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A lost world in Timor-Leste, Mundo Perdido: A profile of its biodiversity and conservation.

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Abstract

A profile of its biodiversity and conservation Mount Mundo Perdido — literally, 'Lost World' in Portuguese — has the finest montane forests in Timor-Leste and perhaps the whole of Timor island. Its importance was almost unknown until recent surveys, but these have clearly shown that it merits consideration for management as a new Protected Area, as part of the national network being established by the Government of Timor-Leste. The Mount Mundo Perdido Important Bird Area (IBA) comprises an isolated mountain massif in central-east Timor-Leste. It rises to a maximum altitude of 1,760 m, with about 3,600 ha of land above 1,000 m, and the lower boundary has been defined using the 750 m contour (although this could be modified in the future to include any areas of high-quality forest below this altitude and to exclude any significant areas of human habitation or agricultural land). Most of the IBA is in Ossu sub-district, at the northern edge of Viqueque district, but it also includes Mount Laritame (c.1,390 m), which lies 5 km to the northeast of the peak of Mount Mundo Perdido in Vemasse and Venilale sub-districts, at the southern edge of Baucau district. There are four villages in the area: Ossu de Sima, Luihuno, Builalae and Liaruca. The Builo range (c.1,200 m, with an area of c.3,000-4,000 ha) in Uaguia village, to the southeast of Mundo Perdido, is not currently included in the IBA, but might be added in the future if it proves to support significant biodiversity.
A lost world in Timor-Leste
Mount Mundo Perdido
A profile of its biodiversity and
conservation
Mount Mundo Perdido — literally, ‘Lost
World’ in Portuguese — has the finest
montane forests in Timor-Leste and perhaps
the whole of Timor island. Its importance
was almost unknown until recent surveys,
but these have clearly shown that it merits
consideration for management as a new
Protected Area, as part of the national
network being established by the
Government of Timor-Leste.
2
Site details
District: Viqueque; Baucau
Coordinates: 8°43’S 126°20’E
Area: 16,100 ha
Altitude: 750-1,760 m
Site description
The Mount Mundo Perdido Important Bird Area (IBA)
comprises an isolated mountain massif in central-east
Timor-Leste. It rises to a maximum altitude of 1,760 m,
with about 3,600 ha of land above 1,000 m, and the lower
boundary has been defined using the 750 m contour
(although this could be modified in the future to include
any areas of high-quality forest below this altitude and to
exclude any significant areas of human habitation or agri-
cultural land). Most of the IBA is in Ossu sub-district, at
the northern edge of Viqueque district, but it also includes
Mount Laritame (c.1,390 m), which lies 5 km to the north-
east of the peak of Mount Mundo Perdido in Vemasse and
Venilale sub-districts, at the southern edge of Baucau dis-
trict. There are four villages in the area: Ossu de Sima,
Luihuno, Builalae and Liaruca. The Builo range (c.1,200
m, with an area of c.3,000-4,000 ha) in Uaguia village, to
the south-east of Mundo Perdido, is not currently included
in the IBA, but might be added in the future if it proves to
support significant biodiversity.
Mount Mundo Perdido has been protected from agricul-
tural development by its steep and rocky terrain. It is com-
prised mostly of karst limestone with skeletal soils, al-
though there are deep organic soils in the forested areas
and heavy clay on some of the slopes and plains. Based on
data for nearby Ossu, the IBA has a highly seasonal climate
with a wet season running from December to May-June,
and a 4-5 month dry season from June-July to October. The
annual rainfall at Ossu is 1,956 mm (more than double that
of Dili), and the higher parts of Mount Mundo Perdido
presumably receive substantially greater precipitation
(perhaps 2,500-3,000 mm/yr), with additional moisture
The IBA is characterised by its rocky terrain, which is com-
prised mostly of karst limestone with skeletal soils.
Map of Mount Mundo Perdido. The red line delineates the region that qualifies as an Important Bird Area, IBA, as defined by
BirdLife International (see Table).
3
from near-nightly cloud-fall. Daytime temperatures aver-
age about 26-28°C at 1,200-1,400 m (18°C at night), and
perhaps 20-22°C at 1,700 m (10°C at night).
Although it is not a particularly large massif, Mount
Mundo Perdido is thought to include the largest remaining
area of closed-canopy tropical montane forest in Timor-
Leste and on Timor Island. The montane vegetation varies
in structure with elevation and disturbance regime, but it is
typically dominated by evergreen trees and shrubs (of up to
35 m tall), with numerous epiphytes (especially ferns, or-
chids and climbing pandan Freycinetia sp.). The forest
above 1,450 m is of lower stature (15-25 m) and above
1,600 m it has a more open canopy, with a dense shrub
layer and a ground layer of ferns (tree ferns Cyathea and
king fern Angiopteris evecta) and mosses. Below 1,000 m
there are remnants of tropical evergreen forest and small
patches of Casuarina junghuhniana and open Eucalyptus
urophylla forest. Historically, large areas on the lower
slopes of Mount Mundo Perdido were converted to agricul-
ture, and these have been maintained as grassland patches
by intensive livestock grazing and burning. Mount Lari-
tame comprises a few hundred hectares of montane forest,
with old agricultural fields and grassland.
Mount Mundo Perdido is the source of numerous springs
and creeks, and all of the villages below the mountain are
dependent on these watercourses for irrigating their rice-
fields, watering their livestock, and for drinking, cleaning
and cooking. Water is piped from several springs directly
to the villages in Ossu sub-district, and also to Venilale
which is 15 km to the north. The main human livelihoods
in the Mount Mundo Perdido area are cultivation of rice
and vegetable crops, raising livestock (buffalo, banteng,
horses, pigs, goats and chickens), and harvesting of timber,
rattan, orchids and ferns. There is a long history of agricul-
tural use, with many of the cultivated areas having been
cleared for vegetable gardens during Portuguese occupa-
tion 40-100 years ago. Coffee plantations covering about
200 ha were established in about 1900-1910, but the coffee
bushes have not been maintained for the past 40 years be-
cause of security issues, although the coffee is sometimes
harvested for local use. Large herds of horses, banteng and
buffalo are owned and managed by local villagers and
these graze the grassy lower slopes of the mountain. In
addition to these, many feral (unowned) banteng roam the
forested areas, having been abandoned by pro-Indonesian
families who fled the region in 1999 and did not return.
Birds
Mount Mundo Perdido is considered to be the richest tropi-
cal montane forest site in Timor-Leste, and is therefore
highly complementary to the recently-established lowland
Nino Konis Santana National Park. To date, 22 of the re-
stricted-range species of the Timor and Wetar Endemic
Bird Area have been recorded on the mountain, of which
one is globally threatened and eight are Near Threatened.
Small numbers of the Critically Endangered Yellow-
crested Cockatoo are also present. The IBA almost cer-
tainly hosts the largest, or among the largest, populations
on Timor Island of a suite of hill and montane bird species.
Most notable of these is the Endangered Timor Imperial
Pigeon Ducula cineracea, which was found to be abundant
during a dry season survey, but was much less vocal in the
wet season. Several other pigeons are also abundant, in-
cluding the restricted-range Slaty Cuckoo-dove Turacoena
modesta.
English name IUCN/
EBA
Dusky Cuckoo-dove
Macropygia magna
-/RR
Slaty Cuckoo-dove
Turacoena modesta
NT/RR
Timor Imperial-pigeon
Ducula cineracea
EN/RR
Yellow-crested Cockatoo
Cacatua sulphurea
CR/-
Olive-headed Lorikeet
Trichoglossus euteles
-/RR
Iris Lorikeet
Psitteuteles iris
NT/RR
Cinnamon-banded Kingfisher
Todiramphus austral-
asia
NT/RR
Plain Friarbird
Philemon inornatus
-/RR
Yellow-eared Honeyeater
Lichmera flavicans
-/RR
Red-rumped Myzomela
Myzomela vulnerata
-/RR
Plain Gerygone
Gerygone inornata
-/RR
Fawn-breasted Whistler
Pachycephala orpheus
-/RR
Timor Figbird
Sphecotheres viridis
-/RR
Olive-brown Oriole
Oriolus melanotis
-/RR
Timor Stubtail
Urosphena subulata
-/RR
Timor Leaf-warbler
Phylloscopus presbytes
-/RR
Spot-breasted White-eye
Heleia muelleri
NT/RR
Chestnut-backed Thrush
Zoothera dohertyi
NT/RR
Orange-banded Thrush
Zoothera peronii
NT/RR
Black-banded Flycatcher
Ficedula timorensis
NT/RR
Timor Blue-flycatcher
Cyornis hyacinthinus
-/RR
Red-chested Flowerpecker
Dicaeum maugei
-/RR
Timor Sparrow
Padda fuscata
NT/RR
Key
IUCN Threat Status: CR = Critically Endangered; EN = Endan-
gered; NT = Near threatened;
Restricted range species (EBA 164: Timor and Wetar) are indi-
cated by RR
The IBA includes Mount Laritame, which lies 5 km to the
north-east of Mount Mundo Perdido
Table 1. Threatened and restricted-range bird species re-
corded in the Mount Mundo Perdido IBA. The site clearly
meets the criteria to be considered as an Important Bird Area, as
defined by BirdLife International, under criterion A1: Globally
threatened species, and criterion A2: Restricted-range species
4
During recent surveys a total of 63 bird species were re-
corded in the Mount Mundo Perdido region and on Mount
Laritame, including 61 that are presumed to be breeding
residents and two northern migrants. Eleven of the resident
species are hill and montane forest specialists, all of which
appear to be abundant in the IBA. The most notable dis-
covery was a population of Pygmy Blue-flycatcher Musci-
capella hodgsoni on the upper slopes of the mountain,
1,700 km or more from the nearest known populations in
Kalimantan and Sumatra; the taxonomic status of this iso-
lated population is currently being investigated. Timor
Bush-warbler Bradypterus timorensis was the only mon-
tane bird species known from Timor Island that was not
found during the surveys. It is possible that this poorly-
known species was overlooked, or is present in non-forest
habitat that was not visited or in the open canopy forest and
dense fern near the mountain summit (that was barely sur-
veyed).
Other biodiversity
At least 24 non-volant mammal species are known from
Timor Island, but 22 of these are presumed to have been
introduced and the two native species (Thin shrew Cro-
cidura tenuis and Timor Rat Rattus timorensis) are very
poorly known. Nine of the introduced mammal species
were recorded at Mount Mundo Perdido during recent sur-
veys: Common Spotted Cuscus Phalanger orientalis,
Long-tailed Macaque Macaca fascicularis, Common Palm
Civet Paradoxurus hermaphroditus, Domestic Pig Sus do-
mesticus, Rusa Deer Cervus timorensis, Banteng Bos
javanicus, Domestic water buffalo Bubalis bubalis, Polyne-
sian rat Rattus exulans and House rat R. tanezumi. The IBA
may support significant bat populations, particularly asso-
ciated with caves: Goodwin (1979) identified Geoffroy's
Rousette Rousettus amplexicaudatus, Sunda Fruit Bat
Acerodon mackloti (Vulnerable), Western Naked-backed
Fruit Bat Dobsonia peronii, and Indonesian Short-nosed
Fruit Bat Cynopterus titthaecheilus, and the recent surveys
found Canut's Horseshoe Bat Rhinolophus canuti timorien-
sis (Vulnerable).
Reptiles were rarely recorded during the recent surveys of
Mount Mundo Perdido and the only snakes observed were
a tree snake Dendrelaphis pictus and an unidentified colu-
brid. No Reticulated Pythons were observed, but they are
reported to be fairly common by local people. Lizards also
appear to be generally uncommon, but a Timor-endemic
skink, Glaphyromorphus timorensis, was caught in a pit
trap and observed under rocks.
A total of 14 ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) species, from
9 genera and 4 sub-families, were collected opportunisti-
cally from Mundo Perdido and Mount Laritame during the
surveys. These comprise two widespread introduced spe-
cies, an ant in the genus Iridomyrmex which is of Austra-
lian origin, and 11 South-East Asian rainforest ants. The
low species total is a result of the very low survey inten-
sity, and it is estimated that the total ant fauna in the area is
probably about 40-50 species.
Several hundred plant specimens have been collected on
Mount Mundo Perdido during recent surveys but many of
these are yet to be identified, and the botanical richness of
the IBA is not yet fully understood. It is considered to be
one of the three most important sites in Timor-Leste for the
conservation of orchids, the others being Mount Tata
Mailau (IBA TL02) and Mount Fatumasin (IBA TL03).
Several new orchid species have been collected on the
mountain and a leguminous shrub in the genus Tephrosia
(family Fabaceae) that was recently found there may also
be an undescribed species. Two tree species in the Podo-
carpaceae (southern hemisphere conifer) family, Sundacar-
pus amara and Dacrycarpus imbricatus, are common, both
of which widespread in the mountains of South-East Asia
and the western Pacific. Other dominant tree species in-
clude Elaeocarpus sp, Artocarpus pomiformis, Drypetes
sp, Olea paniculata and Putranjiva roxburghii.
The Mount Mundo Perdido IBA is considered to have the
richest tropical montane forests in Timor-Leste, with numer-
ous epiphytes, including ferns, orchids and climbing pandans.
A Timor-endemic skink,
Glaphyromorphus timorensis
, was
one of the few reptiles recorded at Mount Mundo Perdido
during recent surveys.
5
Protection status
The “Monte Mundo Perdido and the surrounding forest, an
area of approximately 25,000 hectares” was recognised by
UNTAET (2000) as a Protected Wild Area under Regula-
tion Number 2000/19. Mount Mundo Perdido therefore has
legal protection but is not managed as a Protected Area;
however, it has good potential as such. Several local villag-
ers who were interviewed during recent survey visits were
in favour of the mountain being included in a protected
area, and they responded positively towards government
plans to improve the management of livestock there.
Conservation issues
Biodiversity surveys
There have been three recent surveys of the IBA. In Sep-
tember 2006 (dry season) a four-day survey of birds, mam-
mals and plants was conducted in tall evergreen montane
forest at 1,250 m on Mount Mundo Perdido, and birds were
surveyed there at 1,200-1,500 m over a four day period in
December 2007. In April 2008, bird and vegetation surveys
were conducted for eight days at Mount Mundo Perdido
and for four days at Mount Laritame.
Threats
Timber extraction: One of the main threats to the forests on
Mount Mundo Perdido is unmanaged selective harvesting
of timber for house construction and maintenance, and for
sale. The greatest intensity of timber cutting is currently in
secondary forest at lower elevations. Poles of 4 m by 10 cm
are sold for US$2 and poles of 3 m by 20 cm are sold for
US$5; a new house requires 38 poles, and further poles are
needed for house maintenance every 5-7 years.
Non-timber forest products: The harvesting of non-timber
forest products is also unmanaged, and the levels of collec-
tion of bamboo, rattan and orchids are of concern. There is
a high local demand for bamboo, which is used to construct
house walls, fences, beds, backpack, water carriers and
tuac wine carriers. About five bamboo species occur on the
mountain, some of which were probably planted there hun-
dreds of years ago. They are intensively exploited and there
is not currently enough bamboo to meet local demand.
Three types of rattan are collected by many local people,
and are used to make fences, with 1 m lengths sold for
US$0.30. Large numbers of orchids are collected from the
forest and sold at roadside stalls. The young leaves of at
least four types of ferns are collected as a vegetable by
many local families for personal use and for sale.
Livestock grazing, fire maintained grasslands and erosion:
Historically, the forest was cleared from many of the slopes
of Mount Mundo Perdido, and these areas have been main-
tained as grasslands by intensive livestock grazing and
burning. Large areas of these grasslands have been de-
graded by intensive grazing by banteng, cattle, buffalo and
horses, causing erosion, soil slumping and presumably re-
duced water quality, and these animals also graze inside the
montane forests.
Hunting and trapping: Local people hunt many of the in-
troduced mammals, including deer (using snares, clubs,
dogs and bow and arrow), pigs and cuscus (which are both
abundant), macaques and palm civets (hunted with dogs).
Some native bats are also taken, including a large black and
white fruit bat and a medium-sized bat (caught using
barbed rattan dangling at cave entrances). Reticulated Py-
thon is not hunted at Mount Mundo Perdido, but a few lo-
cal men at Mount Laritame catch them and sell the meat,
oil and skin. The larger species of pigeons are shot with
dart pipes at Mount Laritame, and a few local people shoot
them using air rifles. Swiftlet nests have historically been
collected from three caves, including a 2 km long cave at
Mount Mundo Perdido named Gua Pusuk, but they are not
currently being taken. In the past, several wild bird species
were captured and sold to the Indonesian military, includ-
ing Yellow-crested Cockatoo (which were worth US$20
each), other parrots (US$10), Helmeted Friarbird (US$5),
Plain Friarbird (US$4) and Red Junglefowl (US$5, but
currently sold for US$15 for a male and US$10 for a fe-
male).
Coffee plantations: Re-initiation of rights to maintain and
grow the abandoned coffee plantations (which have grown
wild for about 40 years) is a potential threat to the forest
habitat as areas of native vegetation would be pruned and
cleared.
Conservation measures taken
Mount Mundo Perdido was recognised by UNTAET
(2000) as a Protected Wild Area under Regulation Number
2000/19, and this regulation passed automatically into na-
tional law at restoration of independence in 2002. It is
therefore a protected area, although this has not yet led to
any direct conservation action on the ground. The forests
have survived because of the steep and rocky terrain in
parts of the mountain, and they are considered lulic (sacred
areas) by the local people which may have conferred some
Recent surveys have recorded 22 restricted-range bird species, including (from left) Chest-
nut-backed Thrush, Island Thrush, and Pygmy Blue-flycatcher; the latter is newly discov-
ered, far from the nearest known population, which is in Borneo.
6
protection through local concepts of ownership and re-
source management. During the Indonesian period, Mount
Mundo Perdido was a dangerous place to visit because it
was an operational area for the Indonesian military, which
prevented tree cutting and hunting, and at that time there
were no cattle, horses or buffalo on the mountain.
Conservation measures proposed
Mount Mundo Perdido meets the criteria to be recognised
as an Important Bird Area by BirdLife International, based
on the numerous threatened and restricted-range species it
supports. The site has good potential for establishment and
management as a protected area. The following manage-
ment recommendations have been proposed.
 Hold meetings in each village and hamlet in and
around the mountain to explain the government regula-
tions on timber harvesting, livestock grazing and the
extraction of non-timber forest products.
 Implement government plans to regulate the manage-
ment of livestock, by penning the animals and hence
removing them from the forests and upper slopes of the
mountain; systems need to be developed to provide
feed for the penned livestock.
 Trap or shoot several hundred of the feral banteng that
were abandoned by pro-Indonesian families in the late
1990s, possibly using a bounty scheme and/or holding
traditional hunting festivals.
 Once the feral livestock have been removed, plant trees
and re-afforest eroded gullies and slopes, to reduce
erosion, sustain and improve water supplies, and bene-
fit biodiversity.
 Assess the quantities of timber needed by local village
for house construction, house maintenance and sale,
and the areas where timber is currently being extracted
from the mountain.
 Investigate the extraction of non-timber forest products
from the mountain, particularly bamboo, rattan and
orchids.
 Develop a village forestry program in collaboration
with NGOs, to plant the hardwood trees that are cur-
rently used for house construction and sale.
 Explore the issue of coffee plantations, which are con-
sidered by local communities as evidence of their
rights to the land, to determine whether compensation
may be needed to relinquish those rights.
Sources and further reading
This site profile is based primarily on surveys by the au-
thors from 9-19 April 2008 and in September 2006 and
December 2007. Additional information is provided from
the following sources:
Ian Cowie (Northern Territory Herbarium, Australia) per-
sonal communication.
Goodwin, R. E. (1979) The bats of Timor: systematics and
ecology. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural
History, 163: 75-122.
Metzner, J. (1977) Man and environment in Eastern Timor:
a geoecological analysis of the Baucau-Viqueque area
as a possible basis for regional planning. Australian
National University, Canberra.
Silveira, P., Schuiteman, A., Vermeulen, J. J., Sousa, A. J.,
Silva, H., Paiva, J. & De Vogel, E. (2008) The orchids
of Timor: checklist and conservation status. Botanical
Journal of the Linnean Society 157: 197–215.
Trainor, C.R., Santana, F. Rudyanto, Xavier, A.F., Pinto, P.
& Fernandes da Oliveira, G. (2007) Important Bird Ar-
eas in Timor-Leste. Cambridge: BirdLife International.
Fieldwork and production of this profile were supported by
BirdLife International, the Darwin Initiative (UK) and Charles Darwin University (Australia).
The information was collected and the profile authored by Fernando Santana, Pedro Pinto, Constantino Hornay and Apolinario
Freitas (Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Dili), Domingos Sousa Pereira and Filomeno Soares Ferreira (Ministry of Agriculture
and Forestry, Viqueque district), and Colin Trainor (Charles Darwin University).
Edited by Mike Crosby.
All photographs by Colin Trainor/Pedro Pinto, except the skink by Frank Lambert.
For more information contact:
Dept of Protected Areas and National Parks, Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, Rua de Caicoli, Dili, Timor-Leste
BirdLife International, Wellbrook Court, Girton Road, Cambridge CB3 0NA, UK
Mount Mundo Perdido: the richest montane forest in Timor-
Leste and perhaps all of Timor.
... Hellmayr 1914, Mayr 1944) and modern avifaunal survey (Noske and Saleh 1996, Trainor et al. 2008, Trainor 2010). Eleven montane birds are known from Timor Island (Trainor et al. 2008, Santana et al. 2009). There have been no further records of resident Locustella bush warblers from other Lesser Sunda islands. ...
... There has been little survey effort on the mountains of Timor and Alor, except for Mount Mutis on Timor (Jepson and Ounsted 1997), Mount Mundo Perdido in Timor-Leste (Santana et al. 2009) and the Apui (Johnstone and Darnell 1997) and Tanglapui Timor sites on Alor (Trainor 2005). Our mountain field searches at Mount Ramelau, Mainang and Wahwah, Pantar Island, Atauro Island and Wetar Island are the first at those sites as far as we are aware. ...
... Mount Cablaque is an isolated mountain stack surrounded by valleys, but lies only 8 km from Mount Ramelau. Mundo Perdido lacks suitable tall grass habitat and after 21 days of survey (Santana et al. 2009) bush warblers are probably genuinely absent. Mount Cailaco and Mount Taroman are small isolated mountains with little high elevation (. 1,500 m) habitat. ...
Article
Full-text available
The Timor Bush Warbler Locustella timorensis was first collected by Georg Stein on Mount Mutis, West Timor in 1932, but there have been no confirmed field observations since. Here we report on the discovery of a new population of bush warbler on Alor (9 September 2009), which prompted a search for, and subsequent rediscovery, of the nominate Timor Bush Warbler (20 December 2009) in Timor-Leste. We also undertook the first bush warbler searches in the mountains on Atauro Island, and the first ornithological exploration of the mountains of Pantar and Wetar islands. On Alor, at least 13 male bush warblers were heard singing from shrub and grass beneath woodland and forest edge at 859–1,250 m. On Timor, at least 40 males were heard during December, April and July from tall grassland below Mount Ramelau (1,720–2,100 m), Timor-Leste. The song structure of the Alor and Timor birds is similar, and close to Javan Bush Warbler L. montis of Java and Bali, as well as to recordings of Russet Bush Warbler L. mandelli of mainland Asia and Benguet Bush Warbler L. seebohmi from the Philippines. The song of the Alor bird is substantially higher pitched (mean min/max 3,233–4,980 kHz) than the Timor bird (2,928– 4,761 kHz) and both are substantially higher pitched than Javan birds. Recordings of Russet Bush Warbler from mainland Asia are higher pitched than songs of all insular taxa, and the song of Benguet Bush Warbler is of a similar pitch to the Timor bird. Recent molecular studies have found that divergences between Javan Bush Warbler and the Russet Bush Warbler are slight, and the high degree of song similarity of the Alor and Timor populations to Javan Bush Warbler places them close to the Benguet Bush Warbler complex. The Timor Bush Warbler is recognised as 'Near Threatened' by IUCN, but this will require re-evaluation. On Alor, suitable habitat is extensive and under little threat, but grassland in the uplands of West and East Timor is intensively grazed and regularly burnt. Further field surveys are needed on both Timor and Alor to capture birds, clarify taxonomic relationships using molecular approaches, and further define habitat use and conserva-tion status. Bush warblers were not recorded from Pantar, Atauro and Wetar islands.
Article
A checklist of the Orchidaceae of Timor is presented, with emphasis on the eastern half of the island (East Timor), based on historical herbarium collections and recent botanical explorations. This list comprises 38 genera with 66 species, including 15 new genera and 32 new species records for this island. Moreover, four new species are described: Bulbophyllum sundaicum, Habenaria ankylocentron, Habenaria cauda-porcelli, and Pterostylis timorensis. Of these, we consider the finding of a new species of Pterostylis to be especially noteworthy, because this species seems to be more closely related to certain Australian members of the genus than to the Malesian ones, suggesting earlier contacts of Timor with Australia. Four new synonyms are proposed: Calanthe veratrifolia var. timorensis J.J.Sm. (C. triplicata), Habenaria cornuta Span. (H. giriensis), H. grandis Benth. ex Ridl. (Peristylus goodyeroides), and H. mutica Span. (H. elongata). The best represented genus is Habenaria, with 13 species, followed by Dendrobium with four, and Bulbophyllum with three. Because of insufficient or sterile material, it was not possible to identify, or describe as new, 20 different taxa. The conservation status of the ten endemic species, plus six possible new undescribed species and two non-endemic, but threatened, species, was assessed using the World Conservation Union (IUCN) criteria, and categories of threat were proposed. Seven endemic species are considered to be Critically Endangered and two Endangered. One of the nonendemic species is considered to be Critically Endangered, and the other Endangered. The survival of some of these species might be less insecure if an effective application of Regulation project N.2000/19 on protected areas (UNTAET/REG/2000/19) was implemented and maintained, because most of these species were collected in areas considered for protection under this Regulation. Further studies are required, however, in order to complete our knowledge of the diversity and population dynamics of this interesting part of Timor's biodiversity. © 2008 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2008, 157, 197–215.
Constantino Hornay and Apolinario Freitas (Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry
  • Pedro Santana
  • Pinto
The information was collected and the profile authored by Fernando Santana, Pedro Pinto, Constantino Hornay and Apolinario Freitas (Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Dili), Domingos Sousa Pereira and Filomeno Soares Ferreira (Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Viqueque district), and Colin Trainor (Charles Darwin University). Edited by Mike Crosby.
except the skink by Frank Lambert. For more information contact: Dept of Protected Areas and National Parks, Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, Rua de Caicoli
  • Colin All
  • Pedro Trainor
  • Pinto
All photographs by Colin Trainor/Pedro Pinto, except the skink by Frank Lambert. For more information contact: Dept of Protected Areas and National Parks, Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, Rua de Caicoli, Dili, Timor-Leste BirdLife International, Wellbrook Court, Girton Road, Cambridge CB3 0NA, UK
The bats of Timor: systematics and ecology
  • R E Goodwin
Goodwin, R. E. (1979) The bats of Timor: systematics and ecology. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 163: 75-122.
Northern Territory Herbarium, Australia) personal communication
  • Ian Cowie
Ian Cowie (Northern Territory Herbarium, Australia) personal communication.