Guide to Agricultural Machinery Maintenance, and Operation

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Publisher: Fasmen Communications, Okigwe Nigeria
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© Segun R. Bello, 2008
All Rights Reserved
No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or
transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronics, mechanical, photocopying,
recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright
holder.
First Published in March 2006
Fasmen Communications,
79/94 Owerri Road, Okigwe,
Imo State – Nigeria.
ISBN 978 - 2986 - 90 - 9
Printed by: FERP - FASMEN
DEDICATION
To God Almighty
&
Mama
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I deeply appreciate all who made meaningful contributions for further
improvement on the first edition of this book titled the improvements evident in
this second edition.
My profound gratitude is expressed to My God for the grace and favour He
granted me during the period of preparing this manuscript. The thoughts of men
are high and lofty but He gave strength to the mighty to do exploit. He gave me
strength when I am weak and sustained me when my spirit is low. I remain
committed to the course and encouragements of my darling wife and friend,
‘Mama Ayo’ for a peaceable home to concentrate on preparing the manuscript and
above all Ayo for supporting his father through the period of typesetting.
Segun R. Bello
Engineering Programme
F C A, Ishiagu, Ebonyi State
FOREWORD
In every link of the long agricultural production chain seedbed
preparation, planting, weeding, pest/disease control, breeding, feeding,
harvesting, processing, preservation, storage, transportation/distribution,
marketing and even cooking the application of engineering principles at
appropriate level of agricultural mechanization provides the basic tools by which
the inherent drudgeries and inefficiencies involved are reduced or eliminated in
order to accelerate and enhance agricultural productivity (in Nigeria).
In this new guide, the author recognizes that for these objectives to be
achieved, agricultural machinery and postharvest handling of agricultural materials
must be well managed. Agricultural machinery maintenance is a vital aspect of
agricultural operation and production, which has been neglected or handled
without caution. Agricultural machines operate in a most unpleasant environment
and as such must be adequately maintained in order to perform its desired
functions effectively. The service life and reliability of any machine in performing
its desired function depends so much on how much maintenance practices were
observed in operating such machine.
The book is but a guideline to agricultural machinery maintenance and
operations and cannot be written with every circumstance in mind. Nevertheless it
has a tropical flavour and attempts to be realistic in its approach to the tropical
situation. This is an important contribution to alleviating a key problem facing our
present-day students in institutions of higher learning. Therefore I strongly
recommend this practical guide to all intended users and any other people in
related field.
PREFACE
This manual is prepared to provide an essential guide to students’ practical
in agricultural engineering and agricultural technology programmes and also at
appropriate levels in other tertiary institutions in the country. In preparing the
manual, the requirements and minimum standards specified by the various
academic regulatory bodies in Nigeria such as: National Board for Technical
Education (NBTE), Nigeria Universities Commission (NUC) Nigeria Society of
Engineers (NSE), National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE), Council
for the Regulation of Engineering in Nigeria (COREN) etc, were taken into
consideration.
The experiences of the author at various stages of academic and industrial
career are put together in this nine-part practical guide. The first puts
maintenance into context by giving a general background and description of
maintenance and its factors into focus, as it is the practice throughout the world.
The part two outlines the general principles of operation of the internal
combustion engine and the function of each component. Part three describes the
Basic Power Transmission Systems and their mode of power transmission, care
and problems.
Part four describes the Tractor System Maintenance .It gives the
maintenance practices of the entire systems in a typical tractor vehicle and a
maintenance chart for record purposes. Operating tractors is complex since they
are used with many different types of equipment and in many different kinds of
field operation. Safety measures and operation procedures are discussed in part
five. Part six is devoted to Maintenance of Farm Machinery Equipments and their
calibrations. Part seven points out Postharvest Handling of Fruits and Vegetables
and highlights the processes of keeping the quality of fruits and vegetables to
meet the market value.
The final chapter discusses the general hazards on the farm and safety
measures. A schedule of activities is given in the hope that the experiences gained
in this book can be put to practice following the lay down procedures.
Segun R. Bello
TABLE OF CONTENT
Part 1
Farm Machinery Hazards and Maintenance Practice
Chapter 1
Farm Machinery Hazards
Chapter 2
Maintenance
Part 2
Basic Power Transmission System
Chapter 3
Power transmission Systems
Part 3
Engine Components and Tractor Systems
Chapter 4
Internal Combustion Engine
Part 4
Tractor Systems Maintenance
Chapter 5
Engine Systems Maintenance
Chapter 6
Tractor Maintenance
Part 5
Farm Machinery Safety and Operation
Chapter 7
Tractor Operations and Safety
Chapter 8
Farm Machinery and Safety
Part 6
Maintenance of Farm Machinery Equipments
Chapter 9
Tillage Equipment
Chapter 10
Crop Planting Equipment
Part 7
Farm Structures and Safety
Chapter 11
Farm Safety
Chapter 12
Farm Structures
Chapter 13
Post harvest Handling of Fruits and Vegetables
Chapter 14
Poultry Housing
FURTHER READING
CHAPTER 1
WHAT IS MAINTENANCE?
Introduction
Every physical asset such as machinery put into practical use and service
fulfills some specific functions, and failures of some components are inevitable.
Thus the maintenance of these assets is obvious. Maintenance is generally
recognized as the single largest controllable cost factor in any production assembly
and up till now represents a challenge leading the managements to reevaluate
their maintenance strategies.
Maintenance can be defined as the practice of keeping in form or shape of
equipments, machine system or object in its original status as much as possible.
Note that maintenance is not repairing a machine after it breaks or when it stops
work (Frank Buckingham 1981). It is a means of achieving optimum value for
equipment in order to perform its desired and designed functions. Thus
maintenance is protecting a machine so that it does not break down or wear out
quickly.
You must protect your machine from the following enemies;
1. Wear (grease and oil are used to protect machines from wears)
2. Dirt (Filters are used to catch and hold dirt before it gets inside and damages
parts)
3. Heat (The cooling and lubrication systems protects the machine from heat)
Regular maintenance is one of the prerequisites for a long living and
reliable engine performance. The recommended engine servicing procedure is
contained in the Owners Handbook for each engine model. Additional servicing
is often necessary and depends on the type of operation the engine is subjected
to.
I must stress that if you carry out your own servicing make sure you have
the proper tools and perhaps attend maintenance training. Mistakes made due to
lack of skill or knowledge are often more expensive than employing a reputable
mechanic.
Maintenance Policy
It is always a concern for the decision makers to determine which type of
maintenance should be most appropriate for optimum machine performance as
indicated in the block diagram for maintenance policies in Figure 2-1.
Decision makers, therefore, need to take into account; the needs of their
business
, Recommendations
from the original equipment manufacturer, their
own
experience and that of
other users
of similar plant, and Online or Offline
information
on
available
conditions
from the plant.
Figure 2-1: Block Diagram for Maintenance Policies
Objectives of Good Maintenance Practices
Good maintenance practices are essential for efficient operation of all types
of machinery. Efforts spent in this area of farm management is more than repaid
by consistent and reliable operation of machinery, reduced fuel consumption and
bills, extended equipment life among others. Maintenance of farm machinery is
complicated by the usage pattern of short but intense activity, followed by periods
of non-use or storage. Objectives of good maintenance practice include:
1. To intervene before failure occurs
2. To do maintenance only when necessary.
3. To reduce number of failure and shutdowns.
4. To reduce maintenance cost and cost due to production lost.
5. Increase life of equipment.
6. Reduction in inventory cost / effective inventory control.
Types of Maintenance
There many types of maintenance techniques viz. Preventive maintenance,
Proactive maintenance, default type, discard type, offline and online type etc.
Traditionally, maintenance is performed in either time based fixed intervals, called
preventive maintenance, or by corrective maintenance.
With the PREVENTIVE approach,
Maintenance is performed in order to prevent equipment breakdown
With the CORRECTIVE approach,
Maintenance is performed after a breakdown or an obvious fault has
occurred.
For some equipment and faults, CORRECTIVE maintenance action must be
performed immediately, for others the maintenance action can be deferred in
time, all depending on the equipments function.
Figure 2-2: Typical maintenance terminology standard
(
Marcus Bengtsson, 2004).
Emergency Maintenance
This is the aspect of maintenance, which is necessary to put machine and
equipments in
good working condition immediately
to avoid serious consequences,
for instance cleaning of distributor cap in the electrical system of an engine. The
machine can still function but when not attended to, can cause major breakdown
in the system.
Routine Maintenance
Routine maintenance is the simplest form of planned maintenance but very
essential. As the name, it is carried out at regular intervals. It involves periodic
check of relevant areas. The frequency of such checks ranges between hourly,
daily, weekly and monthly or as recommend by the manufacturers. Routine
maintenance reduces fuel bills and extends equipment life. Readings obtained
from such checks could be collated in a maintenance record over a long period to
give a behaviour history of the equipment. Examples are washing and cleaning,
filing of distributor cap, change of oil, topping of battery electrolyte, lubrication,
inspection and minor adjustments of pressure, flow, tightness etc.
Figure 2-3: Block Diagram for Routine Maintenance
Routine maintenance reduces fuel bills and extends equipment life. Good
maintenance practices are essential for efficient operation of all types of farm
machinery. Effort spent in this area of farm management is more than repaid by
consistent, reliable operation of machinery, reduced fuel bills and extended
equipment life. Maintenance of farm machinery is complicated by the usage
pattern of short spells of intense activity, followed by periods of non-use or
storage.
During the “standing” or non-use periods chemical interactions between
metals and fluids can cause more damage than normal wear and tear from active
usage. This must be considered in planning machinery maintenance and the
following suggestions are worthy of consideration.
1. Follow manufacturers’ instructions for all settings, adjustments, maintenance
instructions, operating requirements and long term storage.
2. Follow manufacturers’ recommendations on safety aspects of operation and
repair. Maintain all safety equipment as installed or recommended by
manufacturers.
3. Do not overload equipment, or operate at higher speeds than manufacturer
recommends.
4. Do not add counterweights to equipment to increase load capacity unless
authorized by manufacturer. Store equipment in clean and dry conditions.
5. Remove all vegetation such as grass, hay, crops and crop residue from
equipment before storage periods. Decomposing vegetable matter causes
corrosion to metal surfaces. This is particularly important where surfaces are
polished from usage.
6. Keep all cutting edges sharp and clean. Sharp cutters require less power and
reduce overall load on equipment. Cracked or damaged cutting edges are
also easier to detect on clean equipment.
7. Replace these items at end of season rather than at season commencement.
8. Inspect machinery at end of season or harvest.
9. Repair and adjust as required. Carry out maintenance work without pressure
between seasons.
Preventive Maintenance
This is one of the oldest method maintenance. It is used mostly along with
corrective maintenance and condition-based maintenance (Diagnostic
Maintenance) etc. Preventive Maintenance is a planned Maintenance of plants
resulting from periodic inspection in order to minimize the breakdowns and
depreciation rates. This includes the followings: servicing; adjusting; operating;
repairing and caring for agricultural machines so as to prevent unnecessary wear
out of parts, and keep time loss due to breakdown to a minimum.
Once the unit is placed into full operation, a Preventative Maintenance
Program should begin. This program should include regular inspection set up on a
periodic basis.
For instance the Preventive Maintenance Program for conveyor or any belt
system should include a general inspection of:
1. Drives
2. V-belts of V-belt drives for wear on belts and proper tension.
3. Roller chains of chain drive for lubrication and proper tension.
4. Loose, worn and/or damaged coupling bolts.
5. Guards are all in place and properly installed.
6. Re-lubrication schedule.
7. Other items to be routinely inspected:
8. Screw flighting and hanger bearings for possible damage and/or wear.
9. Operating temperature, signs of wear (noise) and lubrication.
10. Oil in gearbox.
Preventive maintenance is divided into two categories; Condition Based
Maintenance (CBM) and Predetermined Maintenance. The condition based
Maintenance can have dynamic or on request intervals while the Predetermined
Maintenance is scheduled in time.
Condition Based Maintenance Systems [CBMS]
CBM has been defined as maintenance actions based on actual condition
obtained from in-situ measurement [Mitchell, 1998]. The main point being that the
asset condition is assessed under operation with the intention of making
conclusions to whether it is in need of maintenance or not and if so at what time
does the maintenance actions needed to be executed and not to suffer a
breakdown or malfunction.
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