By exploring associational life in early modern Italy, which the arguments of neo-Tocquevillians such as Robert Putnam explore,
this article critically reconsiders the effects of associations upon democracy. By revealing how rich associational life resulted
in the establishment of Fascism, I argue that associations do not necessarily contribute to the stabilization of democracy.In
order to ... [Show full abstract] account better for meanings of associations, I emphasize transformation of identities of associations in a political
and ideological context.