ArticlePDF Available

Development through Knowledge Economy: Cluj-Napoca- a European Smart CIty

Authors:

Abstract

The paper is related to both theoretical concepts and best practice in the field of Knowledge Management Strategy. We have designed a mixture of research methodology that covers literature review, comparative case-study analysis, and best practices in the Smart-City field, in order to propose an adequate model, with a suitable quick guide for implementation that may provide a solution for the development of Cluj-Napoca case study. After an in-depth literature review, we proposed the following as the main research question: Could a smart city comparative case study methodology be used as a knowledge management strategy for development? After a preparatory stage we focused on the upgrading of a smart city development model. To put this model at work we looked for and designed a quick guide that can be used as a tool for implementing the model named Knowledge Broker Intervention Model (KBIM). This KBIM and the quick guide for implementation may be seen as our small contribution to the theory and practice in the field. The Knowledge Broker Intervention Model was designed to improve the networks of components in a new way and a more sustainable development. These outcomes of the comparative analysis may be used as a starting point for the transformation of Cluj Napoca into a Smart City based on the quick guide we developed. Cluj Innovation City is a first step towards transforming Cluj-Napoca into a Smart City, which could be developed around the existing Cluj IT Cluster. The role of a knowledge broker would be to ensure that knowledge of the organizational culture of private firms could be harvested, processed and further transferred to universities. In their turn, universities would adopt the new knowledge and apply it in such a way in which it will influence the nurture of scientists. This would come as a solution in the process of closing the gap between knowledge generation, dissemination and feedback actions. It will link research results with policy and practice, as well as match some research portfolios to the needs of policy and practice, therefore the knowledge broker would act as a catalyst in this scenario.
!
"#$#%&'&$(!)*$#'+,-!+$!(.&!/$012&3%&!4,0$0'*!
!"#$%&'(')(*+,-'."/'01'22/',304,5+6'777/%8.89&%&.:;<.8%=>?/@"'
ABBCD'((E54(55E'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''F'G"##&9&'"H'I8.89&%&.:')CJKBKL-'M'N@=:".=>'O""P?''
!"#"$%&'"()*)+,%-.+*/(%0$"1."*23%(%'45*6$-789:&%3:*Ȃ*:*2-,%&":(*;':,)*6<)4*
!
2$"(:*=:,<$"(:*>?@A=B*
!"#$%&'()*(+$,)-."/(0&$12.3(
4"5.è64)%'"2(7/28.,32&'(
(9(+:;(1.(<",&)//.=(>%$?6@"-)#"=(A):"/2"(
.-),$:5B.$,);$55#%$?;,)(
!
9:1<:*C:$"()<(:*DCE9?CE*
(!"#$%&'()*(+#)/):2#(0#2./#.3("/1(4$32/.33(C1:2/23&,"&2)/(
4"5.è64)%'"2(7/28.,32&'(
(9(+:;(1.(<",&)//.=(>%$?6@"-)#"=(A):"/2"((
/"12";2/8BD:"2%;#):(
!
!
!
!"#$%&'$(( EF.( -"-.,( 23( ,.%"&.1( &)( 5)&F( &F.),.&2#"%( #)/#.-&3( "/1( 5.3&( -,"#&2#.( 2/( &F.( *2.%1( )*( G/)H%.1D.(
<"/"D.:./&( 0&,"&.D';( I.(F"8.( 1.32D/.1( "(:2J& $,.()*( ,.3.",#F( :.&F)1)%)D'( &F"&( #)8.,3(%2&.,"&$,.( ,.82.H=(
#):-","&28.(#"3.63&$1'("/"%'323=("/1( 5.3&(-,"#&2#.3(2/(&F.( 0:",&6>2&'(*2.%1=( 2/(),1.,(&)(-,)-)3.( "/("1.K$"&.(
:)1.%=(H2&F("(3$2&"5%.(K$2#L(D$21.(*),(2:-%.:./&"&2)/(&F"&(:"'(-,)821.("(3)%$&2)/(*),(&F.(1.8.%)-:./&()*(>%$?6
@"-)#"( #"3.( 3&$1';( C*&.,( "/( 2/61.-&F( %2&.,"&$,.( ,.82.H=( H.( -,)-)3.1( &F.( *)%%)H2/D( "3( &F.( :"2/( ,.3.",#F(
K$.3&2)/M( >)$%1( "( 3:",&( #2&'( #):-","&28.( #"3.( 3&$1'( :.&F)1)%)D'( 5.( $3.1( "3( "( L/)H%.1D.( :"/"D.:./&(
3&,"&.D'(*),(1.8.%)-:./&N(C*&.,("(-,.-","&),'(3&"D.(H.(*)#$3.1()/(&F.($-D,"12/D()*("(3:",&(#2&'(1.8.%)-:./&(
:)1.%;( E)( -$&( &F23( :)1.%( "&(H),L( H.( %))L.1( *),( "/1( 1.32D/.1( "( K$2#L( D$21.( &F"&( #"/( 5.( $3.1( "3( "( &))%( *),(
2:-%.:./&2/D(&F.(:)1.%(/":.1(G/)H%.1D.(4,)L.,(O/&.,8./&2)/(<)1.%(PG4O<Q;(EF23(G4O<("/1(&F.(K$2#L(D$21.(
*),( 2:-%.:./&"&2)/( :"'( 5.( 3../( "3( )$,( 3:"%%( #)/&,25$&2)/( &)( &F.( &F.),'( "/1( -,"#&2#.( 2/( &F.( *2.%1;( EF.(
G/)H%.1D.(4,)L.,(O/&.,8./&2)/(<)1.%(H"3(1.32D/.1(&)(2:-,)8.(&F.(/.&H),L3()*(#):-)/./&3(2/("(/.H(H"'("/1(
"(:),.(3$3&"2/"5%.(1.8.%)-:./&;(EF.3.()$&#):.3()*(&F.(#):-","&28.("/"%'323(:"'(5.($3.1("3("(3&",&2/D(-)2/&(
*),(&F.(&,"/3*),:"&2)/()*(>%$?(@"-)#"(2/&)("(0:",&(>2&'(5"3.1()/(&F.(K$2#L(D$21.(H.(1.8.%)-.1;(>%$?(O//)8"&2)/(
>2&'(23("(*2,3&(3&.-(&)H",13(&,"/3*),:2/D(>%$?6@"-)#"(2/&)("(0:",&(>2&'=(HF2#F(#)$%1(5.(1.8.%)-.1(",)$/1(&F.(
.J23&2/D( >%$?( OE( >%$3&.,;( EF.( ,)%.( )*( "( L/)H%.1D.( 5,)L.,( H)$%1( 5.( &)( ./3$,.( &F"&( L/)H%.1D.( )*( &F.(
),D"/2R"&2)/"%(#$%&$,.()*(-,28"&.(*2,:3(#)$%1(5.(F",8.3&.1=(-,)#.33.1("/1(*$,&F.,(&,"/3*.,,.1(&)($/28.,32&2.3;(
O/(&F.2,(&$,/=($/28.,32&2.3(H)$%1("1)-&(&F.(/.H(L/)H%.1D.("/1("--%'(2&(2/(3$#F("(H"'(2/(HF2#F(2&(H2%%(2/*%$./#.(
&F.(/$,&$,.()*(3#2./&23&3;(EF23(H)$%1(#):.("3("(3)%$&2)/(2/(&F.(-,)#.33()*( #%)32/D(&F.(D"-( 5.&H../(L/)H%.1D.(
D./.,"&2)/=(1233.:2/"&2)/("/1(*..15"#L("#&2)/3;(O&(H2%%(%2/L(,.3.",#F(,.3$%&3(H2&F(-)%2#'("/1(-, "#&2#.=("3(H.%%(
"3(:"&#F(3):.(,.3.",#F(-),&*)%2)3(&)(&F.(/..13()*(-)%2#'("/1(-,"#&2#.=(&F.,.*),.(&F.(L/)H%.1D.(5,)L.,(H)$%1(
"#&("3("(#"&"%'3&(2/(&F23(3#./",2);(
(
)*+,-%.#/( L/)H%.1D.( .#)/):'=( L/)H%.1D.( :"/"D.:./&( 3&,"&.D'=( 0:",&( >2&'=( 2/&.%%2D./&( #F"/D.( "D./&3=(
G/)H%.1D.(4,)L.,(O/&.,8./&2)/(<)1.%3;(
!
!
D(),%1-3)<%(**
!
"#$%&'$(&%!&%)#%*+!+,-*!$,'$!Dz.#$#%+!'&%!&%'/!$#0%!+1+$%0+dz!234567!89:97!;<=>!'?@!$,#+!#+!$,%!A%+$!
@%B#?#$#-?!-($!$,%&%7!A($!*,'$!@-%+!#$!&%'//1!+$'?@!B-&C!D,%!EFB-&@!G#H$#-?'&1!%F;/'#?+!"(,."%(&2:.(
3'3&.:!Dz'?1!+1+$%0!#?!*,#H,!$,%!$#0%!'$!*,#H,!-($;($!#+!;&-@(H%@!#+!+#I?#B#H'?$dz<!D,#+!#+!
(+('//1!A%H'(+%!$,%!#?;($!H-&&%+;-?@+!$-!+-0%!%)%?$!#?!$,%!;,1+#H'/!*-&/@7!'?@!$,%!-($;($!,'+!$-!
&%/'$%!$-!$,'$! +'0%!%)%?$<!D,%!/'I!B&-0! #?;($!$#0%!$-!-($;($!$#0%!0(+$! A%!+(BB#H#%?$/1!+0'//!B-&!
'HH%;$'A/%!$#0%/#?%++<!
!
D,%! @%)%/-;0%?$! -B! $,%! +-H#%$1! ,'+! /%@! $-! $,%! ?%%@! B-&! +(+$'#?'A#/#$1<! E?! $,#+! A'+#+7! $,%!
+(+$'#?'A#/#$1! H-?H%;$! H'0%! #?$-! (+%<! E?%! -B! $,%! +-/($#-?+! $,'$! %0%&I%@7! 'B$%&! 0'?1! ;'I%+! -B!
+$&'$%I#%+!*%&%!*&#$$%?7!*'+!$,%!JK34D!H#$1!H-?H%;$<!
!
*
565!7'42&$#!"#8+2&$#!9:;<"=>!?#3+#!@#2&$(+$#!A@B?:@B!CDEF5G'
Q&R&#"2%&.:':S@"$9S'T."7#&;9&'U>"."%<D'G#$V4C82">8'±'U$@"2&8.'B%8@:'G=:<'
F%%G<(.*H%,*:*;':,)*6<)4**
*
3<!L,'$!0%'?#?I!#+!0-&%!'@%M('$%C!!
!
L%! 'I&%%! *#$,! N-&&%+$%&! *,-! @%B#?%+! $,%! +0'&$! H#$1! '+O! '(Dz    
#)::$/2#"&2)/(&.#F/)%)D2.3($-!0'P%!$,%!H&#$#H'/!#?B&'+$&(H$(&%!H-0;-?%?$+!'?@!+%&)#H%+!-B!'!H#$1Q
'@0#?#+$&'$#-?7! %@(H'$#-?7! ,%'/$,H'&%7! ;(A/#H!+'B%$17! &%'/! %+$'$%7! $&'?+;-&$'$#-?7! '?@! ($#/#$#%+! Ȃ!
0-&%!'*'&%7!#?$%&'H$#)%7!'?@!%BB#H#%?$dz!2.RE7!89:9><(
!
     Dz     BB#H#%?$! +1+$%0+! '?@! A%$$%&!
#?B-&0%@! H#$#S%?+<! T-*! /%'@#?I! H#$#%+! ,')%! +$'&$%@! $-! ;(+,! $,#+! H-?H%;$! B(&$,%&dz<! D,%1! '&%!
%F;/-&#?I!,-*! +0'&$!H#$#%+!H'?!'@@!)'/(%!*#$,#?!'! +$&'$%I#H! B&'0%*-&P<!D,#+!*#//!0%'?!0-)#?I!
B&-0!@%;'&$0%?$'/!+-/($#-?+!$-!'!H#$1!*#@%!';;&-'H,7!H&%'$#?I!%H-?-0#%+!-B!+H'/%!'?@!+H-;%!$,'$!
*#//!&%+(/$!#?O!
Q!UH-?-0#H!@%)%/-;0%?$!'?@!$,%!H&%'$#-?!-B!V-A+<!
Q!6&-0-$#?I!&%+-(&H%!%BB#H#%?H1!'?@!0#$#I'$#?I!H/#0'$%!H,'?I%<!
Q!6&-)#@#?I!'!I&%'$%&!;/'H%!$-!/#)%!'?@!*-&P<!
Q!4(??#?I!H#$#%+!0-&%!%BB#H#%?$/1<!!
Q!J(;;-&$#?I!H-00(?#$#%+!23&(;7!89:97!;<=><!
!
Dzǡǡǡ
$%H,?-/-I1!$-!-)%&H-0%!$,%!H,'//%?I%+!B&-0!&';#@!(&A'?#S'$#-?dzǤDzdz!
#+!$,%!H-0A#?%@!(+%!-B!+-B$*'&%!+1+$%0+7!+%&)%&!#?B&'+$&(H$(&%7!?%$*-&P!#?B&'+$&(H$(&%7!'?@!H/#%?$!
@%)#H%+!Q!*,#H,!N-&&%+$%&!H'//+!J0'&$!.-0;($#?I!$%H,?-/-I#%+! Q!$-! A%$$%&! H-??%H$!+%)%?!H&#$#H'/!
H#$1! #?B&'+$&(H$(&%! H-0;-?%?$+! '?@! +%&)#H%+O! H#$1! '@0#?#+$&'$#-?7!%@(H'$#-? 7!,%'/$,H'&%7! ;(A/#H!
+'B%$17!&%'/! %+$'$%7!$&'?+;-&$'$#-?7!'?@!($#/#$#%+<!D,%!H-?H%;$!-B!+0'&$!H#$1!#+!;(+,#?I!$,%!.RE+! #?!
B%@%&'/7!+$'$%7! '?@! /-H'/! I-)%&?0%?$+!'?@!$,%#&! $%H,?-/-I1! $%'0+! $-! B(&$,%&!%)'/('$%!%0%&I#?I!
$%H,?-/-I#%+! '?@! %?I'I%! *#$,! P%1! +$'P%,-/@%&+! *#$,#?! '?@! -($+#@%! -B! $,%#&! -&I'?#S'$#-?+<! D-!
+(HH%++B(//1!@%/#)%&!-?!$,%!+0'&$!H#$1!)#+#-?7!.RE+!+,-(/@!,')%!'!H/%'&!(?@%&+$'?@#?I!-B!*,'$!$,%!
+0'&$!H#$1!#+7!#$+!P%1!@&#)%&+7!'?@!$,%#&!&-/%!#?!#$<!
!
D,#+!#+!-?%!@%B#?#$#-?!(+%@!A1!#?B-&0'$#H+!+;%H#'/#ǯ
$%'0! $-! @%+H&#A%! $,%! ?-$#-?! -B! +0'&$! H#$1<! D,%&%! '&%! 0'?1! @%B#?#$#-?+7! A($! -?%! -B! $,%! 0-+$!
H-0;&%,%?+#)%!#+!$,%!-?%!I#)%?!A1!$,%!'($,-&+!-B!Ǯǯǫ!24-H,%!%$!'/<>;!
L,%?!J$W;,'?%!4-H,%7!T'+,#@!T'A#'?7!X&#+$#'?!X/-%HP!'?@!.'&/-!4'$$#!&%)#%*%@!$,%!/#$%&'$(&%!-?!
$,#+!+(AV%H$7!$,%1!H-?H/(@%@!$,'$!#?!@%B#?#?I!+0'&$!H#$#%+!'!+%&#%+!-B!%/%0%?$+!+,-(/@!A%!$'P%?!#?$-!
'HH-(?$7!'?@!*%!'I&%%!*#$,!$,%0<!!
*
Y<!J0'&$!.#$#%+!H,'&'H$%&#+$#H+((
!
D,%!$%'0!-B!&%+%'&H,%&+!H-0#?I!B&-0!U(&-;%'?!(?#)%&+#$#%+7!V-#?$/1!/%'@#?I!$,%!U(&-;%'?!J0'&$!
.#$#%+!;&-V%H$7!+(II%+$+!$,'$!+0'&$!H#$#%+!H'?!A%!@%B#?%@!Ȃ!'?@!*%!$,#?P!$,%1!H'?!A%!A(#/$!-?!Q!A1!
0%'+(&#?I! $,%! &%/'$#)%! ;&-I&%++! #?! '! ?(0A%&! -B! H'$%I-&#%+7! #?H/(@#?I! +0'&$! I-)%&?'?H%!
2@%0-H&'$#H! ;&-H%++%+! '?@! #?H/(+#-?>7! +0'&$! ;%-;/%! 2%@(H'$#-?>7! +0'&$! %?)#&-?0%?$!
2%?)#&-?0%?$'/! +(+$'#?'A#/#$1Z%?%&I1! H-?+(0;$#-?>7! +0'&$! 0-A#/#$1! 2$&'?+;-&$'$#-?>7! +0'&$!
%H-?-01! 2&%I#-?'/ZI/-A'/! H-0;%$#$#)%?%++>7! '?@! +0'&$! /#)#?I! 2,%'/$,! H'&%7! +-H#'/! +%&)#H%+><!
R??-)'$#-?!H'?!A%!';;/#%@!$-!$,%!@%)%/-;0%?$!-B!+0'&$%&!H#$#%+!#?!'//!-B!$,%!'A-)%!@#0%?+#-?+7!#?!
'!)'&#%$1!-B!*'1+!2J$%#?%&!%$!'/<7!89::7!;<[[><!
!
  Dz  ǡ   ?%-H/'++#H'/! $,%-&#%+! -B! (&A'?!
I&-*$,! '?@! @%)%/-;0%?$dz! 2G#?H%&! %$! '/<7! 89:\7! ;<8[]>! '&%! A'+%@! -?! $,%-&#%+! -B! &%I#-?'/!
H-0;%$#$#)%?%++!$&'?+;-&$!'?@!R.D!%H-?-0#H+7!?'$(&'/!&%+-(&H%+<!
!
"#$#%&'&$(!)*$#'+,-!+$!(.&!/$012&3%&!4,0$0'*| 455!
!"#$%&'(')(*+,-'."/'01'22/',304,5+6'777/%8.89&%&.:;<.8%=>?/@"
L%! @%)%/-;%@! -(&! -*?! @%B#?#$#-?! -B! '! J0'&$! .#$17! *,#H,! -($/#?%+! $,'$7! 'A-)%! A%#?I! '! ,#I,Q
;%&B-&0'?H%!(&A'?!S-?%7!'!JK34D!H#$1!&%;&%+%?$+!'!H-0;/%F!?%$*-&P!-B!H-??%H$#-?+!$,'$!'&%!#?!
H-?+$'?$!0-$#-?!'?@!%)-/($#-?7!#?B/(%?H%@!A1!$,%!H';#$'/!0#F!B/-*!H-??%H$%@!$-!$,%!?%%@+!-B!'?!
#??-)'$#)%! H-00(?#$17! H-0;/%0%?$%@! A1! '?! ';;&-;&#'$%! /%I#+/'$#)%! B&'0%*-&P7! -;%?%@! '?@!
$&'?+;'&%?$7! +(;;-&$%@! A1! ;(A/#HQ! ;&#)'$%! ;'&$?%&+,#;7! *,-+%! @%)%/-;0%?$! #+! @-(A/%@! A1! #$+!
,(0'?!&%+-(&H%!%F;%&$#+%!'?@!$,%!H&%'$#)#$1!B'H$-&!-B!#$+!;-;(/'$#-?<!
!
D&'?+B-&0#?I! ./(VQT';-H'! #?$-! ǮQ  Dz#?)%+$#?I! #?! ,(0'?! '?@! +-H#'/! H';#$'/! '?@!
$&'@#$#-?'/!$&'?+;-&$!'?@!0-@%&?!2R.D>!H-00(?#H'$#-?!#?B&'+$&(H$(&%!B(%/!+(+$'#?'A/%!%H-?-0#H!
@%)%/-;0%?$!'?@!'! ,#I,! M('/#$1! -B! /#B%7!*#$,! '! *#+%! 0'?'I%0%?$!-B!?'$(&'/!&%+-(&H%+7!$,&-(I,!
;'&$#H#;'$-&1!I-)%&?'?H%7!#+!-(&!I-'/dz<!
(
!
/(%0$"1."*B,%G",*D()",#"()<%(*=%1"$!
!
D&'?+B-&0#?I!./(VQT';-H'!#?$-!'!J0'&$Q.#$1!(+#?I!$,%!Y&-P%&!-B!X?-*/%@I%!'+!'!P%1!/%)%&!'?@!'!
?%*! 0-@%/7! #+! $,%! 0'#?! ;'&$! -B! -(&! &%+%'&H,! ;';%&<! D,%! G/)H%.1D.( 4,)L.,( O/&.,8./&2)/( <)1.%(
PG4O<Q! #+! *,'$! *%! H'//! $,%! )'/(%! '@@%@! -B! $,#+! &%+%'&H,! ;';%&^! XYRK! #+! (+%@! $-! #0;&-)%! $,%!
?%$*-&P+!-B!H-0;-?%?$+!#?!'!@#BB%&%?$!*'1!'?@!%?+(&%!#?H&%'+%@!+(+$'#?'A/%!@%)%/-;0%?$<!D,%!
?%*! '&H,#$%H$(&%! $,'$! ./(VQT';-H'! 0'1! @%)%/-;! #?! $,%! ?%F$! +$&'$%I1! *,#H,! H-(/@! $&'?+B-&0! '!
4-0'?!.'+$&-!2-/@!?'0%!T';-H'>!'?@!K%@#%)'/!.#$1!2$,%!$-*?!?'0%!*'+!X/'(+%?A(&I>!#?$-!'!__R!
J0'&$!H#$1!2+%%!N#I(&%!:>!#+!%?'A/%@!A1!'!B%*!%/%0%?$+<!D,%!0'#?!&-/%!-B!$,#+!+$&'$%I1!#+!$'P%?!A1!
$,%! X?-*/%@I%! A&-P%&! Ȃ! '! &-/%! *,#H,! #?)-/)%+! '?! #?$%&$*#?#?I! A%$*%%?! $,%! A%+$! ;&'H$#H%+!
@%)%/-;%@! #?! U(&-;%! 2B&-0! *,#H,! *%! H,--+%!"(F%0A-(&I7! '?@! J-?I@-7! J-($,! X-&%'>! '?@! $,%!
H-?H%;$!-B!X?-*/%@I%!K'?'I%0%?$7!(+%@!$-!H-)%&$!P?-*/%@I%!#?$-!'!;-*%&B(/!$--/!B-&!$&'?+#$#-?7!
@%)%/-;0%?$!'?@!$&'?+B-&0'$#-?<!!
!
!
0123%*45(46-7'*8$3&94:9*;*7$#4-<4=;&%$461$+(4>%1?&$*4=-3%'*#
5
4
!
D,%+%!'&%!;%-;/%7!#@%'+7!?%$*-&P+7!P?-*/%@I%7!;/'??#?I!'?@!)#+#-?+<!"'$%&!#?!$,%!;';%&!$,%1!*#//!
A%! #//(+$&'$%@7! +,-*#?I! ,-*! $,%1! H-??%H$! '?@! #?$%&'H$!#?! $,%! ;&-;-+%@! +$&'$%I1! @&'B$! B-&! ./(VQ
T';-H'<!3!+0'&$!H#$1!#+!'!H-??%H$%@!H#$1<!`(+$!/#P%!$,%!H'+%+!'?'/1S%@7!*,#H,!'&%!A-$,!+#$('$%@!#?!
+$&'$%I#H! /-H'$#-?+7! "(F%0A(&I! '?@! J-?I@-7! '&%! %F$&%0%/1! *%//! @%)%/-;%@! '?@! '@)'?H%@!
#?B&'+$&(H$(&%+7!&%;&%+%?$#?I!0'#?!0-A#/#$1!,(A+!#?!$,%#&!'&%'7!*%!$,#?P!-B!*,'$!#+!';;&-;#'$%!B-&!
-(&!H#$1<!D,'$!#+!'/+-!$&(%!B-&!./(VQT';-H'7!'!H#$1!*,#H,!#+!+'#@!$-!A%!/-H'$%@!#?!)'?$'I%!;-+#$#-?!'?@!
*#//!A%!;'&$!-B!'!B($(&%!@%)%/-;0%?$!+$&'$%I1<!
1
Inspired by David Emanuel Andersson, Åke E Andersson, Charlotta Mellander,
Handbook of Creative Cities
, Edwar Elgar
Publishing Limited, UK, 2011.
56H!7'42&$#!"#8+2&$#!9:;<"=>!?#3+#!@#2&$(+$#!A@B?:@B!CDEF5G'
Q&R&#"2%&.:':S@"$9S'T."7#&;9&'U>"."%<D'G#$V4C82">8'±'U$@"2&8.'B%8@:'G=:<'
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
0123%*4@(4)7-,9*.2*4A%-B*%4C7$*%?*7$1-74D-.*94
!
 Dz$+! $,'$!+$#0(/'$%!@#BB%&%?H%!
'?@!#?H&%'+%!$,%!?(0A%&!-B!%F$%&?'/!%FH,'?I%+!A($!#?!'!B-H(+%@!*'17!+#0(/'$#?I!#??-)'$#-?!*,#/%!
H&%'$#?I!0-0%?$(0!B-&!'H$#-?dz!2J-(+'7!899[><!U)%?!#B!P?-*/%@I%!A&-P%&'I%!#+!?-$!'!*%//Q@%B#?%@!
$%&0!1%$7!V(+$!'+!$,%!+0'&$!H#$1!H-?H%;$7!#$!H'?!A%!';;/#%@!-?!'!)'&#%$1!-B!B#%/@+!'?@!+#$('$#-?+<!D,(+7!
'!A&-'@%&!@%B#?#$#-?!*-(/@!%0;,'+#S%!$,'$!P?-*/%@I%!A&-P%&'I%!#+!Dz
*%//! A%1-?@! $,%! +$'?@'&@! ?-$#-?! -B! $&'?+B%&! '+! '! H-//%H$#-?! -B! 'H$#)#$#%+! $,'$! ,%/;+! 0-)%!
#?B-&0'$#-?!B&-0!'!+-(&H%!$-!'!&%H#;#%?$<!Y&-P%&#?I!B-H(+%+!-?!#@%?$#B1#?I!'?@!A&#?I#?I!$-I%$,%&!
;%-;/%!#?$%&%+$%@!#?!'?!#++(%7!;%-;/%!*,-!H'?!,%/;!%'H,!-$,%&!@%)%/-;!%)#@%?H%QA'+%@!+-/($#-?+<!
R$!,%/;+!A(#/@!&%/'$#-?+,#;+!'?@!?%$*-&P+!B-&!+,'&#?I!%F#+$#?I!&%+%'&H,!'?@!#@%'+!'?@!+$#0(/'$#?I!
?%*!*-&Pdz!2.aJ4N7!89::7!;<::><!
!
a%&%! '&%! 0-&%! B(?H$#-?+! $,'$! '! P?-*/%@I%! A&-P%&! H'?! ,')%7! '?@! $,%+%! B(?H$#-?+! '&%! A%#?I!
#//(+$&'$%@!$,&-(I,!$,%!0'#?!+$&'$%I#%+!-B!'!P?-*/%@I%!A&-P%&!2XY><(
!
3<!L,'$!'&%!$,%!0'#?!B(?H$#-?+!-B!'!X?-*/%@I%!Y&-P%&!C!
!
D,%&%! '&%! 0-&%! B(?H$#-?+! $,'$! '! P?-*/%@I%! A&-P%&! H'?! ,')%7! '?@! $,%+%! B(?H$#-?+! '&%! A%#?I!
#//(+$&'$%@!$,&-(I,!$,%!0'#?!+$&'$%I#%+!-B!'!P?-*/%@I%!A&-P%&O*
4
O/*),:M4D,%!#?$%?$!-B!#?B-&0#?I!#+!$-!@#++%0#?'$%!H-?$%?$^!#$!#+!0-+$/1!&%/'$%@!$-! (?#@#&%H$#-?'/!
P?-*/%@I%! $&'?+B%&<! R?B-&0'$#-?! 0'1! A%! @%/#)%&%@! #?! 0'?1! B-&0+7! /#P%! '! B'H$! +,%%$7! $,'$! $,%!
&%H#;#%?$!*#//!A%!'A/%!$-!(?@%&+$'?@!#$+!H-?$%?$7!%)'/('$%!*,'$!'H$#-?+!'&%!&%M(#&%@!'+!'!&%+(/$!-B!
$,'$!(?@%&+$'?@#?I7!'?@!$,%?!@%H#@%!*,%$,%&!-&! ?-$!$-!$'P%!$,-+%!'H$#-?+<!E$,%&!%F'0;/%+!0'1!
#?H/(@%!&%+%'&H,!+1?-;+%+7!*%A!;-&$'/+7!@'$'A'+%+7!%?@Ǧ-BǦ;&-V%H$!+%0#?'&+!2X'&?%&7!89:97!;;<:\Q
:b><
8
!
!
.-?+(/$!'?@!/#?P*2X'&?%&7!89:97!;;<:\Q:b>O!D,#+!+$&'$%I1!&%B%&+!$-!/#?P#?I!%F;%&$#+%!$-!?%%@+!#?!'!
+;%H#B#H!'&%'!2%<I<!'!;'&$#H(/'&!;-/#H1!'&%'7!,%/;#?I!;-/#H10'P%&+!'@@&%++!'!+;%H#B#H!;-/#H1!#++(%!A1!
2
Adapted after Sandra Karner,
op. cit
., pp. 14-15, and Louise Shaxson, Elin Gwyn,
Developing a strategy for knowledge
translation and brok er ing in public poli cy
m
aking
, Knowledge Translation and Brokering workshop, Montreal, Canada, 2010,
p. 3. Retrieved from http://r4d.dfid.gov.uk/PDF/Publications/2010-11-16_knowledge-translation-and-brokering.pdf.
"#$#%&'&$(!)*$#'+,-!+$!(.&!/$012&3%&!4,0$0'*| 457!
!"#$%&'(')(*+,-'."/'01'22/',304,5+6'777/%8.89&%&.:;<.8%=>?/@"
+%%P#?I!-($!$,%!?%H%++'&1!%F;%&$+><!D,%!A&-P%&!0'1!A%!$,%!#?$%&0%@#'&17!*,-!#+!'A/%!$-!#@%?$#B1!
$,%!%F;%&$#+%!?%H%++'&1!$-!,%/;!+-/)%!$,%!;&-A/%07!'?@!*,-!%+$'A/#+,%+!'!H-??%H$#-?<!`'H-A+-?!%$!
'/<!#@%?$#B#%@!$,%!B-//-*#?I!B'H$-&+!'+!A%#?I!&%/%)'?$!B-&!$,%!+(HH%++!-B!+(H,!'!H-?+(/$'?H1!;&-H%++O!
$,%!H-?+(/$'?$!+,-(/@! A%!;%&H%#)%@!'+!'HH%++#A/%7!-&I'?#+%@7!%F;%&$! '?@!H&%@#A/%7!'?@!$,%!H/#%?$!
+,-(/@!A%!-;%?Q0#?@%@!H-00(?#H'$#)%!'?@!H-00#$$%@!$-!$,%!H-?+(/$#?I!;&-H%++<!3A-)%!'//7!$,%!
H/#%?$!+,-(/@! A%!%?I'I%@!#?! $,%!P?-*/%@I%!I%?%&'$#-?7!+#?H%!$,#+!*#//! ,')%!'!;-+#$#)%!#0;'H$!-?!
$,%!($#/#+'$#-?!'?@!'HH%;$'?H%!-B!$,%!&%H-00%?@'$#-?+<!2T-&'!%$!'/<7!899b7!;;<88cQ=8:><!UF'0;/%+!
#?H/(@%!;&-V%H$!-&!;&-I&'00%!'@)#+-&1!H-00#$$%%+7!B-H(+!I&-(;+7!%$H<!!
(
<"&#F:"L.,42X'&?%&7!89:97!;;<:\Q:b>O4K'$H,0'P#?I!A&#?I+!$-I%$,%&!#?@#)#@('/+! *,-! H'?! A%!'!
B'H$-&!$-!'?!%?)#+'I%@!'H$#-?<!D,#+!H-?H%;$!&%B%&+!$-!0'$H,#?I!P?-*Q,-*!$-!?%%@+!'H&-++!#++(%+!
'?@!+(AV%H$!0'$$%&+7!,%/;#?I!;-/#H10'P%&+!2-&!-$,%&!P?-*/%@I%!(+%&+>!$,#?P!0-&%!I%?%&'//1!'A-($!
'!$-;#H7!B#?@#?I!%F;%&$+!*#$,!&%/%)'?$!P?-*/%@I%!#?!'?-$,%&!B#%/@7!,%/;#?I!$,%0!$-!H-0%!(;!*#$,!'!
+$&'$%I#H!+(00'&1!$-!'@@&%++!$,%!@%$'#/+!-B!$,%!#++(%<!D,&-(I,!A&-P%&'I%!$,%!'H$-&+!'&%!A&-(I,$!
$-I%$,%&^!$,%!A&-P%&!?%%@+!$-!#@%?$#B1!*,'$!%F;%&$#+%!#+!?%%@%@7!'?@!*,-!H'?!;&-)#@%!#$!#?!-&@%&!
ǤDz
-?%!,'?@!&%+%'&H,%&+!'&%! -B$%?! ?-$! '*'&%! 'A-($!$,%!&%/%)'?H%!-B! &%+%'&H,! &%+(/$+! B-&! @%H#+#-?!
0'P%&+!2-&!-$,%&! ;-$%?$#'/!P?-*/%@I%!(+%&+>7!'?@! $,'$! -?!$,%!-$,%&!,'?@!@%H#+#-?!0'P%&+!0'1!
?-$!dA%!-&#%?$%@!$-*'&@!$,%!+H#%?$#B#H!%?)#&-?0%?$edz!2K'I?(+S%*+P#!%$!'/<7!89:97!;<=:><!UF'0;/%+!
#?H/(@%!G%;'&$0%?$'/!%F;%&$!'@)#+-&1!H-00#$$%%+7!I%?%&'/!H-?B%&%?H%+7!(?#)%&+#$1!#?$%&?+,#;+!#?!
I-)%&?0%?$7!0';;#?I!$,%!%)#@%?H%!A'+%!B-&!'?!#++(%<!
(
+/D"D.1S( *)#$3.1( #))-.,"&2)/M4U?I'I#?I! '+! '! B-&0! -B! A&-P%&#?I! #?)-/)%+! $,%! ;'&$1! *,-! #+!
&%+;-?+#A/%! B-&! '@@&%++#?I! $,%! ;&-A/%0! %+$'A/#+,#?I! '?@! #0;/%0%?$#?I! '! ;&-H%++! -B! #?)-/)#?I!
-$,%&+! *#$,! +'/#%?$! %F;%&$#+%<! D,%! -$,%&+! H-?$&#A($%! $,%#&! +(A+$'?$#)%! %F;%&$#+%! -?! '?! %M('//1!
(+%B(/!A'+#+!$,&-(I,-($!$,%!;&-H%++!-B!'@@&%++#?I!$,%!;&-A/%0<!D,%!A&-P%&!0'1!;/'1!$,%!&-/%!-B!'!
H-??%H$-&! '?@! B'H#/#$'$-&<! D,%! '++(0;$#-?! #+! $,'$! $,%! 0%'?#?I! -B! $,%!H#&H(0+$'?H%+7! ;-$%?$#'/!
@#&%H$#-?+!-B!'H$#-?!'?@!$,%#&!#0;/#H'$#-?+!&%M(#&%!$,%!@%H#+#-?!0'P%&2+>!#?)-/)%@!$-!#?$%&'H$!*#$,!
#?@#)#@('/+!*,-!,')%!H-?$&'@#H$-&1!'?@!H-0;/%0%?$'&1!%F;%&$#+%<!UF'0;/%+!#?H/(@%!H-?$&'H$%@!
&%+%'&H,!;&-I&'00%+7!%/%H$&-?#H!P?-*/%@I%!?%$*-&P+7!*-&P#?I!I&-(;+!2X'&?%&7!89:97!;;<:\Q:b><!
4
>))-.,"&2)/(S(0&,"&.D2#(#))-.,"&2)/M4H--;%&'$#-?!&%M(#&%+!'//!;'&$#H#;'?$+!#?!0($('//1!@%)%/-;#?I!
'! ;&-H%++! $,&-(I,! *,#H,! $,%1! H-(/@! #?$%&'H$! *#$,! -?%! '?-$,%&7! '?@! $-! ?%I-$#'$%! '?@! &%'H,! '!
H-00-?!;&-A/%0!2M(%+$#-?>!$-!A%! '@@&%++%@<! .-//'A-&'$#-?!&%M(#&%+! $,'$!$,-+%!%?I'I%@!$,#?P!
A%1-?@!;&-)#@#?I!$,%#&!P?-*/%@I%7!'?@!$,'$!$,%1!&%B/%H$!-?!,-*!#$!H'?!;&-@(H$#)%/1!'?@!(+%B(//1!
A%! ;($! $-I%$,%&! *#$,! $,%! %F;%&$#+%! -B! -$,%&+7! -?! ,-*! $-! /%?I$,%?! '?@! %F$%?@! $,%! H--;%&'$#)%!
;&-H%++7!+$&%?I$,%?!&%/'$#-?+,#;+!'?@!0-)%!-?!$-!'!+#$('$#-?!*,%&%!'//!+#@%+!V-#?$/1!?%I-$#'$%!$,%!
M(%+$#-?+! $-! A%! '+P%@<! <! L,#/%! H-Q-;%&'$-&+! A&#?I! $,%#&! %F;%&$#+%7! $,%1! 0(+$! *-&P! '+! $%'0!
0%0A%&+!$-! '@@&%++! $,%! H-0;/%F! #++(%!'$! ,'?@<! UF'0;/%+! #?H/(@%! V-#?$!'I&%%0%?$+!*,%&%! $,%!
%0;,'+#+!#+!-?! %M('/#$1! #?!$,%! &%/'$#-?+,#;+! A%$*%%?! 'H$-&+7! V-#?$!'I&%%0%?$+7!H-00(?#$#%+!-B!
;&'H$#H%!2.-6>!2X'&?%&7!89:97!;;<:\Q:b><!
4
4$2%1(#"-"#2&'S(4$2%12/D(3$3&"2/"5%.(2/3&2&$&2)/3M4.';'H#$1!A(#/@#?I!#+!A&-'@/1!@%B#?%@!'+!I&-*#?I!
$,%!'A#/#$1!-B!;%-;/%!'?@!#?+$#$($#-?+!$-!@-!*,'$!#+!%F;%H$%@!-B!$,%0!$-!@-<!R?!$,%!XY!+%?+%7!$-!A(#/@!
H';'H#$1!;&%+(0%+!$,'$!Dz&.,"#&2)/("/1(/.D)&2"&.(3$53&"/#.(H2&F(
2/&./&()*("11,.332/D(:$%&2-%.(12:./32)/3()*("(-)%2#'(-,)5%.:(HF2%.(#)/321.,2/D(HF"&(#"/(5.(%.",/.1(
*,):(1)2/D(3)(&F"&(23("--%2#"5%.(&)(2:-%2#"&2)/3()*(&F.(233$.=(*$&$,.(3#./",2)3("/1(,.%"&.1(#)/#.,/3dz(
2K#H,'%/+7! 89::7! ;<ccf>;(L,#/%! 2/*),:2/D7! #)/3$%&2/D( '?@! :"&#F2/D(&%M(#&%! M(#$%! '! /-*! /%)%/! -B!
#?)-/)%0%?$7!./D"D2/D7!#))-.,"&2/D('?@!#"-"#2&'(5$2%12/D(?%%@!,#I,%&!/%)%/+!-B!%?I'I%0%?$!'?@!
;%&+-?'/!#?$%&'H$#-?!#?!-&@%&!$-!A%!%BB%H$#)%<!D,%&%B-&%7!@%%;%?#?I!$,%!H--;%&'$#)%!&%/'$#-?+,#;!$-!
$,%! %F$%?$! $,'$! '//! ;'&$#%+! V-#?$/1! B&'0%! $,%! #++(%! '?@! A&-'@%?#?I! -&I'?#S'$#-?'/! H';'H#$1! -B!
#?+$#$($#-?+! $-! &%+;-?@! $-! +%)%&'/! #++(%+! +#0(/$'?%-(+/1! '&%! '! 0(+$<! UF'0;/%+! #?H/(@%! H-Q
56I!7'42&$#!"#8+2&$#!9:;<"=>!?#3+#!@#2&$(+$#!A@B?:@B!CDEF5G'
Q&R&#"2%&.:':S@"$9S'T."7#&;9&'U>"."%<D'G#$V4C82">8'±'U$@"2&8.'B%8@:'G=:<'
0'?'I%0%?$! '&&'?I%0%?$+7! /-H'/! %?$%&;&#+%! ;'&$?%&+,#;+7! '?@! +%/BQ+(+$'#?#?I! '++-H#'$#-?!
2X'&?%&7!89:97!;;<:\Q:b><!
!
!
Y<!a-*!@-%+!#$!*-&PC!
*
./(V!R??-)'$#-?!.#$1!#+!;/'??%@!'+! '! B#&+$!+$%;!B-&!$&'?+B-&0#?I!./(VQT';-H'!#?$-!'!J0'&$!.#$1<!R$!
*#//! A%! @%)%/-;%@! '&-(?@! $,%! %F#+$#?I! ./(V! RD! ./(+$%&! *,#H,! &%;&%+%?$+! '?! '++-H#'$#-?! -B!
-&I'?#S'$#-?+! 'H$#)%! #?! $,%! #?B-&0'$#-?!$%H,?-/-I1! B#%/@7! H-0;&#+#?I! +-B$*'&%! @%)%/-;%&+! '?@!
+-/($#-?!;&-)#@%&+7!'H'@%0#H!#?+$#$($#-?+7!;(A/#H!A-@#%+!'?@!-$,%&!H'$'/1+$!-&I'?#S'$#-?+!2./(V!RD7!
ʹͲͳ͵ȌǤ      Dz!'(+;#H#-(+! %H-+1+$%0! B-&! $,%! @%)%/-;0%?$! '?@!
H-00%&H#'/#S'$#-?!-B!#??-)'$#)%7!)'/(%Q'@@#?I!+-B$*'&%!+%&)#H%+!'?@!;&-@(H$+7!$,&-(I,O!
Q!+$&-?I!H--;%&'$#-?!A%$*%%?!$,%!H/(+$%&!0%0A%&+7!
Q!%FH,'?I%!-B!P?-*/%@I%!'?@!#@%'+7!
Q!;(A/#HQ;&#)'$%!;'&$?%&+,#;7!'?@!
Q!B-+$%&#?I!-B! &%+%'&H,! Q! B-&!$,%!A%?%B#$! -B! '//! H/(+$%&!%?$#$#%+!'?@!*#$,!#0;'H$!-?! $,%! +-H#%$1! '$!
/'&I%dz<!2./(V!RD7!89:=><!
!
D,'?P+!$-!#$+!H-?$#?(-(+!I&-*$,7!./(VQT';-H'!*'+!@%$%&0#?%@!$-!A%!'?!-;;-&$(?%!%?)#&-?0%?$!
B-&!$,%!-&I'?#H!%0%&I%?H%!-B!$,%!H/(+$%&<!R?! $,#+! H-?$%F$7!=:!-&I'?#S'$#-?+!#?!./(V!H-(?$1! V-#?%@!
$,%#&!%BB-&$+!$-! %BB%H$#)%/1!'@@&%++!H,'//%?I%+!#?!'&%'+!+(H,! '+! ,(0'?! &%+-(&H%+7!4gG7!A(+#?%++!
#?B&'+$&(H$(&%7!B#?'?H#?I!'?@!0'&P%$#?I!g!+'/%+7!'#0#?I!$-!$'P%!$,%!/%';!$-!'!?%F$!/%)%/!-B!+-B$*'&%!
@%)%/-;0%?$!'?@!H-00%&H#'/#S'$#-?!H';'A#/#$#%+<*
!
D,%! H/(+$%&! #+! B-&0'//1! %+$'A/#+,%@! '+! '! ?-?QI-)%&?0%?$'/! -&I'?#S'$#-?7! *#$,! $,%! B-//-*#?I!
H-0;-+#$#-?! -B! $,%!B-(?@#?I! 0%0A%&+O!8=! ;&#)'$%/1! -*?%@! H-0;'?#%+7! 8! (?#)%&+#$#%+7! ]! ;(A/#H!
#?+$#$($#-?+!'?@!H'$'/1+$!-&I'?#S'$#-?+!2./(V!RD7!89:=><!
!
./(V!R??-)'$#-?!.#$1! #+! '?!(&A'?!@%)%/-;0%?$!;&-V%H$! '?@! *#//! H%?$%&!$,%!/'&I%+$! ?(0A%&! -B! RD!
H-0;'?#%+!#?!$,%! &%I#-?7! *,#H,! $,&-(I,!$,%!H-0;/%0%?$'&1!+%&)#H%+!#$! #?$%I&'$%+7! *#//!H&%'$%!'!
?(0A%&!-B!V-A+7!*#$,!'!&%I#-?'/!'+!*%//!'+!'?!#?$%&?'$#-?'/!#0;'H$<!D,#+!0#F!-B!B(?H$#-?+!*#//!%?+(&%!
+(+$'#?'A/%!@%)%/-;0%?$!B-&!$,%!&%I#-?!'?@!*#//!A&#?I!'!+%&#%+!-B!%H-?-0#H!'?@!+-H#'/!A%?%B#$+<!
*
*
I<(:$*3%(3$-J<%(J*
!
ǡǯ!&-/%!#$!$-!
?(&$(&%! '?@! A(#/$! &%/'$#-?+,#;+! $-! +(+$'#?! $,%! B/-*! -B! #?B-&0'$#-?! A%$*%%?! &%+%'&H,%&+! '?@!
@%H#+#-?!0'P%&+!-?!-?%!,'?@7!'?@!'0-?I!$,%!-&I'?#S'$#-?'/!/'1%&+!-B!$,%!+-H#%$17!-?!'?-$,%&<!D,%!
P?-*/%@I%!A&-P%&!#+!?-$!-?/1!'!+-H#'/!0%'?+7!#$+!&%'+-?!B-&!A%#?I!#+!$-!%?+(&%!$,'$!$,%!$&'?+B%&&%@!
P?-*/%@I%!#+!A'+%@!-?!+-/#@!&%+%'&H,!'?@!$,'$!#$!#+!')'#/'A/%!B-&!@%H#+#-?!0'P%&+7!'?@!#$+!$'&I%$!#+!
$-! %?+(&%! $,'$! $,%! %?@! &%+(/$! *#//!H-?+#+$! -B! '! ;&-@(H$#)%! H,'?I%<! D,%! P?-*/%@I%! A&-P%&! 0(+$!
%?+(&%!$,'$!&F.(*)$,(D)"%3()*(L/)H%.1D.(.J#F"/D.!'&%!B-//-*%@!'+!'!M(#HP!I(#@%!B-&!/-H'/!-BB#H%&+O!
Q!$-!B'H#/#$'$%!%BB%H$#)%!&%+%'&H,!H--;%&'$#-?^!
Q!$-!I(#@%!$,%!+$&'$%I#H!@#&%H$#-?!-B! $,%!-&I'?#S'$#-?!Q! &%+%'&H,Q&%/'$%@!#++(%+! H,'?I%! @'#/1! '?@!
P%%;#?I!(;!$-!@'$%!#+!'!0(+$^!
Q!$-!%?,'?H%!H-00(?#H'$#-?!?%$*-&P+^!
Q!$-!+(;;-&$!%BB%H$#)%!@#++%0#?'$#-?!'?@!(;$'P%!-B!?%*!P?-*/%@I%<!
!
3! P?-*/%@I%! A&-P%&! ,'+! 0(/$#;/%! $1;%+! -B! ;-*%&7! +(H,! '+! /%I'/! '($,-&#$17! %F;%&$7! &%B%&%?$7!
?%$*-&P7!&%/'$#-?'/!'?@!H'$'/1$#H'//17!*,#H,!;&-)#@%!'?!'?+*%&!$-!-(&!%F;%H$'$#-?+!&%I'&@#?I!$,%!
$&'?+B-&0'$#-?!-B!$,%!H-00(?#$1!'+!'!(?#$<!D,%&%B-&%7!#$!H'?!#?B/(%?H%!$,%!H-00(?#$1!$,'$!(+%+!#$+!
"#$#%&'&$(!)*$#'+,-!+$!(.&!/$012&3%&!4,0$0'*| 459!
!"#$%&'(')(*+,-'."/'01'22/',304,5+6'777/%8.89&%&.:;<.8%=>?/@"
+%&)#H%+!#?! @#BB%&%?$!*'1+<!R?!$,%!./(VQT';-H'!H'+%7!$,%!P?-*/%@I%!A&-P%&!H'?!*-&P!'+!'!*'1!-B!
A&#?I#?I!$-I%$,%&!'//!$,%!'H$-&+!'&-(?@!$,%!RD!H/(+$%&!'?@!H-??%H$!$,%0!*#$,!$,%!+-H#%$1!'+!'!*,-/%<!
!
J-7!$,%!%@(H'$#-?!+1+$%0!2$,%!'H'@%0#H!B#%/@>!/'HP+!$,%!$--/!P#$!?%H%++'&1!B-&!@%)%/-;0%?$!#?!-&@%&!
$-!H&%'$%!'!JH#%?$#+$!6'&P7!+(H,!'+!'!.-00(?#$1!-B!&%+%'&H,!'&%'!-&!'!P?-*/%@I%!H/(+$%&<!
!
!
0123%*4E(4)ACD4174693FGH&8-'&4=;&%$461$+4D17.4D&84
4
3!+-/($#-?!0#I,$!&%+(/$!B&-0!$,%!;'&$?%&+,#;!*#$,!$,%!;&#)'$%!+%H$-&<!3!P?-*/%@I%!A&-P%&!*-(/@!
'H$! '+! $,%! 0%'?+! A1! *,#H,! P?-*/%@I%! #?! $,%! -&I'?#S'$#-?'/! H(/$(&%! -B! ;&#)'$%! B#&0+! H-(/@! A%!
,'&)%+$%@7! ;&-H%++%@! '?@! B(&$,%&! $&'?+B%&&%@! $-! (?#)%&+#$#%+<! R?! $,%#&! $(&?7!(?#)%&+#$#%+! *-(/@!
'@-;$! $,%! ?%*! P?-*/%@I%! '?@! ';;/1! #$!# ?!+(H,! '! *'1! #?! *,#H,! #$! *#//! #?B/(%?H%! $,%! ?(&$(&%! -B!
+H#%?$#+$+<!!
!
D,#+!*-(/@!H-0%!'+!'!+-/($#-?!#?!$,%!;&-H%++!-B!H/-+#?I!$,%!I';!A%$*%%?!P?-*/%@I%!'?@!'H$#-?7!
'?@!*#//!/#?P!&%+%'&H,!&%+(/$+!$-!;-/#H1!'?@!;&'H$#H%7!'+!*%//!'+!0'$H,!+-0%!&%+%'&H,!;-&$B-/#-+!$-!
$,%!?%%@+! -B!;-/#H1!'?@!;&'H$#H%7!$,%&%B-&%!$,%!P?-*/%@I%!A&-P%&!*-(/@!'H$!'+!'!#"&"%'3&!#?!$,#+!
+H%?'&#-!2J%%!N#I(&%!=><!L,1!'&%!$,%!P?-*/%@I%!A'?P!'?@!$,%!P?-*/%@I%!A&-P%&!(+%B(/!B-&!./(VQ
ǯǫ!
!
Q!D,%!P?-*/%@I%!A&-P%&!,'+!'HH%++!$-!$,%!P?-*/%@I%!A'?P!*,%&%!'//!$,%!#?B-&0'$#-?!H-0#?I!B&-0!
'//! $,%! %H-?-0#H! +%H$-&+! #+! +$-&%@<! D,(+7! B-&! %F'0;/%7! #+! ,'+! $,%! %F;%&$#+%! $-! 0'P%! $,%! ;&-;%&!
H-&&%/'$#-?!A%$*%%?!0'&P%$! @%0'?@! '?@! %@(H'$#-?'/!+(;;/1<!D,#+!#+!;-++#A/%!A%H'(+%!A-$,!$,%!
;&#)'$%!%?)#&-?0%?$!'?@!'H'@%0#H!B#%/@!+$-&%!$,%#&!#?B-&0'$#-?!#?$-!$,%!P?-*/%@I%!A'?P<!
!
Q!    ǯ QA'+%7! #$! ,'+! #?B-&0'$#-?! &%I'&@#?I! $,%! M('/#B#%@! ,(0'?!
&%+-(&H%+7!#$!H'?!@%)%/-;!'!*-&P#?I! B-&H%! 0'&P%$! ;/'?7! $,&-(I,! *,#H,! #$! H'?!0'P%!+(II%+$#-?+!
&%I'&@#?I!$,%!,(0'?!&%+-(&H%!@%0'?@!-B!$,%!;'&$?%&!H-0;'?#%+<!
!
Q!G%)%/-;#?I!$,%!,(0'?!'?@!+-H#'/!H';#$'/!Ȃ!,(0'?!&%+-(&H%!@'$'QA'+%!H'?!A%!%/'A-&'$%@7!'?@!+-!
$,%!#?B-&0'$#-?!B-&!'//!;-$%?$#'/!P?-*/%@I%!(+%&+!*-(/@!A%!I'$,%&%@!#?!-?%!;/'H%!'?@!A%!')'#/'A/%!
'$!'//!$#0%+<!
!
5HE!7'42&$#!"#8+2&$#!9:;<"=>!?#3+#!@#2&$(+$#!A@B?:@B!CDEF5G'
Q&R&#"2%&.:':S@"$9S'T."7#&;9&'U>"."%<D'G#$V4C82">8'±'U$@"2&8.'B%8@:'G=:<'
Q!X?-*/%@I%!;&-)#@%@!A1!&%+%'&H,!*-(/@!A%!%'+#%&!$-!'HH%++7!'?@!#?!$,#+!+%?+%7!'?!#?$%&%+$%@!;'&$1!
$,'$!?%%@+! %F;%&$#+%! B-&! '! +;%H#B#H! $-;#H! H'?!H-?$'H$! $,%! P?-*/%@I%!A&-P%&!'?@! $,%! P?-*/%@I%!
A'?P<!
!
Q!a')#?I!P?-*/%@I%7!'?@!$,%&%B-&%!%F;%&$#+%7!I'$,%&%@!#?! -?%! ;/'H%! 0'P%+! #$! %'+#%&!'?@7!'$!$,%!
+'0%!$#0%7!;-++#A/%!B-&!%F;%&$+!#?!$,%!'H'@%0#H!B#%/@!$-!-BB%&!+(II%+$#-?+!'?@!A%!0-&%!#?)-/)%@!#?!
$,%!/-H'/!'@0#?#+$&'$#-?!'H$#)#$#%+!2A1!-BB%&#?I!H-?+(/$'?H1><!
!
X?-*/%@I%!A&-P%&+!H'?!%?'A/%!#??-)'$#-?!A%H'(+%!$,%1!,')%!'HH%++!$-!P?-*/%@I%!I'$,%&%@!B&-0!
)'&#-(+! $%&&#$-&#%+<! Y%+#@%! $,#+7! $,%1! +,-(/@! #?H&%'+%! $,%! '0-(?$! -B! P?-*/%@I%! A1! 0'P#?I!
H-??%H$#-?!*#$,!'!*#@%!&'?I%!-B!#?@(+$&#%+!A1!'HH%;$#?I!$-!*-&P!-?!)'&#-(+!;&-A/%0+!'?@!B#?@#?I!
'/$%&?'$#)%!'?+*%&+!B-&!$,%#&!;&%)#-(+!+-/($#-?+<!!
!
X?-*/%@I%!@#+$&#A($#-?!H'?!A%!$,%!0-+$!+%?+#$#)%!'+;%H$!-B!$,%!P?-*/%@I%!0'?'I%0%?$!;&'H$#H%7!
'?@! '! )%&1! #0;-&$'?$! -?%<! G'$'! #+! $(&?%@! #?$-! #?B-&0'$#-?! '?@! #?! #$+! $(&?! #$! #+! $(&?%@! #?$-!
P?-*/%@I%<!Y-$,!#?@#)#@('/+!'?@!#?+$#$($#-?+!-&!-&I'?#S'$#-?+!;-++%++!P?-*/%@I%<!3?@!#$!#+!$,%#&!
Dzdz<!Y($7!#?!-&@%&!$-!@#+$&#A($%!#$7!*%!?%%@!$-!
,')%!'?!';;&-;&#'$%!#?B&'+$&(H$(&%^!*%!?%%@!H-??%H$#-?+!'?@!$,%&%B-&%!+-H#'/!?%$*-&P+<!3?@!,%&%!
#+!*,%&%!$,%!P?-*/%@I%!A&-P%&!+$%;+!#?<!
!!
X?-*/%@I%! A&-P%&#?I! #+! '! H-?H%;$! $,'$! &%I'&@+! ;%-;/%! '?@! 0'P%+! ;-++#A/%! $,%! H&%'$#-?! -B!
;&-@(H$#)%!'?@!@1?'0#H!&%/'$#-?+,#;+<!X?-*/%@I%!A&-P%&#?I!#?)-/)%+!$,%!?(&$(&%!-B!&%/'$#-?+,#;+!
$,'$! *-(/@! B'H#/#$'$%! $,%! 0-)%0%?$! -B! #@%'+<! D,#+! ;&-H%++! &%M(#&%+! %F;%&$+! *,-! H'?! /#?P! $,%!
'H'@%0#H!*-&/@!*#$,!$,%! *-&/@! -B! @%H#+#-?Q0'P%&+7!;-/#H1!+%$$%&+!'?@!&%+%'&H,%&+<!X?-*/%@I%!
A&-P%&#?I!-BB%&+!'!;'$,!$-!#0;&-)%0%?$!B-&!%)%&1!B#%/@<!R$!;&-)#@%+!$,%!;-++#A#/#$1!-B!H';#$'/#S#?I!
-?!&%+%'&H,!'?@!@%)%/-;0%?$!*#$,!'!)#+#-?!#?!-&@%&!$-!'H,#%)%!&%@%)%/-;0%?$!+(;;-&$%@!0'#?/1!
A1!$,%!')'#/'A/%!P?-*/%@I%<!
*
*
@"H","(3"J*
!
3?@%&++-?7!G<U<7!3?@%&++-?7!3<U<7!'?@!K%//'?@%&7!.<!289::><!T"/15))L()*(>,."&28.(>2&2.3<!"-?@-?O!U@*'&!
U/I'&!6(A/#+,#?I!"#0#$%@<!
3456!289:9><!0:",&(>2&2.3;(E,"/3*),:2/D(&F.(U93&(#./&$,'(#2&'(82"(&F.(#,."&28.($3.()*(&.#F/)%)D'7!=<!
.aJ4N!289::><!D,%!D,#&@!.-00(?#$1O!X?-*/%@I%!Y&-P%&+7!4%+%'&H,7!'?@!6-/#H1<!R?!J<!X'&?%&7!a<!
4-,&'H,%&7!Y<!Y-HP7!N<!a-%P+$&'7!'?@!a<!K-+H,#$S<!G/)H%.1D.(4,)L.,"D.(2/(>)::$/2&2.3()*(V,"#&2#.!
2;;<:\Q:b><!J%)%?$,!N&'0%*-&P!6&-I&'00%7!b<!4%$&#%)%@!B&-0!
,$$;OZZ***<B--@/#?P+H-00(?#$1<?%$ZB#/%'@0#?Z@-H(0%?$+Z.-00-?Q
H-?$%?$+Z;(A/#H'$#-?+ZG8<:hJ1?$,%+#+h&%;-&$hG43NDh(;/-'@a6hK'&H,89:8<;@B<!
>%$?(OE<!4%$&#%)%@!B&-0!,$$;OZZ***<H/(V#$<&-Z%?Z'A-($Z<!
G#?H%&7!R<7!K#@#//#7!3<7!'?@!X(H(P7!a<!289:\><!V,)D,.33(2/(0$3&"2/"5%.(+/.,D'(E.#F/)%)D2.3!RR<!Y%&/#?O!J;&#?I%&<!
`'H-A+-?7!T<7!Y($$%&#//%7!G<7!'?@!i-%&#?I7!6<!2899b><!.-?+(/$#?I!'+!'!J$&'$%I1!B-&!X?-*/%@I%!D&'?+B%&<!R?!EF.(
<2%5"/L(W$",&.,%'=![=28>7!8ccQ=8:<!
K'I?(+S%*+P#7!6<7!J-@-0P-)'7!X<7!J/-A7!3<7!K(&-7!K<7!J%?@S#0#&7!`<7!'?@!6',/ǦL-+$/7!.<!289:9><!4%;-&$!-?!
H-?H%;$('/!B&'0%*-&P!B-&!+H#%?H%Ǧ;-/#H1!A'&&#%&+!'?@!A&#@I%+<!6-/#H1!JH#%?H%!R?$%&'H$#-?+O!
H-??%H$#?I!+H#%?H%!'?@!;-/#H17!=:<!
K#H,'%/+7!J<!289::><!K'$H,#?I!P?-*/%@I%!A&-P%&#?I!+$&'$%I#%+!$-!%?)#&-?0%?$'/!;-/#H1!;&-A/%0+!'?@!
+%$$#?I<!+/82,)/:./&"%(0#2./#.("/1(V)%2#'7!:82f>7!ccfQ:9::<!
ǡǤǡǡǤǡǡǤǡǡǤȋʹͲͳʹȌǤǮǯǫǤj(WA%H!.#$17!
.'?'@'<!X0YO=(:=7!:\Q:f<!4%$&#)%@!B&-0!,$$;OZZ***<I+@#<-&IZI+@#H-?BZI+@#:=Z;';%&+Z:[8<;@B<!
J,'F+-?7!"<7!'?@!i*1?7!U<!289:9><!G%)%/-;#?I!'!+$&'$%I1!B-&!P?-*/%@I%!$&'?+/'$#-?!'?@!A&-P%&#?I!#?!;(A/#H!
;-/#H10'P#?I<!K-?$&%'/7!X?-*/%@I%!D&'?+/'$#-?!'?@!Y&-P%&#?I!L-&P+,-;7!=<!4%$&#%)%@!B&-0!
,$$;OZZ&\@<@B#@<I-)<(PZ6GNZ6(A/#H'$#-?+Z89:9Q::Q:]hP?-*/%@I%Q$&'?+/'$#-?Q'?@QA&-P%&#?I<;@B<!
J-(+'7!K<!2899[><!E;%?!R??-)'$#-?!K-@%/+!'?@!$,%!4-/%!-B!X?-*/%@I%!Y&-P%&+!#?!O/321.(G/)H%.1D.(
<"D"R2/.<!4%$&#%)%@!B&-0!
"#$#%&'&$(!)*$#'+,-!+$!(.&!/$012&3%&!4,0$0'*| 461!
!"#$%&'(')(*+,-'."/'01'22/',304,5+6'777/%8.89&%&.:;<.8%=>?/@"
,$$;OZZ***<#P0'I'S#?%<H-0ZFMZ'+;Z$F$J%'&H,<A(+#?%++k#?$%//#I%?H%Z%F'H$;,&'+%<:Z+#@<9Z'&$#H/%#
@<U.:GN]9]Q:U\=Q\][.Q33=8Q=:\8=[]\f.9fZMFZ@#+;/'1<,$0<!
J$%#?%&$7!X7!K'&-07!4<7!4#H,'&@7!6<7!l%#I'7!i<7!'?@!L#$$%&+7!"<!289::><!K'P#?I!.#$#%+!J0'&$!'?@!J(+$'#?'A/%<!
EF.(X%)5"%(O//28"&2)/(O/1.J(UZ99=([[<((
L'+,A(&?7!G<7!J#?@,(7!5<7!Y'/'-(&'+7!J<7!G#?%+7!4<!3<7!a'1%+7!T<!K<7!g!T%/+-?7!"<!U<!289:9><!a%/;#?I!.RE+!
5?@%&+$'?@!mJ0'&$!.#$1m!R?#$#'$#)%+O!G%B#?#?I!$,%!J0'&$!.#$17!R$+!G&#)%&+7!'?@!$,%!4-/%!-B!$,%!.RE<!
.'0A&#@I%7!K3O!N-&&%+$%&!4%+%'&H,7!R?H<!4%$&#%)%@!B&-0!
,$$;OZZ;(A/#H<@,%<#A0<H-0Z;'&$?%&*-&/@Z;(AZ+0AZ+0'&$%&;/'?%$ZB-&&h,%/;hH#-+h(?@h+0'&$hH#$1h
#?#$#'$#)%+<;@B<!
*
*
... As pointed out by Porumb and Ivanova (2014) the knowledge distribution among diverse actors can be the most sensitive aspect of the knowledge management practice. Knowledge brokers act as catalysts, accelerating the combination of complementary knowledge and skills necessary to solve innovation problems, by making the right connections and links with solvers and seekers (Soussa, 2008). ...
... Thus, the knowledge brokering is used to improve the process of knowledge transfer and sharing among different members and actors in the network. However, as emphasized by Porumb and Ivanova (2014) the most sensitive aspect of the knowledge management practice is the knowledge distribution among diverse actors. Therefore, to facilitate the knowledge distribution the authors suggest implementing the Knowledge Broker Intervention Model (KBIM) (Figure 4). ...
... The model is used to improve the networks of components and ensure suitable development by several consecutive steps of knowledge distribution, enhancement, appropriation and sharing. It regards people and makes possible the creation of productive and dynamic relationships aimed at facilitating the movement of ideas (Porumb and Ivanova, 2014). ...
... Technology-mediated services use (i) data to gain intelligent insights; (ii) ideas -crowdsourcing for and delivery of better public services; (iii) knowledge -to develop smart device applications that enable citizens to play a role in participation through the preparation and decision-making of public policies and to increase the added value of business processes (citizen-centric) [55]. Porubm and Ivanova [56] are authors of the European Smart Cities model and the concept of the KM, to harness the knowledge Definition 3.2. "as powerful tool for transition, development and transformation. ...
... The governance of knowledge management processes in the smart city should focus on resolving complex situations of stakeholder conflict to enable effective cross-organizational knowledge integration and sharing [55]. In these processes, universities have a crucial role as a coordinator between public and private partners in projects and the processes of validation, transfer and application of knowledge [36,56]. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The purpose of this paper is to review city ecosystem systems interactions for urban knowledge management practices and prepare a theoretical discussion about the issues of digital resource management processes. It is going for a conceptual paper based on the literature review and smart city case studies around the world. This theoretical study helps to understand the smart city knowledge management process, and it is focusing on knowledge phenomenon from a holistic perspective, that include smart cities knowledge-based activities, urban data platforms, cyber-physical environment, smart (urban) technologies and city stakeholders. The paper consists of presentations about the smart city ecosystem, definition the smart city stakeholders and their role and the explanation of smart city knowledge management and its processes. The authors' holistic view facilitates some types of data collection methods of raw as well as processed data and of knowledge-based activities of different stakeholders. This text can serve as a strong background for scientific future research.
... All these activities can help to overcome the inter-generational digital divide. According to Porumb and Ivanova (2014), it is the knowledge distribution among diverse actors that can be the most sensitive aspect of the knowledge management practice. Knowledge brokers act as catalysts, accelerating the combination of complementary knowledge and skills necessary to solve innovation problems, by making the right connections and links with solvers and seekers (Soussa, 2008). ...
Book
With the publication of The Rise of the Creative Class by Richard Florida in 2002, the 'creative city' became the new hot topic among urban policymakers, planners and economists. Florida has developed one of three path-breaking theories about the relationship between creative individuals and urban environments. The economist Åke E. Andersson and the psychologist Dean Simonton are the other members of this 'creative troika'. In the Handbook of Creative Cities, Florida, Andersson and Simonton appear in the same volume for the first time. The expert contributors in this timely Handbook extend their insights with a varied set of theoretical and empirical tools. The diversity of the contributions reflect the multidisciplinary nature of creative city theorizing, which encompasses urban economics, economic geography, social psychology, urban sociology, and urban planning. The stated policy implications are equally diverse, ranging from libertarian to social democratic visions of our shared creative and urban future. © David Emanuel Andersson, Åke E. Andersson and Charlotta Mellander 2011. All rights reserved.