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Planning of renewable energy sources siting in Prefecture of Kilkis

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CEST2009 - Chania, Crete, Greece Ref. No: 306
PLANNING OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES SITING IN
PREFECTURE OF KILKIS
V KOUTSOUMARAKI1 AND K. NIKOLAOU1,2
1 School of Sciences & Technology, Hellenic Open University, 26222 Patra, Greece,
Email: vmaraki1975@yahoo.gr, 2 OMPEPT – Organisation for the Master Plan and
Environmental Protection of Thessaloniki, 105, Vas. Olgas St., 54643 Thessaloniki,
Greece, E-mail: kinikola@hol.gr
EXTENDED ABSTRACT
This paper deals with the investigation of the siting criteria, set by the Hellenic Special
Framework of Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development for the Renewable Energy
Sources (RES) and the examination of RES installation, specifying the regions where
RES could be established as well as their electricity production capacity.
The objective of this work is to provide a model of wind and solar systems installation and
a method of estimating the extend to which a region can be capable enough of covering a
high percentage of its electricity requirements. The formulation of the installation model is
based on a multi-criteria analysis, considering the local morphological and climatic
conditions, as well as the environmental and land-use restrictions that derive from the
Hellenic Special Framework of Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development.
The combination of the criteria led to various thematic maps that showed the constraints
to be taken into account in siting wind and solar systems. By aggregating all constraint
layers, a final constraint map is calculated, which represents the areas that are restricted
from development of (wind and solar) power facilities. This procedure results into the final
installation map which includes the most suitable sites for potential development.
The method is applied to the prefecture of Kilkis due to its high exploitable wind potential
(52% of the total wind potential of the Region of Central Macedonia, including the
prefecture of Thessaloniki) and its proximity to the city of Thessaloniki. The application of
the installation model showed that there are remarkable perspectives for the exploitation
of wind and solar potential. More specifically, the consideration of the wind speed
limitations led to a zone of 1.635 km2 suitable for the installation of wind energy systems.
Taking into account the constraint zones and the minimum distances of development
sites, the final areas (217 km2) were determined, with a capability of 228 wind turbine
installation of 456 MWe nameplate capacity which can cover 13,8% of the regional
electricity consumption in Central Macedonia.
The determination of the area where photovoltaic systems can be installed was estimated
up to 110 km2 with a total nameplate capacity 9.160 MWp and an annual production of
10.530.000 ΜWh/y which can cover 36% of the Region’s electricity consumption.
Siting wind turbines and photovoltaic systems for power generation is a complex task
involving many constraints and considerations on land use. The inclusion of the RES
potential of Kilkis in the existing energy system is an important step for the energy safety
of the region and the minimization of the negative impact of traditional power-generating
methods.
Keywords: renewable energy sources, planning, siting, wind energy, solar energy.
1. INTRODUCTION
CEST2009 - Chania, Crete, Greece Ref. No: 306
Renewable energy sources (RES) are environmentally friendly technologies and an
essential alternative to fossil fuels. Using these sources helps not only to reduce
greenhouse gas emissions from energy generation and consumption but also to secure
energy supply. Renewable energy sources are indigenous, they do not rely on the future
availability of conventional sources of energy, and their decentralised nature makes an
economy less vulnerable to energy supply (European Commission, 2007). Consequently
they constitute a key element of a sustainable energy future.
The consequences of climate change, increasing dependence on fossil fuels and rising
energy prices make it even more pressing for the EU to put in place a comprehensive
and ambitious energy policy. As part of this policy, the European Parliament and Council
agreed on binding targets for the promotion of electricity produced from renewable
energy sources. More specifically the Directive 2001/77/EC sets a 21% indicative share
of electricity produced from renewable energy sources in total Community electricity
consumption by 2010 (European Parliament, 2001).
To meet this common target, each Member State needs to increase its production and
use of renewable energy in electricity (Commission of the European Communities, 2004).
The Greek parliament has revised the RES policy framework by Law 3468/2006 which
sets a 20.1% share of RES on gross electricity consumption by 2010. However, and
despite the investment incentives set by the National Development Law (Law 3299/2004),
the growth in RES installation has been slower than expected in Greece due to time-
consuming bureaucracy and weaknesses in the regulatory framework.
At the time the institutional framework for RES was established in Greece, the emphasis
was placed on the granting of financial incentives in combination with the simplification of
the licensing procedure whereas the issue of siting from the point of physical planning
was not a cause for concern. For the more effective and integral settlement of the issue
of RES physical planning, the inner cabinet decided to push forward on an urgency base
the drafting of the Special Spatial Framework on country’s scale (Hellenic Ministry of
Development, 2007).
The Special Framework of the Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development for the
Renewable Energy Sources establishes siting rules and criteria per RES category and
type of geographic area which will allow on the one hand the set up of viable RES
facilities and on the other their harmonious incorporation in the natural and man-made
environment. Furthermore, it sets in motion an effective siting mechanism of RES
facilities and defines two types of regions, the Regions of Aiolian Priority (RAPs) and the
Regions of Aiolian Suitability (RASs) in order to meet the targets of the national and
European policies (Hellenic Minister of Environment, Physical Planning and Public
Works, 2007).
Despite its high exploitable wind potential (52% of the total wind potential of the Region of
Central Macedonia, including the prefecture of Thessaloniki), the prefecture of Kilkis is
excluded from the Regions of Aiolian Priority. More specifically, according to the Hellenic
Centre of Renewable Energy Sources (CRES), the technical and economical exploitable
wind potential of the Prefectures of Kilkis and Thessaloniki comes to 8.305 GWh/year
while the equivalent in the prefecture of Attiki is 3.598 GWh/year (CRES, 2001). For this
reason, this paper aims to estimate the extend to which the prefecture of Kilkis can cover
its electricity requirements through the installation of solar and wind systems.
2. METHODOLOGY
CEST2009 - Chania, Crete, Greece Ref. No: 306
The formulation of the installation model is based on a multi-criteria analysis, considering
the local morphological and climatic conditions, as well as the environmental and land-
use restrictions that derive from the Hellenic Special Framework of Spatial Planning and
Sustainable Development for RES. The application of multi-criteria analysis can integrate
the various aspects into a uniform evaluation procedure.
The installation model proposed in this work is based on geographic information systems
techniques which will allow identifying a list of suitable sites through the following criteria:
Sufficient wind and solar resources (minimum wind speed 5m/sec)
Land use restrictions (exclusion zones, buffer zones from specific land uses)
The main data source for the current project has been the maps from the Hellenic Military
Geographical Service in scale 1:50.000 and the wind potential maps from the Centre of
Renewable Energy Sources in Greece (CRES). To find out the suitable sites for wind
turbines, there are 9 spatial data layers of input for overlaying in Autocad Map. Some
details of input data are shown in table 1.
Table 1. Data layers of input
Description Data Source Action taken
Layer 1 Wind Energy Potential Thematic maps from
CRES
Areas with wind speed
>5m/s
Layer 2 Urban Areas Hellenic Military
Geographical Service
Excluded, buffer zone
500m
Layer 3 Cities and settlements
characterised as
dynamic, tourist or
significant
Decree of the
President of the
Republic 24-4-1985
Excluded, buffer zone
1.000m
Layer 4 Roads Hellenic Military
Geographical Service
Buffer zone 130m
Layer 5 Sites of Community
Importance (SCI)
Natura 2000 Network Excluded, buffer zone
300m
Layer 6 Archeological sites Excluded, buffer zone
595m
Layer 7 Quarries Excluded, buffer zone
150m
Layer 8 Irrigated agricultural
areas
Corine land cover Excluded, buffer zone
130m
Layer 9 High voltage cables Thematic maps from
CRES
Buffer zone 130m
The starting point of the analysis was the wind data source extracted from CRES wind
maps which details the annual average wind speed. Taking into account that the
minimum wind speed needed for the viability of a wind turbine is 5 m/s, only areas
exhibiting mean annual wind speeds greater than 5 m/s were considered in this analysis
(suitability zones).
The second step was to discard areas considered unsuitable for wind turbine installation
and determine buffer zones according to the land use restrictions that derive from the
Special Framework for RES. These areas (layer 2-9) were excluded for protecting effects
CEST2009 - Chania, Crete, Greece Ref. No: 306
on the physical, and man-made environment and described as exclusion zones (Figure
1).
Figure 1: Data layers for the final exclusion-analysis map
Once all exclusion zones were identified, a final-exclusion-analysis map was created,
which became the basis of the site selection process. Project locations were selected by
combining over the exclusion-zone map and the suitability-areas map that could
reasonably accommodate a significant quantity of wind energy generation. The same
methodology was followed for the installation of solar systems, with a diversification in the
selected criteria.
3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Given that the mapping of the criteria mentioned above requires a large-scale analysis,
the proposed methodology for wind and solar systems siting was applied to the
prefecture of Kilkis due to its high exploitable wind potential and its proximity to the city of
Thessaloniki.
Firstly, the consideration of the wind speed limitations (>5m/s) led to a zone of 1.635 km2
suitable for the installation of wind turbines. Taking into account the exclusion and buffer
zones, the final siting areas were determined of total extend 217 km2 (57 km2 with wind
speed >6m/s). Considering that the maximum allowed concentration of wind facilities is
1,05 typical wind turbine/1 km2, in accordance with the criteria of the Special Framework
for RES, there is a capability of 228 wind turbine installation (Figure 2).
This study assumes the use of a 2-MW turbine with a rotor diameter of 85m (Hellenic
Minister of Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works, 2007), which gives an
installable nameplate capacity of 456 MWe. For the estimation of the annual energy
production it is assumed that the typical wind capacity factor is 30% (Patricia van Der
Wal, 2006). Consequently the installation of 228 wind turbines with a nameplate capacity
of 456 MW will produce 1.198.368 MWh/yr (456*30%*8.760h).
EXCLUSION
ZONES
Sites of Community
Importance
Buffer zone from
roads
Buffer zone from
high voltage cables
Buffer zone from
Archeological Sites
Archeological Sites QuarriesUrban Areas
Buffer zone from
irrigated areas
Buffer zone from dynamic, tourist and significant
cities and settlements Buffer zone from quarries
CEST2009 - Chania, Crete, Greece Ref. No: 306
Figure 2: Suitable areas for the installation of wind turbines in Prefecture of Kilkis,
Greece
Considering that the annual electricity consumption in the Prefecture of Kilkis comes up
to 442.312 MWh and at regional level up to 8.682.256 MWh, the 173 wind turbines can
cover the total electricity needs of Kilkis and 13,8% of the regional electricity consumption
in Central Macedonia.
CEST2009 - Chania, Crete, Greece Ref. No: 306
In regard to the solar systems, the Special Framework for RES defines as suitable areas
the land of barren vegetation or in general the non-prime agricultural land αnd as
exclusion zones the SCI areas, the archeological sites, the forests and the irrigated
areas. In conformity with this we consider as candidate areas the whole area of the
grassland with no vegetation which comes up to 115 km2, while the surface of the final
siting areas varies between 3 and 27 km2. From this area 5 km2 were excluded since they
have already been proposed for the installation of wind farms (Figure 3).
Taking into account that the area required for a 100 MW solar-PV plant is 1.2 km 2
(Jacobson, 2009), there is a capability of 9.160 MWp PV panels. Given that a PV system
produces at least 1.150 KWh of electric energy annually (Hellenic Association of
Photovoltaic Companies, 2008), the resulting electricity production capacity is estimated at
10.530.000 MWh/yr. Following a less optimistic scenario, proposed by Ecowatt Hellas Ltd,
which is the greek licensed representative of IBC Solar AG, a worldwide supplier of solar
energy plants (Ecowatt Hellas, 2009), the area required for a 100MW solar-PV plant is 2
km2. This results to a capability of 5.500 MWp PV panels and to a 6.325.000 MWh annual
electricity production.
For the determination of the suitable land sites for the location of solar power plants,
criteria such as the proximity to the electric grid, the buffer zones (according to the
provisions of the special zoning framework the closest permitted distance between solar
system installations and incompatible areas needs to be defined during the environmental
licensing process for such projects), land slope and the orientation were not considered.
Taking these criteria into account, would lead to a much more realistic simulation and to
more accurate results. However, even if we follow the less optimistic scenario and
assume that the final area decreases in half, it is estimated that the total electricity
production of solar-PV plant can cover 36% of the regional electricity consumption in
Central Macedonia. By compining the results mentioned above, we reach to the
conclusion that the full exploitation of the wind and solar potential in the Prefecture of
Kilkis can cover up to 50% the electricity needs of Central Macedonia.
4. CONCLUSIONS
A model of wind and solar systems installation and a method of estimating the extend to
which a region can be capable enough of covering a high percentage of its electricity
requirements have been presented using as case study the Prefecture of Kilkis, Greece.
The formulation of the installation model is based on a multi-criteria analysis, considering
the local morphological and climatic conditions, as well as the environmental and land-
use restrictions that derive from the Hellenic Special Framework of Spatial Planning and
Sustainable Development.
The combination of the criteria led to various thematic maps that showed the constraints
to be taken into account in siting wind and solar systems. By aggregating all constraint
layers, a final constraint map is calculated, which represents the areas that are restricted
from development of (wind and solar) power facilities. This procedure results into the final
installation map which includes the most suitable sites for potential development.
The results showed that there is a remarkable exploitable wind and solar potential which
can cover not only the total electricity needs of the Prefecture but a high percentage of
the electricity consumption of Central Macedonia.
CEST2009 - Chania, Crete, Greece Ref. No: 306
Figure 3: Suitable areas for the installation of PV – solar systems in Prefecture of Kilkis,
Greece
CEST2009 - Chania, Crete, Greece Ref. No: 306
REFERENCES
1. Commission of the European Communities (2004), The share of renewable energy in the EU,
Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament, COM
(2004) 366 final.
2. CRES - Centre of Renewable Energy Sources (2001), Thematic maps. Assessment of wind
energy potential in Greece, Framework Programme Energy, September, URL:
http://www.cres.gr/kape/datainfo/maps.htm.
3. Ecowatt Hellas Ltd (2009), URL:http://www.ecowatt.gr/index.php?option =com_content&task
=view&id=20&Itemid=67).
4. European Commission (2007), Green Paper - Towards a European strategy for the security of
energy supply.
5. European Parliament and Council (2001), Directive 2001/77/EC on the promotion of electricity
produced from renewable energy sources in the internal electricity market.
6. Hellenic Association of Photovoltaic Companies (2008), A guide for PV systems, URL:
www.helapco.gr/library/PV_Guide_Apr08.pdf
7. Hellenic Ministry of Development (2007), 4th National Report regarding the penetration level of
renewable energy sources up to the year 2010, Athens.
8. Hellenic Ministry of Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works (2007), Special
Framework for the Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development for the Renewable Energy
Sources-RES, Athens.
9. Jacobson M. (2009), Review of solutions to global warming, air pollution, and energy security,
Energy & Environmental Science, 2, 148-173.
10. Law 3468/2006 (2006), Generation of Electricity using Renewable Energy Sources and High-
Efficiency Cogeneration of Electricity and Heat and Miscellaneous Provisions. Hellenic Official
Gazette A’ 129/27.06.2006.
11. Patricia van Der Wal (2006), Anatomy of the wind turbine, the scalpel of numbers, Epathlo
Magazine, Nr. 49, March-April 2006.
... Μακεδονίας με κοινωνικά, οικονομικά και περιβαλλοντικά κριτήρια [17][18][19][20][21]. ...
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