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Although girls and women in many societies avidly participate in sports, they have been traditionally underrepresented compared to boys and men. In this review, we address the apparent sex differences in sports interest and motivation from an evolutionary perspective. First, we demonstrate that females’ underrepresentation generally reflects lesser interest, not merely fewer opportunities for engagement. Moreover, there is mounting evidence that male and female athletes generally differ in their motivation, specifically their competitiveness and risk taking. Second, we examine the functional explanations for sports. We argue that the courtship display hypothesis applies mainly to females; the spectator lek hypothesis applies chiefly to males; and that two other hypotheses—the allying with coalitions hypothesis and the development of skills hypothesis—are important for both females and males. Third, we explore the proximate causes for the sex differences in sports interest and motivation. We show that while there is compelling evidence that prenatal hormones contribute, the evidence that socialization plays a role remains equivocal. We conclude by discussing key findings and identifying areas for further research.
Evolutionary Behavioral Sciences
Sex Differences in Sports Interest and Motivation: An
Evolutionary Perspective
Robert O. Deaner, Shea M. Balish, and Michael P. Lombardo
Online First Publication, April 27, 2015.
Deaner, R. O., Balish, S. M., & Lombardo, M. P. (2015, April 27). Sex Differences in Sports
Interest and Motivation: An Evolutionary Perspective. Evolutionary Behavioral Sciences.
Advance online publication.
Sex Differences in Sports Interest and Motivation:
An Evolutionary Perspective
Robert O. Deaner
Grand Valley State University
Shea M. Balish
Dalhousie University
Michael P. Lombardo
Grand Valley State University
Although girls and women in many societies avidly participate in sports, they have been
traditionally underrepresented compared with boys and men. In this review, we address
the apparent sex differences in sports interest and motivation from an evolutionary
perspective. First, we demonstrate that females’ underrepresentation generally reflects
lesser interest, not merely fewer opportunities for engagement. Moreover, there is
mounting evidence that male and female athletes generally differ in their motivation,
specifically their competitiveness and risk taking. Second, we examine the functional
explanations for sports. We argue that the courtship display hypothesis applies mainly
to females; the spectator lek hypothesis applies chiefly to males; and that 2 other
hypotheses—the allying with coalitions hypothesis and the development of skills
hypothesis—are important for both females and males. Third, we explore the proximate
causes for the sex differences in sports interest and motivation. We show that although
there is compelling evidence that prenatal hormones contribute, the evidence that
socialization plays a role remains equivocal. We conclude by discussing key findings
and identifying areas for further research.
Keywords: athletics, competitiveness, evolutionary psychology, gender differences, socialization
Competition among organisms is ubiquitous
and manifest in many ways. For example, be-
havioral ecologists differentiate between con-
test and scramble competition: depending on
the dispersal of resources, it may be beneficial
to dominate competitors (contest or interference
competition) or, instead, to simply consume re-
sources before competitors can do so (scramble
or exploitive competition; Sterck, Watts, & van
Schaik, 1997). Among humans, the diversity of
competitive modes seems especially pro-
nounced because of our elaborate culture and
language. Humans can compete, for instance,
by driving a sports car, starting a false rumor,
insulting a competitor’s hairstyle, or eating all
the cookies before a sibling has a chance to
enter the kitchen.
Another important aspect of human competi-
tion is that men and women differ in their use of
competitive modes, especially in intrasexual or
same sex competition. Perhaps most notably,
men are more likely than women to use high-
stakes physical aggression (e.g., fighting),
whereas women’s aggression more frequently
involves indirect or relational tactics, such as
gossiping (Benenson, 2013; Campbell, 2002).
Here, we use an evolutionary perspective to
Robert O. Deaner, Department of Psychology, Grand
Valley State University; Shea M. Balish, Interdisciplinary
PhD Program, Dalhousie University; Michael P. Lombardo,
Department of Biology, Grand Valley State University.
The second author is supported by a Joseph-Armand
Bombardier Canada Graduate Doctoral Scholarship from
the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council
(SSHRC 767-2012-1381), a Sport Participation Research
Initiative award from Sport Canada, a BrightRed Award
from Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, and the CIHR
Training Grant in Population Intervention for Chronic Dis-
ease Prevention: A Pan-Canadian Program (Grant 53893).
The authors thank Maryanne Fisher for comments on pre-
vious versions of this manuscript.
Correspondence concerning this article should be ad-
dressed to Robert O. Deaner, Department of Psychology,
Grand Valley State University, 1315 AuSable Hall, 1 Cam-
pus Drive, Allendale, MI 49401-9403. E-mail: robert
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This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly.
Evolutionary Behavioral Sciences © 2015 American Psychological Association
2015, Vol. 9, No. 3, 000 2330-2925/15/$12.00
explore sex differences in another competitive
mode, namely sports.
Sports are of interest because they occur in
many societies, and sex differences have been
explored by scholars from many fields, includ-
ing law (Brake, 2010), economics (Stevenson,
2010), history (Guttman, 1991), sports science
(Gill, 1988), psychology (Dietz-Uhler, Harrick,
End, & Jacquemotte, 2001), communications
(Whiteside & Hardin, 2011), and sociology and
gender studies (Birrell & Cole, 1994). Never-
theless, only recently have scholars considered
sex differences in sports from an evolutionary
perspective (Apostolou, 2014b; Apostolou,
Frantzides, & Pavlidou, 2014; Balish, Eys, &
Schulte-Hostedde, 2013; Deaner, 2013; Deaner
et al., 2012; Deaner & Smith, 2013; Lombardo,
2012). In this review, we extend these evolu-
tionary contributions and provide the most com-
prehensive examination yet of sex differences in
sports interest and motivation.
We first provide a definition of sports and, in
the first major section, show that there is much
evidence for a sex difference in sports interest,
both in participation and spectating. In the next
section, we show that there is substantial evi-
dence for sex differences in sports motivation,
particularly competitiveness and risk taking.
We then turn to the possible causal explanations
for these sex differences. In one section, we
explore the four leading functional hypotheses
for sports. We argue that the courtship display
hypothesis appears crucial for explaining fe-
male sports interest, whereas the spectator lek
hypothesis is vital for understanding male
sports interest. Furthermore, two other hypoth-
eses—the allying with coalitions hypothesis and
the development of skills hypothesis—are
likely important for both females and males. In
the next section, we examine the proximate
factors that might produce the sex differences in
sports interest and motivation. We show that
prenatal hormones clearly contribute whereas
the evidence for socialization contributing is
less compelling. We conclude by highlighting
our key findings and identifying areas for fur-
ther research.
Defining Sports
A game can be defined as an organized ac-
tivity where two or more individuals or teams
compete to win, according to agreed-on rules
(Chick, 1984; Roberts, Arth, & Bush, 1959). A
sport can be defined as the subset of games that
require physical skill (Deaner & Smith, 2013;
see Chick, 1984; Guttman, 2004). This defini-
tion of sport therefore excludes noncompetitive
physical activities (i.e., exercise), games of pure
chance (e.g., roulette), and strategic games that
depend solely on mental skill or decision mak-
ing (e.g., chess). It is still a broad definition of
sports, encompassing activities as varied as For-
mula 1 auto racing, World Cup cricket and
football (or soccer), Olympic figure skating,
recreational softball and basketball, and archery
and wrestling in small-scale societies (e.g.,
agropastoral, and hunting and gathering).
A Sex Difference in Sports Interest
Although most scholars recognize that boys
and men generally exhibit greater sports interest
than girls and women, some dispute this or
argue that differences in observed sports behav-
ior do not represent differences in underlying
interest (Brake, 2010; Hogshead-Makar & Zim-
balist, 2007). In this section, we demonstrate
that there is unambiguous evidence for a sub-
stantial sex difference in sports participation
and spectatorship. We also review several lines
of evidence indicating that these patterns reflect
a sex difference in underlying sports interest,
not merely differences in opportunities for en-
Historical reviews of sports demonstrate that
many societies had substantial female participa-
tion. For instance, in ancient Sparta, girls
trained and competed in several sports, includ-
ing running and wrestling (Golden, 2008; Gutt-
man, 1991). Nevertheless, it appears that males
have been generally more involved than fe-
males in all historical societies (Craig, 2002;
Guttman, 1991, 2004; Potter, 2012). Guttman’s
(1991) monograph, Women’s Sports: A History,
is telling. It is the most comprehensive review
of this topic, and the first sentence of the book
states, “There has never been a time, from the
dawn of our civilization to the present, when
women have been as involved in sports, as
participants or spectators, as men have.” Of
course, on logical grounds, we cannot be com-
pletely confident that there have not been some
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historical societies that showed a different pat-
tern, but no evidence for this has turned up so
Cross-cultural ethnographic studies of sports
in small-scale societies have also documented
unambiguous evidence of female sports partic-
ipation. For example, in studies of North Amer-
ican Native Americans, there are many accounts
of girls and women avidly playing double ball
and shinny, both of which involve direct com-
petition and coordinated team play (Craig,
2002; Oxendine, 1988). Nonetheless, ethnogra-
phers and anthropologists have ubiquitously fo-
cused on male sports participation, and this is
apparently because of the greater frequency and
societal significance of male sports (e.g., Chick,
Loy, & Miracle, 1997; Roberts et al., 1959;
Sipes, 1973). The first systematic attempt to
assess the frequency of male and female sports
across societies was recently undertaken, and it
found more male sports than female sports in all
50 societies with relevant data in the Human
Relations Area Files (HRAF) probability sam-
ple (Deaner & Smith, 2013). It is possible that
exceptional societies exist, but given anthropol-
ogists’ penchant for celebrating the exotic
(Brown, 1991), it is probably safe to assume
that such a society has never been observed by
Studies in large contemporary societies also
support the claim of a consistent, possibly uni-
versal, sex difference in sports participation.
These studies consistently report that males
play sports more frequently than females, gen-
erally at least twice as much in terms of duration
or frequency. This is true whether studies are
based on behavioral observations (Deaner et al.,
2012; Lever, 1978; Pellegrini, Blatchford, Kato,
& Baines, 2004), experience sampling methods
(Kirshnit, Ham, & Richards, 1989), or retro-
spective self-reports (Lunn, 2010), including
time-use diaries (Deaner et al., 2012; Ferrar,
Olds, & Walters, 2012; Stamatakis & Chaud-
hury, 2008).
The sex difference of this magnitude holds
for both adults (Deaner et al., 2012; Lunn, 2010;
Stamatakis & Chaudhury, 2008) and children
(Deaner et al., 2012; Ferrar et al., 2012; Kirshnit
et al., 1989; Lever, 1978; Lunn, 2010; Pellegrini
et al., 2004). It has been well-documented in
Australia (Ferrar et al., 2012), Ireland (Lunn,
2010), the U.K. (Stamatakis & Chaudhury,
2008), and the U.S. (Deaner et al., 2012; Kir-
shnit et al., 1989; Lever, 1978). The available
data from Asia are also consistent with this
difference (Larson & Verma, 1999).
The first large multicountry study of sports
participation using standardized surveys was re-
cently conducted, and it found that men partic-
ipated more than women in all 37 countries
(Apostolou, 2014b; see also Apostolou, 2014c).
However, the sex difference was only statisti-
cally significant in 16 countries, and the overall
effect size was small (d0.11). The small sex
difference likely reflects that participants self-
defined their sports participation, which could
result in the conflation of sports and exercise
(see above, “Defining Sports”). Supporting this,
when participants specified their most common
physical activity, men were 3.7 times more
likely than women to list a sport rather than a
noncompetitive activity. This sex difference
was statistically significant in all 37 countries.
A crucial question is whether the sex differ-
ence in sports participation truly reflects a dif-
ference in motivation to participate. This ques-
tion arises because in many societies girls and
women enjoy much less free time than do boys
and men (Chick, 2010; Whiteside & Hardin,
2011) or are discouraged or prohibited from
participating in sports (Birrell & Cole, 1994;
Guttman, 1991). Although such factors merit
attention, for several reasons, they are insuffi-
cient to fully explain the sex difference, at least
in contemporary societies. First, if girls and
women played sports less often because they
had less free time than boys and men, then one
might expect they would also engage in less
noncompetitive exercise; however, this gener-
ally is not the case (Deaner et al., 2012; Ham,
Kruger, & Tudor-Locke, 2009; Van Tuyckom,
Scheerder, & Bracke, 2010). Similarly, studies
of students’ recreational and extracurricular ac-
tivities indicate that females’ lesser participa-
tion in sports largely reflects their higher prior-
itizing of other activities, such as schoolwork
(George, 2010; Sax, 2008; see also Apostolou,
Second, if girls and women played sports less
often because they had fewer formal opportuni-
ties, then one would expect that the sex differ-
ence in sports participation would be nonexis-
tent or smaller in informal settings; however,
the sex difference is considerably larger in these
contexts (Deaner et al., 2012; Kirshnit et al.,
1989). For example, in the U.S., boys and men
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play informal sports in public parks (e.g., “pick-
up” games) roughly 10 times as frequently as do
girls and women, despite that sex differences in
organized school settings are slight (Deaner et
al., 2012). A third reason we can be confident
that females are, on average, truly less inter-
ested than males, is that numerous surveys find
that they report less desire to participate and
excel in sports (Evans, Schweingruber, & Ste-
venson, 2002; Jacobs, Lanza, Osgood, Eccles,
& Wigfield, 2002) and a systematic search of
the literature indicates no exceptions (Ellis et
al., 2008).
The evidence for a sex difference in sports
spectatorship from historical and small-scale
societies is similar to the evidence for a sex
difference in sports participation in these soci-
eties. That is, although we cannot rule out the
possibility of exceptional cases, the available
information indicates that males were more
likely than females to be spectators in every
society (Guttman, 1986). The extent to which
this truly reflects greater male interest, however,
is unclear because girls and women were fre-
quently discouraged or prohibited by men from
attending sporting events (Guttman, 1986,
1991; Potter, 2012).
The data on sports spectatorship from large
contemporary societies, where there are fewer
prohibitions, are therefore especially relevant.
At first glance, it may be tempting to draw the
conclusion there is no major sex difference be-
cause differences are often slight in terms of
attendance at major sporting events (Apostolou,
2014b; Dietz-Uhler et al., 2001), self-classifica-
tion as being a sports fan (Dietz-Uhler et al.,
2001), and motives for sport spectating (Robin-
son & Trail, 2005). Nonetheless, detailed stud-
ies of sports spectatorship reveal many differ-
ences (Apostolou et al., 2014; Gantz & Wenner,
1991; James & Ridinger, 2002). For example, a
study of undergraduates in the U.S. found that,
compared with females, males identified more
strongly as sport fans, possessed greater sports
knowledge, and reported greater sports interest
and desire to acquire information about profes-
sional teams; by contrast, women’s spectator-
ship was more likely to reflect social motives,
such as wanting to watch or attend a sporting
event with family or friends (Dietz-Uhler et al.,
Such differences translate into large sex dif-
ferences in sports consumption: in the U.S.,
men spend roughly twice as much time watch-
ing televised sports (Dietz-Uhler et al., 2001;
Gantz & Wenner, 1991; Guttman, 1986), dis-
cussing sports (Dietz-Uhler et al., 2001), and
seeking sports related information (Gantz &
Wenner, 1991; Ruihley & Billings, 2013); in
Germany, men spend twice as much time
watching sports programming (Meier & Lein-
wather, 2012); and in Australia men are three
times as likely to watch televised sports on a
daily basis and to follow sports on the Internet
at least three times per week (Melnick & Wann,
2011). In the recent multicountry study, men
were roughly three times more likely to indicate
that they watch sports on TV, and the sex dif-
ference was significant in 34 of 37 countries
(Apostolou, 2014b).
Although this evidence indicates that men
generally possess greater interest than women in
monitoring sports, one might argue that this
pattern merely reflects that there are far more
sporting events featuring men than women and
people prefer watching the play of same-sex
individuals (Guttman, 1986). If this account
were true, then, when they do occur, women’s
elite or professional sporting events should at-
tract audiences similar in size to those of men’s
sporting events. However, this is not the case, at
least for team sports, which generally attract the
largest sports audiences (Guttman, 1986; Meier
& Leinwather, 2012). For example, the premier
men’s professional basketball league in the
U.S., the National Basketball Association
(NBA), has sponsored a women’s league
(WNBA) since 1997, and the attendance and
TV viewership is a small fraction of the NBA’s
and has not grown (Berri & Krautmann, 2013;
Whiteside & Hardin, 2011). There have also
been numerous attempts to sustain women’s
professional play in other sports, including soc-
cer (Congdon-Hohman & Matheson, 2013) and
softball (McGrath, 2013), and none has yet suc-
ceeded in turning a profit or attracting audiences
similar in magnitude to men’s professional
Even in cases where women’s team sports do
attract large audiences, there is little evidence
that spectators are predominantly female, as this
explanation assumes. For instance, from 1995
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to 2011, the German men’s national soccer team
attracted six times as many TV viewers as did
the women’s national team, and men constituted
58% of the audience for the men’s games and
64% for the women’s games (Meier & Lein-
wather, 2012). The general lack of female in-
terest in women’s sports is underscored by the
failure of Sports Illustrated (SI) Women and
similar magazines focusing on elite women’s
sports; all have been unable to attract sufficient
readerships to sustain publication (Sheaffer,
As is the case for sports participation, some
have suggested that girl’s and women’s lesser
spectatorship and consumption of sports is at-
tributable to a lack of free time (Gantz &
Wenner, 1991), especially time that is genu-
inely free from domestic responsibilities (Whi-
teside & Hardin, 2011). Although time con-
straints must be relevant in many cases, this is
implausible as a general explanation, at least in
large contemporary societies. This is because
women are far less likely than men to report in
surveys that sports are their favorite genre of
TV programming (Gantz, Wang, Paul, & Potter,
2006; Ruihley & Billings, 2013). This differ-
ence in preferences is confirmed by viewing
patterns: although males watch sports about
twice as much as do females (see above), there
is no consistent sex difference in overall TV
consumption (Meier & Leinwather, 2012; Sabo
& Veliz, 2008). In fact, many popular contem-
porary nonsports programs cater to a predomi-
nantly female audience (Consoli, 2012).
Although this section demonstrates the exis-
tence of a reliable sex difference in sports in-
terest, several caveats should be kept in mind.
First, although males play and consume sports
at least twice as much as females do, female
sports interest is still considerable. In Germany,
for instance, women watch an average of 15
minutes of sports programming on TV each day
(Meier & Leinwather, 2012). A second caveat is
that the sex difference applies at the population
level, not the individual level. In other words,
there are many women who show strong sports
interest and many men who do not.
A final caveat is that the sex difference in
sports interest documented here is based on
generalizing about all sports in each society,
and some sports do not show a sex difference in
interest or are even more popular among fe-
males. In some cases, this is because “wom-
en’s” sports are developed as deliberate analogs
to “men’s” sports. Netball, for instance,
emerged from early versions of basketball, still
shares many similarities with basketball, and is
played far more often by women than by men
(Taylor, 2001). Other sports, however, have
specific characteristics that apparently make
them more appealing to girls and women. Gym-
nastics and figure skating, for example, are con-
sidered stereotypically feminine sports (Koivula,
1999; Lauriola, Zelli, Calcaterra, Cherubini, &
Spinelli, 2004), and they are played and watched
more by women than men (Apostolou et al., 2014;
Guttman, 1986; Sargent, Zillmann, & Weaver,
1998). In these and other “stylistic” sports, out-
comes are based exclusively on the evaluation by
judges, the style or form of the athlete’s move-
ments is central to the evaluation, and the com-
petitors do not perform simultaneously. Below, in
the “Functional Hypotheses” section, we consider
why stylistic sports might be especially appealing
to females.
Sex Differences in Sports Motivation
Many studies outside the domain of sports
have reported sex differences in motivation, in-
cluding competitiveness, responses to competi-
tion, and risk-taking, a correlate of competitive-
ness (Croson & Gneezy, 2009; Wilson & Daly,
1985). It is not surprising, therefore, that re-
searchers have also tested for such sex differ-
ences within sports settings. Apparently, how-
ever, there has been no previous attempt to
summarize this research.
Male athletes are, on average, more likely
than female athletes to endorse competition and
winning as motives for participating in sports,
whereas goal orientation is endorsed similarly
by females and males or even more by females.
This pattern has been reported in Iran (Jamshidi,
Hossien, Sajadi, Safari, & Zare, 2011), Norway
(Hellandsig, 1998), Canada (Findlay & Bowker,
2009), and the U.S. (Gill, 1988; but see Gill &
Kamphoff, 2010). One exception comes from a
study of professional tennis players, where
women reported greater competitiveness than
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men (Houston, Carter, & Smither, 1997). This
might suggest that the sex difference in com-
petitiveness disappears within selective or elite
populations. However, the first study designed
to directly address this hypothesis found that the
sex difference in competitiveness did not de-
crease in more selective populations of U.S.
collegiate distance runners (i.e., Division I vs.
Division III student-athletes) (Deaner, Lowen,
Rogers, & Saksa, 2015).
Additional data come from the multicountry
study of sports, which included items address-
ing respondents’ motives for participating. Men
were more likely than women to endorse the
competition item (“to compete against others”)
as a reason to participate, and the sex difference
was significant in all 37 countries (Apostolou,
2014b; see also Apostolou, 2014c).
Several studies have also examined sex dif-
ferences in ego-orientation (e.g., perceiving
success as winning) and task orientation (e.g.,
perceiving success as improvement). These
studies typically find that male athletes report
greater ego-orientation than female athletes
(e.g., U. S.: White & Duda, 1994; U. K.: Nien &
Duda, 2008; U.S., Australia, New Zealand:
Weinberg et al., 2000). However, a study of
American and Korean adolescents indicated no
sex difference (Kim, Williams, & Gill, 2003),
and a study of Thai undergraduates found that
females had greater ego-orientation (F. Z. Li,
Harmer, Acock, Vongjaturapat, & Boonver-
abut, 1997). The reason(s) for the conflicting
findings is unknown.
Further data on sex differences in sports com-
petitiveness can be found in distance running.
Distance running is an excellent domain for
assessing competitiveness because the motiva-
tion to run varies substantially among partici-
pants (Ogles & Masters, 2003), and unlike
many other physical activities, it is generally
accessible, acceptable, and popular for both
men and women (Deaner, 2013). There is con-
siderable evidence for a sex difference. First,
more male than female runners report that com-
petition motivates them to run (Deaner, Lowen,
et al., 2015; Johnsgard, 1985; Ogles & Masters,
2003). Second, there is a large sex difference in
performance depth. For example, in a typical
5-km road race held in the U.S., for every
woman that finishes within 125% of the female
world record, there are roughly three men that
finish within 125% of the male world record
(Deaner & Mitchell, 2011). The best supported
explanation for this pattern is that more men are
motivated to engage in the training necessary
for faster performances, and this motivation is
related to greater competitiveness (Deaner,
2006, 2013). Third, male runners are more
likely to choose to participate in competitive
contexts. Among masters runners (age 40)in
the U.S., male and female participation in road
races is roughly equal, yet at track meets, where
runners are at least 20 times as likely to run fast
(relative to sex-specific, age-specific standards),
men participate about three times as often as
women (Deaner, Addona, & Mead, 2014) Sim-
ilarly, a study reported that when they have the
option of entering a single-sex competitive road
race or a single-sex noncompetitive road race
held in the same location on the same day, men
were significantly more likely than women to
select the competitive race (Garratt, Wein-
berger, & Johnson, 2013).
Responses to Competition
Studies have tested for sex differences in
responses to competition in several sports in-
cluding golf, tennis, and figure skating. Un-
fortunately, the results of such studies are
generally inconclusive (Leeds & Leeds,
2013). For example, a study of professional
tennis players’ tournament entry decisions re-
ported that men show a “hot hand” effect that
can last for several tournaments. That is, after
playing well in one tournament male players
were more likely to seek entry into additional
tournaments (Wozniak, 2012). Females’ entry
decisions, by contrast, were affected only by
their performance in their last tournament.
Nevertheless, determining whether these dif-
ferences are specific to sex is difficult because
the institutional structures in men’s and wom-
en’s professional tennis differ; there are, for
instance, fewer women’s tournaments. An-
other example is that one study reported that
female professional golfers do not respond to
incentives in the same way that their male
counterparts do (Matthews, Sommers, & Pe-
schiera, 2007) (Matthews et al., 2007). How-
ever, the sex difference was not consistently
significant, and the study was based on a
small sample (Leeds & Leeds, 2013).
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Risk Taking
Risk taking has been studied in several
sports, and a common finding is that, when
completing surveys, men are more likely than
women to report taking risks. This has been
found for rock climbing (Llewellyn & Sanchez,
2008), skiing (Ruži´
c & Tudor, 2011) and snow-
boarding (Thomson & Carlson, 2015). In addi-
tion, a recent study reported behavioral evi-
dence, albeit indirect, of a sex difference in risk
taking in running marathons. Specifically, men
were roughly three times more likely than
women to slow dramatically, a result consistent
with the hypothesis that men are more likely to
undertake a “risky pace,” where a runner begins
at a pace that could result in a superb perfor-
mance (given their own talent and training) but
also increases their chances of slowing dramat-
ically because of physiological failure (Deaner,
Carter, Joyner, & Hunter, 2015).
Functional Hypotheses
Games occur in most or all societies, and
sports are by far the most common type of game
(Chick, 1984; Deaner & Smith, 2013; Roberts
et al., 1959). It is not surprising, therefore, that
scholars have offered a wide variety of expla-
nations for their existence (Chick, 1984; Gutt-
man, 2004; Lombardo, 2012). For example,
Baker (1982) posits that sports function to en-
able spiritual transcendence, whereas Marxist
scholars hold that sports were invented by cap-
italists to dominate and exploit workers (Gutt-
man, 2004), and yet others argue that sports
mainly serve to amplify sex differences and
bolster male dominance (Birrell & Cole, 1994;
Messner & Sabo, 1990).
Because there are so many kinds of sports
and each is embedded in its particular culture, it
is likely that many perspectives will help ex-
plain the existence of sports. Nonetheless, we
will focus on evolutionary explanations because
they have the greatest potential to be compre-
hensive. This is because they attempt to inte-
grate information from all scientific fields, in-
cluding biology (Balish et al., 2013; De Block
& Dewitte, 2009; Lombardo, 2012). Thus, un-
like the explanations mentioned above, evolu-
tionary explanations account for many other
relevant phenomena, including substantial sex
differences in morphology and physical
strength (Puts, 2010). Moreover, we will show
that an evolutionary perspective provides in-
sights that challenge many nonevolutionary ac-
counts for sex differences in sports interest and
In considering our exploration of the four
leading evolutionary hypotheses, several points
should be kept in mind. First, these are func-
tional hypotheses that seek to explain why in-
dividuals would have evolved dispositions to be
interested in participating or monitoring sports,
particularly how such behavior could have af-
fected the likelihood of reproducing or passing
on genes in other ways (i.e., inclusive fitness).
Thus, these hypotheses do not directly address
proximate causality, such as how genetic, phys-
iological, and psychological (e.g., learning)
mechanisms underlie or contribute to a particu-
lar individual’s sports-related interest and mo-
tivation. Of course, a comprehensive under-
standing of any behavior, sports included, does
eventually require addressing proximate causal-
ity (Balish et al., 2013), and, we will do this
below. A related point is that, although these
functional hypotheses address goal-directed be-
havior, they do not assume that the actors ex-
plicitly recognize their motives (Miller, 2000).
Another important point about these func-
tional hypotheses is that none requires that
sports interest is an adaptation in the sense that
the trait evolved to solve a specific problem
related to survival or reproduction. In fact, ad-
aptations for sports per se seem unlikely given
their diversity in development and form and
their rich interface with cultural processes. The
functional hypotheses instead assume that
sports arise as manifestations or by-products of
other adaptations (De Block & Dewitte, 2009;
Lombardo, 2012; Winegard & Deaner, 2010).
These adaptations likely include motives and
capacities to physically compete for mates and
status, negotiate and enforce behavioral norms,
and monitor the abilities of others. A related
point about these hypotheses is that they are
mutually compatible. By this we mean that
more than one hypothesis may prove to have
substantial explanatory power, and some may
be complementary. Finally, a hypothesis that
substantially explains female sports interest and
motivation may not substantially explain male
sports interest, and vice versa.
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Courtship Display
The first functional hypothesis holds that
sports constitute culturally invented courtship
displays that reliably advertise participant qual-
ity to the opposite sex (De Block & Dewitte,
2009; Miller, 2000). According to this hypoth-
esis, sports are analogous to animal courtship
displays, such as when peacocks show off their
extravagant tail feathers to choosy peahens (Pet-
rie, Halliday, & Sanders, 1991).
Several lines of evidence support this hypoth-
esis. First, sports are highly effective at differ-
entiating the abilities of individuals, and many
athletic abilities have been demonstrated to be
partly heritable (Tucker & Collins, 2012). Sec-
ond, athletic ability has been shown to correlate
with several putative “good genes” traits that
could indicate the conferring of benefits to a
choosy individual’s offspring. These include
fluctuating asymmetry (Longman, Stock, &
Wells, 2011; Manning & Pickup, 1998), sec-
ond-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D; reviewed in
Hönekopp & Schuster, 2010), and facial attrac-
tiveness (Ahn & Lee, 2014; Park, Buunk, &
Wieling, 2007; Postma, 2014; Williams, Park,
& Wieling, 2010). Third, excelling at sports is
associated with greater access to mates, at least
for men. Evidence comes from historical soci-
eties (Golden, 2008; Guttman, 2004), a small-
scale agricultural society (Llaurens, Raymond,
& Faurie, 2009), and large contemporary soci-
eties (Faurie, Pontier, & Raymond, 2004; Lom-
bardo, 2012). Moreover, experiments show that
describing a man as an athlete increases his
desirability as both a long-term and short-term
romantic partner (Brewer & Howarth, 2012;
Schulte-Hostedde, Eys, & Johnson, 2008; see
also Michael, Gilroy, & Sherman, 1984).
Despite this evidence, the courtship display
hypothesis has a major problem because it pre-
dicts that females should be the primary spec-
tators when males participate in sports, and
males should be the primary spectators when
females participate. As reviewed above, how-
ever, much evidence shows that males are sub-
stantially more likely than females to be both
the participants and the spectators (Apostolou,
2014b; Apostolou et al., 2014; Lombardo,
Although the courtship display hypothesis
cannot provide a comprehensive account of
sports, it may still be important. One way it
might be important is explaining females’ con-
siderable interest in watching male sports. Two
points somewhat weaken this idea, however.
One is that females’ interest frequently reflects
motivation to watch or attend a sporting event
with family or friends, rather than closely eval-
uating males’ athletic abilities (Dietz-Uhler et
al., 2001). The second point is that this version
of the courtship display assumes that women
would have frequently exercised mate choice
during human evolutionary history. However,
much evidence from historical, agropastoral,
and hunting and gathering societies indicates
that women’s marriages and mating would have
been substantially governed by kin, especially
parents, during human evolutionary history
(Apostolou, 2010, 2014a). Other evidence also
supports the idea that female mate choice, al-
though important at times, would have often
been less crucial to men’s mating success than
direct contests for status with other men (Hill et
al., 2013; Llaurens et al., 2009; Puts, 2010).
The other way the courtship display hypoth-
esis may be important is in explaining female
interest in participating in sports and male in-
terest in watching the females participate. This
possibility seems particularly likely for girls’
and women’s participation in stylistic (or dis-
play) sports, such as gymnastics, figure skating,
diving, and synchronized swimming. Such
sports seem likely to serve, in part, as courtship
displays because they frequently emphasize
feminine movements, which apparently contrib-
ute to women’s typical (i.e., nonsport) courtship
displays (Hugill, Fink, & Neave, 2010). In ad-
dition, these sports usually involve wearing
feminine attire and using facial cosmetics,
which can increase attractiveness (Etcoff,
Stock, Haley, Vickery, & House, 2011). Per-
haps most importantly, an exceptional athlete
may enjoy a large audience which can allow
them to more efficiently advertise their mate-
relevant qualities. The fact that many others are
attentively watching a woman perform a femi-
nine display might even enhance a man’s esti-
mation of her qualities (i.e., nonindependent
mate choice: Vakirtzis, 2011). Supporting this
are data from the multicountry sports study,
which found that women were more likely than
men to report that they participate in sports to
improve their appearance (“to look good”), and
the sex difference was significant in 24 of 37
countries (Apostolou, 2014b).
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Girls’ and women’s relatively strong interest
in watching females participate in stylistic
sports (Apostolou et al., 2014; Guttman, 1986;
Sargent et al., 1998) can also be reconciled with
the courtship display hypothesis. This is be-
cause monitoring other females might allow
them to evaluate potential competitors in the
mating market or to improve their own court-
ship displays.
It is also notable that, although stylistic sports
are apparently restricted to large contemporary
societies (Craig, 2002; Deaner & Smith, 2013),
dancing by both men and women occurs in a
wide variety of societies, and there are many
reports of women’s dancing attracting the atten-
tion of male suitors (Hanna, 2010). This can be
viewed as supporting the courtship display hy-
pothesis for sports because it seems likely that
dancing and feminine display sports are, to a
considerable extent, manifestations of the same
psychological adaptations.
A key question is whether the courtship dis-
play hypothesis can provide a plausible account
for females’ interest in participating in gender-
neutral and masculine sports (i.e., all sports that
are not stereotypically considered feminine:
Koivula, 1999; Lauriola et al., 2004). This is a
crucial issue because gender-neutral and mas-
culine sports are far more numerous than fem-
inine sports (Deaner & Smith, 2013; Koivula,
1999; Lauriola et al., 2004), and these sports are
played much more frequently, even by females
(Deaner et al., 2012).
One might be initially skeptical of the court-
ship display hypothesis with regard to females’
interest in masculine sports because, as the ste-
reotype suggests, males often express disdain at
women’s participation in these sports, and fe-
male athletes also express concerns that partic-
ipation might diminish perceptions of their at-
tractiveness (e.g., Kane & Snyder, 1989;
Shakib, 2003). Furthermore, studies correlating
second-to-fourth digit ratio with athleticism
typically yield a reliable association in females
(e.g., Giffin, Kennedy, Jones, & Barber, 2012;
Manning, Morris, & Caswell, 2007).
Nevertheless, the assumption that male suit-
ors will generally avoid athletic, possibly mas-
culine, women may not hold. Our suggestion
may seem surprising because there are many
studies showing male mate preferences for
women with feminine traits, including voice
(Feinberg, 2008), face shape (Rhodes, 2006),
and body shape (Singh, 1993; see also Cashdan,
2008). However, these preference studies gen-
erally feature an unconstrained design (i.e., no
trade-offs; N. P. Li, Bailey, Kenrick, & Linsen-
meier, 2002) that might limit their generaliz-
ability. Specifically, these studies show that, all
else being equal, men prefer women with fem-
inine traits but they do not investigate under
what conditions this preference might be coun-
tervailed by preferences for other traits, such as
dependability, social skillfulness, and ambi-
tiousness (see Atkinson et al., 2012; Cashdan,
2008). We mention these traits because men’s
perceptions of them were increased in an exper-
iment describing a woman as a participant in a
team sport (Schulte-Hostedde, Eys, Emond, &
Buzdon, 2012).
In addition, we expect that men will show a
mating preference for women who are in good
phenotypic condition, including possessing
much physical strength. Physical strength, and
the assertiveness likely associated with it,
would be advantageous in many contexts, in-
cluding in protecting and provisioning offspring
and kin (Campbell, 2002; Cashdan, 2008). Sup-
porting this idea is a study reporting that hand
grip strength—a sexually dimorphic trait asso-
ciated with prenatal testosterone exposure and
phenotypic condition —was positively corre-
lated with female reproductive success in the
Himba, a traditional nomadic society (Atkinson
et al., 2012). Intriguingly, feminine voice was
also positively correlated with reproductive suc-
cess, suggesting that male mate preferences in
this society would be expected to encompass
both strength and femininity (Atkinson et al.,
2012). Because sports participation generally
reveals and contributes to strength and other
aspects of phenotypic condition (e.g., cardio-
vascular function), we suspect that excelling in
sports will generally boost perceptions of fe-
male attractiveness.
If the courtship display hypothesis holds for
females’ interest in participating in sports, it
predicts that, all else being equal (e.g., physical
appearance), adolescent girls and women who
participate in or excel at sports will be viewed
as more desirable as mates than nonparticipants.
Although recent experiments addressed this
prediction for male athletes (Brewer & How-
arth, 2012; Schulte-Hostedde et al., 2008), ap-
parently only one older experiment has ad-
dressed it for female athletes (Michael et al.,
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1984). In this study, men read vignettes about a
hypothetical woman who was described as ath-
letic or nonathletic; men perceived the athletic
woman as more attractive, although this was
only true for the men who were themselves
athletes. It would be worthwhile to address the
reliability of this effect in contemporary times.
It would be also interesting to extend the re-
search, perhaps by assessing attractiveness as a
short-term compared to a long-term mate and by
asking male participants to make trade-offs
among various attributes.
Spectator Lek
The second functional hypothesis holds that
sports constitute physical competitions for sta-
tus, differing from unrestrained combat or war-
fare because they reduce the risk of physical
harm to competitors and more publicly and ef-
ficiently reveal crucial qualities, such as
strength, endurance, bravery, and fighting abil-
ity (Deaner et al., 2012; Faurie et al., 2004;
Lombardo, 2012). This hypothesis has been de-
veloped most fully as the “male spectator lek
hypothesis” (Lombardo, 2012), although below
we will consider whether it applies to girls and
women. This hypothesis proposes that—in a
manner partially analogous to mate choice leks
in some bird species— boys and men congre-
gate in dedicated areas to compete in sports to
display their qualities and gain status, and, si-
multaneously, other, nonparticipating males
monitor the performances so that they can eval-
uate potential competitors and allies. For in-
stance, a man should be wary of offending a
champion archer and instead might try cultivat-
ing a close alliance with him to increase his
odds of success when hunting game, raiding a
neighboring group, or attaining influence in his
group. This hypothesis even encompasses the
possibility that men evaluate other men as
spouses for their female kin based on their ath-
letic ability (Apostolou, 2014b; Llaurens et al.,
The male spectator lek hypothesis clearly ac-
commodates the fact that many sports involve
combat-relevant skills, such as running, tack-
ling, and throwing and dodging projectiles
(Craig, 2002; Deaner & Smith, 2013; Guttman,
2004). The courtship display hypothesis does
not easily explain this pattern, and most non-
evolutionary hypotheses do not either. More-
over, because coalition-based aggression has
been important during much of human evolu-
tionary history (Gat, 2006; Smith, 2007), this
hypothesis can explain the common occurrence
of team sports (Craig, 2002; Deaner & Smith,
2013; Guttman, 2004). Team sports are also
difficult to reconcile with the courtship display
hypothesis because few animals perform coop-
erative courtship displays in groups (e.g., long-
tailed manakins: D. B. McDonald & Potts,
Another strength of the male spectator lek
hypothesis is its ability to accommodate the
finding that men are generally more interested
in playing and monitoring sports than are wom-
en. This finding follows from the hypothesis
because many lines of evidence indicate that
throughout human evolutionary history and dur-
ing contemporary periods, men have been sub-
stantially more likely than women to engage in
contests involving physical aggression (Archer,
2009; Puts, 2010; M. Wilson & Daly, 1985),
between-groups raiding and warfare (Gat, 2006;
Smith, 2007), and cooperative big-game hunt-
ing (Marlowe, 2007). This history is revealed by
pronounced sexual dimorphism in musculature,
skeletal systems, and cardiovascular systems
and the fact that men (but not women) possess
secondary sexual characteristics (e.g., beards,
pronounced jaws, deep voices) that function to
threaten rivals (Puts, 2010).
A key prediction of this hypothesis is that
sports success should be linked to the attain-
ment of status. Studies in contemporary societ-
ies support this prediction in male children
(Chase & Dummer, 1992; Chase & Machida,
2011; Eder & Kinney, 1995), adolescents
(Goldberg & Chandler, 1989; Holland & Andre,
1994; Thirer & Wright, 1985), and adults
(Földesi, 2004; Loy, 1972; Sohi & Yusuff,
1987). In historical societies as well, athletic
success was a common path to attaining high
status for men (Golden, 2008; Potter, 2012). In
addition, the finding that sports achievement is
associated with increased access to mates (see
above, “Courtship Display”) supports this hy-
pothesis because male status is reliably associ-
ated with access to mates (Nettle & Pollet,
The association between male sports achieve-
ment and mating success does raise the ques-
tion, however, of whether the courtship display
and spectator lek hypotheses are truly distinct.
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In fact, they are. The courtship display hypoth-
esis predicts that women will closely watch a
man engaging in the sport and judge his suit-
ability as a mate based on his performance. The
male spectator lek hypothesis, by contrast, pre-
dicts that women will be mostly uninterested in
the details of a male’s performance; they will
instead judge him based on the status he gains
relative to other men by engaging in the sport.
A second prediction of the male spectator lek
hypothesis is that the sex difference in sports
interest should be especially pronounced for
team sports and for combat and hunting sports.
This prediction follows from the hypothesis be-
cause the skills emphasized in these kinds of
sports (e.g., throwing, grappling, working coop-
eratively) seem more closely related to the at-
tainment of male status than the skills featured
in more general sports (e.g., footraces). Sup-
portive evidence regarding team sports partici-
pation comes from observations in public parks
in the U.S. (Deaner et al., 2012) and retrospec-
tive self-reports in Ireland (Lunn, 2010), the
U.K. (Stamatakis & Chaudhury, 2008), Austra-
lia (Ferrar et al., 2012), and the U.S. (Deaner et
al., 2012; Vaughter, Sadh, & Vozzola, 1994). In
addition, the recent multicountry study dis-
cussed above found that, in 36 of 37 countries,
men were significantly more likely than women
to list a team sport rather than an individual
sport as their most frequent physical activity
(Apostolou, 2014b). Finally, although it did not
reach statistical significance, an analysis of 50
societies in the HRAF found that sports played
exclusively by males were more likely than
sports played exclusively by females to involve
teams (Deaner & Smith, 2013). This study also
found statistically significant support for the
prediction regarding combat and hunting sports:
males were the exclusive participants in 98% of
hunting and combat sports but were the exclu-
sive participants in only 69% of other sports.
Could female sports interest also be ex-
plained with the spectator lek hypothesis? On
theoretical grounds, it seems unlikely. This is
because, although higher status in women is
linked to greater reproductive success, women
rarely gain status through direct (i.e., contest)
competition or by cooperating with a large in-
terconnected group of unrelated individuals
(Benenson, 2013; Campbell, 2002). Instead,
women typically gain status by marrying high
status men, forming exclusive, high-investment,
egalitarian friendships with other women, using
indirect competitive tactics, and opportunisti-
cally excluding other women (Benenson, 2013).
The spectator lek hypothesis for females is
also contradicted by sports data. In particular,
unlike the case for males, few students, male or
female, believe that excelling in sports, at least
stereotypically masculine ones, is a likely ave-
nue for females to achieve status or popularity
(e.g., Chase & Machida, 2011; Holland & An-
dre, 1994; Sabo & Veliz, 2008). In fact, a study
of middle school students found that participa-
tion in athletics consistently predicted large
gains in status and popularity for boys but not
for girls (Eder & Kinney, 1995). Studies of
sports motivation also challenge the applicabil-
ity of this hypothesis for females. This is be-
cause female athletes are less likely than their
male counterparts to endorse competition and
winning as motives for participating (see above,
Another key piece of evidence contradicting
the spectator lek hypothesis for females is that
females’ interest in monitoring or consuming
sports is not merely less than that of males;
females’ interest seems exceptionally low for
monitoring women’s sports (see above, “Spec-
tatorship”). It is not that contemporary women
are uninterested in the lives of unrelated strang-
ers: there are numerous profitable magazines,
websites, and TV programs that cater to wom-
en’s interest in monitoring (nonsports) celebri-
ties’ romantic trysts, indiscretions, appearance,
fashions, and cultural pursuits (Consoli, 2012).
For most women, however, this interest appar-
ently does not extend to watching unrelated
women play (nonstylistic) sports.
Allying With Coalitions
The third functional hypothesis holds that
sports interest, specifically interest in monitor-
ing sports teams, arises as a result of the acti-
vation of adaptations that would allow individ-
uals to form and maintain coalitions with others
in the context of small-scale warfare (Winegard
& Deaner, 2010). This hypothesis was origi-
nally developed to explain sport fandom, which
can be defined as individuals emotionally iden-
tifying with a team and desiring its success. The
hypothesis builds on scholarship showing that
warfare has been a recurring challenge during
human evolutionary history (Gat, 2006; Smith,
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2007), and that this challenge has produced a
legacy of psychological adaptations (M. M. Mc-
Donald, Navarrete, & Van Vugt, 2012).
According to the allying with coalitions hy-
pothesis, individuals ally with sports teams (or
other groups) when competition between
groups exhibits characteristics that would have
been relevant during warfare (Winegard &
Deaner, 2010). These characteristics include
men as group members, competitions based on
warfare-relevant skills (e.g., fighting) groups as-
sociated with geographical areas, visual sym-
bols of group identification, and spoils (e.g.,
access to mates) following success. When indi-
viduals perceive most or all of these character-
istics, they become likely to ally with a partic-
ular group (or team). Allying with a group
would involve many behaviors, including pro-
viding material support to the group, expressing
commitment to the group’s goals, displaying the
group’s symbols, emotionally identifying as a
member of the group, and monitoring the
group’s competitions. When directed toward a
sports team, these allying behaviors can be sum-
marized by the phrase “being a sport fan.”
For the most part, being a sports fan appears
economically irrational in large societies be-
cause popular teams (e.g., Montreal Canadiens),
even when successful, do not provide fans with
material benefits such as mates, food, territory,
or protection from raiding rival groups. Never-
theless, being a sports fans may yield psycho-
logical benefits including heightened feelings of
social connectedness, especially after the fan’s
team (“their team”) wins (Wann, 2006).
The allying with coalitions hypothesis is con-
sistent with studies of sport fandom, including
many demonstrations that sports fans behave as
if they were actual members of “their team”
(e.g., Wann, 2006; Wann, Haynes, McLean, &
Pullen, 2003). For example, highly identified
sports fans, male and female, report greater
willingness to engage in aggression against ri-
val players and coaches (Wann et al., 2003).
The allying with coalitions hypothesis was also
supported in the only study designed to directly
address it: Winegard and Deaner (2010) showed
that, among U.S. undergraduates, the level of
sport fandom was positively associated with the
endorsement of group-relevant moral concerns,
especially loyalty to one’s group, but not with
the individualizing moral concerns of harm or
In the context of this review, the allying with
coalitions hypothesis is important because it is
the only hypothesis that readily accounts for the
occurrence of sport fandom, which has been
repeatedly documented in large societies, both
historical and contemporary (Craig, 2002; Gutt-
man, 1986; Potter, 2012). The spectator lek
hypothesis, for example, can explain why men
would be interested in watching groups of men
play sports but it cannot explain why they emo-
tionally identify with teams. The allying with
coalitions hypothesis also can account for the
fact that women’s interest in watching men’s
team sports is considerable and apparently
greater than their interest in watching women’s
team sports (see above, “Spectatorship).
The fact that that males’ interest in watching
team sports is generally greater than females’ is
also consistent the allying with coalitions hy-
pothesis. This is because, although warfare of-
ten imposed great costs on females, the costs on
males generally would have been greater, and
the benefits would also have been greater for
males (Gat, 2006; Smith, 2007). Thus, males do
not merely watch and monitor team sports more
than females; they also express greater sport
fandom (Dietz-Uhler et al., 2001; Gantz &
Wenner, 1991; Winegard & Deaner, 2010).
Finally, we should note that the allying with
coalitions hypothesis and the spectator lek hy-
pothesis are complementary (Lombardo, 2012).
For example, the success of the team (Cialdini
et al., 1976; Wann, 1996) and particular players
(Hoegele, Schmidt, & Torgler, 2012; Melnick
& Wann, 2011) are both known to influence
fandom. This fits the spectator lek hypothesis,
which holds that individuals will evaluate indi-
viduals based on their sports performance in
groups; these observations also fit the allying
with coalitions hypothesis because, according to
this hypothesis, all else being equal, individuals
will prefer allying with successful groups.
Although the allying with coalitions hypoth-
esis provides substantial explanatory power for
males’ and females’ interest in monitoring
sports teams, especially male teams, it cannot
easily explain other aspects of sports interest,
especially interest in participation.
Development of Skills
The fourth functional hypothesis is that
sports cultivate the development of skills cru-
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cial for other activities. Among evolutionists,
the development of skills hypothesis has gener-
ally been advanced with regards to warfare or
cooperatively hunting large game (Chick et al.,
1997; Sipes, 1973). Nevertheless, the hypothe-
sis can be conceived more broadly, that sports
develop skills for a range of physically or so-
cially demanding activities (Chick, 1984, 2010).
Indeed, in large societies with organized sports,
both historical and contemporary, there have
been countless claims that sports promote phys-
ical and social development, including ‘building
character’ (Eccles, Barber, Stone, & Hunt,
2003; Guttman, 2004; Videon, 2002).
This hypothesis has high plausibility be-
cause many sports demand skills or compe-
tencies that seem crucial for success outside
of sports contexts. These include competing,
monitoring the abilities of one’s self and oth-
ers, establishing and maintaining cooperative
relationships, developing self-discipline to
consistently train, persevering through unde-
sirable outcomes (e.g., losing, injury), devel-
oping specific skills (e.g., physically asserting
oneself), and negotiating, following, and en-
forcing behavioral norms. We also note that,
although females rarely compete for status
with direct physical tactics, they certainly use
physical aggression under some circum-
stances. These include defending against co-
ercive men and fighting with other women
over scarce resources, female allies, or mates
(Burbank, 1987; Ness, 2004). Thus, like boys
and men, girls and women could benefit from
sports that develop strength and combat
Several lines of evidence support the devel-
opment of skills hypothesis. One is that chil-
dren’s play behavior often overlaps with or is a
precursor to sports (Lever, 1978; Pellegrini et
al., 2004), and there is evidence that play be-
havior fosters social and motor competence
(Graham & Burghardt, 2010). Second, although
many adults play competitive sports in modern
societies, participation rates are generally far
higher for children and adolescents (Deaner et
al., 2012; Lunn, 2010). This supports the idea
that, in general, ‘playing sports’ is indeed an
elaborated kind of play. Finally, in many soci-
eties, observers and participants plainly state
that particular sports serve as preparation for
corresponding adult activities, often those re-
lated to warfare or hunting (Craig, 2002; Gutt-
man, 2004; Oxendine, 1988). Archery and
wrestling are the two most popular sports across
societies (Deaner & Smith, 2013), and their
value as preparation for combat and hunting
seems beyond doubt.
A crucial prediction of the development of
skills hypothesis is that sports participation
leads to the development of skills that prove
beneficial outside of the sporting arena. Al-
though the prima facie case for this prediction
seems strong, especially for combat and hunting
sports, there have been few formal tests. The
most relevant are studies demonstrating that
sports participation correlates with academic
performance and other positive life outcomes.
Notably, these associations hold for both fe-
males and males (Eccles et al., 2003; Sabo &
Veliz, 2008; Stevenson, 2010; Videon, 2002).
Nevertheless, these studies have two substantial
limitations. First, they do not specify what skills
are transferable. In fact, they generally do not
even show that sports are more strongly associ-
ated with positive outcomes than (noncompeti-
tive) exercise. Second, their correlational design
means that, despite valiant statistical efforts, the
associations could be driven by an unmeasured
third variable (e.g., health, family stability) that
influences both sports participation and positive
The development of skills hypothesis has
several strengths, yet it seems unable to provide
a comprehensive account of sports. One reason
is that it does not readily explain why so many
sports, roughly half across societies, emphasize
skills specific to hunting or combat (Deaner &
Smith, 2013; see also Craig, 2002). If sports
merely served as a vehicle for skill develop-
ment, we might expect that a similarly large
proportion of sports would emphasize other
ecologically specific skills, such as weaving
baskets or processing nuts. Such skills are vital
in many societies and often take years to master
(Gurven, Kaplan, & Gutierrez, 2006). Never-
theless, across societies, the sports that are not
specific to hunting or combat apparently only
involve general skills, such as running (Craig,
2002; Deaner & Smith, 2013). The second lim-
itation of the development of skills hypothesis
is that it cannot readily explain sports specta-
torship and fandom, which occur in a broad
range of societies (Apostolou, 2014b; Craig,
2002; Guttman, 1986). If individuals played
sports merely to acquire skills, it is unclear why
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others would be interested (Apostolou et al.,
2014). Skill acquisition in other contexts (e.g.,
learning to make artifacts or process nuts) rarely
attracts large numbers of emotionally invested
Proximate Hypotheses
We have shown that there are sex differences
in sports interest and motivation and, in review-
ing the functional hypotheses, argued that, to
some extent, these sex differences are manifes-
tations of different adaptations (i.e., courtship
display vs. spectator lek). In principle, the prox-
imate mechanisms underlying these patterns
might rely solely on cultural, rather than ge-
netic, transmission. For instance, during human
evolutionary history men have generally faced
greater challenges related to physical competi-
tion than have women, and cultural selection
might have thus favored parents encouraging
their sons but not their daughters to engage in
competition-relevant activities.
Nevertheless, in point of fact, adaptations to
persistent evolutionary challenges usually de-
pend, at least partly, on genetic transmission
(Archer, 2009). For many male-typical morpho-
logical and behavioral traits, the SRY gene,
which is located on the Y-chromosome, plays a
key role because it directs the bipotential gonad
to develop into testes rather than ovaries (Ngun,
Ghahramani, Sanchez, Bocklandt, & Vilain,
2011). The testes, in turn, secrete high levels of
androgens, including testosterone, and many
kinds of evidence indicate that prenatal expo-
sure to testosterone contributes to sex differ-
ences in cognitive abilities, sexual orientation,
and children’s toy preferences, activity inter-
ests, and play patterns (Berenbaum & Beltz,
Prenatal Hormones
Several kinds of studies indicate that sports
interest is one of the traits influenced by expo-
sure to prenatal testosterone. First, male-typical
childhood play and activity patterns, which cor-
relate with prenatal testosterone, predict adult
sports interest (Cardoso, 2009; Giuliano, Popp,
& Knight, 2000). Second, lower second-to-
fourth digit ratio is reliably associated with par-
ticipation in competitive sports (Hönekopp &
Schuster, 2010). Third, females with congenital
adrenal hyperplasia, a disease characterized by
heightened prenatal androgen exposure, are
more likely than unaffected females to show
strong interest in stereotypically masculine
sports (Berenbaum, 1999; Berenbaum & Sny-
der, 1995; Frisén et al., 2009).
Prenatal effects are clearly at odds with the
common assumption that all sex differences in
sports interest are attributable to cultural trans-
mission (e.g., Brake, 2010; Hogshead-Makar &
Zimbalist, 2007; Sabo & Veliz, 2008). Never-
theless, as noted above, an evolutionary per-
spective is fully compatible with the possibility
that cultural transmission also contributes to sex
differences (Low, 1989). In fact, if cultural
transmission, including socialization practices,
did not have an influence, it would be difficult
to explain why cross-societal patterns of child
rearing would conform to functional predictions
derived from evolutionary theory (Low, 1989)
or, more generally, why natural selection would
have favored humans being motivated to shape
the behavior of others (Richerson & Boyd,
So what is the evidence that cultural trans-
mission, specifically socialization, contributes
to sex differences in sports interest? One kind of
evidence is that boys and men generally have
different sport-related experiences than girls
and women. For example, a study demonstrated
that, even among five- and six-year-old children
playing mixed-sex tee-ball (simplified base-
ball), girls received less coaching, encourage-
ment, and playing opportunities (Landers &
Fine, 1996). Studies of this kind are notable,
but, by themselves, do not demonstrate that the
differential socialization is associated with the
differential development of sports interest.
Many experiences that plausibly could affect
development do not.
The second kind of evidence goes beyond the
first because, rather than merely showing that
boys and girls have different experiences, it
demonstrates that exposure to a potential social-
izer is associated with differential sports interest.
For instance, an adolescent’s level of physical
activity is correlated with that of his father and
older brother (Vilhjalmsson & Thorlindsson,
1998). Another example is that parents’ percep-
tions of their children’s sports ability, which are
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generally higher for boys, are correlated with their
children’s beliefs in their own sports ability and
participation (Fredricks & Eccles, 2005). Al-
though these kinds of studies are clearly consistent
with socializers playing a causal role, they also do
not demonstrate causality. This is because the
correlations might be driven by the children’s
behavior affecting the socializers (Fredricks &
Eccles, 2005; Vilhjalmsson & Thorlindsson,
1998) or other common-causal variables, such as
heritable genetic variation (Hur, McGue, &
Iacono, 1996; Lykken, Bouchard, McGue, & Tel-
legen, 1993).
Experimental demonstrations would consti-
tute the most convincing evidence that social-
ization contributes to sex (and individual) dif-
ferences in sports interest. For instance, if girls
were exposed to an extensive program of sports
training accompanied by encouragement by
peers and coaches, this might lead to greater
sports interest throughout adolescence and
adulthood. We are unaware of any studies that
have shown (or even tested for) the efficacy of
such an intervention. However, such experi-
ments seem promising because some interven-
tions have been shown to have substantial long-
term impacts on several health behaviors,
including substance abuse and teen pregnancy
(Gavin, Catalano, David-Ferdon, Gloppen, &
Markham, 2010). Several interventions have
even boosted adolescent (noncompetitive) exer-
cise, although rarely for extended periods (Dob-
bins, Husson, DeCorby, & LaRocca, 2013).
Another kind of evidence would be ‘natural
experiments’ in the form of ‘older brother’ ef-
fects. In particular, if it were shown that chil-
dren with older brothers were especially likely
to express interest in sports, this would consti-
tute fairly compelling evidence that brothers’
(presumed) interest in sports was somehow so-
cially transmitted. There have been many stud-
ies along these lines, and they typically show
that younger siblings are more likely than older
ones to participate in sports, especially danger-
ous sports (Sulloway & Zweigenhaft, 2010).
Unfortunately, most of these studies do not re-
port key details, such as whether older brothers
have a stronger effect than older sisters or
whether the effect applies to girls. However,
one study of U.S. high school students reported
that girls with at least one older brother were
18% more likely to participate in sports than
girls without older brothers (Videon, 2002).
A final candidate for evidence of socializa-
tion involves associations across societies or
within the same society across time periods.
Several studies are relevant. One is that the
sports study using the HRAF probability sample
documented more male than female sports in all
societies but found that the sex difference was
significantly smaller in nonpatriarchal than pa-
triarchal societies (Deaner & Smith, 2013). A
second study showed that, across countries,
there is a reliable association between women’s
empowerment and women’s Olympic success,
in terms of both participation and medals won
(Lowen, Deaner, & Schmitt, 2014). There have
also been multicountry studies linking women’s
empowerment to success in women’s interna-
tional soccer (Congdon-Hohman & Matheson,
2013). Such studies clearly support the idea that
in societies where women have greater power,
females are socialized to be more competitive
(Low, 1989). Nonetheless, another possibility is
that girls and women in low female empower-
ment societies are equally interested in sports
but are not permitted to express this interest.
The same point applies to the large increases
in organized female sports participation that
occurred from the early 1970s until the late
1990s in the U.S. (Brake, 2010; Stevenson,
2010). For example, in 1972 females consti-
tuted 7% of high school athletes, but in 2000
they constituted 42% (Stevenson, 2010). This
pattern fits a socialization view because social
roles substantially converged over this time in
the U.S., and social roles are thought to be
closely related to socialization practices (Wood
& Eagly, 2012). However, such data cannot
discount the possibility that the girls and
women of the 1970s generally had the same
general sports interest as contemporary girls and
women and merely lacked playing opportuni-
A strong test of socialization across societies
or across time periods requires a measure of
sports interest that is unconstrained by opportu-
nities. One test in this spirit has been made so
far, and it focused on intramural sports partici-
pation at colleges and universities in the U.S.
(Deaner et al., 2012). Intramural sports partici-
pation is an excellent measure of interest be-
cause there are no substantial external incen-
tives (e.g., financial aid or scholarships) or
constraints on participation (e.g., quotas, roster
limits). This study found that, for both co-ed
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and single-sex intramural competition, men par-
ticipated about three times as frequently as
women, and this difference had been stable
since at least the early 2000s. This result coun-
ters a socialization hypothesis because social
roles have continued to converge, even since the
early 2000s (Deaner et al., 2014; Twenge,
Campbell, & Gentile, 2012).
There have also been tests for change across
time in the U.S. focusing on competitiveness in
distance running (see above, “Competitive-
ness”). These studies show that the large sex
difference in running participation that existed
in the 1970s and 1980s has disappeared, yet
there is still a large (i.e., about threefold) and
stable sex difference in the proportion of run-
ners who show a primarily competitive (i.e.,
sports) rather than recreational orientation
(Deaner, 2006, 2013; Deaner et al., 2014;
Deaner & Mitchell, 2011).
Sports are an important mode of human
competition, and scholars from many disci-
plines have considered the apparent sex dif-
ferences in sports interest and motivation. In
first half of this review, we provided what is
apparently the most comprehensive review of
these differences to date. We showed that,
although females’ sports interest is often ap-
preciable, there are many converging lines of
evidence that boys and men are substantially
more interested than girls and women in
sports, both in terms of participation and
spectating. Moreover, the evidence suggests
that this sex difference in sports interest oc-
curs in all or nearly all societies. We also
showed that there is mounting evidence for a
reliable sex difference in sports motivation,
with males typically showing greater compet-
itiveness and risk taking.
In the second half of the review, we applied
an evolutionary perspective to explain— both
in terms of functional and proximate causal
hypotheses—why females are interested in
sport, yet relatively less interested than males.
In this concluding section, we highlight our
key findings regarding causality and then
identify areas for future research.
Key Findings
We argued that the allying with coalitions
hypothesis and the development of skills hy-
pothesis apply to both females and males, but
that the other two hypotheses apply more spe-
cifically. In particular, the sports interest of fe-
males, especially their interest in participating,
appears substantially explained by the courtship
display hypothesis. By contrast, the spectator
lek hypothesis primarily applies to males: for
boys and men, sports are largely about compet-
ing for status, “showing off” one’s qualities to
other males, and evaluating the abilities of other
males. The differing applicability of the specta-
tor lek hypothesis is indicated by several find-
ings, including that status is consistently asso-
ciated with male but not female sports
achievement and that male athletes are more
likely than female athletes to be motivated by
competition. Furthermore, this account also ex-
plains girls’ and women’s extremely low inter-
est in watching nonstylistic women’s sports.
Explanations for these patterns favored by
nonevolutionists, by contrast, beg key questions
or seem implausible. For instance, Whiteside
and Hardin (2011) suggest that the lack of an
appreciable audience of women watching wom-
en’s sports is attributable to women’s greater
domestic responsibilities and the resulting ab-
sence of free time. This does not explain, how-
ever, why unmarried girls and women also
show minimal interest or why there are no con-
sistent sex differences in total TV consumption
(Meier & Leinwather, 2012; Sabo & Veliz,
The differing male and female motivations
predicted by our consideration of the functional
hypotheses may have implications for public
health. For example, much research has ad-
dressed the correlates of physical activity, but
the importance of sex as a predictor has been
frequently downplayed or ignored despite its
potential impact (Trinh, Rhodes, & Ryan,
2008). Moreover, public health studies of phys-
ical activity generally do not attempt to distin-
guish sports from noncompetitive exercise (e.g.,
Dobbins et al., 2013; Van Tuyckom et al.,
2010). If motivation differs substantially by sex,
this distinction may be crucial.
Our review of the proximate mechanisms un-
derlying the sex difference in sports interest
showed that there is much evidence that prena-
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tal hormone exposure plays a role. In theory,
this evidence could have been recognized by
nonevolutionary scholars, but, in fact, this has
rarely or never occurred. For example, in this
review we have cited dozens of nonevolution-
ary articles that discuss sex differences in sports
interest, and not one of these sources entertains
the possibility that biological factors might con-
tribute. This was also true when we perused
popular sports and exercise psychology text-
books (Gill & Williams, 2008; Tenenbaum &
Eklund, 2007).
Nonevolutionary approaches almost invari-
ably state or assume that socialization, in one
form or another, produces all sex differences
in sports interest. As we stressed, an evolu-
tionary approach is fully compatible with so-
cialization playing a large role. However, it
also recognizes the possibility that it may not.
That socialization might not be important
may seem implausible to some, but it is worth
recalling that individual variation in sexual
orientation was long-believed to be entirely
attributable to early family experiences; how-
ever, there is an emerging consensus that so-
cialization does not substantially contribute
(LeVay, 2010). Thus, the importance of so-
cialization in producing sex differences in
sports interest is an empirical issue, and, as
we showed, the evidence for socialization
playing a role is not yet compelling.
The fact that the evidence for socialization
is weaker than most recognize and that pre-
natal hormones almost certainly contribute to
sex differences is remarkable because it
means that many scholars propagate incorrect
views. This is regrettable for several reasons,
including that social policies are based on
these views. In particular, in the U.S., a fed-
eral law, known as Title IX, was enacted in
1972 that prohibits sexual discrimination in
educational opportunities, including sports.
This law has had numerous positive effects,
but, since the mid-1990s, its implementation
has been based on the assumption that male
and female sports interest is equal or that it
soon will be (Brake, 2010; Hogshead-Makar
& Zimbalist, 2007). If this is incorrect, it
implies that Title IX will be lead to subopti-
mal allocation of resources and possibly dis-
crimination against males (Deaner et al.,
2012; Rhoads, 2004).
Future Directions
This review suggests several promising di-
rections for further research. First, the develop-
ment of skills hypothesis is a good candidate to
explain, in part, the sports interest of both fe-
males and males. Although there is much evi-
dence consistent with this hypothesis, it is all
correlational, so experiments are needed to test
whether there truly are long-term benefits that
accrue to sports participants. Besides testing the
development of skills hypothesis, this research
could yield practical insights regarding the
value of sports compared to other extracurricu-
lar activities.
Second, the evidence that socialization con-
tributes to sex differences in sports interest is
also based exclusively on correlational studies.
Thus, experiments testing whether socializa-
tion-relevant interventions (e.g., sports training
programs) have long-term impacts should be
undertaken. These experiments might simulta-
neously test the development of skills hypothe-
In addition, the socialization hypothesis can
be addressed with cross-societal or cross-
temporal comparisons. The prediction is that in
societies where men’s and women’s social roles
are more similar, the sex difference in sports
interest will be smaller. As we reviewed, there
are cross-societal studies consistent with this
prediction, but they are susceptible to alterna-
tive explanations because they did not directly
measure sports interest. There have also been
attempts to address this prediction by examin-
ing changes over time in the U.S. The results
did not support the socialization hypothesis, but
this could also be attributable to limitations in
measuring sports interest. More research in this
area is clearly warranted.
A third area ripe for research is the courtship
display hypothesis, particularly its prediction
that women’s desirability as a mate will in-
This criticism might be viewed as unfair because the
evidence supporting a role for prenatal hormones is also
correlational. However, unlike the case for socialization
practices, the experimental manipulation of prenatal hor-
mones in humans is unethical. Moreover, experimental ma-
nipulations of prenatal hormones in non-humans have re-
peatedly shown they contribute to sexually differentiated
behaviors, such as rough and tumble play (Berenbaum &
Beltz, 2011), that are precursors for sports participation
(Pellegrini, Blatchford, Kato, & Baines, 2004).
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crease as a function of sports achievement. If, as
we suggest, these experiments involved asking
male participants to make trade-offs, they could
have general implications for understanding
mating preferences.
We also hope this review stimulates those
interested in sex differences in sociality to con-
sider addressing key questions in sports con-
texts. For instance, there have been recent stud-
ies probing how females and males behave in
same-sex groups, and notable findings include
that males generally show greater tolerance of
same-sex peers and lesser likelihood of exclud-
ing them (Benenson, 2013). It would be inter-
esting to test whether such dynamics character-
ize same-sex sports teams, which arguably have
greater ecological validity than the arbitrarily
created groups usually studied by psychologists
(Browne, 2012).
Finally, we hope this review inspires re-
searchers to apply an evolutionary perspective
to sex and individual differences in sports in-
terest and motivation, particularly the psycho-
logical mechanisms that contribute to decisions
to pursue (or drop-out of) sports and exercise
over the long-term. Scholars have long been
interested in long-term achievement motivation
(Fredricks & Eccles, 2005; Klint & Weiss,
1987) but have generally neglected an evolu-
tionary perspective (but see Deaner, 2013).
Scholars who are evolutionarily oriented have
made important advances in characterizing
emotional and decision making mechanisms
(Cosmides & Tooby, 2013), and it therefore
seems likely that they will provide critical in-
sights when they turn their attention to long-
term achievement motivation. We anticipate
particularly rapid progress when evolutionists
collaborate with scientists specializing in sports
and exercise psychology (Balish et al., 2013).
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Received February 3, 2015
Revision received March 26, 2015
Accepted March 30, 2015
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... Play behavior is usually seen as a result of Natural Selection, a way for training hardto-master skills that would require dangerous conditions if play did not existed (Špinka et al., 2001;Bjorklund and Pellegrini, 2002;Burghardt, 2005). Meanwhile, Sexual Selection is used to explain the evolutionary functions of arts (e.g., Varella et al., 2011Varella et al., , 2017, sports (e.g., Lombardo, 2012;Deaner et al., 2016) and even playfulness as an individual difference trait (e.g., Chick, 2001;Moraes et al., 2021). Play's costs imply play can be a reliable signal of health, and consequently, this might be generalizable to adulthood. ...
... The Signal Theory of Playfulness (Chick, 2001) postulates a playful attitude not only signals a healthy condition, but other desirable trait, like nonaggressiveness in males and youthfulness in females. Contrarily, theories about the origins of sports, generaly understood as playful competitions of physical skills, postulates sport play signs fighting and hunting skills in controlled conditions to attract mates (intersexual competition), coalitional allies, status and/or resources (intrasexual competition; see Deaner et al., 2016). Moraes et al. (2021) found that in men other-directed playfulness positively predicted the number of long-term and short-term partners, while in women whimsical playfulness positively predicted the number of short-term relationships. ...
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By conceptualizing Sexual Selection, Darwin showed a way to analyze intra-specific individual differences within an evolutionary perspective. Interestingly, Sexual Selection is often used to investigate the origins of sports, arts, humor, religion and other phenomena that, in several languages, are simply called “play.” Despite their manifested differences, these phenomena rely on shared psychological processes, including playfulness. Further, in such behaviors there is usually considerable individual variability, including sex differences, and positive relationship with mating success. However, Sexual Selection is rarely applied in the study of play, with exception to what is concerned as infant training behavior for adult sex roles. We offer an integrated grounding of playful phenomena aligning evolutionary propositions based on sexual selection, which might stimulate further exploration of playfulness within evolutionary perspective.
... Past research has shown how females may experience more psychosocial issues than males, with females citing lower self-esteem, lower perceived competence, and poor body image as deterrents to engaging in a multitude of sport and nonsport activities (Skau Pawlowski et al., 2018). Given that past research has shown higher levels of attrition from sport for (Ahead of Print) female adolescents compared with male adolescents (e.g., Deaner et al., 2016), our results are somewhat surprising, yet encouraging for gender equality pertaining to sport participation, with females in our sample more likely to be in wider-breadth moderate-distress class than males. Further research on this topic could be conducted to examine more closely if/how activity type, activity structure, and intensity of participation are variables that could help explain the current findings. ...
Although psychological distress has been shown to increase during adolescence, participation in organized activities may have protective effects. The present study aimed to identify whether there is a relationship between high school student-athletes’ breadth of participation in organized activities and psychological distress, using a latent class analysis. Canadian adolescent athletes (n = 930) in Grades 11 and 12 completed an online survey that measured: (a) high school sport participation, (b) community sport participation, (c) nonsport extracurricular activities participation, and (d) psychological distress. The latent class analysis indicated that a two-class model (i.e., Class 1 = narrower breadth, low distress; Class 2 = wider breadth, moderate distress) was most appropriate. Results indicated that despite the divergent probability of organized activity participation, participants in both classes had a low to moderate probability of presenting elevated levels of psychological distress. However, levels of psychological distress were still higher than other Canadian adolescent populations, suggesting that overscheduling could be of concern. Gender and time (i.e., prior/during COVID-19 pandemic) were significant covariates in the model.
... In addition to the Achievement Goal Theory and Self-Determination Theory, evolutionary approaches were included to explain PA practice, mainly regarding sex differences in motives for sports (e.g., Deaner et al., 2015;Apostolou and Lambrianou, 2017). In particular, the Renovated Pyramid of Needs based on evolutionary-relevant goals proposes seven fundamental motivational systems: Immediate Physiological Needs, Self-Protection, Affiliation, Status/Esteem, Mate Acquisition, Mate Retention, and Parenting (Kenrick et al., 2010). ...
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There are numerous classifications of physical activities (PAs). However, they lack precise grouping criteria and tend to vary according to each author. Among other factors, the individual's level of motivation is considered an important aspect of PA maintenance. In this study, we aimed to (1) compare several PAs according to intrinsic (Interest, Enjoyment, and Competence) and extrinsic (Appearance, Fitness/Health, and Social) motives and (2) analyze PAs with and without previous grouping to explore which PAs are more similar based on the different motivational subscales. We recruited 1,421 physically active Brazilian participants (mean age = 26.83, SD = 10.49). The participants stated which PA they practiced most frequently, and they answered the revised motivation for PA measure. The data were analyzed with multivariate general linear models and Kruskal-Wallis. We found that some PAs consistently differed from others regarding motivational subscales. For example, participants practicing Walking showed less Interest/Enjoyment and Competence motives than participants engaged in several other PAs. Pilates was highlighted by a particularly low level of Social motivation in comparison to other PAs. Furthermore, using the previously suggested categorization of PAs, we also showed consistent distinctions considering each motivational subscale. Specifically, one group of PA (categorized as more Complex, Team, Vigorous, Hybrid, and Combative) scored higher on intrinsic motivation, while the other group of activities (categorized as more Organized, Individual, Moderate, Strength, and Rhythmic) scored higher on Appearance and Fitness/Health motives. Our results thus provide initial evidence for possible new methods of grouping PA types that can improve maintenance behavior using motivation as a grouping factor.
... Still, regarding the psychological skills between the male and female basketball players, Deaner, Balish, & Lombardo (2016) argue that the motivation that has been internalized in the male athletes who participate in sports games is higher than the female athletes. According to Fradejas & Espada-Mateos (2018), the psychological characteristics that the male athletes have, such as stress management, performance evaluation influence, mental capacity, and team cohesion, earn higher mean scores than the psychological characteristics that the female athletes have. ...
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The study aims to identify the differences in the psychological skills of the male and female Indonesian basketball teams in the Asian Games XVIII. The sample that had been involved in the study was 24 athletes, comprised of 12 males and 12 females. The instrument that had been implemented within the conduct of the study was The Psychological Skills Inventory for Sports (PSIS-R-5) (Mahoney et al., 1987). The data were analyzed, using the SPSS 12 software. The results of the study show that the psychological skills of the male athletes belonged to the "High" category with a mean score of 145.25 and, those of the female athletes also belonged to the "High" category with a mean score of 134.25. It might be concluded that There were significant differences between the male and the female athletes (p< 05). The results of this study are expected to contribute references or evaluations for the coaches, the managers, and all of the stakeholders who have been involved in the Indonesian basketball affairs to improve the achievements of the basketball athletes through the psychological skills on the aspects of team significance for the male Indonesian basketball athletes and the aspects of mental preparation for the female Indonesian basketball athletes. The improvement on the achievements through the psychological skills on these aspects are important to pursue to support the Indonesian basketball athletes for dealing with the Asian competition and the global competition.
... 3. To what extent do gender differences exist at the initial level and development of sports-related task values? Previous findings have been mixed, in that some studies reported males to be substantially more interested than females in sports (Deaner et al., 2016), whereas other studies found no gender differences in students' motivation for an athletic career (Lupo et al., 2015) or in student athletes' task values for sport (Cox & Whaley, 2004). Due to the previous mixed findings, no exact hypothesis was set. ...
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Successfully integrating elite sports with education requires motivation to commit oneself to both domains. This study examines the development of and gender differences in adolescent athletes’ task values for school and sports across the upper secondary school years. A total of 391 adolescents (aged 15–16 at the beginning of the study) were followed four times during sports upper secondary school. The participating student athletes were recruited from six sports upper secondary schools in Finland, which offer equal competitive sport opportunities for both genders. The results showed that school- and sports- task values are strongly related to each other. Males valued school less than females at the beginning of upper secondary school, and this gender difference remained, and also strengthened across years. No gender differences in sports-related task values were found. The findings indicate that females may be more committed to integrating elite sports and education than males due to their higher valuing of school.
... Men and women show a number of morphological, physiological and psychological sex differences, ranging from small to large, that are reflected in sex differences in sports performance. On average, men are heavier, taller and have more muscle mass, especially in the upper body (Lassek & Gaulin, 2009); men have also more oxygen aerobic power and anaerobic capacity (Handelsman et al., 2018) and, tend to show more social dominance (Hines, 2020) and competitiveness (Deaner et al., 2016) compared to women, at least in some contexts. ...
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The goal of the special issue on “Sports science: evolutionary perspectives and biological mechanisms” was to build a bridge to help the development of a coherent and unifying approach to the study of sport science within an evolutionary framework. By focusing specifically on the biological and psychological dynamics of sport performance and competition, we asked if sports can be used to study the evolution of human behavior, biology and psychology. Likewise, we asked whether this evolutionary approach could improve our understandings of the physical and psychological limits of human athletic performance and health.
... For instance, people who engage in sports are more likely to endorse intrinsic motives such as enjoyment and mastery than those who exercise, whereas people who exercise are more likely to cite health and appearance reasons than sports participants [20,26]. It is also typically reported that men are more likely to exercise or play sports for competitive reasons than women [27,28]. Molanorouzi et al. [20] found that men were driven by competition and improving their skills or personal best when engaging in physical activity. ...
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Yoga is a traditional practice from India with the potential to promote physical activity and health. Participation worldwide remains low, particularly among men. To better understand yoga participation parameters, with a special focus on what influences male participation, this study examined gender differences in participation motives and conformity to masculine norms. It also explored these factors across three participant subgroups who differed in their engagement with the physical and the more psycho-spiritual aspects of yoga. A total of 546 yoga participants (138 males, 399 females, 9 others), 18–73 years old, completed an online survey that included an adapted version of the Exercise Motivation Inventory–2 and three subscales from the Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory–46. Results showed significant gender differences in participation motives and conformity to masculine norms. Females were more motivated by positive affect, health/fitness, nimbleness, mind–body integration, and coping/stress management, whereas males were more motivated by supplementary activity and competition/social recognition. These differences should be considered in tailoring messages to promote uptake and continued participation. Furthermore, males were more likely than females to conform to emotional control and heterosexual self-presentation masculine norms. Future research may examine how differences in masculine norm adherence influences uptake, particularly among men.
... Sex differences in motivation are observed in several species depending on the motivated behaviour and context (Becker, 2009;Deaner et al., 2016;Le Moëne & Ågmo, 2019;Rosenfeld, 2017;van Hest et al., 1988). Food-deprived male and female Wistar rats, exposed to different progressive ratio schedules of reinforcement, had similar motivation to obtain food (van Hest et al., 1988). ...
Paradigms of motivation often examine the performance of subjects in tasks associated with rewards. In this study, the aim was to develop a new behavioural test associating a natural reward (familiar food) to an effort task in rats (climbing a ladder). Wistar rats (both sexes, 90–120 days) were familiarised with food (chow, chocolate, corn flakes, fruit loops) in their home cage for four days before being tested for food preference. Food preference varied from rat to rat. Afterwards, rats were randomly allocated into the two groups, spontaneous (females, n = 10; males, n = 11) or reinforced (females, n = 9; males, n = 10) right before the training in the ladder. The climbing-task test consisted of one session of fifteen minutes (pre-trial) followed by two training sessions and a test trial of five minutes each, at 1, 7 and 14 days after pre-trial, respectively. In the pre-trial, more females climbed spontaneously the ladder than males (females: 11 out of 19, males: 3 out of 21). Food or training were minor reinforcements to climbing the ladder for male rats. In contrast, training decreased latency to climbing in females of both experimental groups and increased climbing frequency of reinforced females in the test trial. Summarising, female rats were more intrinsically motivated to climb the ladder than males. In contrast with males, incentives increased motivation in female rats to perform the effort task. Hence, at the current moment, climbing-task test seems more promising to estimate motivation in female rats.
The purpose of this research was to understand the cognition of female college athletes on gender consciousness and social support, which will contribute to the wellbeing of college female athletes. The research recruited 332 female college athletes were recruited as research participants. This research compiled a questionnaire suitable for the research topic, including gender consciousness scale, social support scale, and wellbeing scale. Use structural equation modeling to analyze the correlation and influence of various variables. The results showed that their experience as an athlete were mostly 5 to 7 years. The correlation of female college athletes was highest between their peer support and goal of life ( r = .58). The more support they received from their peers, the more they could affirm their life goals and wellbeing. The gender consciousness of college female athletes is significantly correlation to wellbeing (γ11 = .71), social support is significantly correlation to wellbeing (γ21 = .83), and gender consciousness has significant influence to social support (β21 = .57). In addition, the correlation between gender consciousness and stereotypes is the strongest λ = .78, the correlation between social support and peer support is the strongest λ = .91, and the correlation between wellbeing and self-identification is the strongest λ = .83. This study concluded that the existing sports environment provides opportunity for female athletes. Female college athletes have gender consciousness regarding self-assurance and stereotype, and they receive support from peers and family in sports groups. These are conducive to their performance and their sense of wellbeing in life.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore and test certain assumptions concerning the role of the media in its coverage of the Olympic Games, US men's and women's basketball in particular, and its perceived impact on brand image of the athletes' performance from a fan's motivational and financial perspective. Design/methodology/approach Uses and gratifications theory and sport fan motivation scales were used to identify potential impacts of media coverage and branding on athletic performance. Based on a study of 143 working professionals that identified themselves as Olympic sport fans in the Pittsburgh, PA metropolitan area, several hypotheses were tested. Findings The most to least important factor-based constructs found from a PCA (Principal Components Analysis)/factor analysis included competitiveness, fan commitment, media connections, media impacts, demographics and financial impacts. When using the construct athletic performance at the Olympic level as the dependent variable, results suggested that competitiveness, media connections and fan commitment were significant for males only, while only media connections for significant for females. Males were found to be more player-centric than females, willing to be more focused on the competitive nature of the Olympic Games and to dedicate more money for such activities. Originality/value Focusing on Olympic Games and associated athletes' competitive nature opens a unique perspective from fan's gender perspective.
Social exchange and evolutionary models of mate selection incorporate economic assumptions but have not considered a key distinction between necessities and luxuries. This distinction can clarify an apparent paradox: Status and attractiveness, though emphasized by many researchers, are not typically rated highly by research participants. Three studies supported the hypothesis that women and men first ensure sufficient levels of necessities in potential mates before considering many other characteristics rated as more important in prior surveys. In Studies 1 and 2, participants designed ideal long-term mates, purchasing various characteristics with 3 different budgets. Study 3 used a mate-screening paradigm and showed that people inquire 1st about hypothesized necessities. Physical attractiveness was a necessity to men, status and resources were necessities to women, and kindness and intelligence were necessities to both.
Evidence is presented showing that body fat distribution as measured by waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is correlated with youthfulness, reproductive endocrinologic status, and long-term health risk in women. Three studies show that men judge women with low WHR as attractive. Study 1 documents that minor changes in WHRs of Miss America winners and Playboy playmates have occurred over the past 30-60 years. Study 2 shows that college-age men find female figures with low WHR more attractive, healthier, and of greater reproductive value than figures with a higher WHR. In Study 3, 25- to 85-year-old men were found to prefer female figures with lower WHR and assign them higher ratings of attractiveness and reproductive potential. It is suggested that WHR represents an important bodily feature associated with physical attractiveness as well as with health and reproductive potential. A hypothesis is proposed to explain how WHR influences female attractiveness and its role in mate selection.
Endorsed by the International Society of Sport Psychology, this classic reference draws on an international roster of experts and scholars in the field who have assembled state-of-the-art knowledge into this thorough, well-rounded, and accessible volume. It is completely updated to reflect the latest research and is an indispensable resource for any student or professional interested in the field of sport psychology.
This study investigated the validity of the factor structure of the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ Duda & Nicholls, 1992) with male (n-218) and female (n-203) Thai intercollegiate athletes. Confirmatory factor analysis on both male and female measurement models supported the two-factor structure (task and ego) as conceptualized in Goal Perspective Theory (Nicholls, 1989). Testings for the factor covariances across gender revealed partial measurement invariance as reflected in the differences in factor loadings. Assuming partial factorial invariance, subsequent tests for the differences on latent mean constructs indicated that male athletes scored higher in task orientation while female athletes scored higher in ego orientation. Theoretical, methodological, and future research implications of the findings are discussed.