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Emotional and psychological well-being in children: the development and validation of the Stirling Children’s Well-being Scale

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Abstract

The Stirling Children’s Well-being Scale (SCWBS) was developed by the Stirling Council Educational Psychology Service (UK) as a holistic, positively worded measure of emotional and psychological well-being in children aged eight to 15 years. Drawing on current theories of well-being and Positive Psychology, the aim was to provide a means of measuring the effectiveness of interventions and projects designed to promote children’s well-being and emotional development. A total of 18 schools and 1849 children participated in the construction and validation of the scale, which ultimately emerged as a short, robust measure comprising 12 items. The scale is offered for use by educational and health professionals interested in promoting and measuring the emotional development and well-being of children and the effectiveness of interventions.

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... The psychological conceptualization of well-being (eudaimonia) encompasses concepts such as autonomy, meaning and purpose in life, personal growth, and positive relations with others (see Table 4.1, McMahon, 2006;Ryff & Keyes, 1995). These constructs are still rarely studied in children and adolescents (e.g., Liddle, 2015;Rees, 2017, Rees et al., 2020, partly because measures of adult psychological well-being may be too complex for children and adolescents. With age, psychological well-being concepts become more salient as children and adolescents learn to address and handle increasingly complex emotion scripts (e.g., worry, shame, guilt, pride) and develop the capacity for abstract reasoning (Sternberg & Nigro, 1980). ...
... As was mentioned in the Introduction, research on youth psychological well-being is limited, although several studies do report on the validity and relevance of such constructs (e.g., Liddle, 2015;Rees, 2017). We therefore measure several psychological well-being constructs, including sense of a purpose in life (2 items), personal growth (3 items), mastery ...
... (2 items), autonomy (3 items), and positive relationships with others (2 items). These items were derived from the Stirling Children's Well-Being Scale (Liddle, 2015) and Ryff's Scales of Psychological Well-Being (Ryff, 1995), as we were unable to identity scales that specifically measure psychological well-being in youth. We omitted most of the negativelyphrased questionnaire items from our item pool because it has been shown that (young) children have difficulty with such items (Marsh, 1986). ...
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This paper describes the rationale and design of the Every Child Is Different project (Dutch: Ieder Kind is Anders, IKIA). IKIA is a national crowdsourcing study designed to examine the dynamic and dimensional nature of Dutch children's and adolescents' mental health and well-being using both self-report (8-18 years) and parental report (of youth 4-18 years). Emotional processes are integral to the project as they underlie most of the processes related to mental health and well-being. Via an internet platform participants complete cross-sectional questionnaires on emotional and psychosocial development, well-being, mental health, parenting, and social environment. Participants receive automated feedback which consists of visual displays of their (sub)scores compared to the sample's average and an explanation of the subject. Participants can additionally participate in a 30-day smartphone-based diary study about their daily activities, behaviors, and emotions. This paper describes the methods and techniques used in the IKIA project, as well as future research that can be conducted with the resulting data.
... PWB is a concept of psychological well-being that focuses on self-development and recognizing every emotion felt by the individual in everyday life and negative mental state within (Liddle & Carter, 2015;Ryff C. D., 2014). PWB also concerns self-acceptance, positive relationships with others, autonomy, environmental mastery, purpose in life, and personal growth (Ryff, 2014). ...
... The well-being concept of PWB is different from the well-being concept of subjective well-being (SWB). The philosophical foundation of SWB is rooted in the hedonic perspective (Liddle & Carter, 2015). Hedonic perspective focus on how an individual feels life satisfaction, positive mood, and the absence of negative feeling (Liddle & Carter, 2015). ...
... The philosophical foundation of SWB is rooted in the hedonic perspective (Liddle & Carter, 2015). Hedonic perspective focus on how an individual feels life satisfaction, positive mood, and the absence of negative feeling (Liddle & Carter, 2015). ...
Article
This research aims to prove the differences in psychological well-being (PWB) between students with disabilities in special and inclusive schools. This research is using the quantitative comparative method. The subjects are 69 students with disabilities from special schools and inclusive schools in Surabaya. This study focuses on students with disabilities such as deafness, hearing loss, physical disabilities, and other types of disabilities. The PWB level of each student is measured using Ryff’s multidimensional scales. The Mann-Whitney U analysis finds if the PWB level of students with disabilities in inclusive schools is higher than in special schools. The score of each dimension shows that purpose in life is the dimension with the highest average score in inclusive schools. Meanwhile, personal growth is the dimension with the highest average score in special schools. However, autonomy is the dimension with the lowest average score both in special schools and inclusive schools.
... Later et al. (2014) suggested that wellbeing could include physical wellbeing, spiritual wellbeing, emotional and psychological wellbeing, and social wellbeing (Jindal-Snape et al., 2019). Historically, there have been two main approaches to wellbeing: hedonic and eudaimonic (Dodge et al., 2012;Liddle & Carter, 2015). Hedonic wellbeing focuses on maximising pleasurable experiences and happiness and focuses on the short term (Henderson & Knight, 2012). ...
... Ryan and Deci (2001) suggested that hedonic wellbeing is the existence of positive mood and lack of negative mood. In contrast, eudaimonic wellbeing focuses on actualising potential (Henderson & Knight, 2012) and relates to longer term personal growth, mastery, acceptance and autonomy (Liddle & Carter, 2015). However et al. (2012) and Liddle and Carter (2015) suggest that most researchers consider school environment is well placed to provide children with opportunities to promote their social and emotional wellbeing (Cheney at al., 2014;Weare, 2015). ...
... In contrast, eudaimonic wellbeing focuses on actualising potential (Henderson & Knight, 2012) and relates to longer term personal growth, mastery, acceptance and autonomy (Liddle & Carter, 2015). However et al. (2012) and Liddle and Carter (2015) suggest that most researchers consider school environment is well placed to provide children with opportunities to promote their social and emotional wellbeing (Cheney at al., 2014;Weare, 2015). A number of approaches have been utilised in schools, including Nurture Groups. ...
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Introduction. Children’s social and emotional wellbeing is associated with subsequent academic achievement and behavioural outcomes, as well as functioning in later life. Nurturing approaches are one way of developing such wellbeing. Whole-school approaches to nurturing have been discussed in the literature, but no studies of any quality have evaluated effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether whole-school nurturing had any effect on children’s wellbeing from the perceptions of pupils, parents and teachers. Method. The present study in primary (elementary) schools is controlled, has follow-up, and multiple perspectives from teachers, parents and pupils. Pupils (n=322) from Years/Grades 1, 3 and 4 (aged 6, 8 and 9) (Years limited by school staff time availability) in three intervention and three control schools and their parents and teachers participated over two years. On a pre-post basis, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used with teachers and parents and the Stirling Children’s Wellbeing Scale (SCWS) with pupils. Results. On the SDQ for Teachers, the pre-post Total Difficulties scores and the Prosocial scores were significantly better for the intervention than the control group. On the SDQ for Parents, both intervention and control groups improved, and there was no difference. On the SCWS for Children, again both intervention and control groups improved, and there was no difference. Discussion and Conclusion. The nurturing intervention group was significantly better than controls according to the perceptions of Teachers, but for parents and children both intervention and control groups improved. A number of recommendations for future research were made, and implications for practitioners and policy-makers outlined.
... While this definition goes beyond viewing mental health as primarily the absence of mental illness (WHO, 2018), it has been criticised for ignoring the role of culture and the wide range of human experience (Galderisi et al., 2015). Within the literature the terms mental health and wellbeing are often used synonymously (Huppert & Riggeri, 2018;Liddle & Carter, 2015) and this convergence of terms is evident within the WHO's (2018) definition. Martino (2017) notes that understanding wellbeing is key to understanding mental health. ...
... Two broad and distinctly different perspectives have traditionally informed definitions of wellbeing ( Liddle & Carter, 2015;Springer & Hauser, 2006). The hedonic perspective, more recently termed subjective wellbeing (Liddle & Carter, 2015), claims that wellbeing is synonymous with happiness and encompasses life satisfaction and the balance between positive and negative affect (Ryan & Deci, 2001). ...
... Two broad and distinctly different perspectives have traditionally informed definitions of wellbeing ( Liddle & Carter, 2015;Springer & Hauser, 2006). The hedonic perspective, more recently termed subjective wellbeing (Liddle & Carter, 2015), claims that wellbeing is synonymous with happiness and encompasses life satisfaction and the balance between positive and negative affect (Ryan & Deci, 2001). ...
Article
Both the mental health and wellbeing of children and young people (CYP) (Department of Health (DoH) & Department for Education (DfE), 2017), and the wellbeing of school staff (DfE, 2019) are current government priorities, thus, the provision of supervision for school staff appears to be of increasing importance. Yet while supervision is compulsory for many professionals working with children and young people (CYP) it is largely uncommon in schools (Briggs, 2020). Indeed, the most recent Teacher Wellbeing Index (Education Support, 2020) found that only 8% of school staff surveyed currently accessed supervision. Barriers relating to terminology (Soni, 2019; Steel, 2001) and potential associated connotations (Kennedy & Laverick, 2019), suggest low uptake may be in part related to perceptions of supervision. Therefore, it seems that more needs to be understood about how school staff construe supervision. Q-methodology was utilised to explore the holistic viewpoints of school staff regarding supervision. Twenty one school staff working in a range of roles and settings, with varying experiences of supervision, completed an online Q-sort activity and a post-sort questionnaire. Two Viewpoints were identified within the sample. These were described as: 1. ‘Achievable and Necessary: Quality Supervision Benefits the Whole-School System’ 2. ‘Cautious Optimism: To be Successful Supervision Must be Clearly Defined, Embedded, Safe, Optional and Responsive’ Key implications of the research include reiterating the need to avoid a ‘one-size-fits’ all approach to supervision and the need to develop a shared understanding of supervision and a culture of supervision in schools. It is argued that the findings have potential implications for the Educational Psychologist (EP) role suggesting that EPs may be well placed to contribute at a systems level to facilitate access and engagement with supervision. The use of Q-methodology in answering the research question is discussed, strengths and limitations of the research are identified and suggestions for future research considered.
... The data collection procedure lasted, on average, about 40 min per student and was conducted under the supervision of a research assistant. Students were asked to complete two questionnaires (see "Students"): the Liddle and Carter (2015) questionnaire and the BASC-3 (Reynolds and Kamphaus, 2015). The Liddle and Carter (2015) questionnaire was distributed in paper format and took students 10 min on average to complete. ...
... Students were asked to complete two questionnaires (see "Students"): the Liddle and Carter (2015) questionnaire and the BASC-3 (Reynolds and Kamphaus, 2015). The Liddle and Carter (2015) questionnaire was distributed in paper format and took students 10 min on average to complete. The BASC-3 required 30 min on average to complete. ...
... Students were asked to complete two self-reported questionnaires individually, the first measuring wellbeing at school using the Liddle and Carter (2015) questionnaire, and the second measuring mental health using the BASC-3 tool (Reynolds and Kamphaus, 2015), which reports on students' coping and behavioral functioning. ...
Article
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While traditional seating (also known as fixed seating or fixed classroom ) remains the preferred classroom seating arrangement for teachers, a new type of seating arrangement is becoming more common in schools: the flexible classroom (also known as flexible seating ). The purpose of this type of arrangement is to meet the needs of students by providing a wide variety of furniture and workspaces, to put students at the center of learning, and to allow them to make choices based on their preferences and the objectives of the task at hand. This study aimed to examine the influence of flexible seating on the wellbeing and mental health of elementary school students. This article presents the results of exploratory research conducted in Quebec among Grade 5 and 6 students comparing the wellbeing and mental health of students in fixed and flexible classrooms. The study was conducted with 107 students in three Grade 5 and 6 flexible classrooms ( n = 51) and three Grade 5 and 6 fixed classrooms ( n = 56). It is based on a quasi-experimental, quantitative design with post-test only and a control group. The groups were matched based on natural conditions (i.e., from a convenience sample). Furthermore, the study included a gender-differentiated analysis for each group. The results showed that flexible classroom seating had a positive influence on the girls’ wellbeing and mental health. In contrast, for the boys, fixed classroom seating was most conducive to their wellbeing and mental health. However, our study has some limitations that are discussed in the article.
... The present study focuses on a specific form of well-being, subjective well-being, which can be of three types [6]: eudaimonic, hedonic and experiential or evaluative. Eudaimonic well-being focuses on the experience of personal functioning and the pursuit of meaningful goals and self-fulfilment [7]. The hedonic approach includes affective and cognitive elements, which relate to the balance of positive and negative emotions, and an overall evaluation of life, expressed in life satisfaction [6]. ...
... Finally, the experiential perspective refers to each person's overall assessment of their general well-being. These are all different ways of approaching the study of "subjective well-being", although this grammatical construct is usually used to refer only to hedonic subjective psychological well-being [7]. ...
... High levels of well-being reported by aggressors could be because the questionnaires used were self-reports, as in the present study, as could the low level of self-criticism shown by aggressors [5,25]. The fact that a positive, albeit weak, relationship between aggression and well-being appears raises the question about the meaning of this relationship, since we cannot specify whether well-being increases with aggression or, on the contrary, low levels of well-being promote aggression [7,20,25]. As for the bullying victims, the results found in this study show a negative relationship between well-being and people involved in bullying situations as victims and that they score significantly lower in well-being than people who are not victims. ...
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Bullying has a negative impact on adolescents’ emotional and social development, especially in the case of victims. This study aims to explore the association of engagement in bullying behaviours, for both the victim and aggressor, with psychological well-being. A non-experimental, cross-sectional and correlational quantitative study was designed, with the participation of 570 students between 14 and 15 years old (SD 0.99), of which 50.5% were girls and 49.5% boys, who were selected through stratified random sampling. Mean differences, bivariate correlations and multiple linear regressions were calculated to study the relationship between bullying and psychological well-being. Victims scored lower for subjective well-being, with the educational and social implications that this means. As for the aggressors, who scored higher on well-being than non-aggressors, the question is raised as to whether well-being increases with aggression or whether aggression is the result of lower levels of well-being. Female bullying victims belonging to the older age group are the participant profile with the lowest well-being scores. This gender perspective can be considered not only with regards to coexistence and bullying prevention plans but also shows the need to promote psychological well-being to educate towards equality.
... Another study conducted by Liddle and Carter (2015) combined these two welfare approaches. The measuring instrument components were developed to consist of positive emotional states as a hedonistic representation and a positive outlook to exemplify the eudaimonic aspect. ...
... The Stirling Children's Well-being Scale (SCWBS) is a measuring instrument developed by Liddle and Carter (2015) that has been used in research in various countries. A study by Godfrey et al. (2015) with 84 British respondents aged 8 to 18 years, with social and mental health problems, used the scale as one aspect of the intervention goal. ...
... Based on this background, this study seeks to offer a more comprehensive method to overcome these three limitations. Therefore, this investigation intends to adapt the SCWBS scale measurement tool (Liddle & Carter, 2015) in the analysis of late adolescence in Indonesia. This is the novelty of the research, and it attempts to balance the hedonistic and eudaimonic perspectives. ...
Article
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The present study aimed to culturally adapt the Stirling Children’s Well-being Scale (SCWBS) for use in Indonesia with college student and to assess their psychometric properties in this population. This study investigated the dimensions, particularly the nature and number, of the Indonesian version of the SCWBS. Three hundred seventy-five Indonesian college students were recruited through WhatsApp. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed on two subsamples, which were randomly divided using IBM SPSS, and the reliability of the SCWBS was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha. An exploratory factor analysis extracted two dimensions, which explained 58.24% of the total variance. A confirmatory factor analysis was performed on the two-factor measurement model of the scale, along with one second-order factor. These were found to have good model fit. The final 10-item SCWBS had high reliability and acceptable construct validity. Therefore, the scale was found to have adequate psychometric properties and to be applicable in research and practice. For further refinement, the Indonesian version of the SCWBS should be tested in a wider age range and in various subgroups, for example, to analyze socioeconomic status. Furthermore, it is necessary to assess other construct validity, such as criterion validity.
... Caries-QC quality of life [18], dental service use, dental behaviours, psychosocial factors, and social and emotional wellbeing. Social emotional wellbeing will be assessed using the Stirling Children's Wellbeing Scale (SCWBS), a 15-item instrument developed by the Stirling Educational Psychology Service to measure emotional and psychological wellbeing among children aged 8 to 15 years [19]. ...
... The SCWBS has been validated and displayed good psychometric properties across multiple countries, including Scotland [19], Japan [20], Bangladesh [21], among others [22]. ...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Given the significant investment of governments, and families, in the provision of child dental care services in Australia, continued population oral health surveillance through national oral health surveys is imperative. OBJECTIVE The aims of this study are to conduct a 2nd National Child Oral Health Survey (NCOHS-2) to: (1) describe the prevalence, extent and impact of oral diseases in contemporary Australian children; (2) evaluate changes in the prevalence and extent of oral diseases in the Australian child population and socioeconomic sub-groups since the 1st National Child Oral Health Study (NCOHS-1) in 2012-13 and; (3) use economic modelling to evaluate the burden of child oral disease from NCOHS-1 and NCOHS-2 and to estimate cost-effectiveness of targeted programs to high risk child groups. METHODS NCOHS-2 will closely mimic NCOHS-1, in being a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of Australian children aged 5–14 years. The survey will comprise oral epidemiological examinations and questionnaires to elucidate associations between dental disease on a range of outcomes including social and emotional wellbeing. The information will be analysed within the context of dental service organisation and delivery at national and jurisdictional levels. Information from NCOHS-1 and NCOHS-2 will be used to simulate oral disease and its economic burden using both health system and household costs of childhood oral health disease. RESULTS Participant recruitment for NCOHS-2 will commence in Feb 2024. The first results are expected to be submitted for publication six months after NCOHS-2 data collection has been completed. Thematic workshops with key partners and stakeholders will also occur at this time. CONCLUSIONS Regular surveillance of child oral health at an Australian level facilitates timely policy and planning of each state and territory’s dental public health sector. This is imperative to enable the most equitable distribution of scarce public monies, especially for socially disadvantaged children who bear the greatest dental disease burden. The last National Child Oral Health Study was conducted in 2012-14, meaning this data needs to be updated to better inform effective dental health policy and planning. NCOHS-2 will enable more up-to date estimates of dental disease prevalence and severity among Australian children, with cost-effective analysis being useful to determine the economic burden of poor child dental health on social and emotional wellbeing and other health indicators.
... Despite a high level of objective well-being, people might perceive a lack of well-being subjectively or within their insufficient interpersonal relations. Subjective well-being is derived from psychometric or psychological perspectives and could be further divided into mutually interacting hedonic (e.g., perceived positive affectivity or emotionality) and eudaimonic (e.g., perceived high quality of life, positive outlook) parts (Dolan, Kudrna, Testoni, & Series, 2017;Simons & Baldwin, 2021) or into subjective and psychological well-being (Liddle & Carter, 2015). Additionally, subjective well-being is closely and negatively related to various forms of psychological distress such as burnout, depression, or anxiety, but represents more than just the exact opposite of poor mental health as found in twin research (Routledge, Burton, Williams, Harris, Schofield, Clark, et al., 2016). ...
... In addition, we propose that the measures of individual well-being may be for concrete AI implementations prioritized over composite indexes and single-item factors because psychometric properties of these measures could be at least estimated. The list of frequently used individual wellbeing measures which could be deployed in the context of AI systems impact assessment includes (Chatila & Havens, 2019;Linton, Dieppe, Medina-Lara, Watson, & Crathorne, 2016;Lucas, 2018) the Satisfaction with Life Scale (Pavot & Diener, 2008); World health Organization Well-being index (Topp, Østergaard, Søndergaard, & Bech, 2015;WHO, 1998); Psychological Well-being Scales (Ryff & Singer, 2006); Meaning in Life Questionnaire (Steger, Frazier, Oishi, & Kaler, 2006); Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988); or for children, the Stirling Children's Well-being Scale (Liddle & Carter, 2015). Moreover, the time-lag between the AI implementation and its impacts might vary depending on context or target population of interest. ...
Article
In recent years, the well-being impact assessment approach has been applied in the area of Artificial Intelligence (AI). Existing well-being frameworks and tools provide a relevant starting point. Taking into account its multidimensional nature, well-being assessment is well suited to assess both the expected positive effects of the technology as well as unintended negative consequences. To-date the establishment of causal links mostly stems from intuitive causal models. Such approaches neglect the fact that to prove causal links between the operation of an AI system and observed effects is difficult due to the immense complexity of the socio-technical context. This article aims at providing a framework for ascertaining the attribution of effects of observed impact of AI on well-being. An elaborated approach to impact assessment potentially enabling causal inferences is demonstrated. Furthermore, a new Open Platform for Well-Being Impact Assessment of AI systems (OPIA) is introduced, which is based on a distributed community to build reproducible evidence through effective identification, refinement, iterative testing, and cross-validation of expected causal structures.
... Wellbeing Participants completed The Stirling Children's Well-being Scale [40], a positively worded scale measuring emotional and psychological well-being in children aged 8-15 years. The measure was a 12-item scale, with 15 items included in total in the formatting and 3 items were not included in the final score as per instructions. ...
... It has also been suggested that The Stirling Wellbeing measure is best utilized over a few weeks for assessment. However, it's temporal stability was assessed and shown to be stable over a one-week period [40], which would suggest changes found over a week are not due to unreliable measurement. A similar limitation found in this study as in the original camp intervention, is the gender imbalance. ...
Article
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Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has further exacerbated physical inactivity, poor dietary intake and reduced mental wellbeing, contributing factors to non-communicable diseases in children. Cooking interventions are proposed as having a positive influence on children's diet quality. Motor skills have been highlighted as essential for performance of cooking skills, and this movement may contribute to wellbeing. Additionally, perceived competence is a motivator for behaviour performance and thus important for understanding intervention effectiveness. Therefore, this research aimed to assess the effectiveness of an adapted virtual theory-based cooking intervention on perceived cooking competence, perceived movement competence and wellbeing. Methods: The effective theory-driven and co-created 'Cook Like A Boss' was adapted to a virtual five day camp-styled intervention, with 248 children across the island of Ireland participating during the pandemic. Pre- and post-intervention assessments of perceived cooking competence, perceived movement competence and wellbeing using validated measurements were completed through online surveys. Bivariate Correlations, paired samples t-tests and Hierarchical multiple regression modelling was conducted using SPSS to understand the relationships between the variables and the effect of the intervention. Results: 210 participants had matched survey data and were included in analysis. Significant positive correlations were shown between perceived cooking competence, perceived movement competence and wellbeing (P < 0.05). Children's perceived cooking competence (P < 0.001, medium to large effect size), perceived movement competence (P < 0.001, small to medium effect size) and wellbeing (P = 0.013, small effect size) all significantly increased from pre to post intervention. For the Hierarchical regression, the final model explained 57% of the total variance in participants' post-intervention perceived cooking competence. Each model explained a significant amount of variance (P < 0.05). Pre-intervention perceived cooking competence, wellbeing, age and perceived movement competence were significant predictors for post-intervention perceived cooking competence in the final model. Conclusion: The 'Cook Like A Boss' Online intervention was an adapted virtual outreach intervention. It provides initial evidence for the associations between perceived cooking competence, perceived movement and wellbeing as well as being effective in their improvement. This research shows the potential for cooking to be used as a mechanism for targeting improvements in not only diet quality but also movement and wellbeing. Trial registration: NCT05395234. Retrospectively registered on 26th May 2022.
... In terms of measures, most of the studies adopted unidimensional measures of wellbeing as the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale (WEMWBS; Tennant et al., 2007), Satisfaction with life scale (SWLS; Diener et al., 1985), Flourishing scale (Diener et al., 2010), Student' s Life Satisfaction Scale (SLSS; , General Happiness Scale (Lyubomirsky & Lepper, 1999), or Sterling Children's wellbeing scale (SCWBS; Liddle & Carter, 2015). These measures assess mostly subjective wellbeing, excepting one study that adopts a broader measure that assesses both subjective and psychological wellbeing (Panayiotou et al., 2019). ...
... Frequency and duration of the intervention Six 1-h weekly sessions. Instrument used to measure wellbeing: Sterling Children's wellbeing scale (SCWBS;Liddle & Carter, 2015) ...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on children’s vulnerability manifested in economic and social context. Key aims are to examine the influence of economic and peer-group vulnerability on children’s subjective well-being and feelings of safety—a key domain of well-being. Data for this paper were obtained from over 2000 primary and secondary school children aged between 10 and 14 years in Bangladesh. For data collection, a questionnaire was developed and administered as part of the third Wave of the Children’s Worlds International Survey on Children’s Well-Being (ISCWeB). Children’s economic and peer-group vulnerability are found to have statistically significant influence on their assessment about their safety and subjective well-being. Vulnerability in material resource and peer-group victimisation appear to have respectively the first and second highest effect on self-perceived safety and children’s subjective well-being. Lower level of safety and well-being are associated significantly with those children who reported higher vulnerability in both material deprivation and peer-group relations. These findings are discussed in the context of previous empirical studies on child well-being, safety, and vulnerability. Suggestions for future research are also put forward.
... Although, there is a wide range of instruments evaluating child subjective well-being, there are only a few measures related to psychological (eudaimonic) well-being. One of the most widely used is the Stirling Children's Well-being Scale which measures emotional and psychological well-being in children aged from 8 to 15 years (Liddle & Carter, 2015). This scale includes two subcomponents, Positive Emotional State and Positive Outlook which, according to the authors, correspond to Subjective (Hedonic) Wellbeing and Psychological (Eudaimonic) Well-being, consecutively. ...
... However, this measure has various limitations. It lacks factorial validity (Liddle & Carter, 2015), while it does not take into account purpose in life which is an important component of eudaimonic well-being (Ryff & Keyes, 1995). ...
Article
Background: Well-being has become a core concept in the study of positive child health, however, previous instruments for well-being evaluation have been centered mainly on the hedonic component. Therefore, the objective of this study was to adapt the Psychological Well-being Scales for assessing eudaimonic well-being in children and adolescents using a single-item per dimension approach. Method: A total of 312 participants (52.9% girls; ages 10-18) from Spain completed the Psychological Well-Being Scales Short Form, the WHO-5 Well-Being Index, and their psychological well-being was evaluated via a semi-structured interview by a developmental psychologist who was an expert in positive psychology. Results: Parallel analysis and exploratory factor analysis suggested a unidimensional structure that showed an excellent fit to the data. The new measure also demonstrated scalar invariance across gender and age. Moreover, the new scale significantly correlated with both WHO-5 and the expert’s ratings of psychological well-being, indicating adequate criterion validity. Conclusions: The Psychological Well-Being Scales Short Form is a useful, brief measuring instrument that reduces children cognitive fatigue during evaluation.
... To measure children's emotional and psychological wellbeing, we used the Stirling Children's Wellbeing Scale, a positively worded, 12-item self-report measure that employs a 5-point Likert scale (Liddle and Carter 2015). It has good internal reliability (α=0.82-0.85), ...
... good test-retest reliability (r=0.75), and good concurrent validity with measures of self-esteem (r=0.69) and wellbeing (r=0.74) (Liddle and Carter 2015). We measured children's emotional and behavioral problems with the 35-item Pediatric Symptom Checklist, using a 3-point Likert scale (Jellinek et al. 1988). ...
Article
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Evaluations of education technology (ed tech) interventions in humanitarian settings are scarce. We present a proof-of-concept study of Can't Wait to Learn, a digital game-based learning program that combines an experiential, active learning design with meaningful, competency-appropriate, and contextually relevant content. We assessed the feasibility of using this program to address the current education gap in Lebanon by implementing its mathematics component in basic literacy and numeracy classes (n=30) with out-of-school children (n=390) ages 10-14. We estimated changes in numeracy competency and psychosocial wellbeing and conducted focus group discussions (n=16) and key informant interviews (n=19) with children, facilitators, parents, and partner staff members to understand the lived experience, perceived impact, and implementation challenges of the program. Our findings support the feasibility of using ed tech programs to meet the needs of out-of-school children, as we saw significant improvements in numeracy, psychological symptoms, and self-esteem; positive reported experiences with the program; increased motivation among the children; and overall ease of implementation. Our suggested improvements to the game design and implementation model will support ongoing program adaptation and implementation, with the goal of increasing access to quality education for children living in humanitarian settings. Our findings will inform future studies that seek to conclusively determine the program's effectiveness.
... In a validation study conducted in the UK among children aged 8 to 15 years old, the SCWBS was found to have good internal consistency (α = .85), good construct validity when compared with well-being index and self-esteem measures, and good test-retest reliability over a one-week period (Liddle & Carter, 2015). Alpha for the positive emotional state subscale was .80 in this study. ...
... Farkındalık alt boyutu için ölçekten alınabilecek en az puan 7 en çok puan 21'dir. Tutum alt boyutu için ise ölçekten alınabilecek en az puan 9 en çok puan 27'dir 20 .Stirling Çocuklar için Duygusal ve Psikolojik İyi Oluş Ölçeği (SCDPİÖ)Liddle ve Carter tarafından 2015 yılında geliştirilen21 , Akın ve ark. (2016) 22 tarafından, Türkçe'ye uyarlanan Stirling Çocuklar İçin Duygusal ve Psikolojik İyi Oluş Ölçeği (SCDPİÖ) 12 maddeden oluşan tek boyutlu bir ölçme aracıdır 21 . ...
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The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of mindfulness-based physical education and game lessons on primary students' mindfulness, and emotional and psychological well-being levels. The study group for this research consisted of 30 students (15 students in the experimental group and 15 students in the control group) who are studying primary school in Niğde in the 2020–2021 fall semester. The research is an experimental study using the pretest-post-test model with the control group. The mindfulness-based education program designed by the researcher and used in physical education and game lessons was applied to the experimental group for 8 weeks. In this study, BAU-ÇMÖ and SCDPİÖ were used as data collection instruments. The Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon Signed Ranks tests were used to analyze the data. As a result, it was determined that 8-week mindfulness-based physical education and game lessons have not a significant effect on the mindfulness, emotional and psychological well-being of primary school students.Post-test mean scores of the experimental group students on the BAU-ÇMÖ attitude sub-dimension (x̄ = 24,40), the awareness sub-dimension (x̄ = 19,33), the post-test mean scores they got from the SCDPİÖ were found to be (x̄ = 51.27). Key Words: Mindfulness, physical education, primary school, well-being
... In calculating, the total score of these variable items 2, 7 and 13 are not considered. Well-being is evaluated on the basis of two scales: positive emotional state (items 9, 14, 15, 10, 12, 11) and the positive/optimistic outlook (items 8, 5, 1, 4, 6, 3) (Liddle & Carter, 2015). The Alpha Crombach coefficient for this scale has a value of 0.918. ...
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This paper intends to determine the extent to which well-being, resilience, emotional intelligence and experiencing difficult situations interact with each other in the school population and whether experiencing each one of the thirteen difficult situations analyzed (e.g., death of a parent, divorce of parents, domestic violence, violence by colleagues) causes significant differences in terms of resilience and well-being between children who had been exposed to it and children who had not. The present study was quantitative research that included a sample of 845 children from primary to high school (55 % girls and 45% boys) aged between 8 and 18 years (M=13.5). Results of correlation analysis show that there is a positive relationship between emotional intelligence, well-being and resilience, and a negative correlation between experiencing difficult situations, students' well-being, and the level of resilience they reported. Furthermore, the T-test was used to do a hierarchy of difficult situations depending on the effect that their experience has on well-being and resilience. In terms of well-being, this was most influenced by family violence, violence from colleagues and parental divorce. On the other hand, for resilience, the effect was strongest in the case of family violence, followed by famine and violence from colleagues.
... The scores range between 0 and 40, with higher scores representing a greater level of perceived well-being. Liddle and Carter (2015) reported satisfactory internal consistency reliability (α = .85) and test-retest reliability (r = .80). ...
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A considerable gap exists between rural and urban children in their mental health outcomes that has continued to grow during the COVID-19 pandemic. Given the critical role of school counselors in addressing this gap, we tested the effectiveness of a 10-week, expressive arts-based resiliency program, Resilient Warriors, with 46 rural elementary students. Results revealed a significant increase in students’ resilience and well-being posttest scores. We discuss practical implications for school counseling practitioners.
... Although there is no consensus regarding the definition of emotional well-being, it does include psychological dimensions such as the presence of positive emotions (Liddle & Carter, 2015). Lately, many studies have, therefore, increased the importance of the mediating role of emotional wellbeing (including emotions such as enjoyment, happiness, or a general measure of positive emotions) as well as its direct influence on school engagement. ...
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This study used the instructional humor processing theory to test how different humor subtypes employed by teachers (course-related, course-unrelated, self-disparaging, other-disparaging) relate to students’ well-being, sense of belonging, and engagement. The participants comprised 395 students (107 boys, 278 girls) from 12 elementary and six high schools in the province of Quebec (Canada) aged between 10 and 17 years (Mage = 14.11). Correlational and structural equation modeling methods were used to analyze these relationships. Results showed that only humor related to course content (positive association) and other-disparaging humor (negative association) were significantly associated with the sense of belonging, which, in turn, was positively associated with a cognitive, affective, and behavioral engagement. Results also showed that only course-related humor (positive association) and unrelated humor (negative association) were significantly associated with students’ emotional well-being, which, in turn, was positively associated with cognitive and affective engagement. As far as this study is concerned, humor in the classroom should be course-related when it comes to supporting students’ emotional well-being, sense of belonging, and engagement.
... This measure includes 5 items (e.g., "The things in my life are excellent") that children were asked to rate on a 5-point scale (1 = Disagree a lot to 5 = Agree a lot). Well-being was assessed by the Stirling Children's Well-being Scale (Liddle & Carter, 2015). This measure includes 12 items (e.g., "I can find lots of fun things to do") that children were asked to rate on a 5-point scale (1 = Never to 5 = All of the time). ...
Article
The aim of the present study was to compare the relations between subtypes of social withdrawal and socio-emotional adjustment in Chinese children and early adolescents. Participants included 571 children (Mage = 9.62 years) and 345 adolescents (Mage = 12.12 years) in mainland China. Social withdrawal subtypes (i.e., shyness, unsociability, social avoidance) and indices of socio-emotional adjustment were assessed via self-reports, peer nominations, and teacher ratings. Shyness tended to be more strongly associated with emotional maladjustment in early adolescence, whereas unsociability was more strongly associated with social and emotional difficulties in childhood. For social avoidance, associations with indices of negative adjustment (i.e., social anxiety, emotional symptoms, peer problems) were stronger in childhood, however, associations with indices of positive adjustment (i.e., life satisfaction, well-being) were stronger in early adolescence.
... Child well-being is widely recognized as a multidimensional construct including physical, social, subjective, and psychological domains (Ben-Arieh, 2007;Jiang & Ngai, 2020;Moore & Keyes, 2003;Pollard & Lee, 2003;Ryff & Keyes, 1995). Subjective well-being can be conceptualized as having an affective (e.g., positive emotions) and cognitive (e.g., life satisfaction) components (Liddle & Carter, 2015;Mashford-Scott, Church, & Tayler, 2012;Ryan & Deci, 2001). For this study, we focus on the affective component of subjective well-being, specifically happiness. ...
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Research Findings: Previous studies have found that a growth mind-set was associated with optimal learning and well-being outcomes. However, much of this research has been conducted among adolescents and young adults. Relatively little is known as to whether these associations also apply to young children. The present study aimed to examine whether mind-sets are associated with school engagement and subjective well-being in the early childhood context (i.e. first-grade students). A total of 402 Hong Kong first-grade students (219 boys and 183 girls; mean age = 6.69) were recruited. Self-reported questionnaires were administered to assess students’ growth mind-set, engagement, and subjective well-being. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. Results indicated that students who endorsed a growth mind-set were more likely to report higher levels of engagement and subjective well-being. Practice or Policy: Our study demonstrates the importance of growth mind-set for optimal functioning among young children. Growth mind-set may need to be nurtured in the early childhood context as a potential pathway to improving students’ academic engagement and subjective well-being.
... Data from over 10,000 pupils were collected via questionnaires at 56 schools and colleges. Mental wellbeing was assessed using validated measures: the Stirling Children's Wellbeing Scale [102] for younger (primary-school) children and the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale [88] for older (secondary-school) children. Nutrition and relevant behaviour, health, and demographic data were also collected. ...
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Diets influence our mental health and social wellbeing (MHSW) in multiple ways. A rising community concept, Eco-Regions, has gained interest. The research project “Indicators for assessment of health effects of consumption of sustainable, organic school meals in Ecoregions” (INSUM) aims to develop future-oriented research approaches to measure the potential health effects of more sustainable and healthy diets. This first part of the project focuses on MHSW with the goal to identify suitable study designs and indicators. The methodology is based on a 2-day workshop with an interdisciplinary group of experts. This paper describes commonly applied research methods on the nexus between diet and MHSW as presented by the experts and summarises key points from the discussions. The results show that the dominating tool to investigate MSHW is questionnaires. Questionnaires vary largely depending on the research design, such as participants or distribution channels. Cohort studies addressing families and including in-depth interventional and/or experimental studies may be suitable for an Eco-Region investigation. Those MHSW studies can be conducted and combined with measurements of somatic health effects. We conclude that indicators should be seen as complementary rather than independent. Explorative research designs are required to investigate complex Eco-Regions.
... The SCWBS is a wellbeing measure for children aged 8-15 years (Liddle & Carter, 2015) containing three subscales, two of which (Positive Emotional State 6 items/ Positive Outlook 6 items) were adopted. Children are asked to respond to how they have felt over the previous two weeks, using a five-point Likert scale (5: all of the time -1: never). ...
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This study evaluated an online multi-component Reading to Dogs (RTD) intervention named Paws and Learn (PAL). Designed as a controlled feasibility study (i.e., comparing an intervention and a control group, as well as evaluating the intervention's practicality for the classroom), this research examined the intervention's impact on children's wellbeing, reading affect and frequency (RAF), children and teachers’ perceptions and experiences of PAL; and implementation considerations for the classroom. PAL consists of five components, one of which is RTD, complemented by four additional components designed to increase connection to the dog (whom they only meet virtually) and increase and consolidate benefits. RTD in schools is growing in international popularity and prevalence yet concerns about the practice exist. Online PAL was informed by a survey of teachers’ perspectives of RTD, and a co-design process combining research and practice. A pre-post-test control group design, with a mixed method evaluation was adopted. In total,N=106 pupils (aged 9) and their teachers from 3 schools participated in the 4-week study. Measures included wellbeing and RAF questionnaires, and interviews with intervention class teachers (N = 3) and a sub-sample of children (n = 33). In general, no statistically significant differences were found in wellbeing, reading affect or frequency, however qualitative insights revealed positive perceptions and experiences of online PAL, specifically in relation to wellbeing and reading affect. Online PAL was deemed feasible for classroom use, particularly if technological challenges can be overcome. Implications for the delivery of RTD interventions are discussed.
... The Stirling Children's Well-being Scale, developed by the Stirling Council Educational Psychology Service (UK) was used to measure well-being of pupils in Years 3, 5 and 6. 19 It is a validated measure for children aged eight to 15-years which comprises 12 items exploring outlook, emotional state and social desirability. Children completed the survey online using their unique ID. ...
Article
Issue addressed: Approximately 77% of NSW children aged 5 to 15 years do not meet physical activity guidelines and many spend a considerable amount of time sitting (1). Active breaks at primary school are feasible, may increase daily moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and decrease off-task behaviour without adversely affecting cognitive function and learning. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 101 primary school children in six intervention classrooms participated in three ten-minute active breaks per day for six-weeks during class time, while five control classrooms were run as usual (n=89). Physical activity levels were measured using wrist-worn Actigraph wGT3X-BT accelerometers and analysed using a random forest model. Students' off-task behaviour, wellbeing, cognitive function, and maths performance were also measured. School staff completed a brief feedback survey. Results: Children in the intervention group engaged in 15.4 and 10.9 minutes more MVPA per day at 3 and 6 weeks respectively (p<0.001). Participation significantly increased the proportion of children who met the Australian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines (p<0.001). At pre, middle and end of intervention, 44.4%, 60.8% and 55.1% of intervention children and 46.5%, 45.9% and 45.8% of controls met the guidelines. Significantly fewer students engaged in off-task behaviour in the intervention classes at mid and weeks of intervention (-1.4 students, p=0.003). No significant intervention effects were found for wellbeing, cognitive and maths performance. Conclusions: Active classroom breaks are an effective way to increase physical activity among primary school children while reducing off-task classroom behaviour. SO WHAT?: Primary school students' health would benefit from active breaks with no detrimental effects on wellbeing, maths and cognitive performance.
... Finally, although only two studies in this review assessed wellbeing, the potential mechanisms for culinary nutrition impacting wellbeing have been highlighted above, and thus should be a key component for assessment in future research. Validated measurement tools around wellbeing include healthrelated quality of life (Uzark et al., 2003) and emotional and psychological wellbeing (Liddle & Carter, 2015). ...
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Diet quality has been associated with numerous health outcomes, resulting in nutrition education to improve children's diet quality. Culinary nutrition interventions have been emphasised as a promising approach for enhancing children's food preferences and behaviours. Recently, there has been an increase in such interventions, and it is essential to understand their effectiveness and the specific methods used. Therefore, this review aimed to critically investigate methodological approaches in a range of children's culinary nutrition interventions and experiments. A secondary aim was to investigate the impact of these interventions on dietary, psychosocial and wellbeing outcomes. A systematic and pragmatic search strategy was developed and implemented using two electronic databases. Data extraction of the relevant content of eligible studies and a narrative synthesis were conducted. A total of 12 312 articles were identified from the search and 38 studies on children's culinary nutrition interventions or experiments were included. Most studies (n = 25) were conducted in North America. Only two studies had an RCT design. Less than half the studies (n = 16) used an underpinning theory, model or framework. Only four studies conducted sample size calculations. Some validated measurement tools were used. Despite the methodological concerns, most studies found some positive changes in dietary and/or psychosocial outcomes, while only two studies assessed wellbeing. Therefore, the area warrants further in‐depth research anchored in methodological rigor to strengthen the validity of the research. The strengthening of the evidence in children's culinary nutrition could have a significant beneficial impact on public health if it resulted in widespread interventions and, in the long‐term, reduce the impact on health systems.
... A range of interventions and measures based on building on strengths and increasing resilience and optimism have been developed, for instance, the Optimistic Child programme (Seligman, 2007). Measures based on wellbeing include Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (Peterson & Seligman, 2004), and resilience measures including scales such as those found in Frederickson and Dunsmuir (2009) or the recently developed Stirling Children's Wellbeing Scale (Liddle & Carter 2010). ...
... The paper reviewed instruments specific to wellbeing that have been administered to adolescents, such as the Short Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale 11 and the Stirling Wellbeing Scale. 12 Although these scales cover multiple domains of the Adolescent Wellbeing Framework, the items differ in their formulation and intended age range. Examples of subjective and objective positive indicators 7 show how existing measures relate to adolescent wellbeing across the five domains ( fig 1). ...
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Available data are insufficient and inconsistent, but increasing focus on adolescent wellbeing provides the impetus to advance measurement, argue Holly Newby and colleagues
... Students' well-being was measured using the Stirling Children's Well Being Scale (Liddle & Carter, 2015). This scale comprises 12 items, assessing both positive emotional state and positive outlook. ...
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The Faith and Wellness: A Daily Mental Health Resource is a school-based, teacher-led social-emotional learning (SEL) intervention resource for elementary students. It is designed to address the challenges faced by existing SEL interventions, including lack of time, training, and resources. Using a randomized control trial design, this study evaluates short-term outcomes associated with the use of this resource. Participants were elementary teachers (NT1 = 201, NT2 = 129) and students (NT1 = 242, NT2 = 183; ages 4-14; 47.5% girls) from 19 Catholic school boards in [PROVINCE]. Using multi-level models, significant small to medium effect sizes indicated that intervention group teachers: taught SEL more frequently; had higher confidence in teaching SEL; and had more positive perceptions of the classroom climate, students' SEL, and students' school engagement at Time 2 than comparison group teachers. Results for students were less robust, though there was indication of dosage effects. Results highlight the role of teachers and frequent delivery in effective SEL implementation. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12310-022-09538-x.
... The preliminary PeSSKi scale consisted of 11 perceived stress statements and was presented with the insertion of two social desirability items, all measured on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (not at all) to 5 (a lot) using a star response system (see Supporting Information S1, which shows the 11-item PeSSKi with instructions and star response scoring These items were designed to reflect enhancement or denial as a function of social desirability (Paulhus & Reid, 1991) and were selected from the social desirability subscale of the Stirling Children's Well-being Scale (SCWBS) (Liddle & Carter, 2015) in order to assess any possible influence of social desirability on responses to the PeSSKi scale items. ...
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Perceived stress, a known risk factor for poor health, has been extensively assessed in adult populations. Yet an equivalent assessment tool for measurement of global perceived stress in children is lacking. This study aimed to develop and provide initial validation of a scale to measure perceived stress in children aged 7–11 years. Using a two‐phase design, we conducted semi‐structured interviews with thirteen child‐parent dyads for development of items. In a sample of 123 children (age range 7‐11 year, Mage = 9 years 7 months, 54.5% male) we administered the resulting Perceived Stress Scale for Kids (PeSSKi). Exploratory factor analysis of the 10‐item PeSSKi yielded support for both a one‐factor and a two‐factor solution (negative, positive item wording). The PeSSKi was associated positively with the Penn‐State Worry Questionnaire for Children (r =.748, p<.001) and negatively with the Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale (r =.381, p<.001) indicating strong convergent/divergent validity respectively. Girls showed higher scores on the PeSSKi than boys with no effects observed by age. Initial psychometrics suggest the PeSSKi provides a robust scale for assessment of perceived stress in children. Further validation is needed across different child populations, over time and with physical measures of stress and health outcomes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Dans le cas présent, les élèves de 6 e année ont obtenu des pointages significativement plus bas pour toutes les échelles du MLSS que tous les autres niveaux scolaires. De fait, bien que contraires à ceux des auteurs originaux du MLSS ) et d'autres auteurs (Hospital et al., 2018;Morin, 2014;Osborne et al., 2015), ces résultats étaient attendus puisque le niveau de bien-être général des élèves du primaire tend à décroître lorsque les enfants avancent en âge selon plusieurs études (Andolfi et al., 2017;Buzaud et al., 2019;Gregory et al., 2018;Konu, 2006;Liddle et Carter, 2015;Tobia et al., 2019). Cette dévaluation est d'ailleurs habituellement marquée pour les mesures de satisfaction et d'appartenance (Andolfi et al, 2017;Gregory et al., 2018). ...
Thesis
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Le bien-être de l’élève est partie intégrante du Programme de formation de l’école québécoise (PFÉQ) (Gouvernement du Québec, 2006). Toutefois, le contexte particulier des programmes pédagogiques particuliers (PPP) en Arts-études semble exposer les élèves à plusieurs situations de stress et d’anxiété. Or, l’anxiété occasionnée pourrait nuire au bien-être des musiciens (Kenny, 2016). Si certaines pratiques d’enseignement de la musique peuvent contribuer à une expérience positive en classe (Creech et Hallam, 2011; Patston et Waters, 2015; Roberts, 2015), d’autres pourraient cependant favoriser les manifestations d’anxiété de performance musicale (APM) chez les élèves (Kenny, 2016; Patston, 2014; Persson, 1996; Ryan et Andrews, 2009). Ainsi, l’objectif général de ce mémoire est d’analyser les pratiques d’enseignement de la musique et leur influence sur l’APM et le bien-être en classe des élèves du primaire inscrits à un PPP en Arts-études. Les objectifs spécifiques sont de 1) décrire les pratiques d’enseignement observées dans les PPP en Arts-études en musique au primaire; 2) décrire l’APM et le bien-être en classe des élèves et 3) d’examiner l’influence des pratiques observées sur l’APM et le bien-être en classe des élèves. Ce mémoire s’appuie sur la théorie du bien-être de Seligman (2011) et la conception du bien-être de l’enfant à l’école proposée dans l’avis du Conseil Supérieur de l’Éducation (CSÉ, 2020). Afin de répondre à notre objectif général de recherche, nous avons tout d’abord observé les pratiques d’enseignement de quatre enseignantes spécialistes en musique au primaire dans une école offrant un PPP en Arts-études. Nous avons ensuite mesuré l’APM et le bien-être en classe des 170 élèves de la 3e à la 6e année du primaire présents lors des observations. Les pratiques d’enseignement ont été analysées à l’aide de deux grilles d’observations (MCOF, Madsen et Yarbrough, 1985; MTRA, Moore, 1976). L’analyse a permis de mettre en lumière certaines particularités. Notamment, les enseignantes maintiennent un contact visuel avec les élèves et les accompagnent en jouant un instrument la plupart du temps. Elles rétroagissent plus fréquemment auprès des élèves du deuxième cycle que du 3e cycle et elles privilégient l’utilisation de marques de désapprobation au regard des comportements sociaux, mais utilisent équitablement les marques d’approbation et de désapprobation pour les comportements pédagogiques. L’APM et le bien-être en classe des élèves ont été mesurés par un questionnaire autorapporté constitué d’échelles préexistantes (MPAI-A, Osborne et Kenny, 2002; MLSS, Creech et Hallam, 2011; QESPP, Carpentier et al., sous presse). En ce qui a trait au questionnaire des élèves, la majorité d’entre eux rapportent expérimenter des symptômes d’APM (nervosité, crainte de commettre des erreurs, évitement des performances solos devant public et difficulté de concentration) indépendamment de leur niveau de bien-être en classe. On observe que les filles rapportent significativement plus d’APM, de plaisir et de motivation que les garçons. Dans l’ensemble, l’APM tend à être plus élevé chez les élèves plus âgés. On constate également que les élèves de 6e année indiquent éprouver significativement moins de plaisir, de satisfaction, de motivation, d’estime de soi et d’appartenance à la classe que ceux des élèves de 3e et de 4e année du primaire. L’origine de la participation au programme (suggestion des parents ou demande de l’enfant) semble influencer différemment l’APM et le bien-être des élèves en fonction du genre et du niveau scolaire. Lorsque la demande de participer au programme vient des enfants, les élèves du 3e cycle rapportent une APM plus élevée que ceux du deuxième cycle. De plus, les garçons rapportent plus de plaisir et de motivation que lorsqu’ils répondent à une suggestion de leurs parents; aucune différence n’est observée chez les filles. Or, lorsque la suggestion de participer au PPP est initiée par les parents, l’APM des élèves du deuxième cycle est plus élevée que celle des élèves du 3e cycle. Les niveaux de plaisir, de satisfaction et de motivation des garçons sont aussi significativement plus bas que ceux des filles. En dépit des variations observées chez les élèves, l’analyse n’a révélé aucune influence significative des pratiques d’enseignement de la musique sur l’APM et le bien-être en classe des élèves. Ce mémoire met en lumière certaines considérations méthodologiques et conceptuelles qui mériteraient d’être réinvesties dans le cadre de l’analyse de l’influence des pratiques d’enseignement sur l’APM et le bien-être en classe des élèves. Notamment, il appert pertinent de reconnaître l’influence de plusieurs types de variables afin de reconnaître justement l’influence qui relève des pratiques d’enseignement. Finalement, plusieurs recommandations sont formulées concernant les pratiques d’enseignement constatées en contexte d’enseignement-apprentissage musical. Une attention particulière doit être portée quant à la motivation des élèves et aux différences observées selon le genre et le niveau scolaire. Promouvoir la participation active des élèves et l’utilisation de marques d’approbation pourrait s’avérer des pistes d’actions intéressantes.
... "Educational Stress Scale" developed by Sun, Dunne, Hou and Xu (2011) has been used in order to investigate students' educational stress. "Emotional and Psychological Well-Being Scale" developed by Liddle and Carter (2015) has been used in order to investigate students' emotional and psychological well-being. Results of the present study show that students' perception towards school culture is "high" at development culture and success culture subdimensions, whereas it is "average" at abiding the strict rules culture. ...
... Initially, my pilot study, which targeted children's wellbeing and used more traditional self-reports, did not reveal many meaningful results. There was not much variance in the results when using well-established measures such as the Stirling's Children Wellbeing Scale (Liddle & Carter, 2015) and selected Kidscreen52 subscales (Ravens-Sieberer et al., 2001), and these measures did not encourage children with DLD to share their emotional wellbeing experiences. Therefore, I moved from the traditional selfreports to semi-structured interviews, which had to be complemented with adult reports, Although researchers tend to rely on adult proxies (Farmer, 2000;Yew & O'Kearney, 2015), Therefore, the Consulted and informed level of participation was not reached. ...
Thesis
Children with Developmental Language Disorder (DLD) have difficulties expressing or understanding language without having any other neurodevelopmental condition or physical impairment. DLD places affected children at risk of many undesired developmental outcomes. Peer relationships of children with DLD are impacted the most; however, many children with DLD are accepted by their peers and report having good quality friendships. To understand the links between language and peer relationships of children with DLD, scholars have examined children’s language, behaviour, and other psychosocial attributes. Research findings, however, are inconclusive about the relative contribution of these factors, and what is more, they tend to overly rely on adult informants whose reports of children’s language, behaviours, and social functioning vary. This doctoral research project actively involved children with DLD and their peers to learn directly from children about their peer relationships. These aims were delivered through two parts – analytical research synthesis (systematised literature review) and primary data collection (series of case studies). Both parts helped answer the project’s research questions: 1. What are the within-child characteristics promoting the peer relationships of children with DLD? 2. What research methods facilitate the participation of children with DLD in studies about their peer relationships in school? A mixed methods approach was taken to combine quantitative and qualitative data. In part one, the analytical research synthesis, identified studies were reviewed and categorised based on the levels of children’s participation in the research. A narrative analysis synthetised the studies’ findings about the within-child characteristics contributing to the peer relationships of children with DLD. Part two was conducted as a series of case studies, where each child with DLD (n=14) represented a case. Data were collected via parent and teacher reports, observations, sociometric methods, interviews with a friend, and one-to-one meetings that involved language and nonverbal ability assessments, friendship, and wellbeing interviews. A child-centred approach was adopted, including visual supports and art-based tools, to facilitate children’s active engagement in one-on-one meetings. Part two data were analysed through within and cross-case analyses, framework analysis, and friendship formation assessment. Findings from both parts are brought together in a discussion answering the overarching research questions. This project identified that the quantity and quality of language and behaviours of children with DLD need to be considered as distinct contributors to their peer relationships. It further specified self-perception and self-awareness as within-child factors contributing to the peer relationships of children with DLD. Finally, this project revealed peer’s inclusive attitudes as within-child factors promoting the peer relationships of children with DLD. Regarding methods facilitating the participation of children with DLD in studies about their peer relationships, this project identified few studies directly involving children. There are, however, excellent examples of visual support and art-based methods supporting the participation of children with DLD in research. This project updates our knowledge and existing models linking language and children’s social adjustments by identifying within-child factors that need to be considered in future studies. It further demonstrates that it is possible to elicit the voice of children with DLD in studies about their social lives. Together with their peers, children reveal factors that are meaningful to them and their peer relationships. These findings have direct implications for the social inclusion of children with DLD in school, their speech and language therapy outcomes, and future research. Children with DLD and their peers need to be considered as active agents in matters that impact their social lives.
Article
Background Given the significant investment of governments and families into the provision of child dental care services in Australia, continued population oral health surveillance through national oral health surveys is imperative. Objective The aims of this study are to conduct a second National Child Oral Health Survey (NCOHS-2) to (1) describe the prevalence, extent, and impact of oral diseases in contemporary Australian children; (2) evaluate changes in the prevalence and extent of oral diseases in the Australian child population and socioeconomic subgroups since the first National Child Oral Health Study (NCOHS-1) in 2012-2013; and (3) use economic modeling to evaluate the burden of child oral disease from the NCOHS-1 and NCOHS-2 and to estimate the cost-effectiveness of targeted programs for high-risk child groups. Methods The NCOHS-2 will closely mimic the NCOHS-1 in being a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of Australian children aged 5-14 years. The survey will comprise oral epidemiological examinations and questionnaires to elucidate associations between dental disease in a range of outcomes, including social and emotional well-being. The information will be analyzed within the context of dental service organization and delivery at national and jurisdictional levels. Information from the NCOHS-1 and NCOHS-2 will be used to simulate oral disease and its economic burden using both health system and household costs of childhood oral health disease. Results Participant recruitment for the NCOHS-2 will commence in February 2024. The first results are expected to be submitted for publication 6 months after NCOHS-2 data collection has been completed. Thematic workshops with key partners and stakeholders will also occur at this time. Conclusions Regular surveillance of child oral health at an Australian level facilitates timely policy and planning of each state and territory’s dental public health sector. This is imperative to enable the most equitable distribution of scarce public monies, especially for socially disadvantaged children who bear the greatest dental disease burden. The last NCOHS was conducted in 2012-2014, meaning that these data need to be updated to better inform effective dental health policy and planning. The NCOHS-2 will enable more up-to-date estimates of dental disease prevalence and severity among Australian children, with cost-effective analysis being useful to determine the economic burden of poor child dental health on social and emotional well-being and other health indicators. International Registered Report Identifier (IRRID) PRR1-10.2196/52233
Article
Bu araştırmada Türkiye’deki ilkokul öğrencilerinin iyi oluşlarına (well-being) odaklanan alanyazını sistematik olarak gözden geçirmek amacıyla beş veri tabanı kullanılarak (Ulusal Tez Merkezi, TÜBİTAK ULAKBİM TR Dizin, ERIC, Scopus ve Web of Science) sistematik arama yapılmış ve ilkokul öğrencilerinin iyi oluşlarını ele alan, Türkçe ve İngilizce dillerinde nitel, nicel ve karma yöntemlerden herhangi biri kullanılarak yazılmış, veri tabanında bulunan veya hakemli bilimsel dergilerde yer alan çevrimiçi erişilebilir tezler ve makaleler incelenmiştir. Belirlenen ölçütler kapsamında 15 çalışma dahil edilmiş, ağırlığın nitel ve nicel desenlerde olduğu, iyi oluşun, ağırlıklı olarak ilkokulda psikoloji, beden eğitimi ve spor disiplinleri ile birlikte ele alındığı belirlenmiştir. Çalışmaların konu alanlarının: iyi oluşu tanımlama, çocukların iyi oluşlarını etkileyebilecek, koruyabilecek ve geliştirebilecek değişkenlerin etkisine bakma ve iyi oluş-akademik başarı ilişkisi olduğu saptanmıştır. Araştırma, iyi oluşun “psikolojik iyi oluş”, “öznel iyi oluş”, “psikolojik ve duygusal iyi oluş”, “bağlanma, duygular ve beklentiler”, “sosyal duygusal iyi oluş” ve “zihinsel iyi oluş” gibi çeşitli biçimlerde ele alındığını ortaya çıkarmıştır. İncelenen çalışmalarda ebeveyn tutumunun, kardeş ilişkilerinin, arkadaşlık ilişkilerinin, öğretmen-öğrenci ilişkilerinin, öğrencinin sosyo-duygusal gelişiminin, psikolojik sağlamlığının ve okul ortamındaki nezaketin ilkokul öğrencilerinin iyi oluşları üzerinde etkili oldukları görülmüştür. Elde edilen bulgular alanyazın ışığında tartışılarak çeşitli önerilerde bulunulmuştur.
Article
Abstract The importance of secure human attachments in childhood for healthy psychological development is well-established, yet the well-being implications of child-dog symbiotic relationships are less understood. Children form strong emotional bonds with their pet dogs that meet the prerequisites for an attachment relationship. These bonds can be mutually reinforcing and beneficial and could indicate positive child well-being. However, not all child-dog relationships are positive and here we explore whether harmful and unsafe interactions are associated with poorer emotional and behavioural functioning. The aim of this study was to examine whether the type of child-dog behaviour (positive or negative) mediates the relationship between child-dog attachment and well-being indicators. Data from caregiver reports (N = 117) and child self-reports (N = 77) were collected through an online survey. The results revealed that positive child-dog interactions significantly mediated the relationship between high attachment scores and better child outcomes (higher scores for well-being, positive outlook, happiness, quality of life, higher social satisfaction, and lower loneliness), whereas the reverse was found for negative child-dog interactions, predicting lower attachment scores and worse child outcomes (negative outlook, increased loneliness and social dissatisfaction, lower quality of life). This study has identified important mechanisms through which pet dogs may pose both benefits and risks to children’s psychological well-being. These findings will aid the development and evaluation of interventions that promote positive and safe child-dog interactions and subsequent child and dog psychological health and welfare.
Article
Bu araştırmada ortaokul ve lise öğrencilerinin internet ve akıllı telefon bağımlılık düzeyleri ile psikolojik iyi oluşları arsındaki ilişkide yalnızlığın aracılık rolü incelenmiştir. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu 538 ortaokul ve lise öğrencisi oluşturmaktadır. Veriler; Demografik Bilgi Formu, Young İnternet Bağımlılığı Ölçeği Kısa Formu, Akıllı Telefon Bağımlılığı Ölçeği-Kısa Formu, UCLA Yalnızlık Ölçeği ve Stirling Çocuklar İçin Duygusal ve Psikolojik İyi Oluş Ölçeği ile toplanmıştır. Verilerin analizinde pearson korelasyon ve yapısal eşitlik modeli (YEM) analiz tekniklerinden yararlanılmıştır. Korelasyon analizi sonucuna göre, psikolojik iyi oluş ile internet bağımlılığı, akıllı telefon bağımlılığı ve yalnızlık arasında negatif yönde; internet bağımlılığı ile akıllı telefon bağımlılığı ve yalnızlık arasında ve akıllı telefon bağımlılığı ile yalnızlık arasında pozitif yönde anlamlı ilişkiler vardır. İnternet bağımlılığının dışsal değişken olduğu 1. modelin YEM analizi sonucuna göre internet bağımlılığı ile psikolojik iyi oluş arasındaki ilişkide yalnızlık kısmi aracı rol üstlenmektedir. Akıllı telefon bağımlılığının dışsal değişken olduğu 2. modelin analiz sonuçlarına göre yalnızlığın akıllı telefon bağımlılığı ile psikolojik iyi oluş arasındaki ilişkide kısmi aracılık rolü üstlendiği belirlenmiştir. Sonuçlar literatür ışığında tartışılmıştır.
Article
Purpose : The aim of this study was to develop, implement, and evaluate a 16-lesson integrated physical education program focusing on Indigenous games: Education, Movement, and Understanding (EMU). Method : The study aligned with current physical education, English, and mathematics syllabi and involved 105 children (9–12 years) from two primary schools (Awabakal Country, Australia; 2020). Children participated in sixteen 45–60 min EMU lessons over 8 weeks, with feasibility and preliminary efficacy outcomes assessed via mixed methods. Results : EMU was delivered successfully by the research team, with excellent student and teacher evaluations ( M = 4.36–5.0 across 20 items). Improvements resulted for children’s cardiorespiratory fitness ( d = 0.37, p = .001), enjoyment of sport ( d = 0.27, p = .024), physical self-perceptions ( d = 0.27, p = .043), and academic achievement (spelling d = 0.91, addition d = 0.40, subtraction d = 0.53, and division d = 0.68). No significant changes in well-being or multiplication scores resulted. Conclusion : Our results provide support for the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of EMU as a beneficial and enjoyable integrated primary school physical education program.
Article
Bu araştırmada ortaokula devam eden ergenlerin bilinçli farkındalık ve psikolojik iyi oluş düzeylerinin cinsiyete ve sınıf düzeyine göre farklılaşıp farklılaşmadığı ve bilinçli farkındalık puanlarının psikolojik iyi oluş düzeylerini yordayıp yordamadığı araştırılmıştır. Ayrıca bilinçli farkındalık ile psikolojik iyi oluş arasındaki ilişki ve bu ilişkide cinsiyetin düzenleyici etkisi incelenmiştir. Araştırmanın örneklemi 2021-2022 eğitim öğretim yılında Ankara’nın Çankaya ilçesindeki bir devlet okulunun beşinci, altıncı, yedinci ve sekizinci sınıfına devam eden 149’u kadın ve 184’ü erkek olmak üzere toplam 333 öğrenciden oluşmuştur. Araştırmada bilinçli farkındalık düzeyini belirlemek için Çocuk ve Ergenler için Bilinçli Farkındalık Ölçeği (ÇEBFÖ), psikolojik iyi oluş düzeylerini belirlemek için de Stirling Çocuklar İçin Duygusal ve Psikolojik İyi Oluş Ölçeği (SÇDPİOÖ) kullanılmıştır. Araştırmada ölçek puanlarının normallik varsayımı basıklık ve çarpıklık katsayıları incelenerek değerlendirilmiştir. Normallik varsayımının sağlanması nedeniyle verilerin analizinde t testi, ANOVA, regresyon analizi ve Pearson Korelasyon Katsayısı kullanılmıştır. Ölçeklerin yapı geçerliğinin test edilmesinde doğrulayıcı faktör analizi (DFA) kullanılmıştır. ÇEBFÖ’nün Cronbach alfa değeri .70, SÇDPİOÖ’nin ise .90 olarak bulunmuştur. Araştırmada kadın ve erkek öğrencilerin bilinçli farkındalık puan ortalamaları arasında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir fark gözlenmiştir. Bilinçli farkındalık ve psikolojik iyi oluş puanları sınıf düzeyine göre anlamlı farklılık göstermemiştir. Bilinçli farkındalığın psikolojik iyi oluşun anlamlı bir yordayıcısı olduğu bulunmuştur. Kız öğrencilerde bilinçli farkındalığın psikolojik iyi oluşu yordama etkisi erkek öğrencilerde daha yüksek bulunmuştur. Bulgular literatür çerçevesinde tartışılmış ve önerilerde bulunulmuştur.
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Bu araştırmada, duygusal ve psikolojik iyi oluş ve yaşam doyumu değişkenlerinin ilkokul düzeyindeki çocuklarda problem çözme düzeylerini ne kadar yordadığının incelenmesi amaçlanmaktadır. Araştırma grubu, 2020-2021 eğitim-öğretim yılında Burdur ili Bucak ilçesinde devlete ait olan ilkokul kurumlarında öğrenim gören 198 (% 52.7) erkek, 178 (%47.3) kız olmak üzere toplam 376 öğrenciden meydana gelmiştir. Veri toplama araçları olarak “Çocuklar İçin Problem Çözme Envanteri”, “Stirling Çocuklar İçin Duygusal ve Psikolojik İyi Oluş Ölçeği”, “Çocuklar İçin Yaşam Doyumu Ölçeği” ve “Kişisel Bilgi Formu” kullanılmıştır. Araştırmadan elde edilen verilerin analizinde çoklu doğrusal regresyon analiz (adımsal) yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Araştırmadan duygusal ve psikolojik iyi oluş ile yaşam doyumu değişkenlerinin problem çözmeyi anlamlı düzeyde yordadığı sonucuna ulaşılmıştır.
Article
Aim This study aimed to determine the effect of goldfish intervention on anxiety, fear, psychological and emotional well-being of hospitalized children. Materials and methods Between November 2020 and August 2021, an open-label, single-center randomized controlled experimental study was conducted in Türkiye's Eastern Anatolia region. The study included 112 children aged 8 to 10 years old (56 in the study group and 56 in the control group). The study and control groups were randomly assigned to strata using a table of random numbers. The children in the study group observed after goldfish intervention for three days. As data collection tools, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children, Child Fear Scale, and the Stirling Children's Well-being Scale were used. Results The mean state anxiety scores of the children in the study group who looked after goldfish intervention decreased significantly compared to the control group. When the two groups were compared, the difference between the post-test measurements were significant (p < 0.05). The mean score of the fear scale in the post-test measurements of the study group children was significantly lower than the control group (p < 0.05). Finally, the emotional, and psychological well-being post-test scale mean scores of the study group children were higher than the control group (p < 0.01). Conclusion Goldfish intervention was found to be effective in decreasing the state anxiety and fear levels and increasing the psychological and emotional well-being levels of the children in the study group.
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Background and objectives: Promoting positive child and youth health and development requires clear definitions and comprehensive measures of child and youth thriving. The study's objectives were to identify the scope, range, and gaps in definitions and measures of thriving for children or youth (birth through young adult). Methods: Systematic searches of Pubmed, PsycInfo, Health and Psychosocial Instruments, Education Resources Information Center, and Scopus were conducted for articles that included definitions, conceptual frameworks, or measures of child and youth thriving. Inclusion criteria were that the articles: (1) provided a new definition or measure of child thriving, flourishing, or well-being; (2) focused on normally developing children 0 to 24 years old; and (3) were published between 2009 and 2022 in an English language peer-reviewed journal. Studies were categorized by child age, study type, population, and community-identified domains of thriving. Results: Of the 14 920 articles identified, 113 met inclusion criteria: 34 unique definitions or frameworks, 66 validated measures, and 12 articles presenting both a framework and measure. One-third of the articles focused on early childhood (0-5 years old); 47% on middle childhood (6-11 years old); 72% on adolescence (12-17 years old), and 22% on young adults (18-24 years old). Conclusions: Current child thriving definitions, frameworks, and measures could be expanded in their coverage of age and key domains, such as racial equity and safety. Additional frameworks and measures focused on early childhood (0-5 years) and assessing thriving over time are needed.
Chapter
Thirty years after the United Nation Convention on the Rights of the Child, it is important to assess and reflect on the legislation and actions that were conducted to promote children’s rights and wellbeing. International indicators suggest important achievements in the dissemination of education and basic rights, especially in occidental and developed countries, but evidence regarding the effectiveness of intervention programs aimed at promoting children’s wellbeing is still sparse and scattered. Based on a review of the literature available at Scopus database, thirteen papers on intervention programs to promote wellbeing in children and adolescents were identified, including data from more than fourteen thousand students (N = 14,692). We revise the main components of the interventions, the target populations, the frequency and duration of the intervention, the instruments used to assess the effects, the study design, and its main effects. The chapter offers an overview of the state of the art on intervention in wellbeing but highlights the necessity of clear guidelines for researchers and practitioners. Limitations and guidelines for good practices for educational and community interventions are presented.
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Anak pemulung hidup dalam kondisi dan situasi yang terpaparkan dengan banyak kesulitan dan tekanan hidup dari berbagai aspek. Anak pemulung tersebut membutuhkan kemampuan untuk menghadapi dan menanggulangi keterpurukan tersebut secara baik dan mampu menyesuaikan diri ketika muncul hal-hal yang dapat memicu konflik. Kemampuan ini dikenal dengan istilah resiliensi. Resiliensi pada anak pemulung dapat dipengaruhi oleh dukungan keluarga dan hubungan pertemanan. Kedua hal tersebut merupakan faktor penting didalam children well-being. Berdasarkan latar belakang tersebut penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara children wellbeing dengan resiliensi pada anak pemulung di Gampong Jawa, Banda Aceh. Hipotesis penelitian ini adalah terdapat hubungan antara children well-being dengan resiliensi pada anak pemulung di Gampong Jawa, Banda Aceh. Subjek penelitian adalah 33 orang anak pemulung yang berusia antara 9-12 tahun dan tinggal di Gampong Jawa, Banda Aceh. Teknik sampling yang digunakan adalah sampling jenuh. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan menggunakan Skala Stirling Children WellBeing Scale yang disusun berdasarkan teori yang dikemukakan oleh Liddle dan Carter (2007). Skala Resilience Scale for Children and Adolescents mengacu pada teori Prince-Embury (2013). Hasil analisis data menggunakan teknik korelasi Pearson menunjukkan koefisien korelasi (r) sebesar 0,571 dengan nilai p = 0,000 (p<0,05). Hal ini dapat diartikan bahwa terdapat hubungan positif antara children well-being dengan resiliensi pada anak pemulung di Gampong Jawa, Banda Aceh.
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The Present Paper aims to explore the Perceived teacher rejection and psychological well- being of school children. Teachers have a significance influence in children's social, emotional, and academic development. Student Psychological well- being is their ability to manage life’s challenges and it depends on positive teacher student relationship. The main study was performed on a total of 500 students Respondent age from 10 to 18 (Mean = 13.49 years, SD = 1.33) from schools of (Hyderabad) Pakistan in 2019. A Convenience sampling technique was used to data collection. The Cronbach’s alpha reliability was determining for the Teacher acceptance rejection scale TARQ (???? = 0.75) and SCWBS (???? = 0.74) indicated also reliable status of scale respectively. Results of regression analysis revealed that teacher rejection was not predicator for emotional psychological well -being of children. Beyond this, more research on this topic is required to recognize, about the consequence of this perspective in our country.
Article
Over the past decade, visits to American and Canadian emergency departments (EDs) for child and youth mental health care have increased substantially.1,2 Acute mental health crises can occur as a result of a variety of concerns, including those that are life threatening (eg, suicide attempts), pose safety concerns (eg, suicidal intentions, aggressive behaviors, alcohol and other drug use), and are physically distressing to the child or youth (eg, panic attacks). ED health care providers play a vital role in assessing the safety and well-being of the child or youth and referring them to services for ongoing care.3,4 During the ED visit, assessment and care should pinpoint risks, inform treatment, and consider family needs and preferences as part of a patient-centered approach. Yet, this approach to care is not widely adopted in EDs. Most EDs do not require the use of pediatric-specific mental health tools to guide assessments or have patient-centered procedures in place to guide the care of patients with mental health emergencies.5-7 Our team believes these limitations have led to the provision of acute mental health care that can lack sufficient quality and efficiency. This study protocol describes a trial designed to evaluate if a novel mental health care bundle that was co-designed with parents and youth results in greater improvements in the well-being of children and youth 30 days after seeking ED care for mental health and/or substance misuse concerns compared with existing care protocols. We hypothesize that the bundle will positively impact child and youth well-being, while also providing cost-effective health care system benefits.
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As people lead longer and generally healthier lives, aspirations and expectations of health care extend to include well-being and enhanced quality of life. Several measurement scales exist to evaluate how well health care reaches these goals. However, the definitions of well-being or quality of life remain open to considerable debate, which complicates the design, validation, and subsequent choice of an appropriate measurement. This article reviews nine measures of psychological well-being, tracing their origins in alternative conceptual approaches to defining well-being. It compares their psychometric properties and suggests how they may be used. The review covers the Life Satisfaction Index, the Bradburn Affect Balance Scale, single-item measures, the Philadelphia Morale scale, the General Well-Being Schedule, the Satisfaction With Life scale, the Positive and Negative Affect Scale, the World Health Organization 5-item well-being index, and the Ryff's scales of psychological well-being. Scales range in size from a single item to 22; levels of reliability and validity range from good to excellent, although for some of the newer scales we lack information on some forms of validity. Measures exist to assess several conceptions of psychological well-being. Most instruments perform adequately for survey research, but we know less about their adequacy for use in evaluating health care interventions. There remains active debate over how adequately the questions included portray the theoretical definition of well-being on which they are based.
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A theoretical model of psychological well-being that encompasses 6 distinct dimensions of wellness (Autonomy, Environmental Mastery, Personal Growth, Positive Relations with Others, Purpose in Life, Self-Acceptance) was tested with data from a nationally representative sample of adults (N = 1,108), aged 25 and older, who participated in telephone interviews. Confirmatory factor analyses provided support for the proposed 6-factor model, with a single second-order super factor. The model was superior in fit over single-factor and other artifactual models. Age and sex differences on the various well-being dimensions replicated prior findings. Comparisons with other frequently used indicators (positive and negative affect, life satisfaction) demonstrated that the latter neglect key aspects of positive functioning emphasized in theories of health and well-being.
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Well-being is a complex construct that concerns optimal experience and functioning. Current research on well-being has been derived from two general perspectives: the hedonic approach, which focuses on happiness and defines well-being in terms of pleasure attainment and pain avoidance; and the eudaimonic approach, which focuses on meaning and self-realization and defines well-being in terms of the degree to which a person is fully functioning. These two views have given rise to different research foci and a body of knowledge that is in some areas divergent and in others complementary. New methodological developments concerning multilevel modeling and construct comparisons are also allowing researchers to formulate new questions for the field. This review considers research from both perspectives concerning the nature of well-being, its antecedents, and its stability across time and culture.
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A science of positive subjective experience, positive individual traits, and positive institutions promises to improve quality of life and prevent the pathologies that arise when life is barren and meaningless. The exclusive focus on pathology that has dominated so much of our discipline results in a model of the human being lacking the positive features that make life worth living. Hope, wisdom, creativity, future mindedness, courage, spirituality, responsibility, and perseverance are ignored or explained as transformations of more authentic negative impulses. The 15 articles in this millennial issue of the American Psychologist discuss such issues as what enables happiness, the effects of autonomy and self-regulation, how optimism and hope affect health, what constitutes wisdom, and how talent and creativity come to fruition. The authors outline a framework for a science of positive psychology, point to gaps in our knowledge, and predict that the next century will see a science and profession that will come to understand and build the factors that allow individuals, communities, and societies to flourish.
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This paper introduces and applies an operationalization of mental health as a syndrome of symptoms of positive feelings and positive functioning in life. Dimensions and scales of subjective well-being are reviewed and conceived of as mental health symptoms. A diagnosis of the presence of mental health, described as flourishing, and the absence of mental health, characterized as languishing, is applied to data from the 1995 Midlife in the United States study of adults between the ages of 25 and 74 (n = 3,032). Findings revealed that 17.2 percent fit the criteria for flourishing, 56.6 percent were moderately mentally healthy, 12.1 percent of adults fit the criteria for languishing, and 14.1 percent fit the criteria for DSM-III-R major depressive episode (12-month), of which 9.4 percent were not languishing and 4.7 percent were also languishing. The risk of a major depressive episode was two times more likely among languishing than moderately mentally healthy adults, and nearly six times greater among languishing than flourishing adults. Multivariate analyses revealed that languishing and depression were associated with significant psychosocial impairment in terms of perceived emotional health, limitations of activities of daily living, and workdays lost or cutback. Flourishing and moderate mental health were associated with superior profiles of psychosocial functioning. The descriptive epidemiology revealed that males, older adults, more educated individuals, and married adults were more likely to be mentally healthy. Implications for the conception of mental health and the treatment and prevention of mental illness are discussed.
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There is increasing international interest in the concept of mental well-being and its contribution to all aspects of human life. Demand for instruments to monitor mental well-being at a population level and evaluate mental health promotion initiatives is growing. This article describes the development and validation of a new scale, comprised only of positively worded items relating to different aspects of positive mental health: the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (WEMWBS). WEMWBS was developed by an expert panel drawing on current academic literature, qualitative research with focus groups, and psychometric testing of an existing scale. It was validated on a student and representative population sample. Content validity was assessed by reviewing the frequency of complete responses and the distribution of responses to each item. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the hypothesis that the scale measured a single construct. Internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach's alpha. Criterion validity was explored in terms of correlations between WEMWBS and other scales and by testing whether the scale discriminated between population groups in line with pre-specified hypotheses. Test-retest reliability was assessed at one week using intra-class correlation coefficients. Susceptibility to bias was measured using the Balanced Inventory of Desired Responding. WEMWBS showed good content validity. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the single factor hypothesis. A Cronbach's alpha score of 0.89 (student sample) and 0.91 (population sample) suggests some item redundancy in the scale. WEMWBS showed high correlations with other mental health and well-being scales and lower correlations with scales measuring overall health. Its distribution was near normal and the scale did not show ceiling effects in a population sample. It discriminated between population groups in a way that is largely consistent with the results of other population surveys. Test-retest reliability at one week was high (0.83). Social desirability bias was lower or similar to that of other comparable scales. WEMWBS is a measure of mental well-being focusing entirely on positive aspects of mental health. As a short and psychometrically robust scale, with no ceiling effects in a population sample, it offers promise as a tool for monitoring mental well-being at a population level. Whilst WEMWBS should appeal to those evaluating mental health promotion initiatives, it is important that the scale's sensitivity to change is established before it is recommended in this context.
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This book provides a comprehensive foundation for conducting clinical assessments of child and adolescent social-emotional behavior in a practical, scientific, and culturally appropriate manner. It is aimed at graduate students, practitioners, and researchers in the fields of school psychology, child clinical psychology, and special education but will also be of interest to those in related disciplines such as counseling psychology, child psychiatry, and social work.
Article
The present study focused on differences in self-esteem trajectory in early adolescence rather than on average change across all children. Longitudinal data from 128 adolescents were obtained over a 2-year period that encompassed the transition from elementary school to junior high school. Cluster analysis revealed four markedly divergent self-esteem trajectories: consistently high (35%), chronically low (13%), steeply declining (21%), and small increase (31%). Attempts to predict trajectories were only partially successful. Peer social support was the strongest predictor, but its relation to self-esteem appears more circumscribed than had been thought. The discussion considers differences in the experience of early adolescence, as well as implications for the design and evaluation of preventive intervention.
Article
Affectometer 2 is a 5-minute inventory of general happiness or sense of well-being based on measuring the balance of positive and negative feelings in recent experience. Since this scale is directly derived from its parent scale, Affectometer 1, psychometric findings on the longer scale are reported along with initial data on Affectometer 2. These results indicate high reliability, high validity, and slight contamination by current mood and social desirability. Among the findings of special interest are: (a) the independence of positive and negative affect proposed by Bradburn is not confirmed; (b) well-being is highly and inversely related to neuroticism, anxiety, depression and somatic complaints; (c) the relationship of well-being to depression is curvilinear; (d) well-being scores are determined more by short-term states than long-term traits; (e) well-being can be characterized by 10 “qualities of happiness”.
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The objective of this study was to synthesize information from literature on measures of the self in young children to create an empirical framework for developing future methods for measuring this construct. For this meta-analysis, all available preschool and early elementary school self-esteem studies were reviewed. Reliability was used as the criterion variable and the predictor variables represented different aspects of methodology that are used in testing an instrument: study characteristics, method characteristics, subject characteristics, measure characteristics, and measure design characteristics. Using information from two analyses, the results indicate that the reliability of self-esteem measures for young children can be predicted by the setting of the study, number of items in the scale, the age of the children being studied, the method of data collection (questionnaires or pictures), and the socioeconomic status of the children. Age and number of items were found to be critical features in the development of reliable measures for young children. Future studies need to focus on the issues of age and developmental limitations on the complicated problem of how young children actually think about the self and what methods and techniques can aid in gathering this information more accurately.
Article
This study examined the factorial and content validity of Ryff's Scales of Psychological Well-being (SPWB) in a sample of psychology students (N=233) and a sample of professionals from a diverse occupational background (N=420). The psychometric quality of the SPWB was tested for the versions with 3-items, 9-items and 14-items. It appeared that the factorial validity was only acceptable for the 3-items per scale version. However, the internal consistency of these 3-items scales was below generally accepted levels. Therefore, it is suggested to reduce the length of the 14-item scales to 6, 7 or 8 items, depending on the specific subscale. This resulted in an improved overall psychometric quality. In addition, two new scales were developed that together refer to spiritual well-being. A second order factor analysis, including vitality, happiness, self-esteem and the Big Five personality dimensions, revealed four underlying dimensions of positive psychological health: subjective well-being, self-actualization, interpersonal relations and autonomy.
Article
This study assesses the measurement properties of Ryff’s Scales of Psychological Well-Being (RPWB)—a widely used instrument designed to measure six dimensions of psychological well-being. Analyses of self-administered RPWB data from three major surveys—Midlife in the United States (MIDUS), National Survey of Families and Households II, and the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS)—yielded very high overlap among the dimensions. These large correlations persisted even after eliminating several methodological sources of confounding, including question wording, question order, and negative item-wording. However, in MIDUS pretest and WLS telephone administrations, correlations among the dimensions were much lower. Past research demonstrates that self-administered instruments provide more valid psychological measurements than telephone surveys, and we therefore place more weight on the consistent results from the self-administered items. In sum, there is strong evidence that RPWB does not have as many as six distinct dimensions, and researchers should be cautious in interpreting its subscales.
Article
To examine the effect of child age and number of response choices on children's tendency to respond at the extremes of Likert-type scales rating emotional states. Sixty children (5-6 years, 7-9 years, 10-12 years) were randomly assigned to use either three or five response choices in providing ratings in three different task conditions. Tasks were designed to have correct choices at the midpoints of the rating scales. Children also completed a self-report feelings questionnaire. Results showed that younger children responded in an extreme manner when rating emotion-based, but not physical, tasks. Children's extreme scores did not vary as a function of number of response choices used. More extreme scores on the three tasks were related to more extreme scores on the feelings questionnaire. These results indicate that young children may respond in an extreme manner when rating emotional states. Researchers and clinicians should take this into account when interpreting children's self-reporting ratings.