indonesia's official religious authorities and their discourses in the pandemic process. Finally, the conclusion part discusses how religious authorities have influenced and directed these countries' societies in the pandemic.
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This study examined the approaches, discourses, and actions of religious authorities in Turkey (Directorate of Religious Affairs) and Indonesia (Nahdlat’ul Ulama or NU and Muhammadiyah) in the pandemic period. In this study, the authors wondered how religious authorities direct society and shape their actions under challenging processes such as pandemics. Therefore, in terms of giving the reader a theoretical framework, in the first chapter, the study discussed how religion in general and then Islam is dealt with and developed in sociology and the transformations of the sociological aspect of religion. In the second and third chapters, the study evaluated the relationship between religion and society to show Turkey's and Indonesia's religious agencies' impacts. The authors then discussed Turkey's and Indonesia's official religious authorities and their discourses in the pandemic process. Finally, the conclusion part discusses how religious authorities have influenced and directed these countries' societies in the pandemic.
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Innovations are needed to address the global issue of access to high-quality education, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. This paper shows quasi-experimental evidence that a digital game-based learning programme (‘Can’t Wait to Learn’) led to significantly greater improvements in mathematics competency, Arabic literacy competency, and psychological wellbeing of children aged 7–9 in Sudan, compared to state-provided education for out-of-school children, 6 months after the start of the programme implementation (n = 221). These findings were corroborated and extended by qualitative data from 33 focus group discussions and key informant interviews with children, learning directors, caregivers, community leaders, and supervisory staff. We found no difference between groups on child-reported hope, and we found evidence for a significant negative intervention effect on child-reported self-esteem, though the psychometric properties of these instruments were not adequate. We report several considerations related to the experience of local facilitators, programme implementation challenges, and the importance of community acceptance and engagement for fidelity of implementation.
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Duygusal ve psikolojik iyi oluş; sabır, anlık olarak becerilerini kullanabilme yeteneği, esneklik, desteklenme, iyimserlik, duygu düzenleme becerileri, empati, merhamet, saygılı olma ve saygı duyulma, olumsuz duygularını olumlu şekilde ifade etme, bireyin kendini diğer bireylerle kıyaslamaması gibi birçok ifade ile çevrelenmiştir. Kimlik kazanmanın başladığı ergenlik döneminde sağlıklı bir kimlik gelişiminin sağlanması için duygusal ve psikolojik iyi oluş oldukça önemlidir. Duygusal ve psikolojik iyi oluş düzeyi yüksek olan gençlerin ilerleyen yaşamlarında daha olumlu ve pozitif ilişkiler ile dolu bir yaşam süreceği düşünülmektedir. Bu araştırmanın amacını, ergenlerin duygusal ve psikolojik iyi oluşlarının farklı değişkenler açısından incelenmesidir. Araştırmanın çalışma grubu 2019-2020 eğitimöğretim yılında lise eğitimlerine devam eden 175 öğrenciden oluşmaktadır. Araştırma verileri Demografik Bilgi Formu ve Stirling Çocuklar İçin Duygusal ve Psikolojik İyi Oluş Ölçeği kullanılarak toplanmıştır. Kolmogorow Simirnow testine göre veriler normal dağılım gösterdiği için t testi ve Anova testi kullanılmıştır. Araştırmanın sonucunda erkek ergenlerin kız ergenlere göre, devlet okulunda öğrenim gören ergenlerin özel okulda öğrenim görenlere göre, sosyoekonomik düzeyi yüksek olan ergenlerin düşük olanlara göre, arkadaşlarıyla boş vakit geçiren ergenlerin ailesi ve yalnız boş vakit geçirenlere göre psikolojik iyi oluş düzeyleri daha yüksek olduğu görülmüştür. Ayrıca araştırmada ergenlerin sosyal medya hesabı, sınıf düzeyi, anne babanın hayatta ve birlikte olma durumu, kardeş sayısı ve okul başarısı değişkenleri bakımından psikolojik iyi oluş düzeyleri arasında anlamlı farklılık meydana gelmediği sonucuna ulaşılmıştır.
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Background: Adolescent's wellbeing is gaining increasing attention, with it being part of the United Nations sustainable goals (United Nations, 2019 [online]). The question regarding what adolescent's wellbeing is, however, has received no rigorous answer (Alexandrova, 2017), even though it is regarded as a fundamental measure of learning and growing as a human being (Stevens & Jarden, 2019). Understanding what wellbeing means to adolescents is vital and an under-researched area (Dunlop-Bennett et al., 2019) which has implications for the development and validation of tools to measure their wellbeing. Construct definition development literature highlights that experts, in addition to the relevant population, need to be consulted about the subject area to form a representative and valid definition (Podsakoff et al., 2016). Method: Two groups were invited to interview with the aim to understand their conspetulisations of wellbeing. Group 1 consisted of both expert practitioners and researchers from different disciplines in the field of wellbeing (n = 8) and Group 2 were young people aged 11-16 (n = 41). Conclusion: Any definition needs to be reflective of the multi-faceted nature of wellbeing. Findings revealed three themes: holism, positive feelings, and external influences. Based on these findings a definition of wellbeing was formed. These conclusions should be used to underpin research with adolescents and the development of a measure of young people's wellbeing.
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Pandemi COVID-19 telah menyebabkan krisis kesehatan dunia yang sangat masif. Krisis kesehatan yang dialami ini telah memberikan dampak di semua sektor kehidupan manusia, termasuk juga dampak psikologis pada individu di segala usia di berbagai belahan dunia. Berdasarkan hasil-hasil penelitian, faktor-faktor yang berkontribusi terhadap menurunnya kesejahteraan emosional dan psikologis masyarakat selama pandemi adalah faktor demogra􀄕 s, karakteristik kepribadian, problem keuangan, perubahan kehidupan sosial dan paparan informasi terkait COVID-19. Berbagai pendapat dan berbagai temuan mengenai bagaimana cara memulihkan kesejahteraan emosional dan psikologis masyarakat dalam menghadapi pandemi COVID-19 telah dikemukakan oleh para ahli. Menurut penulis, setidaknya ada dua hal yang cukup penting untuk memulihkan kesejahteraan emosional dan psikologis masyarakat, yaitu: resiliensi/ketahanan (individu, keluarga, dan komunitas) dan strategi koping, khususnya religius koping. Resiliensi dan koping religius dapat ditemukan dalam ajaran Islam sebagai agama yang rahmatan lil’alamiin. Ajaran Islam mencakup seluruh aspek kehidupan sebagai sebuah pedoman hidup bagi setiap muslim, demikian pula saat menghadapi kesulitan hidup seperti COVID-19.
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The mental health and wellbeing of children and young people is an area of great concern for those within education and health sectors, with young people reported to be especially at risk during adolescence. This has resulted in increasing demand for measures which can identify children and young people at risk of developing mental health difficulties, in order for appropriate and early intervention to be implemented. Previous literature highlights the large numbers of measures available, but guidance on which might be most appropriate for school use is limited. This review identified 10 measures which could be used for universal secondary school screening, from the Anna Freud National Centre for Children and Families (AFNCCF) and the Child Outcomes Research Consortium (CORC) toolkit. Measures were evaluated in relation to their implementation, psychometric properties and quality; and to how well items measured domains identified by the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) domains of mental health and wellbeing. Findings indicated that the Good Childhood Index, KIDSCREEN-27, Stirling Children’s Wellbeing Scale and the Warwick and Edinburgh Mental Health Scale are all suitable measures for universal secondary school screening of young people’s mental health and wellbeing, as defined by NICE.
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Over the past decade, visits to American and Canadian emergency departments (EDs) for child and youth mental health care have increased substantially.1,2 Acute mental health crises can occur as a result of a variety of concerns, including those that are life threatening (eg, suicide attempts), pose safety concerns (eg, suicidal intentions, aggressive behaviors, alcohol and other drug use), and are physically distressing to the child or youth (eg, panic attacks). ED health care providers play a vital role in assessing the safety and well-being of the child or youth and referring them to services for ongoing care.3,4 During the ED visit, assessment and care should pinpoint risks, inform treatment, and consider family needs and preferences as part of a patient-centered approach. Yet, this approach to care is not widely adopted in EDs. Most EDs do not require the use of pediatric-specific mental health tools to guide assessments or have patient-centered procedures in place to guide the care of patients with mental health emergencies.5-7 Our team believes these limitations have led to the provision of acute mental health care that can lack sufficient quality and efficiency. This study protocol describes a trial designed to evaluate if a novel mental health care bundle that was co-designed with parents and youth results in greater improvements in the well-being of children and youth 30 days after seeking ED care for mental health and/or substance misuse concerns compared with existing care protocols. We hypothesize that the bundle will positively impact child and youth well-being, while also providing cost-effective health care system benefits.
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This paper presents data from a Forest School project aimed at impacting upon children and young people’s emotional wellbeing. It uses a theory of change methodology to evaluate impact and explore the causal processes within the project. Mixed methods data are presented and analysed in relation to how different parts of the Forest School approach, as defined by the principles, lead to impact. The data demonstrate that whilst impact was seen for all, for individual young people the impact has been significant in specific ways. It would appear that many of the children and young people were able to develop in different ways to their peers and we argue ‘take what they need’ from their Forest School experience. Theory of change has been demonstrated to be a valid and useful tool in evidencing the complex processes that lead to change through a Forest School approach.
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As people lead longer and generally healthier lives, aspirations and expectations of health care extend to include well-being and enhanced quality of life. Several measurement scales exist to evaluate how well health care reaches these goals. However, the definitions of well-being or quality of life remain open to considerable debate, which complicates the design, validation, and subsequent choice of an appropriate measurement. This article reviews nine measures of psychological well-being, tracing their origins in alternative conceptual approaches to defining well-being. It compares their psychometric properties and suggests how they may be used. The review covers the Life Satisfaction Index, the Bradburn Affect Balance Scale, single-item measures, the Philadelphia Morale scale, the General Well-Being Schedule, the Satisfaction With Life scale, the Positive and Negative Affect Scale, the World Health Organization 5-item well-being index, and the Ryff's scales of psychological well-being. Scales range in size from a single item to 22; levels of reliability and validity range from good to excellent, although for some of the newer scales we lack information on some forms of validity. Measures exist to assess several conceptions of psychological well-being. Most instruments perform adequately for survey research, but we know less about their adequacy for use in evaluating health care interventions. There remains active debate over how adequately the questions included portray the theoretical definition of well-being on which they are based.
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A theoretical model of psychological well-being that encompasses 6 distinct dimensions of wellness (Autonomy, Environmental Mastery, Personal Growth, Positive Relations with Others, Purpose in Life, Self-Acceptance) was tested with data from a nationally representative sample of adults (N = 1,108), aged 25 and older, who participated in telephone interviews. Confirmatory factor analyses provided support for the proposed 6-factor model, with a single second-order super factor. The model was superior in fit over single-factor and other artifactual models. Age and sex differences on the various well-being dimensions replicated prior findings. Comparisons with other frequently used indicators (positive and negative affect, life satisfaction) demonstrated that the latter neglect key aspects of positive functioning emphasized in theories of health and well-being.
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Well-being is a complex construct that concerns optimal experience and functioning. Current research on well-being has been derived from two general perspectives: the hedonic approach, which focuses on happiness and defines well-being in terms of pleasure attainment and pain avoidance; and the eudaimonic approach, which focuses on meaning and self-realization and defines well-being in terms of the degree to which a person is fully functioning. These two views have given rise to different research foci and a body of knowledge that is in some areas divergent and in others complementary. New methodological developments concerning multilevel modeling and construct comparisons are also allowing researchers to formulate new questions for the field. This review considers research from both perspectives concerning the nature of well-being, its antecedents, and its stability across time and culture.
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A science of positive subjective experience, positive individual traits, and positive institutions promises to improve quality of life and prevent the pathologies that arise when life is barren and meaningless. The exclusive focus on pathology that has dominated so much of our discipline results in a model of the human being lacking the positive features that make life worth living. Hope, wisdom, creativity, future mindedness, courage, spirituality, responsibility, and perseverance are ignored or explained as transformations of more authentic negative impulses. The 15 articles in this millennial issue of the American Psychologist discuss such issues as what enables happiness, the effects of autonomy and self-regulation, how optimism and hope affect health, what constitutes wisdom, and how talent and creativity come to fruition. The authors outline a framework for a science of positive psychology, point to gaps in our knowledge, and predict that the next century will see a science and profession that will come to understand and build the factors that allow individuals, communities, and societies to flourish.
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This paper introduces and applies an operationalization of mental health as a syndrome of symptoms of positive feelings and positive functioning in life. Dimensions and scales of subjective well-being are reviewed and conceived of as mental health symptoms. A diagnosis of the presence of mental health, described as flourishing, and the absence of mental health, characterized as languishing, is applied to data from the 1995 Midlife in the United States study of adults between the ages of 25 and 74 (n = 3,032). Findings revealed that 17.2 percent fit the criteria for flourishing, 56.6 percent were moderately mentally healthy, 12.1 percent of adults fit the criteria for languishing, and 14.1 percent fit the criteria for DSM-III-R major depressive episode (12-month), of which 9.4 percent were not languishing and 4.7 percent were also languishing. The risk of a major depressive episode was two times more likely among languishing than moderately mentally healthy adults, and nearly six times greater among languishing than flourishing adults. Multivariate analyses revealed that languishing and depression were associated with significant psychosocial impairment in terms of perceived emotional health, limitations of activities of daily living, and workdays lost or cutback. Flourishing and moderate mental health were associated with superior profiles of psychosocial functioning. The descriptive epidemiology revealed that males, older adults, more educated individuals, and married adults were more likely to be mentally healthy. Implications for the conception of mental health and the treatment and prevention of mental illness are discussed.
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There is increasing international interest in the concept of mental well-being and its contribution to all aspects of human life. Demand for instruments to monitor mental well-being at a population level and evaluate mental health promotion initiatives is growing. This article describes the development and validation of a new scale, comprised only of positively worded items relating to different aspects of positive mental health: the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (WEMWBS). WEMWBS was developed by an expert panel drawing on current academic literature, qualitative research with focus groups, and psychometric testing of an existing scale. It was validated on a student and representative population sample. Content validity was assessed by reviewing the frequency of complete responses and the distribution of responses to each item. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the hypothesis that the scale measured a single construct. Internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach's alpha. Criterion validity was explored in terms of correlations between WEMWBS and other scales and by testing whether the scale discriminated between population groups in line with pre-specified hypotheses. Test-retest reliability was assessed at one week using intra-class correlation coefficients. Susceptibility to bias was measured using the Balanced Inventory of Desired Responding. WEMWBS showed good content validity. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the single factor hypothesis. A Cronbach's alpha score of 0.89 (student sample) and 0.91 (population sample) suggests some item redundancy in the scale. WEMWBS showed high correlations with other mental health and well-being scales and lower correlations with scales measuring overall health. Its distribution was near normal and the scale did not show ceiling effects in a population sample. It discriminated between population groups in a way that is largely consistent with the results of other population surveys. Test-retest reliability at one week was high (0.83). Social desirability bias was lower or similar to that of other comparable scales. WEMWBS is a measure of mental well-being focusing entirely on positive aspects of mental health. As a short and psychometrically robust scale, with no ceiling effects in a population sample, it offers promise as a tool for monitoring mental well-being at a population level. Whilst WEMWBS should appeal to those evaluating mental health promotion initiatives, it is important that the scale's sensitivity to change is established before it is recommended in this context.
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This book provides a comprehensive foundation for conducting clinical assessments of child and adolescent social-emotional behavior in a practical, scientific, and culturally appropriate manner. It is aimed at graduate students, practitioners, and researchers in the fields of school psychology, child clinical psychology, and special education but will also be of interest to those in related disciplines such as counseling psychology, child psychiatry, and social work.
Article
The present study focused on differences in self-esteem trajectory in early adolescence rather than on average change across all children. Longitudinal data from 128 adolescents were obtained over a 2-year period that encompassed the transition from elementary school to junior high school. Cluster analysis revealed four markedly divergent self-esteem trajectories: consistently high (35%), chronically low (13%), steeply declining (21%), and small increase (31%). Attempts to predict trajectories were only partially successful. Peer social support was the strongest predictor, but its relation to self-esteem appears more circumscribed than had been thought. The discussion considers differences in the experience of early adolescence, as well as implications for the design and evaluation of preventive intervention.
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Affectometer 2 is a 5-minute inventory of general happiness or sense of well-being based on measuring the balance of positive and negative feelings in recent experience. Since this scale is directly derived from its parent scale, Affectometer 1, psychometric findings on the longer scale are reported along with initial data on Affectometer 2. These results indicate high reliability, high validity, and slight contamination by current mood and social desirability. Among the findings of special interest are: (a) the independence of positive and negative affect proposed by Bradburn is not confirmed; (b) well-being is highly and inversely related to neuroticism, anxiety, depression and somatic complaints; (c) the relationship of well-being to depression is curvilinear; (d) well-being scores are determined more by short-term states than long-term traits; (e) well-being can be characterized by 10 “qualities of happiness”.
Article
The objective of this study was to synthesize information from literature on measures of the self in young children to create an empirical framework for developing future methods for measuring this construct. For this meta-analysis, all available preschool and early elementary school self-esteem studies were reviewed. Reliability was used as the criterion variable and the predictor variables represented different aspects of methodology that are used in testing an instrument: study characteristics, method characteristics, subject characteristics, measure characteristics, and measure design characteristics. Using information from two analyses, the results indicate that the reliability of self-esteem measures for young children can be predicted by the setting of the study, number of items in the scale, the age of the children being studied, the method of data collection (questionnaires or pictures), and the socioeconomic status of the children. Age and number of items were found to be critical features in the development of reliable measures for young children. Future studies need to focus on the issues of age and developmental limitations on the complicated problem of how young children actually think about the self and what methods and techniques can aid in gathering this information more accurately.
Article
This study examined the factorial and content validity of Ryff's Scales of Psychological Well-being (SPWB) in a sample of psychology students (N=233) and a sample of professionals from a diverse occupational background (N=420). The psychometric quality of the SPWB was tested for the versions with 3-items, 9-items and 14-items. It appeared that the factorial validity was only acceptable for the 3-items per scale version. However, the internal consistency of these 3-items scales was below generally accepted levels. Therefore, it is suggested to reduce the length of the 14-item scales to 6, 7 or 8 items, depending on the specific subscale. This resulted in an improved overall psychometric quality. In addition, two new scales were developed that together refer to spiritual well-being. A second order factor analysis, including vitality, happiness, self-esteem and the Big Five personality dimensions, revealed four underlying dimensions of positive psychological health: subjective well-being, self-actualization, interpersonal relations and autonomy.
Article
This study assesses the measurement properties of Ryff’s Scales of Psychological Well-Being (RPWB)—a widely used instrument designed to measure six dimensions of psychological well-being. Analyses of self-administered RPWB data from three major surveys—Midlife in the United States (MIDUS), National Survey of Families and Households II, and the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS)—yielded very high overlap among the dimensions. These large correlations persisted even after eliminating several methodological sources of confounding, including question wording, question order, and negative item-wording. However, in MIDUS pretest and WLS telephone administrations, correlations among the dimensions were much lower. Past research demonstrates that self-administered instruments provide more valid psychological measurements than telephone surveys, and we therefore place more weight on the consistent results from the self-administered items. In sum, there is strong evidence that RPWB does not have as many as six distinct dimensions, and researchers should be cautious in interpreting its subscales.
Article
To examine the effect of child age and number of response choices on children's tendency to respond at the extremes of Likert-type scales rating emotional states. Sixty children (5-6 years, 7-9 years, 10-12 years) were randomly assigned to use either three or five response choices in providing ratings in three different task conditions. Tasks were designed to have correct choices at the midpoints of the rating scales. Children also completed a self-report feelings questionnaire. Results showed that younger children responded in an extreme manner when rating emotion-based, but not physical, tasks. Children's extreme scores did not vary as a function of number of response choices used. More extreme scores on the three tasks were related to more extreme scores on the feelings questionnaire. These results indicate that young children may respond in an extreme manner when rating emotional states. Researchers and clinicians should take this into account when interpreting children's self-reporting ratings.