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BACKGROUND: Moringa is a tree of a not well-understood plant since it has not been fully studied all over the world. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to evaluate the chemical as well as functional properties of the Egyptian Moringa oleifera leaves. Such leaves can be used as a functional food ingredient in the food and pharmaceutical applications. RESULTS: The proximateanalysis showed that moringa leaves are rich in: fiber, protein, carbohydrate and energy contents (11.23±0.16, 9.38±0.23, 56.33±0.27 g.100g-1 and 332.68±0.06 KCal, respectively). Moringa is a good source for essential amino acids especially Lysine (69.13±0.13mg.100g-1), essential minerals such as Na (289.34±0.35), K (33.63±0.24), Mg (25.64±0.25) Ca (486.23±0.11), P (105.23±0.32) and Fe (9.45±0.16) mg.100g -1 respectively and vitamins (A=13.48±0.51, B1=0.05±0.28, B2= 0.8±0.25, B3= 220±0.42, C= 245.13±0.46 and E= 16.80±0.24 mg.100g respectively). It is appeared using HPLC that methanol 70% is the most suitable solvent for extraction of phenolic compounds from moringa leaves (. Scavenging activity results confirmed that Moringa leaves extract might be a potent source of natural antioxidants with a high human health benefits. Antimicrobial activity results indicate that Moringa leaves extracts may be used as an antimicrobial agent with reasonable safety margins to inhibit bacterial growth in pharmaceutical and food applications. CONCLUSION: Moringa is considered as a nutrient-rich plant especially in its leaves. Such leaves might be used to combat malnutrition, especially among infants and nursing mothers.
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Global Advanced Research Journal of Agricultural Science (ISSN: 2315-5094) Vol. 4(4) pp. 188-199, April, 2015.
Available online http://garj.org/garjas/index.htm
Copyright © 2015 Global Advanced Research Journals
Full Length Research Paper
Biochemical and functional properties of Moringa oleifera
leaves and their potential as a functional food
Sobhy A. El Sohaimy1*, Gamal M. Hamad1, Sameh E. Mohamed1, Mohamed H. Amar2 and
Rashad R. Al-Hindi3
1Food Technology Department, Arid Lands Cultivation Research Institute, City for Scientific Research and
Technological Applications, Alexandria, Egypt
2Egyptian Deserts Gene Bank, Desert Research Center, Cairo, Egypt
3Biology Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Accepted 12 March, 2015
BACKGROUND: Moringa is a tree of a not well-understood plant since it has not been fully studied all over the
world. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to evaluate the chemical as well as functional properties of
the Egyptian Moringa oleifera leaves. Such leaves can be used as a functional food ingredient in the food and
pharmaceutical applications. RESULTS: The proximate analysis showed that moringa leaves are rich in: fiber,
protein, carbohydrate and energy contents (11.23±0.16, 9.38±0.23, 56.33±0.27 g.100g-1 and 332.68±0.06 KCal,
respectively). Moringa is a good source for essential amino acids especially Lysine (69.13±0.13mg.100g-1),
essential minerals such as Na (289.34±0.35), K (33.63±0.24), Mg (25.64±0.25) Ca (486.23±0.11), P (105.23±0.32)
and Fe (9.45±0.16) mg.100g -1 respectively and vitamins (A=13.48±0.51, B1=0.05±0.28, B2= 0.8±0.25, B3=
220±0.42, C= 245.13±0.46 and E= 16.80±0.24 mg.100g respectively). It is appeared using HPLC that methanol
70% is the most suitable solvent for extraction of phenolic compounds from moringa leaves (. Scavenging
activity results confirmed that Moringa leaves extract might be a potent source of natural antioxidants with a
high human health benefits. Antimicrobial activity results indicate that Moringa leaves extracts may be used
as an antimicrobial agent with reasonable safety margins to inhibit bacterial growth in pharmaceutical and
food applications. CONCLUSION: Moringa is considered as a nutrient-rich plant especially in its leaves. Such
leaves might be used to combat malnutrition, especially among infants and nursing mothers.
Keywords: Moringa oleifera, biochemical analyses, phenolic content, antioxidant, antimicrobial Pathogens.
INTRODUCTION
Moringa oleifera is a perennial tree, still considered as
among underutilized plant and falls under Moringa ceae
family. The plant is also known as Drumstick, Sahjan or
Sohanjana in India. All plant parts are having remarkable
range of some functional and nutraceutical properties
(Singh et al, 2012) make this plant diverse biomaterials for
food and allied uses. The leaves, flowers and fruits of this
;Corresponding Author’s Email: elsohaimys@gmail.com
Tel: +2034593420; Fax: +2034593423
plant are used in the preparation of several delicacies in
Indian subcontinent. Associated with high nutritional value
of its edible portions pave a way in making this plant more
popular as an important food source in order to combat
protein energy malnutrition problem prevailed in most of
the under developed and developing countries of the world.
Presence of various types of antioxidant compounds make
this plant leaves a valuable source of natural antioxidants
(Anwar et al, 2007) and a good source of nutraceuticals
and functional components as well (Makkar and Becker,
1996). There are considerable variations among the
nutritional values of Moringa, which depend on factors like
genetic background, environment and cultivation methods
(Brisibe et al., 2009). Therefore, it necessitates
determination of the nutritive value of Egyptian Moringa
ecotype, which could assists in the formulation of diets
according to nutrients requirements. The nutritional
composition of Moringa of the African ecotype has little
previously been evaluated; and a relatively recent studied.
(Moyo et al, 2011) reported the profiling of chemical
composition, fatty acids, amino acids and vitamins. Amino
acids, fatty acids, minerals and vitamins are essential in
animal feed. Such nutrients are used for osmotic
adjustment; activate enzymes, hormones and other organic
molecules that enhance growth, function and maintenance
of life process (Anjorin et al, 2010). Nutritional composition
of the plant plays a significant role in nutritional, medicinal
and therapeutic values (AlKharusi et al, 2009).
Interestingly, it was reported that nutritional content in the
leaves of Moringa varies with location (Anjorin et al, 2010).
Considering these aspects, the objective of this
investigation was to evaluate the chemical as well as
functional properties of the Egyptian Moringa oleifera
leaves. Such leaves can be used as a functional food
ingredient in the food and pharmaceutical applications.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Plant materials and bacterial strains
The leaves of Moringa oleifera were collected from Desert
Research Institute of Ismailia branch, Egypt. The leaves of
Moringa oleifera were shade-dried for three days and
subsequently ground to powder using blender and used to
determine its chemical composition. The bacterial strains:
Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC12344, Streptococcus
agalactiae ATCC12296, Staphylococcus epidermis
ATCC35984, Salmonella senftenberg ATCC8400,
Klebsiella pneumonia ATCC 12296, and the yeast strain
Candidaalbicans ATCC2091 were purchased from the
American type culture collection (ATCC, USA). While,
Bacillus subtilis DB100host was obtained as a gift from the
Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, and
Escherichia coli O-143was purchased from Statens Serum
Institute, Denmark. All bacterial and yeast strains were
maintained in Brain Heart Infusion Medium (BHI, Atlas
1993) at 37°C.
Proximate analysis
Moisture content of the sample was determined using the
method described by (AOAC1995). One gram of sample in
pre-weighed crucible was placed in an oven (105°C) for 24
h, cooled, and reweighed. The percentage moisture was
calculated as follows:
Moisture (%) = w2-w3⁄ w2-w1 × 100
El Sohaimy et al. 189
Where,w1 is the weight of the crucible, w2 is the weight of
the crucible after drying at 105°C and sample, and w3is the
weight of the crucible and the sample after cooling in
airtight desiccators.
Ash content was determined as described in(Fahey,
2005).The samples (1.0g) were weighed and subjected to
dry ashing in a well cleaned proclaim crucible at 550°C in a
muffle furnace for 2 h. The ash percentage was calculated
as follows:
Ash (%) = w2-w3⁄ w2-w1 × 100
Where,w1 is the weight of the crucible, w2 is the weight of
the crucible after drying at 550°C and sample, and w3is the
weight of the crucible and the sample after cooling in
airtight desiccators.
Crude protein was determined using the micro-Kjeldahl
method (Fahey, 2005). The crud protein was calculated by
multiplying Nitrogen by the conversion factor of 6.25 [P% =
TN x 6.25].
Fat content of the moringa leaves was determined using
the method of (Folch and Stanly, 1957).Homogenized
tissue (10g) was progressively added to small amounts of
a chloroform/methanol 2:1 (v/v) mixture (up to 200 ml), with
vigorous shaking, and then the extraction was carried on
for a further 2 h, using an electromagnetic stirrer. The
mixture was filtered and the filter was rewashed with fresh
solvent and pressed. Fifty millilitres of 0.88% potassium
chloride were added and the mixture was shaken. The
aqueous layer (upper) was removed by aspiration and the
washing procedure was repeated. The extract was then
dried by adding anhydrous sodium sulphate, which was
filtered again before the solvent was removed using a
rotary evaporator. The extract was then placed in a
desiccator overnight and weighed.
Crude Fiber was determined using the method of
(AOAC, 2005).1g of sample (W2) was transferred directly
to filter bag and sealed with a heat sealer. Sample and
blank bags were immersed in enough amount petroleum
ether for 10 minutes to extract fat content from samples. All
bags were air dried and transferred to a ANKOM 2000
FIBER ANALYZER using H2SO4 and NaOH and the crude
fiber was calculated according the following equation:
% Crude Fiber = 100 x (W3 - (W1 x C1) )W2
Where:
W1 =Bag tare weight
W2=Sample Weight
W3=Weight of Organic Matter (Loss of weight on ignition
of bag and fiber)
C1=Ash corrected blank bag factor (running average of
loss of weight on Ignition of blank bag/original blank bag)
Carbohydrate content was determined by difference, that
is, addition of all the percentages of moisture, fat, crude
protein, ash, and crude fiber were subtracted from 100%.
This gave the amount of nitrogen-free extract otherwise
known as carbohydrate.
Carbohydrate (%)= 100 [moisture (%)+ Fat (%) + Ash
(%) + Crude Fiber (%) + Crude Protein (%)].
190. Glo. Adv. Res. J. Agric. Sci.
Energy value
The sample energy value was estimated (in KCal/g) by
multiplying the percentages of crude protein, crude lipid,
and carbohydrate with the recommended factors (2.44,
8.37, and 3.57, respectively) as proposed by (Martin and
Coolidge, 1978).
Minerals determination
AOAC (2005) methods were used to determine the mineral
compositions of the samples. One gram of sample was
digested with nitric acid: perchloric acid: sulfuric acid
mixture in the ratio 9:2:1, respectively, and filtered. The
filtrate was made up to mark in a 5 ml volumetric flask. The
filtered solution was loaded to an atomic absorption (Model
703; Perkin Elmer, Norwalk, CT). The standard curve for
each mineral, that is, calcium, magnesium, iron, aluminum,
lead, copper, manganese and zinc, was prepared from
known standards and the mineral value of samples
estimated against that of the standard curve. Values of
sodium and potassium were determined using a flame
photometer (FP 920, PG Instruments) using NaCl and KCl
as the standard (AOAC, 2005), while phosphorus was
determined using the Vanodo-molybdate method.
Vitamins determination
Vitamins A and E were determined by (AOAC, 2005a,b).
Vitamin B1 and B2 were determined by acid hydrolysis
method of (Finglas and Faulks, 1984), B3 content of
samples were determined by the (Ackurt et al. 1999).
Determination of amino acid content
Moringa leaves sample hydrolysates were prepared
following the method of (Spackman et al. 1958). Each of
the defatted samples was weighed (200 mg) into a glass
ampoule, 5 ml of 6N HCl/L was added to the ampoule, and
the contents were hydrolyzed in an oven preset at 105°C
for 22 h. Oxygen was expelled in the ampoule by passing
nitrogen gas into it. Amino acid analysis was done by
(SYKAM S 433 Amino Acid Analyzer). The analysis was
carried out with a gas flow rate of 0.5ml/min at 60°C, and
the reproducibility was 3%. The amino acid composition
was calculated from the areas of standards obtained from
the integrator and expressed as percentages of the total
protein.
Preparation of the extract for phenolic compounds and
flavonoids
Moringa oleifera extract was prepared according to
(Sreelatha and Padma, 2009) with some modifications.
The leaves were chopped to small pieces and dried in
shade. The dried leaves were powdered and passed
through sieve no. 20 and extracted (100 g) successively
with 1000 ml of water, 70% ethanol and 70%methanol and
stirred for 1h. The extracts were centrifuged at 4000 rpm
for 15 min. the supernatant was collected and dried under
vacuum in vacuum oven at 50°C to dryness. All analysis
was carried out in triplicates.
Determination of total phenolics and flavonoids
The amounts of phenolic compounds in the extracts of the
leaves were estimated by using Folin–Ciocalteau reagent
according to the method of (El Sohaimy and Masry, 2014).
In a series of test tubes, 0.4 ml of the extract in methanol
was taken, mixed with 2 ml of Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and
1.6 ml of sodium carbonate. After shaking, it was kept for 2
h and the absorbance was measured at 750 nm using a
Shimadzu-UV-160 spectrophotometer. Using gallic acid
monohydrate, a standard curve was prepared. The linearity
obtained was in the range of 1-10 µg/ml, using the
standard curve, the total phenolic compounds content was
calculated and expressed as gallic acid equivalent in g.kg-
1of extracts.
Flavonoids were extracted and estimated by the method
of (AOAC, 2000); an aliquot of the extract was pipetted out
and evaporated to dryness. Four ml of vanillin reagent was
added and heated for 15 min in a boiling water bath. The
standard was also treated in the same manner. The optical
density was read at 340 nm. The values are expressed as
g flavonoids/kg leaf.
HPLC of phenolic compounds
HPLC (Agilent 1000) analysis of phenolic compounds
(antioxidants) was performed on a reverse phase Zorbax
Eclipse XDB-C18 column (4.6 x 150 mm, 5 µm), using a
gradient program with two solvents system (A: 0.5 % acetic
acid in acetonitrile: water (1:1) B: 2% acetic acid in water)
at a constant solvent flow rate of 1.2 ml/min (Öztürk et al,
2007). Injection volume was 20 µl. The signals were
detected at 280 nm by UV-VIS detection .All solutions were
prepared with deionized water. (Kolayli et al, 2010)
DPPH (2, 2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl)-Scavenging
Activity
The free radical scavenging activity of the extract was
measured in terms of hydrogen donating or radical
scavenging ability using the stable free radical DPPH
(Rakesh and Singh, 2010). One ml solution of the extract in
methanol was added to 0.5 ml of 0.15 mM DPPH solution
in methanol. The contents were mixed vigorously and
allowed to stand at 20 °C for 30 min. The absorbance was
read at 517 nm. IC50 value [the concentration required to
scavenge 50(%) DPPH free radicals] was calculated. The
capability to scavenge the DPPH radical was calculated
using the following equation:
DPPH scavenging effect (%)= (A0 -A1/A0) x100;
Where,A0 was the absorbance of the control reaction and
A1 the absorbance in the presence of the sample.
Antimicrobial activity
The antimicrobial activity was performed by agar well
diffusion method (Perez et al., 1995) for solvent extract.
One hundred µl of the inoculum (1 x 108cfu/ml) was mixed
with Hi-media and poured into the Petri plate. A well was
prepared in the plates with the help of a cork-borer
(0.85cm). One hundred µl of the test compound was
introduced into the well. The plates were incubated
overnight at 37°C. Microbial growth was determined by
measuring the diameter of zone of inhibition. For each
bacterial strain controls were maintained as pure solvents
were used instead of the extract. The result was obtained
by measuring the zone diameter (mm). The experiment
was done three times and the mean values are presented.
Statistical analysis
All analyses were run in triplicates. Data were analyzed by
an analysis of variance one-way (ANOVA) (P<0.05).
RESULTS
Proximate analysis
The leaves of Moringa oleiferawere analyzed for proximate
analysis and the results in (Table 1) showed that, the
Moringa oleifera leaves were contained moisture
(10.74g.100g-1±0.05), ash (4.56g.100-1±0.13), fiber
(11.23g.100-1±0.16), total protein (9.38g.100g-1±0.23), total
lipid (7.76g.100g-1±0.21) and total carbohydrate
(56.33g.100g-1±0.27) and the total energy of 100 gram of
leaves was (332.68±0.06)
Mineral content
Mineral content of Moringa oleifera leaves was determined
and registered in (Table 2). The results in (Table 2)
indicate that Moringa oleifera leaves are a promising
source of essential minerals. The concentration of sodium
was (289.34±0.35 mg.100g-1), potassium
(33.63±0.24mg.100g-1), magnesium (25.64±0.25mg.100g-
1), phosphorus (105.23±0.32mg.100g-1), iron
(9.45±0.16mg.100g-1), zinc (1.63±0.021mg.100g-1), copper
(0.88±0.52mg.100g-1), calcium (486.23±0.11mg.100g-1)
and manganese (5.21±0.12mg.100g-1).
Vitamin content
The vitamin content of Moringa oleifera leaves showed in
(Table 3). The concentration of detected vitamins were;
El Sohaimy et al. 191
13.48±0.51 mg.100g-1of β-Carotene, 16.80±0.24 mg.100g-1
of Vitamin E, 245.13±0.46 mg.100g-1 Vitamin C, 0.05±0.28
mg.100g-1 of Vitamin B1, 0.8±0.25 mg.100g-1 of Vitamin B2
and 220±0.42 mg.100g-1 of Vitamin B3.
Amino acids composition
Table 4 showed the amino acid composition of Moringa
oleifera leaves. It is showed 17 amino acids in different
concentrations as follows: Lysine (69.13±0.13mg.100g-1),
Histidine (29.56±0.21 mg.100g-1), Valine
(62.34±0.19mg.100g-1), Leucine (94.36±0.31mg.100g-1),
Isoleucine (46.98±0.15mg.100g-1), Threonine
(48.35±0.26mg.100g-1), Alanine (4.93±0.12mg.100g-1),
Aspartic acid (13.76±0.15mg.100g-1), Serine
(3.13±0.15mg.100g-1), Proline (1.86±0.13mg.100g-1),
Glutamic acid (18.03±0.09mg.100g-1), Glycine
(2.31±0.21mg.100g-1), Arginine (7.65±0.10mg.100g-1),
Cysteine (2.15±0.11mg.100g-1), Tyrosine
(2.03±0.13mg.100g-1), Methionine (0.43±0.14mg.100g-1),
and Phenyl Alanine (3.42±0.10mg.100g-1).
Total phenolic content and flavonoids
Moringa oleifera leaves extracts showed a high level of
phenolic content and flavonoids (Table 5). Methanol extract
showed the highest level of phenolic content (48.35±0.05
mg GAE.g-1 sample) and flavonoids (0.26±0.07 mg.g-1)
(P>0.05). In contrary, the ethanol and water extracts
contained low levels of phenolic content and flavonoids
(28.56±0.03mg GAE.g-1 and16.33±0.12mg.g-1) and
(24.67±0.03mg GAE.g-1 and 0.14±0.09 mg.g-1),
respectively. However, there are no significant differences
between ethanol and water extracts in the content of
phenolics and flavonoids.
HPLC of phenolic compounds
Phenolic compounds in the Moringa oleifera extracts have
been carried out by high performance liquid
chromatography (HPLC). Ten phenolic compounds were
analyzed as standards and determined the phenolic
compounds in three Moringa oleifera extracts (gallic acid,
itaconic acid, protocathechuic acid, catechin, esculetin,
catechol, tannic acid, ferulic acid, pyrogallol, and cinnamic
acid). HPLC chromatograms of phenolic compounds
include six phenolic acids and four flavonoids are given in
(Figure. 1). The concentrations of the phenolic compounds
expressed in(mg.100g-1).Methanol extract contained gallic
acid (7.745±0.31), itaconic acid (48.53±0.27); esculetin
(230.37±0.28), catechol (30.185±0.21), pyrogallol
(440.94±0.24) and cinnamic acid (0.0295±0.23)
respectively(Figure. 2).While, ethanol extract contained
gallic acid (1.695±0.25), itaconic acid (6.195±0.12),
catechin (34.42±0.19), and catechol (7.185±0.25)
respectively (Figure. 3); and Water extract contained
192. Glo. Adv. Res. J. Agric. Sci.
Table 1. Proximate analysis of Moringa oleifera
Nutrient Conc. (g.100g-1)
Moisture 10.74±0.05
Ash 4.56±0.13
Fiber 0.16±11.23
Protein 9.38±0.23
Lipid 7.76±0.21
Carbohydrate 0.27±56.33
Energy (K Cal) 0.06±332.68
Table 2. Mineral Content of moringa oleifera leaves
Mineral Conc. (mg.100g-1)
Na 289.34±0.35
K 33.63±0.24
Mg 25.64±0.25
P 105.23±0.32
Fe 9.45±0.16
Zn 1.63±0.021
Cu 0.88±0.52
Ca 486.23±0.11
Mn 5.21±0.12
Table 3. Vitamin content
Vitamin Conc. (mg.100g
-
1
)
Vitamin A (β- Carotene) 13.48±0.51
Vitamin E 16.80±0.24
Vitamin C 245.13±0.46
Vitamin B1 (Thiamin) 0.05±0.28
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) 0.8±0.25
Vitamin B3- (Nicotinic Acid) 220±0.42
El Sohaimy et al. 193
Table 4. Amino Acid composition of crud protein
Amino Acid Conc. (mg.100g-1)
Lysine 69.13±0.13
Histidine 29.56±0.21
Valine 62.34±0.19
Leucine 94.36±0.31
Isoleucine 46.98±0.15
Threonine 48.35±0.26
Alanine 4.93±0.12
Aspartic acid 13.76±0.15
Serine 3.13±0.15
Proline 1.86±0.13
Glutamic acid 18.03±0.09
Glycine 2.31±0.21
Arginine 7.65±0.10
Cysteine 2.15±0.11
Tyrosine 2.03±0.13
Methionine 0.43±0.14
Phenylalanine 3.42
Table 5. Phenolic content and flavonoids
Extract Total phenolic content (mg GAE.g-1)
Total flavonoids (mg.g-1)
70% Methanol extract 48.35±0.05 35.64±0.07
70% Ethanol extract 28.56±0.03 16.33±0.12
Water extract 24.67±0.03 14.32±0.09
The values in the table are means of the triplicates ±SD, P>0.05
Figure 1. HPLC chromatogram for separating 10 standard phenolic compounds. All peaks were identified by comparison of retention time and UV spectra
with commercial standards as follows. Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C18 column (4.6 x 150 mm, 5 µm), gradient eluent acetic acid / acetonitrile/ water/, flow rate1.2
mL/min. Peak identification: (1) gallic acid (2) Itaconic acid, (3) protocathechuic acid, (4) catechin, (5)Esculetin, (6) Catechol, (7) Tannic acid, (8) ferulic
acid, (9) Pyrogallol., (10) cinnmaic acid”
194. Glo. Adv. Res. J. Agric. Sci.
Figure 2. HPLC chromatogram with UV-VIS detection of the methanol extracts: (1) Gallic acid (2) Itaconic acid (3) Esculetin (4)Catechol (5) Pyrogallol (6)
Cinnimic acid
Figure 3. HPLC chromatogram with UV-VIS detection of the ethanol extracts: (1) Gallic acid (2) Itaconic acid (3) Cathecin (4) Catechol
Figure 4. HPLC chromatogram with UV-VIS detection of the water extracts: (1) Itaconic acid (2) Esculetin (3) Catechol
El Sohaimy et al. 195
Table 6. 50% inhibition (IC50) of moringa leaf extracts
Extracts (µg.ml-1)
70% Methanol 33.11±0.08
70% Ethanol 44.10±0.05
100% Water 46.77±0.13
Ascorbic acid 23.44±0.05
The values in the table are means of the triplicates ±SD, P>0.05
itaconic acid (25.66±0.23), esculetin (81.145±0.28), and
catechol (8.725±0.23) respectively (Figure. 4)
DPPH Free Radical Scavenging Activity
DPPH scavenging activity was carried out for establishing
the antioxidant activity of 70% methanol extract, 70 %
ethanol extract and water extract of Moringa oleifera
leaves. The methanol extract showed the highest
antioxidant activity which very close of ascorbic acid
(lowest IC50at the extract concentration of
33.11±0.08µg.ml-1)(Table 6, Figure. 5). While; ethanol
extract showed a moderate antioxidant activity (IC50 at the
concentration of 44.10±0.27 µg.ml-1)(Table 6, Figure. 5).On
the other hand, water extract showed the lowest
antioxidant activity (highest IC50at the concentration of
46.77±0.13 µg.ml-1).There is no significant difference in
IC50 between the ethanol and water extract. While the
ascorbic acid as antioxidant standard showed the lowest
antioxidant activity (IC50 = 23.44±0.05 µg.ml-1) even over
methanol extract. From the results in (Table 6, Figure. 5),
there is a positive correlation between the extract
concentration, the antioxidant activity and the
concentration of phenolic content in the three extracts.
Antimicrobial activity
Figure (6) showed the antimicrobial activity of Moringa
oleifera leaf extracts against nine pathogenic species of
bacteria and fungi. The 70% methanol, 70% ethanol and
water extracts were exhibited antimicrobial activities
against Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC12344,
Streptococcus agalactiae ATCC12296, Staphylococcus
epidermis ATCC35984, Staphylococcus aureus 0006,
Salmonella senftenberg ATCC8400, Escherichia coli O-
143,Bacillus subtilis DB100 host, and Candidaalbicans
ATCC2091 but no inhibition found against Klebsiella
pneumonia ATCC 12296. The minimum inhibitory
concentration (MIC) of Moringa oleifera leaves extracts
were carried out and the obtained results confirmed that,
the MIC of 70% methanol was (40 mg.ml-1) and for 70%
ethanol and water was (50 mg.ml-1) (Table 7).From the
obtained results in our experiment, Moringa oleifera leaves
extracts possessed a broad range of antimicrobial activity
against the most examined bacterial strains and fungi
(Figure. 6).70% methanol extract showed the high toxicity
196. Glo. Adv. Res. J. Agric. Sci.
Table7. MIC of Moringa oleifera leaf extract
(mg.ml-1) Extract
70% Methanol 70% Ethanol 100% Water
10 - - -
20 - - -
30 - - -
40 ++ - -
50 +++ ++ ++
60 +++ ++ ++
70 +++ +++ +++
80 +++ +++ +++
90 +++ +++ +++
100 ++++ +++ +++
(+) Inhibition zone detected; (-) No inhibition zone detected
against Staphylococcus aureus 0006(25±0.06mm),
Staphylococcus epidermis ATCC35984(23±0.04mm),
Streptococcus pyogenesATCC12344 (18±0.04 mm) and
Candida albicansATCC2091 (20±0.14mm), while the same
extract showed a moderate toxicity against Escherichia coli
O-143(12±0.15mm). The lowest antibacterial activity was
registered against Bacillus subtilis DB100host (6±0.21mm)
and Salmonella senftenberg ATCC8400 (2±0.05 mm). On
the other hand 70% ethanol extract showed the highest
antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus pyogenes
ATCC12344 (25±0.12mm), Streptococcus agalactiae
ATCC12296 (20±0.08mm), Salmonella senftenberg
ATCC8400 (21±0.07mm), Staphylococcus epidermis
ATCC35984 (16±0.22mm) and Candida albicans
ATCC2091 (20±0.22mm); while the same extract showed a
moderate toxicity against Staphylococcus aureus 0006
(11±0.10mm), Escherichia coli O-143 (6±0.08mm) and
Bacillus subtilis DB100host (3±0.13mm). While water
extract registered the highest antimicrobial activity against
Staphylococcus aureus 0006 (26±0.18mm), Streptococcus
agalactiae ATCC12296 (25±0.19 mm), Salmonella
senftenberg ATCC8400 (25±0.14mm) and Candida
albicans ATCC2091 (25±0.16mm); while the same extract
reported a moderate toxicity against Streptococcus
pyogenes ATCC12344 (15±0.09mm). The lowest toxicity
was reported against Escherichia coli O-143(3±0.11mm)
and Bacillus subtilis DB100host (3±0.31mm). On the other
hand, there was no any toxicity registered against
Klebsiella pneumonia ATCC12296 for the three kind of
Moringa oleifera extracts.
DISCUSSION
The results of proximate analyses revealed that the
Moringa oleifera leaves are an excellent source of nutrition
and natural energy for human around the world who lack in
many nutritional supplements such as protein
(9.38±0.23g.100g-1), carbohydrate (56.33±0.27g.100g-1),
lipids (7.76±0.21 g.100g-1) and fibers (11.23±0.16 g.100g-1)
(Table 1). 100g of Moringa oleifera leaves can provide
about 17.5 g of daily requirement. Moisture (10.74±0.05
g.100g-1) in food determines the rate of food absorption
and the keeping quality of food. The reported value
indicated that Moringa oleifera leaf protein might not be
stored at room temperature for a long period. Ash
(4.56±0.13) in food determines largely the extent of mineral
matters likely to be found in food substance, the reported
value of ash (4.56±0.13g.100g-1) indicated that moringa
leaves are a good source of minerals. Moringa oleifera is a
good source of fiber (11.23±0.16 g.100g-1) that might be
taken as a part of diet to clean the digestive tract by
removing potential carcinogens from the body and hence
prevents the absorption of excess cholesterol. The fat and
carbohydrate content is very valuable as a main source of
energy for human body. The same results mentioned by
(Sodamade et al. 2013), who revealed that Moringa
oleifera leaves are nutritionally adequate and given the
promising source of dietary minerals in most developing
countries. It is however important to stress that leaf protein
concentrates is not food on their own but it contains
nutritional potential that could find application in food
ingredient, infant formula, food supplement and food
formulation. The Moringa leaves mineral concentrations
might be candidate to be one of the important sources of
essential elements for human body. Moringa leaves
contained a high level of sodium (289.34±0.35 mg.100g-1)
(Table 2); while sodium is an important source of
electrolytes within the body; potassium (33.63±0.24
mg.100g-1) works with sodium to maintain the water
balance in the body and lowering the blood pressure.
Magnesium level in moringa leaves was (25.64±0.25
mg.100g-1) that is extremely vital to health by stimulating
gastric motility and intestinal function; a high content of
phosphorus (105.23±0.32 mg.100g-1) is an important to
serve as the main regulator of energy metabolism in cells.
Iron (9.45±0.16 mg.100g-1) is very important element as a
nucleus of hemoglobin that forms red blood cells in the
body. Zinc (1.63±0.021mg.100g-1) can support the immune
system and useful for normal growth and development
during pregnancy. Copper (0.88±0.52 mg.100g-1) plays a
role in the synthesis and maintenance of myelin and as a
cofactor for processes that neutralize the dangerous free
radicals. Moringa leaves are a very good source of calcium
(486.23±0.11mg.100g-1) that very useful for bones and
teeth development. Manganese (5.21±0.12mg.100g-1) is
very useful for activation of some enzymes that prevent
tissue damage and used for digestion and utilization of
El Sohaimy et al. 197
foods. These obtained results agreed with that registered
by (Sodamade et al, 2013 and Oluwole et al, 2013) whose
reported that the moringa leaves are a very promising
source for essential elements. Moringa oleifera leaves
contained a reasonable concentrations of both water-
soluble vitamins such as B {Vitamin B1 (Thiamin)
0.05±0.28, Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) 0.8±0.25, Vitamin B3-
(Nicotinic Acid) 220±0.42} and C (245.13±0.46) and fat-
soluble vitamins like A (13.48±0.51mg.100g-1) and
E(16.80±0.24) mg.100g-1 respectively (Table 3). These
vitamins could play an important role in improving human
health. Vitamin A is a natural antioxidant to inhibit free
radicals and very important for improving the immune
system. Vitamin E is useful for enhancing the immune
system function and skin repair. Vitamin C is very
important for cardiovascular health and reducing free
radicals in the cells. Vitamin B1 contributes in many cellular
functions including carbohydrates metabolism. Vitamin B2
is an important in energy metabolism and folate synthesis.
Vitamin B3 plays a role in DNA synthesis and the transfer
of methyl groups in the cell metabolism. From the present
results, it is clear that Moringa oleifera leaves are a
powerful vitamin factory in reasonable concentrations for
human requirements. The results obtained from the amino
acid composition of moringa leaves crude protein
confirmed that Moringa oleifera leaves contain a high level
of Leucine (94.36±0.31mg.100g-1), Lysine(69.13±0.13
mg.100g-1), Valine (62.34±0.19 mg.100g-1), Threonine
(48.35±0.26mg.100g-1), and Isoleucine
(46.98±0.15mg.100g-1) (Table 4). It is confirmed that
moringa leaves are a good source for essential amino
acids (Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Histidine,
Leucine, Isoleucine and Valine). The Moringa essential
amino acids presence and digestibility scores are more
than adequate when measured against the standards
(WHO) and (FAO) for small children, the most at-risk
population group when it comes to proteins in food.
Furthermore, the obtained results showed that moringa
leaves contained a high level of lysine, which usually
accrued, in a low level in plant materials except legumes
and cereals. These results agreed with the results
reported by Oluwole et al (2013), who have investigated
the nutrient composition and phytochemicals of Moringa
oleifera and revealed that, Moringa could be incorporated
into human diet, particularly during infancy, to prevent or
reduce protein-energy malnutrition. Phenolic compounds
and flavonoids are very important constituents that have
antioxidant activity by scavenging free radicals and
occurred in several kinds of plants; the total phenolic
content determination in moringa leaves revealed that the
type of extraction solvent is a limiting factor in the
extraction of phenolics and flavonoids. 70% methanol
extracted the maximum phenolic content occurred in the
moringa leaves (48.35±0.05 GAE.g-1 sample) compared to
70% ethanol (28.56±0.03 GAE.g-1 sample) and water
(24.67±0.03 GAE.g-1 sample) (P>0.05) (Table 5). These
198. Glo. Adv. Res. J. Agric. Sci.
results disagreed with (Luqman et al., 2012) who reported
that, total phenolic content increasing in the concentration-
dependent manner, but there is a significant rise in the
phenolic content with ethanol extract. The same trend was
observed with the extraction of total flavonoids when 70%
methanol extracted the maximum level of flavonoids
(35.64±0.07 mg.g-1), while 70% ethanol extracted
(16.33±0.12 mg.g-1) and water extracted the minimum level
of flavonoids (14.32±0.09 mg.g-1) (P>0.05) (Table 5).The
extraction of antioxidant substances of different chemical
structure was achieved using solvents in different
polarities. From the obtained results, the highest level of
phenolic compounds was obtained by 70 % methanol (6
compounds) and showed the highest concentration of
pyrogallol (440±0.24 mg.100g-1) and esculetin
(230.37±0.28 mg.100g-1) (Figure.2). While 70% ethanol
extracted four compounds with the maximum concentration
of (34.42±0.19 mg.100g-1) catechin (Figure. 3) and water
extracted only three phenolic compounds with high
concentration of (81.145±0.28 mg.100g-1) esculetin
(Figure. 4). Protocathechuic acid, tannic acid and ferulic
acid were not detected in all three extracts. It is appeared
that methanol 70% is the most suitable solvent for
extraction of phenolic compounds from Moringa oleifera
leaves (Figure. 2). Numerous investigations of qualitative
composition of plant extracts revealed the presence of high
concentrations of phenolic compounds obtained using
polar solvents (Čanadanović-Brunet et al, 2008 and
Stanković, 2011).Methanol and water were the stronger
extraction media that are able to dissolve most of the
phenolic compounds from samples. Methanol is able to
extract semi-polar phenolics while water is more favored to
polar phenolic acid. The Moringa oleifera might be
regarded as a promising candidate as a natural plant rich
in phenolic compounds. The DPPH free radical scavenging
activity current results is similar to that reported by (Gülcin
et al. 2003), (Sreelatha and Padma (2009), (Huda-Faujan
et al., 2009) and (Noriham et al. 2004). The all three types
of moringa leaves extract showed a considerable
antioxidant activity that increased with increasing the
concentration of moringa extract (10-80µg.ml-1) (Figure. 5).
70% methanol extract showed the highest antioxidant
activity (lowest IC50=33.11±0.08µg.ml-1) and the closest
one to ascorbic acid (IC50=23.44±0.05) as standard
(P>0.05, Table 6). In contrast, there is no significant
differences were remarked between the antioxidant activity
of 70% ethanol and water extracts (IC50= 44.10±0.05 and
46.77±0.13 µg.ml-1respectively) (Figure. 5). Antioxidant
activity of moringa leaves extracts, which comes from
phenolic compounds and flavonoids might be involved in
human body protection against free radicals causing the
damage to the body over time. These results confirmed
that Moringa oleifera leaves extract might be a potent
source of natural antioxidants with a high human health
benefits. Moringa leaves extracts recorded a broad
spectrum of antimicrobial activity against the most of tested
pathogenic strains with MIC between (40 and 50 mg.ml-
1)(Figure. 6). Staphylococcus epidermis, Streptococcus
pyogenes, streptococcus agalactiae and Candida albicans
are the most common pathogens were affected by three
types of moringa extracts (70% methanol, 70 % ethanol
and water) (Figure. 6). On the other hand, 70% methanol
and water extracts have a common effect against
Staphylococcus aureus while, 70% ethanol and water
extracts have a common toxicity against Salmonella
senftenberg (Figure.6). There was no relation between the
concentration of total phenolic content and antimicrobial
activity was found. Water extract, which contained the
lowest concentration of phenolic compounds showed the
highest antimicrobial activity. It might be referred to the
type and chemical structure of phenolic compounds in the
extract and the ability of these compounds to bind to the
bacterial cell and prevent the cell division. The known
antibacterial mechanism associated to each class of
chemical to which the isolated compounds belong, may
explain the antibacterial potency of the crude plant extract
(El Sohaimy, 2014). This indicates that Moringa oleifera
leaves extracts may be used as a natural antimicrobial
agent with reasonable safety margins to inhibit bacterial
growth in pharmaceutical and food applications. Moringa
oleifera could be used in curing many diseases like typhoid
fever, diarrhea, high blood sugar, hypertension, and
gastro-intestinal disorder. It is advised that this plant can
be utilized in cooking and making other edible formulations
(Olako, 2014).
CONCLUSIONS
Moringa is considered as a nutrient-rich plant and the
obtained results in this study indicated that the leaves have
immense nutritional value such as phytochemicals,
vitamins, minerals, proteins, vitamins and amino acids. So,
the leaves might be used to combat malnutrition, especially
among infants and nursing mothers. Many of the benefits
of Moringa oleifera leaves are attributed to rich nutrients
like protein elements and rich antioxidants, which come
from vitamins, and polyphenols that makes the Moringa
leaves an important part of healthy and balanced diet. Our
results proved that the Moringa oleifera leaves contain
good antimicrobial activity agents as presented by the
composition of the secondary metabolites of the leaf
extract. These results confirmed that Moringa oleifera
leaves extract might be a potent source of natural
antioxidants with a high health benefits. This indicates that
Moringa oleifera leaves extracts may be used as a natural
antioxidant and antimicrobial agent with reasonable safety
margins in pharmaceutical and food applications.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The authors are thankful to the Department of Food
Technology, Arid Lands Cultivation Research Institute, City
for Scientific Research and Technological Application,
Alexandria, Egypt for providing the chemicals and facilities
of this research work. The authors are thankful for the
junior staff especially, Mr. Mohamed Gamal, Mr. Taha
Mehany and Mrs. May Mamdouh for their help in this
study.
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... The vitamin B2 found in the leaves of C. pentandra was higher compared to those obtained by Adepoju and Ugochukwu (2019) who reported vitamin B2 to be 0.19 mg/100g but Vitamin B12 value (0.24 mg/100g) was higher than the value recorded in the present study. Vitamin B2 value recorded in this study was higher than the value reported by El Sohaimy et al. (2015) in moringa. Ndubuaku et al. (2015) found lower Vitamin B2 (0.70 ppm) and Vitamin C (0.38 ppm) in moringa sourced from Jos and Nsukka when compared with the results of this study. ...
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Helichrysum species (Asteracea) are widely found in Anatolia. Helichrysum species has used ethnomedicine for centuries. We report here the total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of the methanolic extracts of Helichrysum plicatum DC. subsp. plicatum species, together with their HPLC analysis results of individual some phenolic acids and flavonoids. 17 different phenolic constituents were measured by reverse phasehigh performance liquid chromatograpy (RP-HPLC) in the three parts of the plant. Total phenolic compound and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were used as antioxidant capacity determinants. All parts of the plants showed high antioxidant activity containing large amounts of antioxidant compounds. Chlorogenic acid, quercetin and rutin found in the three parts of the samples as main phenolic components and absisic, ferulic, epicathecin and cinnamic acids have minor concentration or haven’t been detected at all. The methanolic extracts of the plants proved to be a good source of phenolic compounds and antioxidants agents that might serve to protect health and fight against several diseases.
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The mineral composition of the lamina, petiole, seed pod, seed shell, seed kernel powder and seed kernel oil of Moringa oleifera L. from two regions, Sheda and Kuje, Abuja, Nigeria were investigated. The results indicated that Ca, Mg, Fe and Cu in M. oleifera leaves, pods and seeds from Sheda were relatively higher than that from Kuje. Relatively high contents of Ca and Fe were found in the lamina and seed shell of the plant respectively from both regions. The Mg content (0.185 mg mL -1) in the seed kernel oil of moringa from Sheda was significantly lower (P ≤ 0.05) than that in the other parts of leaf and seed. The Fe content in the seed shell from Sheda was 0.2436 mg g -1 more than those from Kuje. Toxic element such as Pb was absent in the leaves, pods and seeds of moringa from both locations. This study confirmed that there are variations in macro and trace minerals in moringa leaves, pods and seeds from different locations. This finding might be a reference point in the selection and formulation of plant-based mineral supplement in animal and human nutrition.