Conference Paper

Validez y utilidad de las Escalas de Esfuerzo Percibido en el baloncesto

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The aim of this research is to apply the Perceived Exertion Scale (modified) to the basketball, in order to use this non invasive technique and with a low price to the day to day workout. Thus, without doing any payment we will have and indirect indicator of the internal load suffered by the players, and by this way, establish a relationship between our external load proposed, with our objectives upon the player´s organisms and the real effects, which, depending on the players will be greater or smaller, closer or further from our objectives. In addition, we also pretend to check which are the factors which, in our specific case, will affect to the validity of de PES, for maximizing the relationship between this tool and the internal load suffered.

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Background: Basketball performance can be classified as an intermittent physical activity due to the changing situational game conditions and the number of intervening variables. It is necessary to have detailed knowledge about the performance of basketball players during a match as a background for more specific planning of the training process. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyse the indicators of internal and external load of basketball player's performance during a match of U18 top men basketball players as a background for the planning of specific training processes. Methods: Thirty-two Czech top junior basketball players (male, aged 16.88 ± 0.72 years) participated in this research. The heart rate was recorded and time-motion analysis was conducted during six warm-up matches. Results: The average heart rate was measured to be 167.47 ± 13.01 beats · min.-1, which corresponded to 85.06 ± 6.40% of peak heart rate. The percentages of the total time spent over and under 85% were 63.12% and 36.88%, respectively. Average distance covered was measured to be 5,880.91 ± 831.01 meters. The average work: rest ratio was 1: 7.95 ± 1.83, ranging from 1: 4.80 to 1: 10.92. Conclusions: The results from these matches suggest that the exercise intensity and sprint activity observed during junior basketball are dependent on the player's position and partly on the level of the performance. The heart rate during a match was not dependent on the positions, however, time-motion analysis revealed significant differences between three basketball positions during a match. The combination of heart rate and time-motion analysis is recommended.
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Despite various contributing factors, session-RPE method has the potential to impact a large proportion of the global sporting and clinical communities since it is an inexpensive and simple tool which is highly practical and accurately measures an athlete's outcome of training/competition. Its simplicity can help optimizing performance and reducing negative outcomes of hard training in elite athletes.
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Session ratings of perceived exertion (session RPE) are commonly used to assess global training intensity for team sports. However, there is little research quantifying the intensity of field-based training protocols for speed development. The study's aim was to determine the session RPE of popular training protocols (free sprint [FST], resisted sprint [RST], and plyometrics [PT]) designed to improve sprint acceleration over 10 m in team sport athletes. Twenty-seven men (age = 23.3 ± 4.7 years; mass = 84.5 ± 8.9 kg; height = 1.83 ± 0.07 m) were divided into 3 groups according to 10-m velocity. Training consisted of an incremental program featuring two 1-hour sessions per week for 6 weeks. Subjects recorded session RPE 30 minutes post training using the Borg category-ratio 10 scale. Repeated measures analysis of variance found significant (p < 0.05) changes in sprint velocity and session RPE over 6 weeks. All groups significantly increased 0- to 5-m velocity and 0- to 10-m velocity by 4-7%, with no differences between groups. There were no significant differences in session RPE between the groups, suggesting that protocols were matched for intensity. Session RPE significantly increased over the 6 weeks for all groups, ranging from 3.75 to 5.50. This equated to intensities of somewhat hard to hard. Post hoc testing revealed few significant weekly increases, suggesting that session RPE may not be sensitive to weekly load increases in sprint and plyometric training programs. Another explanation, however, could be that the weekly load increments used were not great enough to increase perceived exertion. Nonetheless, the progressive overload of each program was sufficient to improve 10-m sprint performance. The session RPE values from the present study could be used to assess workload for speed training periodization within a team sports conditioning program.
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The aim of the present investigation was to determine the between-match variability of high-speed running activities completed by a large sample of elite players over an extended period of time. A further aim of the study was to determine the influence of playing position on the magnitude of this variability. Observations on individual match performance measures were undertaken on 485 outfield players (median of 10 games per player; range=2-57) competing in the English Premier League from 2003/2004 to 2005/2006 using a computerised tracking system (Prozone, Leeds, England). High-speed activities selected for analysis included total high-speed running distance (THSR), high-speed running (HSR), total sprint distance (TSD) and the total number of sprints undertaken. Total high-speed running distance in possession and without possession of the ball was also analysed. Match-to-match variability was generally high across all variables with a mean CV of 16.2+/-6.4% (95% CI=15.6-16.7%) and 30.8+/-11.2% (95% CI=29.9-31.7%) reported for HSR and TSD covered during a game. This variability was generally higher for central players (midfielders and defenders) and lower for wide midfielders and attackers. Greater variability was also noted when the team were in possession of the ball (approximately 30%) than when they did not have possession (approximately 23%). The findings of the present study indicate that match-to-match variability in performance characteristics of elite soccer players is high. This inherent variability means that research requires large sample sizes in order to detect real systematic changes in performance characteristics.
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Mental fatigue is a psychobiological state caused by prolonged periods of demanding cognitive activity. Although the impact of mental fatigue on cognitive and skilled performance is well known, its effect on physical performance has not been thoroughly investigated. In this randomized crossover study, 16 subjects cycled to exhaustion at 80% of their peak power output after 90 min of a demanding cognitive task (mental fatigue) or 90 min of watching emotionally neutral documentaries (control). After experimental treatment, a mood questionnaire revealed a state of mental fatigue (P = 0.005) that significantly reduced time to exhaustion (640 +/- 316 s) compared with the control condition (754 +/- 339 s) (P = 0.003). This negative effect was not mediated by cardiorespiratory and musculoenergetic factors as physiological responses to intense exercise remained largely unaffected. Self-reported success and intrinsic motivation related to the physical task were also unaffected by prior cognitive activity. However, mentally fatigued subjects rated perception of effort during exercise to be significantly higher compared with the control condition (P = 0.007). As ratings of perceived exertion increased similarly over time in both conditions (P < 0.001), mentally fatigued subjects reached their maximal level of perceived exertion and disengaged from the physical task earlier than in the control condition. In conclusion, our study provides experimental evidence that mental fatigue limits exercise tolerance in humans through higher perception of effort rather than cardiorespiratory and musculoenergetic mechanisms. Future research in this area should investigate the common neurocognitive resources shared by physical and mental activity.
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Exercise in the heat is usually associated with reduced performance; both dehydration and hyperthermia adversely affect mental and physical performance. For athletes from temperate climates, the negative effects of heat had humidity can be attenuated by a period of acclimatization. This requires up to 10-14 days. Endurance-trained individuals already show some of the adaptations that accompany acclimatization, but further adaptation occurs with training in the heat. Prior dehydration has a negative effect even on exercise of short duration where sweat losses are small. The athlete must begin exercise fully hydrated and regular ingestion of fluids is beneficial where the exercise duration exceeds 40 min. Dilute carbohydrate-electrolyte (sodium) drinks are best for fluid replacement and also supply some substrate for the exercising muscles. Post-exercise rehydration requires electrolyte as well as volume replacement. In extreme conditions, neither acclimatization nor fluid replacement will allow hard exercise to be performed without some risk of heat illness.
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The literature related to Borg's ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) scale has revealed inconsistencies about the strength of the relationship between ratings of perceived exertion and various physiological criterion measures, such as heart rate, blood lactate concentration, percent maximal oxygen uptake (%VO2max), oxygen uptake (VO2), ventilation and respiration rate. Using sex of participants, fitness, type of RPE scale used, type of exercise, exercise protocol, RPE mode and study quality, we undertook a meta-analysis to determine the strength of the relationship between RPE scores and the six aforementioned physiological measures. The weighted mean validity coefficients were 0.62 for heart rate, 0.57 for blood lactate, 0.64 for %VO2max 0.63 for VO2, 0.61 for ventilation and 0.72 for respiration rate. Analysis of moderator variables revealed that the following study features could account for the variation of results across studies: heart rate--fitness, type of exercise, protocol and RPE mode; blood lactate concentration--sex, RPE scale; VO2--sex, exercise type, RPE mode; ventilation--sex, RPE mode; respiration rate--exercise protocol, RPE mode. The highest correlations between ratings of perceived exertion and the various physiological criterion measures were found in the following conditions: when male participants (whose VO2 or ventilation was measured) were required to maximally exert themselves (measuring %VO2max or ventilation); when the exercise task was unusual [e.g. when participants were swimming, which is less common than walking or running (when heart rate, %VO2max and VO2 are measured)]; or when the 15-point RPE scale (measuring blood lactate concentration) was used. These findings suggest that although Borg's RPE scale has been shown to be a valid measure of exercise intensity, its validity may not be as high as previously thought (r = 0.80-0.90), except under certain conditions.
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The ability to accurately control and monitor internal training load is an important aspect of effective coaching. The aim of this study was to apply in soccer the RPE-based method proposed by Foster et al. to quantify internal training load (session-RPE) and to assess its correlations with various methods used to determine internal training load based on the HR response to exercise. Nineteen young soccer players (mean +/- SD: age 17.6 +/- 0.7 yr, weight 70.2 +/- 4.7 kg, height 178.5 +/- 4.8 cm, body fat 7.5 +/- 2.2%, VO2max, 57.1 +/- 4.0 mL x kg x min) were involved in the study. All subjects performed an incremental treadmill test before and after the training period during which lactate threshold (1.5 mmol x L above baseline) and OBLA (4.0 mmol x L) were determined. The training loads completed during the seven training weeks were determined multiplying the session RPE (CR10-scale) by session duration in minutes. These session-RPE values were correlated with training load measures obtained from three different HR-based methods suggested by Edwards, Banister, and Lucia, respectively. Individual internal loads of 479 training sessions were collected. All individual correlations between various HR-based training load and session-RPE were statistically significant (from r = 0.50 to r = 0.85, P < 0.01). The results of this study show that the session-RPE can be considered a good indicator of global internal load of soccer training. This method does not require particular expensive equipment and can be very useful and practical for coaches and athletic trainer to monitor and control internal load, and to design periodization strategies.
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The physical demands of modern basketball were assessed by investigating 38 elite under-19-year-old basketball players during competition. Computerised time-motion analyses were performed on 18 players of various positions. Heart rate was recorded continuously for all subjects. Blood was sampled before the start of each match, at half time and at full time to determine lactate concentration. Players spent 8.8% (1%), 5.3% (0.8%) and 2.1% (0.3%) of live time in high "specific movements", sprinting and jumping, respectively. Centres spent significantly lower live time competing in high-intensity activities than guards (14.7% (1%) v 17.1% (1.2%); p<0.01) and forwards (16.6% (0.8%); p<0.05). The mean (SD) heart rate during total time was 171 (4) beats/min, with a significant difference (p<0.01) between guards and centres. Mean (SD) plasma lactate concentration was 5.49 (1.24) mmol/l, with concentrations at half time (6.05 (1.27) mmol/l) being significantly (p<0.001) higher than those at full time (4.94 (1.46) mmol/l). The changes to the rules of basketball have slightly increased the cardiac efforts involved during competition. The game intensity may differ according to the playing position, being greatest in guards.
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Recent evidence supports the use of certain soccer drills for combined technical and physical training. Therefore, it is important to be able to accurately monitor training intensity during soccer drills intended for physical development to allow the optimization of training parameters. Twenty-eight professional soccer players were assessed for heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) responses to 5 commonly used soccer training drills (2v2 to 8v8 drills). The responses of both HR and RPE differed significantly (p < 0.05) between the drills, generally showing an elevated response to drills involving lower player numbers. However, the 2v2 drill showed a significantly (p < 0.05) lower HR response (mean +/- SD: 88.7 +/- 1.2% HRmax) than 3v3 (91.2 +/- 1.3% HRmax) and 4v4 drills (90.2 +/- 1.6% HRmax). There was no significant correlation between the HR and RPE responses to the various drills (r = 0.60, p = 0.200). This poor relationship is probably because during the 2v2 drill, RPE was higher than during any of the other 6 drills, whereas HR was only fourth highest of the 6 drills. This demonstrates that HR and RPE are only poorly related during the intense drills used in this study, and that HR underestimates the intensity of the 2v2 drill. Heart rate demonstrated lower intersubject variability (1.3-2.2%) than RPE (5.1-9.9%). However, unlike HR, Borg 15-point RPE appears to be a valid marker of exercise intensity over a wide range of soccer training drills by maintaining validity in all drills and demonstrating acceptable intersubject variability. A combination of both HR- and RPE-based training load calculations appears optimal for use in soccer training.
Objectives: To assess between match variability of physical performance measures over both the total and sub sections of the match in professional rugby league competition. Design: Longitudinal observational study. Methods: Global positioning system (GPS) data were collected from 24 players from the same team competing in the National Rugby League (NRL) competition over 23 matches during 2011 season. The GPS data were categorised into total distance, high-speed running (>15kmh(-1)) and very high-speed running (>21kmh(-1)) distance for discrete reference periods (10min, 20min, 40min and 80min). The data was then log transformed to provide the coefficient of variation (CV) and the between subject standard deviation (both expressed as percentages). Results: The data show that the between match variability is greater for high-speed (CV 14.6%) and very-high speed (CV 37.0%) running compared to total distance (CV 3.6%). Within each speed category, the variability of performance tended to increase as the duration of the reference period decreased. Conclusions: The results show that while global measures of physical performance such as total distance are relatively stable, higher-speed activities exhibit a large degree of between match variability. In addition, when segmenting the match into short periods of time for analysis, all physical performance measures increased in variability. These findings have implications for determining sample size, identifying reliable performance measures and selecting appropriate time periods for future applied studies that involve observational match analysis.
Objectives: To examine the influence of quarter outcome and the margin of the score differential on both the physical activity profile and skill performance of players during professional Australian Football matches. Design: Prospective, longitudinal. Methods: Physical activity profiles were assessed via microtechnology (Global Positioning System and accelerometer) from 40 professional AF players from the same team during 15 Australian Football League games. Skill performance measures (involvement and effectiveness) and player rank scores (Champion Data(©) Rank) were provided by a commercial statistical provider. The physical performance variables, skill involvements and individual player performance scores were expressed relative to playing time for each quarter. The influence of the quarter result (i.e. win vs. loss) and score margin (i.e. small: <9 points, moderate: 10-18 points, and large: >19 points) on activity profile and skill involvements and skill efficiency performance of players were examined. Results: Skill involvements (total disposals/min, long kicks/min, marks/min, running bounces/min and player rank/min) were greater in quarters won (all p<0.01). In contrast, the players high speed running distance per minute (>14.5 km h(-1), HSR/min), sprints/min and peak speed were higher in losing quarters (all p<0.01). Smaller score margins were associated with increased physical activity (m/min, HSR/min, and body load/min, all p<0.05) and decreased skill efficiency (handball clangers/min and player rank/min, all p<0.05). Conclusions: Professional AF players are likely to have an increased physical activity profile and decreased skill involvement and proficiency when their team is less successful.
given the number of conceptual and methodological changes proposed in the arousal–performance relationship area, a need exists to provide an in-depth examination of the current status of research on the topic / the intent of this chapter is to provide such an examination / examine conceptual systems for providing future research directions, identify central research issues, and recognize methodological refinements and needs the relationship among anxiety, stress, arousal, and related terms will be discussed / arousal–performance relationship hypotheses and theories will be examined and discussed, including drive theory, the inverted-U hypothesis, Hanin's (1989) optimal zones of arousal hypothesis, multidimensional anxiety theory, Hardy and Fazey's (1987) application of catastrophe theory, and Kerr's (1985, 1987) reversal theory interpretation (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
This investigation examined hormonal and biochemical changes in basketball players during a 4-week training camp before the European championships. Ten members of the Israel national team (mean +/- SD; age: 26.4 +/- 4.3 years; weight: 100.7 +/- 12.3 kg; and height: 196.4 +/- 8.0 cm) participated in this study, which began 4 weeks after the regular season. Plasma samples of testosterone, cortisol, luteinizing hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, creatine kinase, and urea were obtained before (T1) and after 9 (T2), 17 (T3), and 28 (T4) days of practice. Questionnaires concerning appetite, quality of sleep, muscle soreness, and recovery time following practice were filled out before each blood draw. Differences (p < 0.05) in the volume of training were seen between T1 and T2 (150 +/- 29 min*d-1) and T3 and T4 (92 +/- 28 min*d-1). Muscle soreness and recovery time following practice were greater (p < 0.05) at T2 than T1, T3, and T4. A significant increase in cortisol, although remaining within normal physiological range, was observed between T1 (260 +/- 91 nmol*L-1) and T4 (457 +/- 99 nmol*L-1). No changes from Tl were seen in testosterone (14.2 +/- 5.6 nmol*L-1), luteinizing hormone (4.2 +/- 1.6 IU*mH-1), creatine kinase, and urea or in the testosterone-to-cortisol ratio. In addition, no significant changes from T1 were observed in any of the thyroid hormones. These results suggest that a 28-day training camp may not cause significant disturbances in hormonal or biochemical stress markers in elite athletes. (C) 1999 National Strength and Conditioning Association
Small-sided games (SSGs) have been suggested as a method for concurrently training physical, technical and tactical capabilities of rugby union players. Therefore, it is important to understand how prescriptive variables such as player number and field size influence the training stimulus during rugby-specific SSGs. Twenty semiprofessional rugby union players participated in a series of SSGs of varying player numbers (4 vs. 4, 6 vs. 6, and 8 vs. 8) on small- (32 × 24 m) and large-sized fields (64 × 48 m). The physiological (blood lactate concentration and heart rate [HR]), perceptual (rating of perceived exertion [RPE]), and time-motion demands were assessed for each different SSG format. There were significant differences between the 4 vs. 4, 6 vs. 6, and 8 vs.8 SSG formats in mean speed (meters per minute), high-speed running (HSR) distance (meters), and RPE (all p < 0.05). Blood lactate was greater in 4 vs. 4 compared with that in 8 vs. 8 SSGs. The mean speed, HSR distance, number of sprints, peak speed, blood lactate concentration, and RPE were all significantly different between large- and small-field size (all p < 0.05). There were no significant difference between game formats (4 vs. 4, 6 vs. 6, and 8 vs. 8) or field size (small or large) for either percent HRmax or time spent >85% HRmax. These results show that SSGs with fewer players and larger field sizes elicit greater physiological and perceptual responses and time-motion demands. In contrast, the HR response was similar between all SSG formats, which may be attributable to high levels of individual variability in the HR response. This study provides new information about the influence of player number and field size on the training stimulus provided by rugby-specific SSGs.
There is a great demand for perceptual effort ratings in order to better understand man at work. Such ratings are important complements to behavioral and physiological measurements of physical performance and work capacity. This is true for both theoretical analysis and application in medicine, human factors, and sports. Perceptual estimates, obtained by psychophysical ratio-scaling methods, are valid when describing general perceptual variation, but category methods are more useful in several applied situations when differences between individuals are described. A presentation is made of ratio-scaling methods, category methods, especially the Borg Scale for ratings of perceived exertion, and a new method that combines the category method with ratio properties. Some of the advantages and disadvantages of the different methods are discussed in both theoretical-psychophysical and psychophysiological frames of reference.
Year-round conditioning specifically designed for basketball has reached a high level of sophistication over the past several decades. There is growing evidence that it can contribute to improved performance and reduced injury. The major components of conditioning for basketball have been identified as anaerobic power (stages I and II), aerobic power, muscular strength/power/endurance, and flexibility. The concept of year-round conditioning uses the principles of periodization in work and rest to achieve peak performance and avoid injury. There are unique problems associated with the various levels of competition that require diligent monitoring on the part of the coach to maximize physical condition and avoid overtraining.
In this study, the intensities of activity and movement patterns during men's basketball were investigated by videoing the movements and monitoring the heart rate and blood lactate responses of eight elite players during competition. The results are expressed according to 'live time', which is actual playing time, and 'total time', which includes live time as well as all stoppages in play. The mean (+/- S.D.) frequency of all activities was 997 +/- 183, with a change in movement category every 2.0 s. A mean total of 105 +/- 52 high-intensity runs (mean duration 1.7 s) was recorded for each game, resulting in one high-intensity run every 21 s during live time. Sixty percent of live time was spent engaged in low-intensity activity, while 15% was spent in high-intensity activity. The mean heart rate (HR) during live time was 169 +/- 9 beats min-1 (89 +/- 2% peak HR attained during laboratory testing); 75% of live time was spent with a HR response of greater than 85% peak HR. The mean blood lactate concentration was 6.8 +/- 2.8 mM, indicating the involvement of glycolysis in the energy demands of basketball. It is concluded that the physiological requirements of men's basketball are high, placing considerable demands on the cardiovascular and metabolic capacities of players.
The aim of this study was to assess physiological demands of competitive basketball by measuring oxygen consumption (VO2) and other variables during practice games. Each of 12 players (20.4 +/- 1.1 years) was monitored in a 20-min practice game, which was conducted in the same way as actual games with the presence of referees and coaches. VO2 was measured by a portable system during the game and blood lactate concentration (LA) was measured in brief breaks. Subjects were also videotaped for time-motion analysis. Female and male players demonstrated respective VO2 of 33.4 +/- 4.0 and 36.9 +/- 2.6 mL/kg/min and LA of 3.2 +/- 0.9 and 4.2 +/- 1.3 mmol/L in the practice games (P>0.05). They spent 34.1% of play time running and jumping, 56.8% walking, and 9.0% standing. Pre-obtained VO(2max) was correlated to VO(2) during play (r=0.673) and to percent of duration for running and jumping (r=0.935 and 0.962 for females and males, respectively). This study demonstrated a greater oxygen uptake for competitive basketball than that estimated based on a previous compendium. The correlation between aerobic capacity and activity level suggests the potential benefit of aerobic conditioning in basketball.
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