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Fertilizer and nutrient management for tomato

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... Fertilization occurs 24-48 h after pollination when the flower is mature ( Figure 3A; stages 8-9) [42]. Dehiscence is the mechanical rupture of the anther's epidermal cells after the anthers reach maturity. ...
... Tomatoes are receptive to their own pollen, making them self-fertile, but the stigma is often receptive for several days prior to anther dehiscence from the same flower, which allows the opportunity for cross-pollination from other flowers on the same and/or neighbouring tomato plants [43]. Once the pollen sticks to the stigma, a pollen tube grows down the style into the ovary (Figure 2), where ovules are fertilised to become seeds and the ovary transitions into a fruit ( Figure 3B) [42]. The flesh of the fruit is derived from, and genetically identical to the female structures, whilst the seeds are a hybrid of the parental genomes [44]. ...
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Global climate change and anthropological activities have led to a decline in insect pollinators worldwide. Agricultural globalisation and intensification have also removed crops from their natural insect pollinators, and sparked research to identify alternate natural insect pollinators and artificial technologies. In certain countries such as Australia the importation of commercial insect pollinators is prohibited, necessitating manual labour to stimulate floral pollination. Artificial pollination technologies are now increasingly essential as the demand for food grown in protected facilities increases worldwide. For tomato fruits, precision pollination has the ability to vastly improve their seed set, size, yield, and quality under optimal environmental conditions and has become financially beneficial. Like many crops from the Solanaceae, tomatoes have a unique self-pollinating mechanism that requires stimulation of the floral organs to release pollen from the poricidal anthers. This review investigates various mechanisms employed to pollinate tomato flowers and discusses emerging precision pollination technologies. The advantages and disadvantages of various pollinating technologies currently available in the protected-cropping industry are described. We provide a buzz perspective on new promising pollination technologies involving robotic air and acoustic devices that are still in their nascency and could provide non-contact techniques to automate pollination for the tomato horticultural industry.
... average of 417 kg ha -1 N for a production season (Sanjay et al., 2014). An increase in N application can reduce uptake efficiency (Liu et al., 2014), increase post-harvest soil N residue (Sainju et al., 1999;Zhang et al., 2011), and increase N leaching (Simonne and Ozores-Hampton, 2010b). These problems become even more challenging under inappropriate irrigation management, especially on sandy soils with a shallow water table. ...
... Additionally, in seepage irrigation with plastic mulch, total season crop nutrient requirement is applied as a one-time application at pre-plant, compared with a drip system that allows for a more precise and much smaller amount of nutrient application according to crop growth. Therefore, the high volume of irrigation water and/or high rate of fertilizer applications (typical of seepage system) may increase water percolation and nutrient displacement in sandy soil compared with a low-volume drip system (Hartz and Hochmuth, 1996;Simonne and Ozores-Hampton 2010b;Zotarelli et al., 2009a). ...
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Irrigation scheduling based on a real-time and location-specific (RT-LS) model increases irrigation water savings and yield. The RT-LS irrigation scheduling models have been developed as smartphone applications and have been used for crop-specific irrigation requirements. Although many RT-LS irrigation mod- els have been tested and used in several agronomic and horticultural crops in Florida, none of these irrigation-scheduling models has been tested for their impacts on nutrient distribution in Florida’s sandy soils. A two-season (fall 2015 and spring 2016) study was conducted to determine the effects of an RT-LS–based irrigation scheduling on soil water, NO3-–N, and NH4+–N distri- butions during a tomato cropping season. In both seasons, an RT-LS model for tomato was evaluated at three irrigation application rates (66, 100, and 150% RT-LS–suggested amounts) and compared with a historic evapotranspiration (ET)-based irrigation schedule (Historic ET) currently recommended in Florida. This study suggests that the RT-LS model improves water savings by 20 and 17% for the fall and spring seasons, respectively, compared with the Historic ET irrigation scheduling method. No specific pattern was observed for soil NH4+–N concentration between scheduling methods, but the RT-LS model maintained a higher soil NO3-–N concentration within the crop root zone and hence could reduce NO3-–N leaching potential. In each season, compared with the Historic ET irrigation method, the RT-LS improved both nitrogen recovery and irrigation water use efficiency in the open-field fresh-market tomato production system. Results obtained in this study clearly demonstrate that irrigation applications using the RT-LS irrigation scheduler improved irri- gation scheduling accuracy by maintaining nutrients within the tomato root zone and hence could reduce nutrient leaching potential in sandy soil.
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