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Atlas zasobów geotermalnych formacji paleozoicznej na Niżu Polskim — Atlas of geothermal resources of Paleozoic formations in the Polish Lowlands

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Abstract

Research projects carried on at the Department of Fossil Fuels, Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environment Protection of the AGH-University of Science and Technology in Kraków enabled the recognition of geothermal potential accumulated in the Paleozoic aquifers (from Cambrian toPermian). In the Polish Lowlands the Paleozoic formations are included into the two principal structural units: the Precambrian Platform in the north and the east, and the Paleozoic Platform in the west and the south. Both units are separated by the Tornquist-Teisseyre Zone which is a trans-European suture. In the area of Precambrian Platform both the heat flow and the geothermal gradient values are low but in the area of Paleozoic Platform much higher values of these parameters were measured. In the whole area of the Polish Lowlands the heat flow values change from 35 to 85 mW/m . Consequently, geothemal gradients and groundwater temperatures also vary inwide range, which influences the possibilities of commercial utilization of geothermal energy. Recognition of geothermal conditions in the Paleozoic aquifers is an important contribution to our knowledge on domestic energy resources in the Polish Lowlands. Geothermal waters and energy accumulated in the Paleozoic formations can be utilized for balneological and recreational purposes, particularly in the areas distant from the hot groundwater reservoirs. Generally, the analyzed Cambrian, Devonian, Carboniferous and Lower Permian reservoir complexes reveal high TDS values and unfavourable reservoir parameters, which results in rather lowpotential discharges of wells. However, in some wells drilled to Paleozoic formations the rocks of high and very high reservoir parameters, high potential discharges, high temperatures and relatively low TDS values were locally encountered. Unfortunately, the regional-scale recognition of Paleozoic reservoirs is still insufficient and requires the newexploration drillings. The chapters written in Polish and English versions were illustrated with figures whereas the successively described aquifers were supplemented with appendices (maps and cross-sections). The Authors are indebted to the Halliburton Company for kind permission granted to the Staff of the Department of Fossil Fuels at the AGH-University of Science and Technology for the usage of specialized software developed by the Landmark Graphics Co. for multilayer analysis of principal hydrogeothermal parameters and for calculations (Grant no.2006-COM-038833). The Authors are grateful to the Ministry of Environment and to the National Fund for Environmental Protection andWater Management for providing funds necessary to undertake the editions of the Atlases. Sincere thanks are due to the Staff of theDepartment of Geology at the Ministry of Environment for continuous and friendly support of our studies. The Authors are very much indebted to the members of the Commission of Hydrogeological Assessments, particularly to Professor Bronisław Paczyński, President of the Commission and to Ms. Teresa Stachowiak as well as to Mr. Jacek Kapuściński, the reviewer of the Atlas for important remarks and opinions,which improved the value of the Atlases. Out cordial thanks are expressed to Ms. Halina Sobkowska, emeritus expert of the past Committee for Scientific Research, for many years of her deep involvement in realization of geothermal research projects in Poland.
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... Geothermal energy resources are defined as the amount of thermal energy (heat) accumulated in the Earth's crust down to a given depth, referred to as the particular area for which the calculations are made and for the mean annual temperature at that point on the Earth's surface [30,31]. ...
... Currently, there is no standard, uniform classification of geothermal energy resources in the world literature (e.g., [29,31,36]). The main factor determining the potential use of particular geothermal resources is the reservoir temperature, i.e., the enthalpy (temperature) of the heat carrier. ...
... The classification shown here was developed by Wojciech Górecki from the University of Science and Technology in Kraków, Poland, in the 1990s and later improved via its application in many geothermal projects including successful evaluation and classification of geothermal resources of Poland. Results and details of this application can be found in Górecki et al. [31,36,[41][42][43][44] and Hajto [45]. ...
Chapter
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This chapter is focused on the explanation of the key issues of mineral and thermal water occurrence, formation in the Earth’s hydrosphere, and their exclusive socioeconomic role in modern societies resulting directly from the ways they are used and applied. The first chapter provides basic information on the distribution and movement of water in Earth’s hydrosphere to show the position and relative volume of the groundwaters: groundwaters are direct source of mineral and thermal waters used by man. The second chapter deals with terminology and definitions of mineral and thermal waters and explains mutual relationships between these two water types. Confusion of terminology is particularly evident in relation to mineral waters: they are understood differently in different areas of usage, e.g., balneology vs. water bottling industry. The next three chapters are focused on the application and utilization of mineral and thermal waters in three main areas: balneology, geothermal energy, and water bottling industry. Balneology and balneotherapy refer to the oldest and the most traditional use of mineral and thermal waters and were described with special focus on historical aspects. The water bottling industry is a key sector in the economies of many countries. According to the newest analytical reports, the global bottled water market was valued at approximately USD 170.0 billion in 2014 and is expected to reach approximately USD 280.0 billion by 2020. In terms of volume, global bottled water market stood at around 290.0 billion liters in 2014. Marketed bottled mineral waters are treated as food, have their own definitions, and must comply with special safety regulations and standards which are shown in detail in the last chapter together with the newest data concerning consumption of bottled water in the world.
... The basics of the volume method has been discussed in detail (Górecki et al., 1995(Górecki et al., , 2006a(Górecki et al., , 2006bGosk et al., 1982;Gringarten, 1978;Gringarten and Sauty, 1975;Haenel and Staroste, 1988;Haenel et al., 1988;Hurter and Haenel, 2002;Koppe et al., 1983;Lovekin, 2004;Muffler, 1979;Muffler and Cataldi, 1978;Nathenson and Muffler, 1975;Sorey et al., 1983;Williams, 2004). Due to the broad application of this method and numerous publications considering various aspects of its application, only a brief summary of the relevant aspects of the methodology for estimation of geothermal resources used in Europe for the low-temperature (enthalpy) hydrogeothermal convection systems has been presented. ...
... Recoverable geothermal energy resources are also known from literature as static-recoverable geothermal resources (Górecki et al., 1995(Górecki et al., , 2006bHajto, 2006aHajto, , 2006bHajto, , 2013Górecki, 2010, 2013;Hajto and Kotyza, 2012;Hajto et al., 2011Kuźniak and Hajto, 2006a). ...
... • Estimation of reserves -Power factor can be applied to determination of reserves (disposable geothermal energy resources) of studied aquifers (Górecki et al., 1995(Górecki et al., , 2006a(Górecki et al., , 2006bHajto and Górecki, 2010). Such resources were calculated for the areas in which power factor value F > 1 and load factor value LF = 1, for example, for the areas where economic efficiency of geothermal waters utilization is probable. ...
Chapter
Geothermal energy is the internal heat of the earth that has accumulated in hydrothermal systems or in dry rocks within the earth’s crust, in amounts which constitute energy resources. Thermal energy accumulated in hydrothermal systems or in hot dry rocks is available in enormous, practically inexhaustible reserves. At the same time, the distribution of this energy in the world is uneven and some resources are located at considerable depths, which makes the exploitation of huge energy reserves uneconomic at the current technological level. The Chapter gives an overview of definitions and classifications of geothermal resources widely used, as well as a brief description of methods of regional geothermal resources assessment and reporting, including development of the concept of economic evaluation of resources in regional scale, after Gosk (1982) and reporting rules of the UNFC-2009.
... The geothermal conditions in Poland are relatively wellrecognized at regional scale. The comprehensive information about domestic geothermal resources is provided by the series of geothermal atlases, which include the Polish Lowlands, the Carpathians, and the Carpathian Foredeep [5][6][7][8][9]. These areas are favorable not only for utilization of hydrogeothermal resources, first of all for heat generation, but also for balneotherapy, recreation, and other purposes. ...
... In order to reduce the costs of field seismic survey, the reprocessing of archival seismic data is commonly applied. Such datasets originating from hydrocarbon exploration projects [16] were widely used in various R&D studies recently run in Poland (see, e.g., [5][6][7][8][9]). ...
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The geothermal waters constitute a specific type of water resources, very important from the point of view of their thermal energy potential. This potential, when utilized, supplies an ecological and renewable energy, which, after effective development, brings many environmental, social, and industrial benefits. The key element of any geothermal investment is the proper location of geothermal installation, which would guarantee the relevant hydrogeothermal parameters of the water intake. Hence, many studies and analyses are carried out in order to characterize the reservoir parameters, including the integrated geophysical methods. For decades, the geophysical surveys have been the trusty recognition methods of geological structure and petrophysical parameters of rock formations. Thus, they are widely applied by petroleum industry in exploration of conventional and unconventional (shale gas/oil, tight gas) hydrocarbon deposits. Advances in geophysical methods extended their applicability to many other scientific and industrial branches as, e.g., the seismic survey used in studies of geothermal aquifers. The following paper presents the opportunities provided by seismic methods applied to studies of geothermal resources in the central Poland where the geothermal waters are reservoired in both the Lower Cretaceous and the Lower Jurassic sedimentary successions. The presented results are obtained from a network of seismic profiles. An important advantage of the seismic survey is that they may support the selection of an optimal location of geothermal investment and determination of the geometry of geothermal aquifer. Furthermore, the application of geophysical methods can significantly contribute to the reduction of estimation error of groundwater reservoir temperature.
... Natural hot waters have been used since earliest time, and warm springs occur in many region of the world. Reservoirs of geothermal water are found in locations where the earth's heat is near enough to the surface so that water or steam can reach the top [1][2][3]. Geothermal waters quality is very diverse. Iron is one of the solute available as pyrite and pyrrholite from rock-forming constituents which usually is found at very low concentration levels [3]. ...
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The main of this research was to recognize the efficiency of geothermal water deironing processes. To this, studies on a laboratory scale were conducted. In the paper the modeling of geothermal water deironing processes using new tool basis on triangulation has been used. Carrying out the analysis of potential possibilities of using geothermal water and taking economic aspects of water deironing processes into account, the authors of this article conducted research into the geothermal water deironing processes by adjusting existing knowledge on the removal of iron from cold groundwater. The conducted research confirmed the possibility of adjusting such processes to the treatment of geothermal water, but their effectiveness differs depending on the temperature and salinity of water, but this relation is not linear. The analyzes indicated that the best deironing effect was obtained for water whose salinity does not exceed 10 g/L and the temperature 30̊C.
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