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Foreign Players and Football Supporters: The Old Firm, Arsenal, Paris Saint-Germain



'Mercenaries', 'cheats', 'destroying the soul of (English) football', 'destroying the link between football clubs and their supporters': foreign football players have been accused of being at the origin of all the ills of contemporary football. How true is this? Foreign players and football supporters: The Old Firm, Arsenal, Paris Saint-Germain is the first academic book to look at supporters' reactions to the increase in the number of foreign players in the very clubs they support week in week out. It shows that football supporters identify with their club through a variety of means, which may change or be replaced with others, and provides the most comprehensive view on football supporters' attachment to their club in the European Union, following the increase in European legislation. Divided into three case studies on Glasgow (Celtic and Rangers), Paris Saint-Germain and Arsenal in London, the book adopts a multidisciplinary approach to chart the evolution of the link between supporters and club between 1995 and today. It is based on extensive research through the press of three nations, as well as interviews with officials and supporters. It provides an excellent read for students and researchers in Sports Studies, Politics, European Studies, French Studies and other Social Sciences, or to anyone interested in one of the most original institutions of contemporary western societies: mass spectator sports.
Foreign players
football supporters
distributed in the United States exclusively
by Palgrave Macmillan
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ȱśȱȱ ŗŘş
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ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱȱ ȱȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ǰȱ Ȭȱ
ȱȱǯŘȱȱBosmanǰȱȱȱȱȱȱ ȱȱȱ
ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ¢ǰȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ  ȱ ŚŞȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǯȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ǯȱ ȱ Bosmanǰȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱȱǯȱȱBosmanǰȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ
ȱȱȱȱ ȱǯȱȱȂȱȬȱ
ȁřƸŘȂȱ ȱ ǻȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ Ǽǰȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ǻȁȱ ¢ȂǼǯȱ ȱ ȱ ǰȱ ȱ
ȁȂȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ¢¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȁ¢Ȃǯȱ ȱ ȱ
¡ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǰȱ ȱ ǻȱ ȱ Ǽȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǰȱ ǰȱ ȱ
ŘForeign players and football supporters
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ěȱ ¢ȱ Bosmanǯŝȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ǯȱ Bosmanȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ £ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱȱȱȱȦǯȱȱBosmanǰ ȱȱȱȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ Ǽȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱȱ ȱȱ ȱ ȱȱ ȱȱȱȱȱ
¢ȱBosman ȱ¢ȱȱǰȱȱȱȬȱȱ
ěȱ ǰȱ ǯǯȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ Ȭ
ǯȱBosman ȱ¢ȱȱȂȱȱȱ¢ǰȱȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ¢ǯŞȱ ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱȱ ȱ ¢ȱȱȱ ȱ ȱȱȱȱ
Ȧǯȱ Bosman ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
şȱȱ¢ȱ ȱ¢ȱȱȱȱ ȱȱ
ǯȱ¢ǰȱȱȱȱ ȱ ¢ȱȱȱ
ȱ ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ  DZȱ ǯȱ ȱ ȱ
ǰȱȱ ȱ ȱȱ¢ȱȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ǰȱ ȱ ȱ
ę¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȬBosmanȱ ¢ǯȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ǯȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱȱ ȱȱȱ¢ȱ ȱȱȱȱ ȱȱ
ǯȱȱȱȱ ȱ ȱ ǻȱ¡ȱȱ
 ¢ȱ ȱ White Paper on Sportȱ ȱ ȱ  ǼŗŘȱȱȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ Ĵǯȱ
ȱȱ ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ¡¢ȱ
¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǰŗřȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱȱȱ ȱȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ¢ȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱ ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǯȱ ȱ Single Marketȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱǯȱȱ socioculturalȱǰȱ¢ǰȱȱȱȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱ ȱ ȱȱȱ ȱȱȱ
ȱȱ ǰȱ ȱȱ ȱȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ
Ȃȱ ȱ ȱ ǰȱ ǰȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱȱ ȱ ȱ ǰȱȱ ǰȱȱǻȁ¢ȂǼǯȱ
¢ȱȱȱ ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ ȱ
¢ȱ ȱ  ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȁȂȱ
¢ǯȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǰȱ ȱ
¢ȱȱȱȱ ǰȱȱ ȱ ȱȱ ȱ ¢ȱȱ ¢ǰȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ǯȱ ȱ ¢ȱ
ȱȱBosman ǰȱȱĴǰȱȱȱǰȱȱȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȂǰŗŞȱȱȱȁȱȱ
¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ Ȃǯŗşȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ Ȭȱ ¢ȱ ȁȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¡ȱ Ĵǰȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ
ȱ ¡ȱ  ȱ ǯȱ  ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ
ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ Ȃȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱȱȱ ¡ȱ ȱ ǯȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱȱ ȱȱ ȱȱȱȱ Bosmanȱ ȱ ȱȱ
ŚForeign players and football supporters
ȱȱěȱ ȱȱȱ ȱ £ȱ ȱȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱȱȱȱ ȱǻȱ Ǽȱ ȱ ȱ ȱȱ
ȱǻȱǰȱ ¢Ǽȱȱȱ ȱ ȱ¢ǯȱǰȱ
ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ  ȱ ȱ ȱ ȁȂǼǯȱ ǰȱ
ȱ ęȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǻȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ¡ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ  ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ǻȱ ȱ ȱ ¡Ǽǰȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¡¢ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǰȱ ȱ
ȱ ǯŘŘȱȱǰȱȱ¢ȱȱȱ¢ȱ
ȱ ȱ ěȱȱ ȱ ȱ ěȱǯȱ ¢ǰȱȱ
ȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ ȱ Ȭ
ȱȱȱȱȱ ȱȱȱ ¢ȱȱ ȱǰȱȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ęȱ ¢ȱȱ ȱ ȱ ȁȱ ȱ  ȱ ȱ  ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ  ȱ ȱ ȱ DZȱ ǯǯȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ǯȱ ȱ ȱ ǻȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
Ǽȱ ȱ¢ȱȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱȱȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǯȱ ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ¡ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ǰȱȱ ȱ ȱ ȱěȱ ¡ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱǰȱȱ ȱ ȱȱ ǻȱȱǼȱ¡ȱȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ Ȭęȱ ȱ ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǰȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǯȱ ȱ ȱ ¡ȱ ȱ
¡ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǰȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ Ȃȱ ȱȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ Ȃȱ
ȱ¢ȱȱȱ ¢ǯ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ěȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǻȱ ȱ ȱ ¡Ǽȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǯȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ¡ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱȱěǯȱ ȱ ȱ¢ȱ ȱ
ȱȱ ȱȱ ȱ ǰȱȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ǯȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ǰȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ
¡ȱ ¢ȱ ȱȱ ȱ ȱȱ ȱȱȬȱ
Ěǯȱ ȱ ŘŖŖŜǰȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ  ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǰȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ǰŘŚȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǯȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ŜForeign players and football supporters
ȱ ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ǯȱ Ȃȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ Ȃȱ ȱ
ǯŘśȱ ȱ ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ęȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¡ȱ ǻȱ ȱ ȱ Ȭ
Ǽǰȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ǻȱ ȱ Ǽǰȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
¢ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǯȱ ȱ
Ȃȱ Ȭȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǻȱ Ǽȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ęȱ Ĵȱ ȱ ȱ ȂǯŘŜȱȬ
ęȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ Ȃȱ Ȭǰȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ęȱ ȱ ęȱ ȱ ȱ ęȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
¡ȱ  ȱ ȱ ȱ ǻȱ ȱ ȱ Ǽȱ ȱ ǰȱ  ȱ
ȱ ęȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ  ǯȱ ȱ ȱ  ȱ
ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ  ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ŗȱ¹ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ·ȱ·ȱȱŗśȱ
·ȱ ŗşşśǰȱ Union Royale Belge des Sociétés de Football Association
eǯaǯ ǯ Bosman eǯaǯ ǻDZȱ ĴDZȦȦȬ¡ǯǯȦȦȦȏǵ
Ƿ¡ǷǷǭƽǭƽŜŗşşřŖŚŗśDzȱ ȱ
ȱ Řȱȱǯȱȁ¢Ȃȱ¢ȱǯȱǯȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱȱBosmanȂǰ ȱ Football StudiesǰȱřǻŘǼȱǻŘŖŖŖǼǰȱŚŘȮŜŜǯ
ȱ řȱ¹ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ·ȱ·ȱȱŗŘȱ
·ȱŗşŝŚǰȱBǯNǯOǯ Walraveǰ LǯJǯNǯ Koch contre Association Union cycliste
internationaleǰ Koninklijke Nederlandsche Wielren Unie et Federación Española
DZŜŗşŝŚŖŖřŜDZDZDzȱȱ ȱŞȱȱ ŘŖŖŝǼȱ ǻȱWalrave
and KochǯǼǯ
ȱ Śȱ¹ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ·ȱ·ȱȱŗŚȱ
ȱŗşŝŜǰȱGaetano Donà contre Mario ManteroȱǻDZȱĴDZȦȦȬ¡ǯǯ
Ȧ¡Ȧ¡ǯǵƽDZŜŗşŝŜŖŖŗřDZDZǰȱ ȱ
ȱ śȱ ȱǰȱȁȱȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȂǰȱ
Yearbook of European Law 1989ǰ ŗŖȱǻŗşşŖǼǰȱśśȮşŘǯ
ȱ Ŝȱ ȱȱǰȱȱȱȱȱȬȱBosmanȱ
ȱ ȱ Bosmanǰȱ ȱ ȱ ¡ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ
Bosmanǯȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǰȱ ȁȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ DZȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȂǰȱJournal of Sport
and Social IssuesǰȱŘŜǻŚǼȱǻŘŖŖŘǼǰȱŚŘŗȮŚřŝǯ
ȱ ŝȱ ȱǰȱ Cases and materials on EC lawǯȱ DZȱǰȱ
ȱ Şȱ Ȭȱ ǰȱ ȁ¡ȱ DZȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ǵȂǰȱInternational Sports Law JournalǰȱŜǻŗȮŘǼȱǻŘŖŖŜǼǰȱŞŝȮŗŖřǯ
ȱ şȱȱ¡ȱȱȱȱǰȱȁȱȱȱ
ȱȱȱ¢ȱȂǰȱJournal of Contemporary European Researchǰȱ
ȱŗŖȱȱ£¢ȱȱȱ¢ǰȱWinners and losersǯȱ DZȱ
ȱ ŗŗȱ ȁȱȱȱęȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱ ŗŘȱ ȱȱ ȱ ȱ ǰȱWhite paper on sportǰ ȱ
ȱ ŗřȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǻǯǼǰȱ Professional sport in the
European Union: regulation and re-regulationǯȱ ȱ DZȱ ȱ ǰȱ
ȱ ŗŚȱ ȱǰȱȱȱȱȱǯȱǯȱȱǻǯǼǰȱEUǰ
sportǰ law and policy: regulationǰ re-regulation and representationǯ ȱDZȱ
ȱ ŗśȱ ȱǰȱSports law and policy in the European Unionǯȱȱ
ȱ ŗŜȱ ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȂȱȱȱŖŝŖǰȱşȱ
¢ȱŘŖŖŝǯȱȱ¡ȱDZȱȁȱȱȂǰȱUEFA directǰȱ
śŝ ǻŘŖŖŝǼǰȱ ŗŖȮŗŗDzȱ ȱ ǯȱĴǰȱ ȁȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢Ȃǰȱ ȱ
ŞForeign players and football supporters
ȱ ȱ  ȱ ȱŗŞȱ ¢ȱ ŘŖŖŝǯȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ
Ĵȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ęȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ŗŝȱ ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ£ȱȱȱ
ŘŖȱȱŗşşśǰȱȱȱȱȱ ȱ ȱȱȱ Bosmanȱ
ȱ ŗŞȱ ȱ ǰȱ ȁĴȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ Ȃǰȱ Daily
ȱ ŗşȱ ȱ ǰȱ ȁĴȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȂǰȱMail on SundayǰȱŗŚȱ¢ȱŘŖŖŜǯ
ȱ ŘŖȱ ǰȱȁĴȱȱȱȱȱȱȂǯ
ȱ Řŗȱ ȱ ȱ Ĵȱ ȁȱ ȱ Ȃȱ Ȃǰȱ Report to the European
Councilǰ ŗşŞśȱ ǻDZ ǯǯǯȦȦȦǯ
ȱ ŘŘȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¡ȱ ȱ ȱ ǰȱ
DZȱ¡ȱǯȱȱȱȱǰȱCase studies and theory
development in the social sciencesǯȱǰȱDZȱȱǰȱŘŖŖŚȱ
ȱ Řřȱ ȱǯȱǰȱCase study research: design and methodsǯȱDZȱǰȱŗşşŚǰȱ
ȱ ŘŚȱ ȱ ǰȱ       
spread of nationalismǯȱDZȱǰȱŗşşŗȱǻȱȱŗşşŗǼǯ
ȱ Řśȱ ȱǰȱSportǰ culture and the media: the unruly trinityǯ DZȱ
ȱ¢ȱǰȱŗşşşȱǻȱȱŗşşşǼȱȱȱ ǰȱȱ
ǯȵŘŚěǯȱȱ ȱȱȱ ¡ȱ¢ȱ·âȱ ǰȱȱȱ
L’Équipe ȱ ȱȱȱȱȱǰȱȱȱȱȱęȱ ¢ȱ
ȱ ŘŜȱ  ȱ ǰȱ Human groups and social categoriesǯȱ ȱ¢ȱ
ȱ Řŝȱ ȱȱȱŘŖŖŚǯ
ǰȱȱûǰȱȱ ǯȱ£¢ȱ ȱ ȱȱ ǻǯǼǰȱ
Contemporary European football, sport and the construction of identitiesǯȱDZȱ
ǻǯǼǰȱ Professional sport in the European Union: regulation, re-regulation and
representationǯȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ǰȱ ŘŖŖŞDzȱ
ǻǰȱǰȱȱȱǼȂǰȱȱȱȱǻǯǼǰȱFootball, Europe
et regulationsǯȱDZȱȱȱȱǰȱŘŖŗŗDzȱȱ¢ǰȱ
ȱȱȱȱǰȱȁȱ¢ǰȱȱȂǰȱJournal of
educational media, memory and societyǰȱŗǻŘǼȱǻŘŖŖşǼǰȱŗŘśȮŗŚŚǯ
ȱ  ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ  ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
¢ȱȱȱ ȱȱȱ ȬBosmanȱǯȱȱȱȱȱǰȱ
¢ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ǯȱ
ǰȱȱ ȱ ȱ ȱȱȱȱ ȱǯȱȱ ¢ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
¢ȱȱȱ¢ȱ¢ȱ ȱȱĚ¡ȱȱȱ¢ȱ
¢ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ǯȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǯȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ
ŗŜŚ Foreign players and football supporters
¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǰȱ ¢ȱ ȱ Ȃȱ
ęȱ ȱ ȱ ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¡ȱ ȱ
The role played by the press
ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ
ęǯȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱǯȱȱȱ ¢ȱȱ ȱȱ ȱȱ ȱȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢DZȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ Ěǯȱ ǰȱ ȱ
ȱȱ ȱ ¢ǰȱȱȱȱ ȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ǰȱ ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ǯȱȱęȱ¢ȱȱ¢Ȃȱ ȱȱȱȱȱ
ęȱȱ¢ȱȱ ȱȱȱ ȱęȱ ȱȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ǯȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ¡ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱǰȱL’ÉquipeȱȱLe Parisienǯȱǰȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ Ȯȱ ȱ ¢ȱ
ȱȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱȱȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǰȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ  ¢ȱ
ȱȱȱǻȱȱ ȱ¢Ǽȱǯȱ ȱȱȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǰȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ęȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ DZȱ Ȭȱȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ǻȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ Ǽȱ ȱ Ȭȱ ǰȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱǻȱȱǰȱa fortioriǰ ȱ ȁȂǼǰȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ
ȱ ǯȱ ȱ Ĝȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ Ȭȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ǰȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱȱȱȂȱȱ¢ȱȱȱ ȱȂȱȬ
ȱ ȱ ȱ Ȃȱ ęȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱǯȱ ȱȱȱ
ŗŜŜ Foreign players and football supporters
ȱȱ ȱȱȱ ȱȱ ȱȱȂȱęȬ
ȱ ǻȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ Ǽȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
Bosman ¢ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢Ǽǯȱ ¢ȱ Ȃȱ
¢ȱȱę¢ȱȱȱ ȱǰȱȱȱȱ
ȱȱȱ ȱȱȱȱȱ ȱ ȱ ȱȱȱ
ȱ¢ȱ¢ȱȱȱ ȱ ¢ȱȱǻȱ ȱȱ
ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ǯȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ
ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ǯȱ ȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ ȱȱȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ǻȱȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ŗşŝŖǰȱȱ ȱ ¢ȱȱ Ǽǯȱȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ǯȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
¢ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ¡ȱ ¢ȱ ǰȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ǰȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¡ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ǻȱ ȱ Ǽȱ
ȱ Ǽȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ǯȱȱ ȱ ȱȱ ¢ȱȱȱ ¢ȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ ȱȱǻȱȱ Ȭ
ǯȱȱȱȱ ȱȱ ¢ȱȱȱȱ¢ȱ ȱ
ȱ¢ǰȱ¢ȱȱ ¢ȱȱȱȱȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ¢ǰȱȱȱȱȱet al. ȱȱȱ
ȁȂȱ DZȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ Ĝȱ ȱ ȱ ȁȂȱ ȱ ǻȱ
¢¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ Ǽǯȱ ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ
ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ Ȯȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ
ȱȁȂȱȱȱ ȱȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱet al. ȱȱȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
 ȱȱȱ¢ǯȱȱĚ¢ȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱȱ ȱ DZȱ¢ȱȱȱ ȱȱȱȱ
ǰȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ¡ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ  ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ  ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ǯȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱȱȱȱ ȱȱȱȱȱ ěȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ Ǽǯȱ Ȃȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǰȱ ǰȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ǯȱ
ǻȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ¢Ǽȱ ȱ ěȱ ¢ȱ ȱ
New symbols and processes of symbolisation
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ęȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
¢ȱ ȱ ȱ Dzȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ
ȱȱ¢ȱȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ¢ȱǻ¢ȱ
ŗŜŞ Foreign players and football supporters
ȱ¢ȱȱȱǯȱ¢ǰȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱ ȱ
ǯȱ ȱ ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ  ȱ ȱȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ Ȃȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ
¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ
Ǽǯȱ ȱ ȱ ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
¡ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǻ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¡ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ Ȃȱ ęȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ  ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ  ȱ ȱ ȱ ęȬ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ ¢ǯȱȱȱ
ęȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ Ȃȱ
ǯȱ ȱ ěȱ ȱ ȁȱ ȱ ¢Ȃȱ ȱ ȁȱ
ȱęȂȱȱ ȱȱ ȱȱ ¢ǯȱȱȱ
ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ěȱ ¡ǯȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ęȱ Ȯȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ǯȱ ȱ ęȱ
ȱ ȱȱȱ ȱ ȱȱ¢ȱȱ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ
ęȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ ęȱǯȱǰȱ
ǰȱȱȱ ęȱ¢ȱȱȱ ȱȱȱȱȱ ȱ
ȱ ǰȱ ȱ ¡ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ
ȱȱȱ Ĵȱ ȱȱȱǯȱȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱȱ ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ¢ȱ
ǯȱȱȱ ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱȱȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ǯȱȱ ȱȱ
ȱȱȱȱ ȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
Scope for further study
ȱȱȱȱȱ ȱȱȱ
¢ȱȱ¢ȱěȱȱ ȱȱȱȱȱǯȱ
ȱȱȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱȱ ȱ ȱ ¡ǯȱ ǰȱ ȱ
ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ǻȱȱ ¢ȱ  Ǽȱ ęǯȱ ȱ ȱ  ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ
ȱȱ ȱ DZȱȱ Ĵȱ¢ȱ ȱȱ ȱěȱȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǰȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ Ȃȱ ęǯȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ŗŝŖ Foreign players and football supporters
ȱ¢ȱęȱȱȱȱ ȱȱȱȱ
¢ȱȱǯȱȱȱ ȱ¢ȱ¢ȱȱȱ ǯŗȱ
ȱ ȁȱ ¢ȱ Ȃȱ ¢ȱ ¢ȱ ǯȱ ȱ ěȱ
ȱȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȱȱ ǼȱȱȁȱȂȱ
ǻȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ Ǽǯȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȁȱ Ȃȱ ȱ ǯȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ Ĵȱ
ȱ ȱ  ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ  ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¡ȱ ȱ ȱ  ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱȱȱ¢ȱȱ ǯȱǰȱȱ
ȱ ȱ ǰȱ ȱ ȱǰȱȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǰȱȱ ¢ȱ
ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǯȱ ǰȱ  ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ Ĵȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ
ǯȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
¢ȱȱȱ ȱ ȱ ȱȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱȱ ȁȱȂȱȂȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱȱ
ȱ ŗȱ ȱ ǯȱǰȱ ȁ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǵȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ
ȱ ȱ  ȱ ȱ  Ȃǰȱ Journal of Consumer Researchǰȱ ŘşǻŗǼ
... This is not surprising, as England's top division can be regarded the first "global league" (Millward, 2011). In a similar vein, the nexus between internationalised player markets and squads and its impact on fan identifications has been subject to studies at various hubs of European football (Ranc, 2012). Equally important, the emerging importance of so-called "foreign fandom" -closely following a team outside one's country of residence -has received a good deal of attention in the last two decades (Nash, 2000;Kerr and Emery, 2011;Baker, 2017). ...
In this chapter, the focus is on “football governance” and “football fandom” as two domains, which substantially broaden and enhance our understanding of European integration dynamics. First, “football” – in contrast to the fields of action conventionally studied – offers a seemingly non-political arena, which has been dramatically transformed in the last 25 years through European integration. Second, a recognisable Europeanisation of structures, governance and format of the game has arguably also triggered reactions among those who follow football, i.e. football fans, spectators, and those simply interested in the sport. It is in that sense that a renewed focus on mundane and leisure time activities, such as sport fandom, is warranted in order to grasp the depth of European integration beyond narrow political and institutional (European Union [EU]-focused) concerns.
... This takes place by encoding success (or even mere hope of participation) in European club competitions in heritage stories, 32 by the exoticism connected with fans' travel to European matches across the continent 33 and by the diverse nationalities of players who have become fans' favourites or have played a crucial role in the club's recent history and successes. 34 All these processes imbue the identity of a club -often rooted in a local, regional or national context -with European elements without threatening the former. 35 They serve as a way to renegotiate identities in the context of Europeanisation, and how the 'other' relates to what is 'self' or 'local'. ...
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The article explores the Europeanisation of football, focusing on two dimensions of this process: its affective and regulatory dimension. Developments such as the creation of pan-European club competitions and growing cross-border movement of players mean that ‘Europe’ plays an ever more important role in football on an affective level. The same is true on a regulatory level, where EU law and policy have come to impact various aspects of football, ranging from transfer rules, to club financing, to the sale of broadcasting rights. We argue that only by examining the interaction between these two dimensions can we truly understand what is ‘European’ about football. The article shows that there continues to be strong support in football for the cultural elements of the European Sport Model, including a commitment to local identity, sporting merit and solidarity. By contrast, its governance aspects are increasingly coming under pressure, as the recent European Super League saga illustrates. Our findings suggest that the EU can – and should – do more to improve regulatory standards in football and push for a greater representation of fans and other stakeholders that have currently no, or limited, voice in the football pyramid.
... Initial research of how these developments of Europeanisation in football might influence fan identifications has indicated that fans tend to show more Europeanised self-understandings when following their team in European competitions (King 2000;King 2003;Millward 2006;Millward 2009). The internationalisation (and Europeanisation) of the squads seems not to compromise the fans' ability to identify with their team (Ranc 2012). This part discusses how the four mechanisms of Europeanisation of football induce banal experiences of Europe among fans. ...
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Michael Billig’s seminal work ‘Banal nationalism’ described how everyday practice and habits reinforce national identity. Football fans provide a fertile ground for an application of this concept. The community among supporters of the same team is constitutional for football. 20 years after his book, the Europeanisation of football structures could have caused banal national identifications to expand to the European level, contributing to a ‘banal Europeanism’. In contrast to the crises of political Europe, football could provide fans with an everyday practice of Europe. This might change the understanding of in- and out-groups among supporters and beyond. The article discusses ‘banal nationalism’ in the arena of European club football. It elaborates in how far ‘banal’ football fandom related practice is related to the European level. The leading question of the article is: How does football create an arena for ‘banal Europeanism’ among football fans?
... The results of the above-mentioned dynamics of Europeanisation in football can be summarised as follows: The Bosman ruling and their aftermath accelerated a development of increased Europeanisation (and internationalisation) of player markets. Football teams are increasingly comprised of players from other overseas before and there are many indicators that suggest this does not infringe the ability of fans to identify with "their" team (Ranc 2012). The development of the CL into a de facto European league influences the experience of football supporters: They are frequently exposed to competition between foreign clubs and clubs from "their" league (either their club or its rivals). ...
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Discursive approaches to Europe usually focus on elite discourses and target a narrow political understanding of Europe. Against the backdrop of rising Euroscepticism and the known elite-mass divide on issues of European identity, it seems important to shift the focus toward non-elite discourses on Europe. Given that club football is largely Europeanised (player markets, continent-wide club competitions and broadcasting of matches), we analyse how fans of the English Premier League club Manchester United discursively construct ‘Europe’ in relation to their sport. Our main research question aims at identifying how identifications of fans have been unconsciously Europeanised in the wake of an ongoing Europeanisation of the game. We explore online discourses on rivalry, competition and player transfers in club football as these areas are strongly influenced by the interplay of national and European inclinations. Preliminary results of our qualitative content analysis demonstrate that Manchester United fans, inasmuch as their club ‘goes Europe’ on a frequent basis, have developed transnational perspectives on football. Distinctions between ‘us’ and ‘them’ are not predominantly based on nationality, even though they remain complex. However, European orientations (not the European Union as such) seem to play more of a prominent role than commonly assumed.
Over the ninety years of its existence, the stadium built in the city of Stuttgart in the South-West of Germany, has undergone a series of very significant name changes. Rather than on aspects of architecture, urban planning or historic event highlights, the chapter focuses on this toponymical journey across the decades. As the study reveals, the successive names chosen for this important sport venue reflect major ideological and societal watersheds in German history. The chapter traces the evolution from a perfectly apolitical planning to the totalitarian hi-jacking of the arena, followed by a re-naming through the occupying forces and a de-politicisation in the post-war decades. It concludes with contemporary naming practices that illustrate a step-by-step corporate takeover in a society increasingly marked by the neo-liberal order of the late 20th and early 21st century.
The final chapter of the book seeks to take stock of the collective contribution of researchers, including anthropologists, historians, sociologists, and researchers from the field of Physical Education. The selection comprised references in the area, thanks to the experts of each region in the theme of organized football supporters. The synthesis of the two parts and the thirteen constitutive chapters of the work allows an overview of the historical process of formation of the supporter groups and a broader perception of the problem of culture, politics, and violence on both continents. Latin America and Europe hold the primacy in soccer practice and, by extension, in the accompaniment of professional clubs, during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, with contemporary influences in the other quadrants of the globe. The chapter, thus, summarizes the main aspects of this supporter dynamic regarding practices and representations, the material and symbolic dimensions of these supporters.
The introductory chapter of the book explores the potential of an intercontinental approach to supporters and the proposal for regional comparison between neighbouring countries. If the national scale has been privileged in the study of the football phenomenon, in general, and the theme of organized supporters, in particular, the first contribution of the book concerns the collective behaviour of supporters in Latin America and Europe in a comparative perspective. It is understood that the native categories—hinchadas, torcidas, ultras and hooligans, among others—allow to understand structural similarities and conjuncture differences of a supporter subculture, which becomes even more visible at the international level in the first decades of the twenty-first century, in the face of football interconnected by global tournaments and competitions, and by audiovisual broadcasts and the image circulation.
Sport policy is a purposeful activity of various subjects connected with organizing and holding sports competitions. Such activity may be state-organized, administrative, financial, commercial, engineering and construction-related, military, security, professional, corporate, training, entertainment, relatively mass-scale, agent, referee, qualifying, and others. It should be taken into account that, besides officially recognized sports, there are also illegal competitions. Criminological aspects, connected with the possibility of crime, can be found everywhere. All of these leads to the necessity of establishing and developing sport criminology as a component of sport policy. Criminological aspects of sport policy are especially evident in the market conditions. Their analysis is necessary for the optimization of preventive work in the most important areas. The authors single out three such areas: criminal law prevention of crime in sports, enforcement of prevention policy for criminal and criminogenic sports, and counteracting sport extremism. The effectiveness of work in the first area is close to zero because special «sport» criminal law norms are not and will not be enforced. The analysis of the second area leads the authors to the conclusion that it is necessary to intensify the counteraction to criminal sports, primarily, dog fighting and street racing. As for the criminogenic sports, they can be conditionally broken into two categories: those promoting violence and cruelty, and those equipping athletes with the skills interesting for the criminal community (organized criminal groups). The first category includes MMA-type female fights. This disgusting spectacle, broadcast on TV, is absolutely contrary both to the female nature and to the traditional values of peoples of Russia. Such fights should be prohibited in the Russian Federation. The third area requires monitoring to prevent fans’ movements from turning into extremist organizations. The promotion of patriotic feelings among fans should be recognized as a strategic direction in the prevention of sport extremism.
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The past 25 years have seen an unprecedented Europeanisation of the structures and governance in football across the continent. A European (and global) transfer market for players and managers has become the norm and a pan-European league system has been established that regularly exposes supporters to transnational competitions and players from all over Europe. At the same time, manifold typologies of football fans have been established, distinguishing groups of fans based on, for example, fan intensity, fan behaviour or their attitudes towards different actors in the field. The attitudes towards Europe and the self-identification of these fans within Europeanised football have not played a role in any of these typologies so far. This paper steps into that void and develops a typology of football fans in (Western) Europe that takes their attitudes towards Europeanisation as a point of departure. Based on data from an online survey among fans of first league clubs in England, France, Austria and Germany, two dimensions are identified as key categories: the intensity of fandom, and fans’ attitudes towards Europeanisation – which here manifests as a divide between the national/local belonging versus appreciating diversity and transnational spaces/developments or more succinctly, a divide between cosmopolitanism and communitarianism. Our analysis uncovers the existence of four types of fans: occasional cosmopolitans, occasional communitarians, frequent cosmopolitans and frequent communitarians.
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