BookPDF Available

Foreign Players and Football Supporters: The Old Firm, Arsenal, Paris Saint-Germain

Authors:

Abstract

'Mercenaries', 'cheats', 'destroying the soul of (English) football', 'destroying the link between football clubs and their supporters': foreign football players have been accused of being at the origin of all the ills of contemporary football. How true is this? Foreign players and football supporters: The Old Firm, Arsenal, Paris Saint-Germain is the first academic book to look at supporters' reactions to the increase in the number of foreign players in the very clubs they support week in week out. It shows that football supporters identify with their club through a variety of means, which may change or be replaced with others, and provides the most comprehensive view on football supporters' attachment to their club in the European Union, following the increase in European legislation. Divided into three case studies on Glasgow (Celtic and Rangers), Paris Saint-Germain and Arsenal in London, the book adopts a multidisciplinary approach to chart the evolution of the link between supporters and club between 1995 and today. It is based on extensive research through the press of three nations, as well as interviews with officials and supporters. It provides an excellent read for students and researchers in Sports Studies, Politics, European Studies, French Studies and other Social Sciences, or to anyone interested in one of the most original institutions of contemporary western societies: mass spectator sports.
Foreign players
and
football supporters
ȱȱǰȱǰȱȱ
ȱȬ
ȱ
ȱ¢ȱ
ȱȱȱ
distributed in the United States exclusively
by Palgrave Macmillan
ȱ pǯȱ¡
ȱ ¡
ȱȱȱ ¡
ȱ ŗ
ȱ ŗȱ ȱȱęȱ ş
ȱ Řȱ ȱȱęȱ řŚ
ȱ řȱ DZȱȱȱȱ Śş
ȱ Śȱ ȱȬȱ ŞŞ
ȱśȱȱ ŗŘş
ȱ ŗŜř
¢ȱ ŗŝŘ
¡ȱ ŗŞŗ

ȱŗśȱȱŗşşśǰȱȱȱȱȱȱǻǼȱȱȱȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱȱ ȱȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ǰȱ Ȭȱ
ǰŗȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱǻǼȱȱ
ȱȱǯŘȱȱBosmanǰȱȱȱȱȱȱ ȱȱȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ¢ȱȂȱ
ȱ¢ȱȱȱǰȱȱȱ·ȱȱȱ
ȱǻǼǯȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱǰȱWalraveřȱȱDonàDZŚȱ¢ȱȱǻȱ
ȱȱȱȱ¢ǰȱȱȱǰȱȦǼȱȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ¢ǯȱ¢ǰȱȱȱ
ȱ¢ȱȱȱȱ¢ȱȱŗşşŖǰśȱȱȱȱ
ȱBosmanȱȱȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ¢ǰȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ  ȱ ŚŞȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǯȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ǯȱ ȱ Bosmanǰȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱǻȱǰȱȱ¡ǰȱȱȱȱǼǰȱȱȱȱ
ȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȱǰȱȱȱȱ¢Ȃȱ
ȱȱǯȱȱBosmanǰȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱǯ
ȱȱȱȂȱ¢ȱȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱ
ȱȱȱȱ ȱǯȱȱȂȱȬȱ
ȁřƸŘȂȱ ȱ ǻȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ Ǽǰȱ ȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱęȱȱȱȱǰȱȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ǻȁȱ ¢ȂǼǯȱ ȱ ȱ ǰȱ ȱ
ȁȂȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ¢¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȁ¢Ȃǯȱ ȱ ȱ
¡ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǰȱ ȱ ǻȱ ȱ Ǽȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǰȱ ǰȱ ȱ
ȱȱǼǯ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱBosmanȱ
ȱǰȱȱȱȱǯŜȱȱȱȱ

ŘForeign players and football supporters
ȱǰȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ěȱ ¢ȱ Bosmanǯŝȱ
¢ǰȱȱBosmanȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ǯȱ Bosmanȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ £ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ǻȱǼȱȱǯȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ¢ȱ
ȱȱȱȱȦǯȱȱBosmanǰ ȱȱȱȱ
ȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱȱǯȱǰȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱǻȱȱ¢¢ȱȱȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ Ǽȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
Ȭȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȱ¢ȱǯ
ȱȱ ȱȱ ȱ ȱȱ ȱȱȱȱȱ
¢ȱBosman ȱ¢ȱȱǰȱȱȱȬȱȱ
ěȱ ǰȱ ǯǯȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ Ȭ
ǯȱBosman ȱ¢ȱȱȂȱȱȱ¢ǰȱȱ
··ȱȱȱȱȱǻǼȱȱȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ¢ǯŞȱ ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱȱ ȱ ¢ȱȱȱ ȱ ȱȱȱȱ
Ȧǯȱ Bosman ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ǯȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȬ
şȱȱ¢ȱ ȱ¢ȱȱȱȱ ȱȱ
ǯȱ¢ǰȱȱȱȱ ȱ ¢ȱȱȱ
ȱ ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ  DZȱ ǯȱ ȱ ȱ
ǰȱȱ ȱ ȱȱ¢ȱȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱǰȱȱȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱȱǯŗŖȱȱȱȱ¢ȱȱęȱ
ȱ¢ȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȬȱǯ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ǰȱ ȱ ȱ
ę¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȬBosmanȱ ¢ǯȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱȱȱę¢ȱȱǰȱȱȱ¢ȱȱ¡ȱȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ǯȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱȱ ȱȱȱ¢ȱ ȱȱȱȱ ȱȱ
ǯȱȱȱȱ ȱ ȱ ǻȱ¡ȱȱ
ȱ¡ȱȱȱŘŖŖŖȱ¢ȱȱǼŗŗȱȱȱ¢ȱȱǻȱ
 ¢ȱ ȱ White Paper on Sportȱ ȱ ȱ  ǼŗŘȱȱȱ
¢ȱȱȱǻȱȱȱŗŜśǼȱę¢ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱȱǯȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ Ĵǯȱ
ȱȱ ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ¡¢ȱ
¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǰŗřȱȱȱȱȱ
¢ȱȱȱȱȱȱȂȱ¢ȱȱ¢ǯŗŚȱ
ȱȱȱ¡ŗśȱȱȱ¢ȱȱǰȱ
řIntroduction
ȱȱȱ ȱȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ¢ȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱ ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǯȱ ȱ Single Marketȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ ȱ ȱ
¢ȱȱȱȱȱȱ¡ǰȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱǯȱȱ socioculturalȱǰȱ¢ǰȱȱȱȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱ¢ȱǰȱ¢ǰȱȱȱę¢ȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱǯȱȱȱȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱ ȱ ȱȱȱ ȱȱȱ
ȱȱ ǰȱ ȱȱ ȱȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱ¢ȱǯ
Ȃȱ ȱ ȱ ǰȱ ǰȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱȱȱȱǯ
ŗŜȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱȱȱȬȬȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱȱ ȱ ȱ ǰȱȱ ǰȱȱǻȁ¢ȂǼǯȱ
¢ȱȱȱ ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ ȱ
¢ȱ ȱ  ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȁȂȱ
¢ǯȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱ¢ǯȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǰȱ ȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ¢ȱ¢ȱȱǯȱ
ǰȱȂȱȱȱȱȱDZ
ȱęȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
¢ȱȱȱȱ ǰȱȱ ȱ ȱȱ ȱ ¢ȱȱ ¢ǰȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱǯŗŝ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ǯȱ ȱ ¢ȱ
ȱȱBosman ǰȱȱĴǰȱȱȱǰȱȱȱ
¢ǰȱȱȱȱȱǰȱȱȁȱȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȂǰŗŞȱȱȱȁȱȱ
¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ Ȃǯŗşȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ Ȭȱ ¢ȱ ȁȱ
ȱȱ¢ȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱȂǯŘŖ
ȱȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱ
¢ȱǻȱȱǼȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱǰȱȱȱȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¡ȱ Ĵǰȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ
ȱ ¡ȱ  ȱ ǯȱ  ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ¢ȱ
ȱŗşŞśȱȱȱȱ£ȱȱȱȱǯŘŗȱǰȱ
ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ Ȃȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱȱȱ ¡ȱ ȱ ǯȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱȱ ȱȱ ȱȱȱȱ Bosmanȱ ȱ ȱȱ
ŚForeign players and football supporters
ȱȱěȱ ȱȱȱ ȱ £ȱ ȱȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱȱȱȱ ȱǻȱ Ǽȱ ȱ ȱ ȱȱ
ȱ¢ȱǯȱȱȱȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱ
ǵȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȱȱǯȱǰȱȱ
ȱǻȱǰȱ ¢Ǽȱȱȱ ȱ ȱ¢ǯȱǰȱ
ȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱ¢ȱǻȱ¢ȱȱȱ
ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ  ȱ ȱ ȱ ȁȂǼǯȱ ǰȱ
ȱ ęȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǻȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ
¢Ǽȱȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȱȱǯȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱ
ȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱǻȱȱ
¢ǰȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȁȱǼǰȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ¡ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ  ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱǯȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ǻȱ ȱ ȱ ¡Ǽǰȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱǯȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¡¢ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǰȱ ȱ
ȱȱȱȱ¡ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ǰȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱȱǯȱȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱ
ǰȱȱȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱ ǯŘŘȱȱǰȱȱ¢ȱȱȱ¢ȱ
ȱȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱ¡ǯȱȱȱȱȱǻȱ¡DZȱȱ
ȱȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ¢Ǽȱ
ȱ ȱ ěȱȱ ȱ ȱ ěȱǯȱ ¢ǰȱȱ
ȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ ȱ Ȭ
DZȱȱȱȱǰȱȱǰȱȱȱ¢ǯȱȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱ ȱȱȱ ¢ȱȱ ȱǰȱȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ęȱ ¢ȱȱ ȱ ȱ ȁȱ ȱ  ȱ ȱ  ȱ
ȱȱȱǰȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȂǯŘř
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ  ȱ ȱ ȱ DZȱ ǯǯȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ǯȱ ȱ ȱ ǻȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
Ǽȱ ȱ¢ȱȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱȱȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǯȱ ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
śIntroduction
ȱ ¡ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱǰȱȱȱǯȱ
ǰȱȱ ȱ ȱ ȱěȱ ¡ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱǯȱȂȱȱȱǰȱȱȱ
ȱǰȱȱ ȱ ȱȱ ǻȱȱǼȱ¡ȱȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ¢ȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȱǰȱȱ¢ȱ
ȱȱęȱȱBosmanȱȱȱȱȱ¢ǯȱ
ȱ ȱ Ȭęȱ ȱ ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǰȱ ȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱȱȱ¢ǯȱ¢ǰȱȱȱȱȱ
¢ȱȱȱȱȱ¢ǯȱȱŗşŞşǰȱǰȱȱȱęȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǯȱ ȱ ȱ ¡ȱ ȱ
¡ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǰȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ Ȃȱ ȱȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱȱȁȂȱǻȱ¢ȱȱȱȱ¢ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ Ȃȱ
ȱ¢Ǽǰȱȱȱȱ¢ȱǻȱ¢Ǽȱȱȱ
ȱ¢ȱȱȱ ¢ǯ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ěȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǻȱ ȱ ȱ ¡Ǽȱ ȱ
ǯȱȱȱȱȱȬȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǯȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱȱǰȱȱǰȱȱ¢ȱȱȱ¢ȱ
ȱ ¡ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱȱěǯȱ ȱ ȱ¢ȱ ȱ
ȱȱ ȱȱ ȱ ǰȱȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ǯȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ǰȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ
¡ȱ ¢ȱ ȱȱ ȱ ȱȱ ȱȱȬȱ
ȱȱŗşřŗȱȱŗşŝŞǯȱ¡¢ǰȱȱBosmanǰȱ
ȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
Ěǯȱ ȱ ŘŖŖŜǰȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ  ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱȱ¢ȱȱȬȱǯȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ǰȱȱȱȱȱȬȱȱ¢ȱȱ
ǰȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱǰȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱǰȱ¢ǯȱ¢ȱȱȱȱ
ȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱ¢ǰȱȱȬȱ
ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǰȱ
ȱȱǰȱȱȱę¢ȱȱȱǯȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ǰŘŚȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱȱȱȱȁȱȂȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǯȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ŜForeign players and football supporters
ȱȱǰȱȱȱȱȱǰȱȱ
ȱ ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ǯȱ Ȃȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ Ȃȱ ȱ
ǯŘśȱ ȱ ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ęȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¡ȱ ǻȱ ȱ ȱ Ȭ
Ǽǰȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ǻȱ ȱ Ǽǰȱ ȱ
ȱȱǯȱȱȱȱǰȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱȱȱǯȱȱȱȂȱȱȱȱ¢ȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
¢DZȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱĚȱ
ȱȱȂȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱęȱȱȱ
¢ȱȱǯȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȬȱ
ȱȱ¢ȱȱęȱȱ¢ǯ
¢ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǯȱ ȱ
ȱDZȱȱǻǼȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȱȁȱȱȱȱ
Ȃȱ Ȭȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǻȱ Ǽȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ęȱ Ĵȱ ȱ ȱ ȂǯŘŜȱȬ
ęȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱǰȱȱĴȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ Ȃȱ Ȭǰȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱęǯȱǰȱȱȱȱęȱȱȱ
ȱȱ¢ȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȱȱǯȱȱ
ęȱ ȱ ęȱ ȱ ȱ ęȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱǻǰȱǰȱȱǼǯ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱǰȱȱȱȱȱ
¡ȱ  ȱ ȱ ȱ ǻȱ ȱ ȱ Ǽȱ ȱ ǰȱ  ȱ
ȱ ęȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ  ǯȱ ȱ ȱ  ȱ
ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ  ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱȱȱȱęȱȱȱǰȱȱȱȱęȱ
ȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȱǯŘŝ
Notes
ȱ ŗȱ¹ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ·ȱ·ȱȱŗśȱ
·ȱ ŗşşśǰȱ Union Royale Belge des Sociétés de Football Association
eǯaǯ ǯ Bosman eǯaǯ ǻDZȱ ĴDZȦȦȬ¡ǯǯȦȦȦȏǵ
Ƿ¡ǷǷǭƽǭƽŜŗşşřŖŚŗśDzȱ ȱ
ȱŞȱȱŘŖŖŝȱǻȱBosmanǼǼǯ
ŝIntroduction
ȱ Řȱȱǯȱȁ¢Ȃȱ¢ȱǯȱǯȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱȱBosmanȂǰ ȱ Football StudiesǰȱřǻŘǼȱǻŘŖŖŖǼǰȱŚŘȮŜŜǯ
ȱ řȱ¹ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ·ȱ·ȱȱŗŘȱ
·ȱŗşŝŚǰȱBǯNǯOǯ Walraveǰ LǯJǯNǯ Koch contre Association Union cycliste
internationaleǰ Koninklijke Nederlandsche Wielren Unie et Federación Española
CiclismoȱǻDZȱĴDZȦȦȬ¡ǯǯȦ¡Ȧ¡ǯǵƽ
DZŜŗşŝŚŖŖřŜDZDZDzȱȱ ȱŞȱȱ ŘŖŖŝǼȱ ǻȱWalrave
and KochǯǼǯ
ȱ Śȱ¹ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ·ȱ·ȱȱŗŚȱ
ȱŗşŝŜǰȱGaetano Donà contre Mario ManteroȱǻDZȱĴDZȦȦȬ¡ǯǯ
Ȧ¡Ȧ¡ǯǵƽDZŜŗşŝŜŖŖŗřDZDZǰȱ ȱ
ȱŞȱȱŘŖŖŝȱǻȱDoǼǯ
ȱ śȱ ȱǰȱȁȱȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȂǰȱ
Yearbook of European Law 1989ǰ ŗŖȱǻŗşşŖǼǰȱśśȮşŘǯ
ȱ Ŝȱ ȱȱǰȱȱȱȱȱȬȱBosmanȱ
ȱ ȱ Bosmanǰȱ ȱ ȱ ¡ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ
Bosmanǯȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǰȱ ȁȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ DZȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȂǰȱJournal of Sport
and Social IssuesǰȱŘŜǻŚǼȱǻŘŖŖŘǼǰȱŚŘŗȮŚřŝǯ
ȱ ŝȱ ȱǰȱ Cases and materials on EC lawǯȱ DZȱǰȱ
ŗşşŜǰȱǯȵŗŖŘŗǯ
ȱ Şȱ Ȭȱ ǰȱ ȁ¡ȱ DZȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ǵȂǰȱInternational Sports Law JournalǰȱŜǻŗȮŘǼȱǻŘŖŖŜǼǰȱŞŝȮŗŖřǯ
ȱ şȱȱ¡ȱȱȱȱǰȱȁȱȱȱ
ȦȬȱDZȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱȱȱ¢ȱȂǰȱJournal of Contemporary European Researchǰȱ
řǻřǼȱǻŘŖŖŝǼǰȱŗŞŖȮŘŖŗǯȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ¢ȱ
ȱ¢ȱȱȱȱ¢ȱ¢ȱǰȱȱȱ
ȱȱǯ
ȱŗŖȱȱ£¢ȱȱȱ¢ǰȱWinners and losersǯȱ DZȱ
ǰȱŘŖŖŖǯ
ȱ ŗŗȱ ȁȱȱȱęȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱȂǯ
ȱ ŗŘȱ ȱȱ ȱ ȱ ǰȱWhite paper on sportǰ ȱ
ǻŘŖŖŝǼȱřşŗǯ
ȱ ŗřȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǻǯǼǰȱ Professional sport in the
European Union: regulation and re-regulationǯȱ ȱ DZȱ ȱ ǰȱ
ŘŖŖŖǯ
ȱ ŗŚȱ ȱǰȱȱȱȱȱǯȱǯȱȱǻǯǼǰȱEUǰ
sportǰ law and policy: regulationǰ re-regulation and representationǯ ȱDZȱ
ȱǰȱŘŖŖşǯ
ȱ ŗśȱ ȱǰȱSports law and policy in the European Unionǯȱȱ
¢ȱǰȱŘŖŖřǯ
ȱ ŗŜȱ ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȂȱȱȱŖŝŖǰȱşȱ
¢ȱŘŖŖŝǯȱȱ¡ȱDZȱȁȱȱȂǰȱUEFA directǰȱ
śŝ ǻŘŖŖŝǼǰȱ ŗŖȮŗŗDzȱ ȱ ǯȱĴǰȱ ȁȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢Ȃǰȱ ȱ
ŞForeign players and football supporters
ȱ ȱ  ȱ ȱŗŞȱ ¢ȱ ŘŖŖŝǯȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ
Ĵȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ęȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ
¢ȱȱȱȱȱŘŗȮŘŘȱȱŘŖŖŜǯ
ȱ ŗŝȱ ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ£ȱȱȱ
ŘŖȱȱŗşşśǰȱȱȱȱȱ ȱ ȱȱȱ Bosmanȱ
ȱǻDZȱĴDZȦȦȬ¡ǯǯȦ¡Ȧ¡ǯǵƽDZ
ŜŗşşřŖŚŗśDZDZDzȱȱȱŗŚȱ¢ȱŘŖŖŝǼǯ
ȱ ŗŞȱ ȱ ǰȱ ȁĴȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ Ȃǰȱ Daily
TelegraphǰȱŘŖȱȱŘŖŖśǯȱ
ȱ ŗşȱ ȱ ǰȱ ȁĴȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȂǰȱMail on SundayǰȱŗŚȱ¢ȱŘŖŖŜǯ
ȱ ŘŖȱ ǰȱȁĴȱȱȱȱȱȱȂǯ
ȱ Řŗȱ ȱ ȱ Ĵȱ ȁȱ ȱ Ȃȱ Ȃǰȱ Report to the European
Councilǰ ŗşŞśȱ ǻDZ ǯǯǯȦȦȦǯ
DzȱȱȱŞȱȱŘŖŖŝǼǯ
ȱ ŘŘȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¡ȱ ȱ ȱ ǰȱ
DZȱ¡ȱǯȱȱȱȱǰȱCase studies and theory
development in the social sciencesǯȱǰȱDZȱȱǰȱŘŖŖŚȱ
ǻȱȱȱȱŘŖŖŚǼǯ
ȱ Řřȱ ȱǯȱǰȱCase study research: design and methodsǯȱDZȱǰȱŗşşŚǰȱ
ǯȵŚśěǯȱǻȱȱŗşşŚǼǯ
ȱ ŘŚȱ ȱ ǰȱ       
spread of nationalismǯȱDZȱǰȱŗşşŗȱǻȱȱŗşşŗǼǯ
ȱ Řśȱ ȱǰȱSportǰ culture and the media: the unruly trinityǯ DZȱ
ȱ¢ȱǰȱŗşşşȱǻȱȱŗşşşǼȱȱȱ ǰȱȱ
ǯȵŘŚěǯȱȱ ȱȱȱ ¡ȱ¢ȱ·âȱ ǰȱȱȱ
L’Équipe ȱ ȱȱȱȱȱǰȱȱȱȱȱęȱ ¢ȱ
ȱȱȱǯ
ȱ ŘŜȱ  ȱ ǰȱ Human groups and social categoriesǯȱ ȱ¢ȱ
ǰȱŗşŞŗǰȱǯȵŘśśȱǻȱȱŗşŞŗǼǯ
ȱ Řŝȱ ȱȱȱŘŖŖŚǯ
²

ȱȱȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱDZȱȱǰȱȁȱ
ȱęȱȱȱȱ¢ȂǰȱȱĴȱĵûǰȱĴȱ
ǰȱȱûǰȱȱ ǯȱ£¢ȱ ȱ ȱȱ ǻǯǼǰȱ
Contemporary European football, sport and the construction of identitiesǯȱDZȱ
ȱȱǭȱǰȱŘŖŖŝDzȱȱǰȱȁȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱȂǰȱȱȱǰȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ǻǯǼǰȱ Professional sport in the European Union: regulation, re-regulation and
representationǯȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ǰȱ ŘŖŖŞDzȱ
ȱǰȱȁȱȱȱȱȱȱ·ȱ·ȱ
ǻǰȱǰȱȱȱǼȂǰȱȱȱȱǻǯǼǰȱFootball, Europe
et regulationsǯȱDZȱȱȱȱǰȱŘŖŗŗDzȱȱ¢ǰȱ
ȱȱȱȱǰȱȁȱ¢ǰȱȱȂǰȱJournal of
educational media, memory and societyǰȱŗǻŘǼȱǻŘŖŖşǼǰȱŗŘśȮŗŚŚǯ
ȱ  ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ  ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
¢ȱȱȱ ȱȱȱ ȬBosmanȱǯȱȱȱȱȱǰȱ
¢ȱȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱ
¢ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ǯȱ
ȱȱȱęȱȱȱȱȱDZȱȱ¢ȱȱȱ
ǰȱȱ ȱ ȱ ȱȱȱȱ ȱǯȱȱ ¢ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱȱȱȁȱȂȱȱǰȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱǯ
ȱȱȱȱęȱȱȱȱȱȱȱǯȱ
¢ȱȱȱ¢ȱ¢ȱ ȱȱĚ¡ȱȱȱ¢ȱ
ȱȱBosmanȱȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȂȱ
¢ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ǯȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǯȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ
ŗŜŚ Foreign players and football supporters
¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǰȱ ¢ȱ ȱ Ȃȱ
ęȱ ȱ ȱ ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¡ȱ ȱ
¢ȱȱȱȱǯ
The role played by the press
ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ
ęǯȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱǯȱȱȱ ¢ȱȱ ȱȱ ȱȱ ȱȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȁȂǯȱȱȱȱǰȱȱ¡ǰȱȱȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢DZȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ Ěǯȱ ǰȱ ȱ
¡ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱǰȱ¢ȱȱȱ
ȱȱȱȂȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱȱ ȱ ¢ǰȱȱȱȱ ȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ǰȱ ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȬȱȱȱ
ǯȱȱęȱ¢ȱȱ¢Ȃȱ ȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱȱȱȱęǯ
ȱȱ¢ȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ęȱȱ¢ȱȱ ȱȱȱ ȱęȱ ȱȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ǯȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ¡ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱȱǰȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱǰȱ
ȱǰȱL’ÉquipeȱȱLe Parisienǯȱǰȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱ¢ȱȱȱȱǻȱȱȱȱȱ
ęȱȱȱȂȱǼǰȱȱǰȱ¢ǰȱ¢ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ Ȯȱ ȱ ¢ȱ
ȱȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱȱȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ęǯȱȱȱǰȱȱȱȮȱȱȱȮȱȱȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ¢ȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱǰȱȱȱ¢ȱȱĚȱ¢ȱȱȱǯȱȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȬ¢ȱǯ
ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ¢ȱ¢ǯȱ¢ȱ¢ȱȱ
ŗŜśConclusion
¢ȱȱȱǰȱȱȱȱȱ¢ȱ¢ȱȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǰȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ  ¢ȱ
ȱȱȱǻȱȱ ȱ¢Ǽȱǯȱ ȱȱȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǰȱ
ȱȱǰȱȱȱȱǰȱȱȱ
ȱȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱȱ¢ǯȱ£ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ęȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ DZȱ Ȭȱȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ǻȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ Ǽȱ ȱ Ȭȱ ǰȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱǯȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱ
ȱȱȱȱęȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱȱȱȱǯȱǰȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱǰȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱǻȱȱǰȱa fortioriǰ ȱ ȁȂǼǰȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ
ȱǯȱȱȱȱȱǰȱȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱ
¢ȱȱǰȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ¢ȱ¢ȱȱȱȱ
ǯ
ȱȱȱȱǰȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱ ǯȱ ȱ Ĝȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ Ȭȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ǻȱȱȱȱ¢ȱ¢ǼǯȱȱȱǰȱȱȂȱ
ǰȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
¢ȱȱȱȱȱȱǰȱȱȱȱǯȱȱȱ
ȱȱȱǰȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱȱ
ȱȱȂȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱǯȱȱȱ¢ȱ¢ȱȱȱ
ȱȱȱȂȱȱ¢ȱȱȱ ȱȂȱȬ
ęȱȱĴȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ¡ȱ
ȱ¢ȱ¢ǯ

ȱ ȱ ȱ Ȃȱ ęȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱǯȱ ȱȱȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱǻȱȱęȱȱĜȱ
Ǽȱ¢ȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱ¢ǰȱȱȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱ
ŗŜŜ Foreign players and football supporters
ȱȱ ȱȱȱ ȱȱ ȱȱȂȱęȬ
ȱȱȱǯȱȱǰȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱ ǻȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ Ǽȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
¢ǯȱȱȱȱȱȱȂȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ¢ȱǻȱȱȱ
Bosman ¢ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢Ǽǯȱ ¢ȱ Ȃȱ
¢ȱȱę¢ȱȱȱ ȱǰȱȱȱȱ
ȱȱȱ ȱȱȱȱȱ ȱ ȱ ȱȱȱ
ȱ¢ȱ¢ȱȱȱ ȱ ¢ȱȱǻȱ ȱȱ
ȱȱ¢ȱȱǼǯȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱȱȱȱǯ
ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
¡ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ęȱȱ¢ȱǰȱȱȱǯȱȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱȱ¢ȱȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ǯȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ
ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ǯȱ ȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ ȱȱȱ
ȱȱȱǯȱȱȱ¢ǰȱǰȱȱȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ǻȱȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ŗşŝŖǰȱȱ ȱ ¢ȱȱ Ǽǯȱȱ
ȱǰȱȱęȱȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ǯȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
¢ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ¡ȱ ¢ȱ ǰȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ǰȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ¢ǯȱȱ
ȱ¢ȱ¢ȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱȱǰȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¡ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ǻȱ ȱ Ǽȱ
ȱȱȱǯȱ¢ȱ¢ȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱȱ
¢ȱȱȱȱȱ¢ȱǻȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱ Ǽȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱȱȱȱ¢ǰȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ¢ȱȱ
ǯȱȱ ȱ ȱȱ ¢ȱȱȱ ¢ȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ ȱȱǻȱȱ Ȭ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱǼȱȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱ
ǯȱȱȱȱ ȱȱ ¢ȱȱȱȱ¢ȱ ȱ
ȱ¢ǰȱ¢ȱȱ ¢ȱȱȱȱȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱǰȱȱȱȱ¢ȱȱǯ
ȱ¢ǰȱȱȱȱȱet al. ȱȱȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ¢ȱ¢ȱ
ŗŜŝConclusion
ȁȂȱ DZȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ Ĝȱ ȱ ȱ ȁȂȱ ȱ ǻȱ
¢¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ Ǽǯȱ ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ
ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ Ȯȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ
ȱȁȂȱȱȱ ȱȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȱ
¢ȱȱǯȱȱ¢ȱȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱet al. ȱȱȱ
¢ȱ¡ȱȱȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱȱǯȱ
ȱȱ¢ǰȱȱȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱ¢ȱȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱǰȱȱ¢¢ȱȱ¡ȱȱȱ
ȱĴȱ¢ǯ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
 ȱȱȱ¢ǯȱȱĚ¢ȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱȱ ȱ DZȱ¢ȱȱȱ ȱȱȱȱ
ǰȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ¡ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱǻȱȱȱęǼȱ¢ȱȱȱȱ¢ȱ
ȱȱȱĴȱȱȱȱȱĴȱȱǯȱȱ
ȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱȁ¢Ȃȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱȱȱȱǯȱȱǰȱǰȱȱȱ
ȱ  ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ  ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ǯȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱȱȱȱ ȱȱȱȱȱ ěȱ
ȱȱ¢ȱ¢ȱȱǻȱȱȱȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ Ǽǯȱ Ȃȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǰȱ ǰȱ ȱ
ȱȱĴȱȱ¡ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ǯȱ
ǰȱȱȱǻȱǼȱȱȱȱȱęȱ
ǻȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ¢Ǽȱ ȱ ěȱ ¢ȱ ȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱǯ
New symbols and processes of symbolisation
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ęȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ¢ȱȱȱȱ¡ȱǯȱȱȱȱȱ
ǯȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȱ
DZȱȱȱȱȱȁ¢Ȃȱȱȱȱ
¢ȱ ȱ ȱ Dzȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ
ȱȱȱȱǯȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱȱ¢ȱȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ¢ȱǻ¢ȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱǼȱȱ¢ȱȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱ¢ȱ
ŗŜŞ Foreign players and football supporters
ȱȱDZȱȱ¢ȱȱȂȱ¢ȱȱȱǯȱȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ¢ȱ
ȱ¢ȱȱȱǯȱ¢ǰȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱ ȱ
ǯȱ ȱ ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ  ȱ ȱȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱǻ¢ǰȱȱ¸ȱǼȱȱȱȱȱǯȱ
ȱ Ȃȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ
ȱȱȱȱ¢ȱǻȱ¡ǰȱȱȬ¢Ȭȱ
¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ
Ǽǯȱ ȱ ȱ ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
¡ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǻ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ŗşşřǼǯȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱǻȱȬȱȁindépendantsȂǼȱ
ȱǯ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱęȬ
ǰȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
¢ȱǰȱȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¡ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱǰȱ¢ǰȱȱȱ
ȱȱȱ¢ȱǯȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ Ȃȱ ęȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ  ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ  ȱ ȱ ȱ ęȬ
ǯȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ ¢ǯȱȱȱ
ęȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ Ȃȱ
ęȱȱȱȱȱǯȱȂȱȱȱȱ
ȱ¢ȱȱȱ¢ǯȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȱęǰȱ
ǯȱ ȱ ěȱ ȱ ȁȱ ȱ ¢Ȃȱ ȱ ȁȱ
ȱęȂȱȱ ȱȱ ȱȱ ¢ǯȱȱȱ
ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ěȱ ¡ǯȱ ȱ
¢ȱȱȱȱ¢ȱěȱȱȱȱȱȱǯȱȱȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ęȱ Ȯȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ
ȱȱDZȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ǯȱ ȱ ęȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱ
ȱ ȱȱȱ ȱ ȱȱ¢ȱȱ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ
¢ǯȱ¢ȱȱȬȱȱǻǼȱȱȱȬȱȱ
ǻǼȱȱ¢ȱȱȱȱ¢ǰȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ęȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ ęȱǯȱǰȱ
ȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱ¢ȱȱ¢ȱȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱǯȱǰȱ
ǰȱȱȱ ęȱ¢ȱȱȱ ȱȱȱȱȱ ȱ
ǯȱȱȱȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ŗŜşConclusion
ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱǯȱȱȱ
ȱ ǰȱ ȱ ¡ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ
ȱȱȱȱ¡¢ȱȱȱȱDZȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱȱȱ Ĵȱ ȱȱȱǯȱȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ŗşŝŖǰȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱȱȁȂȱǯ
ę¢ǰȱȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȬ
ȱǻȱȱȱȱȁȱȂǼȱȱ¢ȱȱ
ȱȱ ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ¢ȱ
ǯȱȱȱ ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱǯȱȱȱȱ¢ȱ¢ȱȱȱȱǰȱ
ȱȱěȱȱȱȱěȱȱǻ¢ǵǰȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱǵǼȱȱ
ȱȱȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ǯȱȱ ȱȱ
¢ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ¡ȱ¢ȱȱȱ
¢ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ¢ȱ
ȱȱȱȱ ȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱȱȁȱȂǰȱȱȱȱȁȱȱ¢Ȃǯȱȱ
¢ȱȱȱȱȱ¢ȱȱ¢ȱȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ¢ȱǻȱȱȱ
ȱȱǼǰȱȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȱȱǯ
Scope for further study
ȱȱȱȱȱ ȱȱȱ
¢ȱȱ¢ȱěȱȱ ȱȱȱȱȱǯȱ
ȱȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱȱȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱȱ ȱ ȱ ¡ǯȱ ǰȱ ȱ
ȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱǯȱ¢ǰȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ǻȱȱ ¢ȱ  Ǽȱ ęǯȱ ȱ ȱ  ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ
ȱȱ ȱ DZȱȱ Ĵȱ¢ȱ ȱȱ ȱěȱȱ
ȱȱȱǯȱȱȱȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ¢ȱȱȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱȱȱęDZȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
¢ȱȱ¢ȱǯȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǰȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱ¡ȱȱȱȱěȱȱȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ Ȃȱ ęǯȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ŗŝŖ Foreign players and football supporters
ȱ¢ȱęȱȱȱȱ ȱȱȱȱ
¢ȱȱǯȱȱȱ ȱ¢ȱ¢ȱȱȱ ǯŗȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱǰȱȱȱȱȱȁȂȱȱ
ȱ ȁȱ ¢ȱ Ȃȱ ¢ȱ ¢ȱ ǯȱ ȱ ěȱ
ȱȱȱȱȁĚ¡ȱȂȱǻ¢ȱęȱȱȱȱ
ȱȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȱȱ ǼȱȱȁȱȂȱ
ǻȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ Ǽǯȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱȱȱǰȱȱȱȱȱȱĴȱȱȱ
ȁȱ Ȃȱ ȱ ǯȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ Ĵȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱDZȱȱȱȱ
Ě¡ȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȱȬȱȱȬǰȱ¢ȱ
ȱ ȱ  ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱȁȂǯ
ȱ¢ȱȱȱęȱȱȱȱȱȱęȱ
ǰȱȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱěȱȁȂȱ¡ǯȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱ ȱ  ǰȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¡ȱ ȱ ȱ  ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱȱȱ¢ȱȱ ǯȱǰȱȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ¢ȱ
ȱǰȱȱǰȱȱǯȱȱȱ¢ȱ¢ȱǰȱ
ȱ ȱ ǰȱ ȱ ȱǰȱȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǰȱȱ ¢ȱ
ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǯȱ ǰȱ  ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ Ĵȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ
ǯȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱȱęȱȱȂȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱ¢ȱȱȱȱȱęȱȱ¢ȱǻȁȱ
Ȃȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ¡ȱȱ
ȱǼǯ
¢ǰȱȱȱȱȱȱ¢ȱę¢ȱȱȱęȱȱ
ȱǰȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ
ȱȱ¢ȱȱȱǰȱ¢ȱȱ
ȱȱǰȱȱȱȱȱȱ¢¢ȱȱȱȱȱ
ǯȱȱȱȱǰȱȱȱȱǻȱ
Ǽȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱǰȱȱȱ
¢ȱȱȱ ȱ ȱ ȱȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ
ȱǯȱ¢Ȭęȱ¢ȱȱȱȱǰȱȱ
ȱ ȱȱ ȁȱȂȱȂȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱȱ
ȱ¢ȱȱȱȂȱǯ
ŗŝŗConclusion
Notes
ȱ ŗȱ ȱ ǯȱǰȱ ȁ¢ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ǵȱ ȱ ȱ ¢ȱ
ȱ ȱ  ȱ ȱ  Ȃǰȱ Journal of Consumer Researchǰȱ ŘşǻŗǼ
ǻŘŖŖŘǼǰȱŝŖȮşŖǯȱ
... Frente al énfasis que los enfoques funcionalistas y críticos ponen en la determinación social del apoyo a un club, las perspectivas de orientación interpretativa sostienen que la comprensión de tal tipo de comportamientos debe incluir el significado que los individuos dan a sus acciones. Los estudios de Christian Bromberger (1995) y Richard Giulianotti (1999) realizados en gran medida -aunque no solo-desde esta perspectiva, enfatizan la au-tonomía de la que gozan los aficionados al fútbol al decidir convertirse en seguidores de un determinado club y subrayan la importancia que tienen en ese proceso la representación de la identidad, la delimitación de los antagonismos y la construcción del grupo (Ranc, 2012). Así lo señala de manera explícita Bromberger, para quien los aficionados, por regla general, son capaces de explicitar las razones por las que apoyan a un determinado club. ...
... Así lo han puesto de manifiesto historiadores como Richard Holt al afirmar que la hipótesis del nexo territorial está limitada por la trayectoria competitiva de los clubes, pues la lealtad a estos varía enormemente en función del rendimiento y los éxitos deportivos (Holt, 1989). Este aspecto también ha sido subrayado por numerosos estudios desarrollados en el campo de la psicología social, según los cuales los aficionados son más proclives a manifestar el apoyo a sus clubes cuando ganan, mientras que tienden a minimizar sus vínculos con los mismos tras las derrotas (Ranc, 2012). ...
... Esta posibilidad tiene una especial relevancia en el caso español habida cuenta de la importancia histórica y las connotaciones identitarias de muchos de sus clubes de fútbol. Estaría fundamentada en las observacio-nes recogidas en el apartado anterior en relación al carácter determinante de los éxitos deportivos y su posible efecto debilitador de las conexiones identitarias (Holt, 1989;Ranc, 2012). Asimismo debe tenerse presente que la superioridad deportiva de estos clubes tiene su correlato en (o está causada por) una superioridad económica. ...
Article
Las ciencias sociales han destacado desde antiguo el potencial del fútbol —y más concretamente de sus principales clubes y selecciones nacionales— en la creación de espacios de identificación colectiva, así como su capacidad de incidir en los patrones de interacción de la población y promover un amplio repertorio de sentimientos, emociones y pautas de participación y consumo. La investigación que se presenta en este artículo examina la identificación con clubes de fútbol en España y analiza la evolución de estos como enclaves de identificación colectiva durante las tres últimas décadas, así como la dinámica interna de esas identificaciones y las ransformaciones de su base social. Para llevar a cabo tal objetivo se recurre a tres encuestas realizadas por el Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas (CIS) a muestras representativas de la población española en 1984, 2007 y 2014.
... Frente al énfasis que los enfoques funcionalistas y críticos ponen en la determinación social del apoyo a un club, las perspectivas de orientación interpretativa sostienen que la comprensión de tal tipo de comportamientos debe incluir el significado que los individuos dan a sus acciones. Los estudios de Christian Bromberger (1995) y Richard Giulianotti (1999) realizados en gran medida -aunque no solo-desde esta perspectiva, enfatizan la au-tonomía de la que gozan los aficionados al fútbol al decidir convertirse en seguidores de un determinado club y subrayan la importancia que tienen en ese proceso la representación de la identidad, la delimitación de los antagonismos y la construcción del grupo (Ranc, 2012). Así lo señala de manera explícita Bromberger, para quien los aficionados, por regla general, son capaces de explicitar las razones por las que apoyan a un determinado club. ...
... Así lo han puesto de manifiesto historiadores como Richard Holt al afirmar que la hipótesis del nexo territorial está limitada por la trayectoria competitiva de los clubes, pues la lealtad a estos varía enormemente en función del rendimiento y los éxitos deportivos (Holt, 1989). Este aspecto también ha sido subrayado por numerosos estudios desarrollados en el campo de la psicología social, según los cuales los aficionados son más proclives a manifestar el apoyo a sus clubes cuando ganan, mientras que tienden a minimizar sus vínculos con los mismos tras las derrotas (Ranc, 2012). ...
... Esta posibilidad tiene una especial relevancia en el caso español habida cuenta de la importancia histórica y las connotaciones identitarias de muchos de sus clubes de fútbol. Estaría fundamentada en las observacio-nes recogidas en el apartado anterior en relación al carácter determinante de los éxitos deportivos y su posible efecto debilitador de las conexiones identitarias (Holt, 1989;Ranc, 2012). Asimismo debe tenerse presente que la superioridad deportiva de estos clubes tiene su correlato en (o está causada por) una superioridad económica. ...
Article
Full-text available
El presente artículo analiza los recientes cambios que ha sufrido la gimnasia artística a través del concepto de equilibrio de tensiones, vinculado a la sociología de Norbert Elias. Para que la actividad deportiva ofrezca una estimulación adecuada debe existir un equilibrio entre la intensidad/descontrol emocional y la seguridad/control emocional. En el caso de la gimnasia artística, la tendencia hacia el aumento de la especialización de los gimnastas y hacia el incremento de la dificultad de los ejercicios parece derivarse de un proceso social ciego en el cual la combinación de la mejora en el material (en algunos aparatos como suelo o salto) y el cambio en el reglamento resultó en el desarrollo de una gimnasia más atractiva para los espectadores a expensas del aumento del riesgo para los deportistas. Los aparatos de suelo, salto y barra fija fueron los más afectados en este proceso.
... This is not surprising, as England's top division can be regarded the first "global league" (Millward, 2011). In a similar vein, the nexus between internationalised player markets and squads and its impact on fan identifications has been subject to studies at various hubs of European football (Ranc, 2012). Equally important, the emerging importance of so-called "foreign fandom" -closely following a team outside one's country of residence -has received a good deal of attention in the last two decades (Nash, 2000;Kerr and Emery, 2011;Baker, 2017). ...
Chapter
In this chapter, the focus is on “football governance” and “football fandom” as two domains, which substantially broaden and enhance our understanding of European integration dynamics. First, “football” – in contrast to the fields of action conventionally studied – offers a seemingly non-political arena, which has been dramatically transformed in the last 25 years through European integration. Second, a recognisable Europeanisation of structures, governance and format of the game has arguably also triggered reactions among those who follow football, i.e. football fans, spectators, and those simply interested in the sport. It is in that sense that a renewed focus on mundane and leisure time activities, such as sport fandom, is warranted in order to grasp the depth of European integration beyond narrow political and institutional (European Union [EU]-focused) concerns.
... This takes place by encoding success (or even mere hope of participation) in European club competitions in heritage stories, 32 by the exoticism connected with fans' travel to European matches across the continent 33 and by the diverse nationalities of players who have become fans' favourites or have played a crucial role in the club's recent history and successes. 34 All these processes imbue the identity of a club -often rooted in a local, regional or national context -with European elements without threatening the former. 35 They serve as a way to renegotiate identities in the context of Europeanisation, and how the 'other' relates to what is 'self' or 'local'. ...
Article
Full-text available
The article explores the Europeanisation of football, focusing on two dimensions of this process: its affective and regulatory dimension. Developments such as the creation of pan-European club competitions and growing cross-border movement of players mean that ‘Europe’ plays an ever more important role in football on an affective level. The same is true on a regulatory level, where EU law and policy have come to impact various aspects of football, ranging from transfer rules, to club financing, to the sale of broadcasting rights. We argue that only by examining the interaction between these two dimensions can we truly understand what is ‘European’ about football. The article shows that there continues to be strong support in football for the cultural elements of the European Sport Model, including a commitment to local identity, sporting merit and solidarity. By contrast, its governance aspects are increasingly coming under pressure, as the recent European Super League saga illustrates. Our findings suggest that the EU can – and should – do more to improve regulatory standards in football and push for a greater representation of fans and other stakeholders that have currently no, or limited, voice in the football pyramid.
... Initial research of how these developments of Europeanisation in football might influence fan identifications has indicated that fans tend to show more Europeanised self-understandings when following their team in European competitions (King 2000;King 2003;Millward 2006;Millward 2009). The internationalisation (and Europeanisation) of the squads seems not to compromise the fans' ability to identify with their team (Ranc 2012). This part discusses how the four mechanisms of Europeanisation of football induce banal experiences of Europe among fans. ...
Article
Full-text available
Michael Billig’s seminal work ‘Banal nationalism’ described how everyday practice and habits reinforce national identity. Football fans provide a fertile ground for an application of this concept. The community among supporters of the same team is constitutional for football. 20 years after his book, the Europeanisation of football structures could have caused banal national identifications to expand to the European level, contributing to a ‘banal Europeanism’. In contrast to the crises of political Europe, football could provide fans with an everyday practice of Europe. This might change the understanding of in- and out-groups among supporters and beyond. The article discusses ‘banal nationalism’ in the arena of European club football. It elaborates in how far ‘banal’ football fandom related practice is related to the European level. The leading question of the article is: How does football create an arena for ‘banal Europeanism’ among football fans?
... The results of the above-mentioned dynamics of Europeanisation in football can be summarised as follows: The Bosman ruling and their aftermath accelerated a development of increased Europeanisation (and internationalisation) of player markets. Football teams are increasingly comprised of players from other overseas before and there are many indicators that suggest this does not infringe the ability of fans to identify with "their" team (Ranc 2012). The development of the CL into a de facto European league influences the experience of football supporters: They are frequently exposed to competition between foreign clubs and clubs from "their" league (either their club or its rivals). ...
Article
Full-text available
Discursive approaches to Europe usually focus on elite discourses and target a narrow political understanding of Europe. Against the backdrop of rising Euroscepticism and the known elite-mass divide on issues of European identity, it seems important to shift the focus toward non-elite discourses on Europe. Given that club football is largely Europeanised (player markets, continent-wide club competitions and broadcasting of matches), we analyse how fans of the English Premier League club Manchester United discursively construct ‘Europe’ in relation to their sport. Our main research question aims at identifying how identifications of fans have been unconsciously Europeanised in the wake of an ongoing Europeanisation of the game. We explore online discourses on rivalry, competition and player transfers in club football as these areas are strongly influenced by the interplay of national and European inclinations. Preliminary results of our qualitative content analysis demonstrate that Manchester United fans, inasmuch as their club ‘goes Europe’ on a frequent basis, have developed transnational perspectives on football. Distinctions between ‘us’ and ‘them’ are not predominantly based on nationality, even though they remain complex. However, European orientations (not the European Union as such) seem to play more of a prominent role than commonly assumed.
... A klubfutballra nézve ez a nemzeti identitás természetszerűleg kisebb területre szűkül, régióra vagy még inkább városra, városrészre. A klublabdarúgás tradicionálisan egy várost képvisel, így ezek a klubok és szurkolóik lokális identitással rendelkeznek, a szimpatizánsok számára különös jelentőséggel bírnak a gyökerek (Ranc, 2012). Duke (2002) felhívja a figyelmet, hogy a hivatásos sportban egyre inkább teret nyer a globalitás, ugyanakkor nem lehet azt figyelmen kívül hagyni, hogy a labdarúgás hagyományosan a futballklub, a helyi közösségek és a szurkolók kapcsolatában gyökerezik. ...
Article
Full-text available
Az alacsony fogyasztói érdeklődés a magyar klubok üzleti alapú működésének egyik legfőbb gátja, éppen ezért a passzív sportfogyasztás vizsgálata felettébb szükségszerű a magyar labdarúgásban. Kutatásunkban a passzív sportfogyasztás komplex elemzését végeztük el, amely a szurkolókra és a mérkőzésektől távolmaradókra egyaránt kiterjedt. Vizsgálati módszerünk a szurkolók esetében szurkolói motivációs skála, míg a távolmaradók esetében sportfogyasztástól való tartózkodási skála volt. A skálák megbízhatóságát Cronbach-alfa érték számítással teszteltük, melynek eredménye a legtöbb faktor esetében meghaladta az elvárt küszöbértéket. Kutatási eredményeink cáfolják azt a közvélekedést, hogy a sikertelenség központi szerepet játszik az alacsony nézői érdeklődésben. Vizsgálatunk során arra a következtetésre jutottunk, hogy a szurkolókat, nézőket a siker helyett, inkább az olyan szocio-kulturális tényezők csalogatják ki a stadionokba, mint a csapattal való azonosulás és ahhoz való lojalitás.
Article
Full-text available
The past 25 years have seen an unprecedented Europeanisation of the structures and governance in football across the continent. A European (and global) transfer market for players and managers has become the norm and a pan-European league system has been established that regularly exposes supporters to transnational competitions and players from all over Europe. At the same time, manifold typologies of football fans have been established, distinguishing groups of fans based on, for example, fan intensity, fan behaviour or their attitudes towards different actors in the field. The attitudes towards Europe and the self-identification of these fans within Europeanised football have not played a role in any of these typologies so far. This paper steps into that void and develops a typology of football fans in (Western) Europe that takes their attitudes towards Europeanisation as a point of departure. Based on data from an online survey among fans of first league clubs in England, France, Austria and Germany, two dimensions are identified as key categories: the intensity of fandom, and fans’ attitudes towards Europeanisation – which here manifests as a divide between the national/local belonging versus appreciating diversity and transnational spaces/developments or more succinctly, a divide between cosmopolitanism and communitarianism. Our analysis uncovers the existence of four types of fans: occasional cosmopolitans, occasional communitarians, frequent cosmopolitans and frequent communitarians.
Article
This article draws on translation theory to show how the collective selfhood of followers of football in Northern Ireland, rooted in national and political identity, is expressed. Building on the work of Judith Butler on gender and hate speech, complemented by insights from translation theorists, it demonstrates how we might view this activity as translational by considering it as a performance of identity. The performative turn in translation studies has marked a shift from analyses of the written and spoken word to the presence of performative processes in a range of practices. Consequently, this article permits a new outlook on how notions of identity are expressed by supporters in club and international football in Northern Ireland and the significance of the places in which this process is enacted, while its interdisciplinary nature highlights the relevance of applying translation theory across other disciplines.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.