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The Past, Present and Future of Blended Learning: An in Depth Analysis of Literature


Abstract and Figures

Blended learning emerged as one of the most popular pedagogical concepts at the beginning of f2000. With an increasing tendency, many researches have reported on blended learning since it flourished. The lack of technological availability prevented blending of traditional face-to-face learning with distributed learning environments. However, within the recent 10 years the introduction of the new technological innovations filled the gap between traditional face-to-face learning and distributed learning environments. The main purpose of this study is to review and analyze the studies carried out on blended learning through reflecting on the past, the present and the future. Graham (2006) stated that blended learning would have a great role in the future and it would be dominated by the distributed learning environments. To sum up, recent developments in technology encourage teacher educators to apply blended learning in their classrooms but how it should be implemented will be one of the key questions to be discussed in this research.
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P r o c e d i a - S o c i a l a n d B e h a v i o r a l S c i e n c e s 1 1 6 ( 2 0 1 4 ) 4 5 9 6 4 6 0 3
1877-0428 © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license.
Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Academic World Education and Research Center.
doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.01.992
5th World Conference on Educational Sciences - WCES 2013
The past, present and future of blended learning: an in depth
analysis of literature
Bayram Güzera*, Hamit Canera
aEastern Mediterranean University, Faculty of Education, Department of Educational Sciences, Famagusta, North Cyprus
Blended learning emerged as one of the most popular pedagogical concepts at the beginning of 2000. With an increasing
tendency, many researches have reported on blended learning since it flourished. The lack of technological availability prevented
blending of traditional face-to-face learning with distributed learning environments. However, within the recent 10 years the
introduction of the new technological innovations filled the gap between traditional face-to-face learning and distributed learning
environments. The main purpose of this study is to review and analyze the studies carried out on blended learning through
reflecting on the past, the present and the future. Graham (2006) stated that blended learning would have a great role in the future
and it would be dominated by the distributed learning environments. To sum up, recent developments in technology encourage
teacher educators to apply blended learning in their classrooms but how it should be implemented will be one of the key
questions to be discussed in this research.
© 2013 The Authors Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved
Selection and peer review under the responsibility of Prof. Dr. Servet Bayram
Keywords: Blended learning, hybrid learning, distributed learning environments, face-to-face learning environments;
1. Introduction
Distance education is one of the alternatives against traditional instruction. The cardinal tenant behind the
distance education is about being able to teach while students and teachers are not in the same context at all (Moore
and Kearsely, 2011). In their book, Moore and Kearsely (2011) clarified starting point of the distance education.
They emphasized that people think the internet as the starting point of distance education but the real starting point
occurred through letter correspondence between teacher and student. They categorized distance education into five
generations which are correspondence, broadcast radio and television, open universities, teleconferencing and the
Internet/Web (Moore and Kearsely, 2011). Basic idea behind the distance education is common in all generations
that are being able to teach and learn while student and teacher are at different places.
The spread of the Internet increased the popularity of distance education and created new terminologies like
online learning, e-learning or web-based learning. Online learning is defined as the use of Internet to access learning
materials; to interact with the content, instructors and other learners (Ally, 2002 cited in Anderson, 2008). Many
researches have been conducted in relation to online learning, their dimensions and variables having impact on the
online learning. Furthermore it is compared with traditional face-to-face instruction. One of the most important
* Bayram Güzer. Tel.: +90-533-875-7866
E-mail address:
Avai labl e o nli ne at
© 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license.
Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Academic World Education and Research Center.
Bayram Güzer and Hamit Caner / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 116 ( 2014 ) 4596 – 4603
debates is about whether students can learn better at the online learning environment compared to traditional
classroom environment. Blended learning have been become the center of attention at the beginning of the 2000 as
an eclectic approach while scholars are debating on the best environment for students. In blended learning, main
idea is to benefit on good sides of both approaches. This paper aims to review blended learning with respect to its
past, present, future and provide insight information on it.
2. The article review methodology
Google Scholar is one of the services of Google, which indexes articles published in scholarly journals and
provides you opportunity to search within articles. According to Google Scholar search results, Blended learning is
traced to be used first time at the beginnings of 2000. This led us to a conclusion that idea of blended learning has
limited history within the recent twelve years. In classification of articles, Blended Learning term is searched in the
title of articles at 30th of November 2012. Search results are classified in Table 1 below. In this study, it is aimed to
review blended learning studies within this twelve year period by classifying them past and present studies. Present
period is defined as recent three years from 2010 to 2012. Past period is defined as the remaining years from 1999
to 2009. In this study, we aimed to review most frequently cited articles and we selected 28 most frequently cited
articles/books from Google Scholar. Average citation of all reviewed articles is 226,29.
Table 1. Classification of articles including “blended learning” in the title at Google Scholar database
Classification Sub-Classification Year range Number of articles
First attempts 1999-2002 125
Definition period 2003-2006 1200
Popularity period 2007-2009 1460
Present 2010-2012 1660
3. Past of the blended learning
3.1. First attempts (1999-2002)
First attempts on the idea of blended learning begun at the 2000. Cooney et. al. (2000) carried out one of the first
studies that used the term “blended learning”. They aimed to combine elements of play and work in a
prekindergarten school in order to acquire blended activities (Cooney et. al.,2000). Although Cooney et. al.(2000)’s
study is far from the general use of blended learning, it is still important to apply the idea of blending learning.
Voci and Young (2001) integrated e-learning into their instructor-led six-month leadership development training
programme in order to benefit from instructor-led training and e-learning at the same time. Their results revealed
increase in sense of teamwork, establishment of common concepts and language and greater efficiency in group
learning (Voci and Young, 2001).
Another study is conducted by Bonk et. al. (2002) in a high-stake course at military. They aimed to understand
how blended approach affects professional development of students in a military course. They applied
asynchronous internet-based learning in first phase, synchronous learning in virtual collaborative chat tool and
residential face-to-face learning in the third phase (Bonk et. all, 2002). Moreover they conducted interviews with
students, instructors, education advisor and provided perceived advantages and disadvantages of the system (Bonk
et. al., 2002). Overall results indicated that although online learning is favored as enjoyable and flexible; however at
most learning occurred in the residential face-to-face phase (Bonk et. al., 2002). Bonk et. al. didn’t designed
complete blended learning course but it was an attempt to support online learning courses with face-to-face session
at different times.
Stewart (2002) advocated mix of self-paced asynchronous work-based learning with synchronous face-to-face
instructor-led learning in intercultural trainings. First attempts period consisted of studies on blended learning that
4598 Bayram Güzer and Hamit Caner / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 116 ( 2014 ) 4596 – 4603
appeared as an idea of supporting online learning with face-to-face traditional learning but there were not exact
definitions on blended learning.
3.1.1. Definition period (2003-2006)
This period (2003-2006) is named as Definition period because most frequently cited articles are on defining
blended learning. One of the most cited articles is written by Russel T. Osguthorpe and Charles R. Graham in 2003.
Osguthorpe and Graham’s (2003) definition on blended learning is as follow: “Blended learning combines face-to-
face with distance delivery systems… but it’s more than showing a page from a website on the classroom
screen…those who use blended learning environments are trying to maximize the benefits of both face-to-face and
online methods.” Furthermore, they suggested three different blending models that are blend of learning activities,
blend of students and blend of instructors (Osguthorpe and Graham, 2003). In first model, same students can benefit
from both activities in face-to-face classroom and activities in online learning environment; in second model, they
suggested that students in the face-to-face classroom can be blended with different students in the online learning
environment; in the third model, they suggested that students in the face-to-face classroom can benefit from other
instructors through online learning environment (Osguthorpe and Graham, 2003).
Singh (2003) defined dimensions that can be blended as offline and online learning, self-paced and collaborative
learning, structured and unstructured learning, custom content with off-the-shelf content, learning, practice and
performance support. He indicated that since technology changes, organizations will also support blended learning
programs instead of single delivery mode programs (Singh, 2003).
Garrison and Kanuka’s (2004) study is the most cited article on blended learning. They discussed the potential of
blended learning in higher education by considering problems faced in higher education. Garrison and Kanuka
(2004) stated that “blended learning is the thoughtful integration of classroom face-to-face learning experiences with
online learning experiences.” In addition, they explored benefits of blended learning in higher education with
respect to administration and development characteristics that those benefits are policy, planning, resources,
scheduling and support. Their results indicated that blended learning can lead the process for redefining higher
education institutions as being learner centered and facilitating higher learning experience (Garrison and Kanuka,
2004). Additionally, they advised scholars to research the effectiveness of blended learning in critical and reflective
Graham (2006) summarized blended learning, its’ background, definition, trends, blend categories, challenges
faced and future directions in chapter of his book. All of the studies reviewed in put great effort in defining blended
learning. As it is illustrated in Table 1 above, articles in popularity period is found as 1460 that shows an increasing
trend in comparison to articles in definition period. Next period of articles that is published between 2007 and 2009
is classified as Popularity period.
3.1.2. Popularity period (2007-2009)
Last period of the articles investigated in Past period is named as Popularity period. It is observed that increasing
trend of the blended learning continued within this period as well. Thirteen articles were reviewed that published in
scientific scholarly journals. In Popularity period, it is observed that there are two general points that have got
attention by scholars. These points are perceptions of participants on blended learning and effectiveness of the
blended learning. For that reason, reviewed articles were categorized into two classifications that are perceptions
related articles and effectiveness related articles. Perceptions
Scholars are curious about perceptions of students and other participants on blended learning. In popularity
period, four articles are reviewed that are studying participants’ perceptions on blended learning. Chen and Jones
(2007) conducted a survey on MBA students in an accounting class. They aimed to assess students’ evaluation of
Bayram Güzer and Hamit Caner / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 116 ( 2014 ) 4596 – 4603
course effectiveness and overall satisfaction of the traditional and blended courses. Students’ perceptions indicated
that students in traditional setting were more satisfied with the clarity of instruction (Chen and Jones, 2007). On the
other hand, students in blended learning class gained an appreciation of the class and indicated more strongly that
their analytical skills improved (Chen and Jones, 2007). This study indicated that when students are in traditional
setting, instruction becomes clearer but when they are in blended class, learning process may become doubtful for
them although they see more improvements in their analytical skills.
Akkoyunlu and Soylu (2008) researched students’ views on blended learning with respect to their learning styles.
They indicated that students’ views on blended learning are positive with a level of 8.44 in a range of 1 to 10, 1
being the lowest and 10 being the highest. Furthermore, Akkoyunlu and Soylu (2008) pointed out that highest grade
of students’ perceptions is given to face-to-face environment that learning is best linked with classroom teaching.
Face-to-face learning environment is favored in both studies (Akkoyunlu and Soylu, 2008; Chen and Jones, 2007).
Chandra and Fisher (2009) have studied high school students’ perceptions of a blended web-based learning
environment. Their findings revealed that web-based learning environment has been evaluated as convenient,
accessible, promoted autonomy of learning, promoted positive interactions between peers during web-based lessons,
enhanced enjoyment and regarded as clear, easy to follow and understandable. Moreover, students preferred asking
questions to teacher as face to face instead of asking through email (Chandra and Fisher, 2009). All these findings
showed that face to face instruction is regarded as one of the very important part of education.
Another study on perception carried out by So and Brush (2008) on 48 graduate students with respect to
satisfaction, social presence and collaborative learning in a blended-format course in health education. In their
findings, students who collaborated at high level, tent to be more satisfied with the blended course and perceived
high levels of social presence (So and Brush, 2008). So and Brush (2008) indicated that psychological distance and
social interaction got an important role in online collaborative learning. In general, course structure, emotional
support and communication medium identified as most critical factors with respect to students’ perceptions.
Furthermore, communication medium is perceived as effective in general but absence of immediate feedback and
synchronicity is regarded as negative parts of the course (So and Brush, 2008).
As a result, all these four perceptions studies provided insight information on students’ perception and the general
conclusion in all studies indicated that students favored web-based online learning environment as effective but they
did not want to give up from face to face component of the course. This is one of the rationales of blended learning
approach that advocates benefiting from advantages of both online and face to face learning environments. Effectiveness
For Popularity period of blended learning, significant numbers of studies were dwelled on effectiveness. Among
these, six scientific articles published in journals from 2007 to 2009 is reviewed. In two of the nine studies,
effectiveness was evaluated in general (Deliağaoğlu and Yıldırım, 2008; El-Deghaidy and Nouby, 2009). In the
remaining four studies, effectiveness was evaluated with respect to some independent variables that are
achievement, satisfaction, behavior, critical thinking skills, learner support, participation, interaction, affect and
retention (Akyüz and Samsa, 2009; Hughes, 2007; Melton et. al., 2009; Woltering et. al., 2009).
In a study conducted by Hughes (2007), it is aimed to measure effectiveness of blended learning on learner
support and retention. She conducted an action research in third year undergraduate module and designed a blended
course. In this blended course, she decreased face-to-face contact time and increased tutor support especially for ‘at
risk’ students (Hughes, 2007). She preferred to use blended learning in order to decrease the effort put for teaching
and increasing the effort for tutoring ‘at-risk’ students. Her results indicated that mixture of well-prepared blended
learning with proactive help and encouragement for ‘at-risk’ learners improves coursework submission and module
retention without extra effort (Hughes, 2007) that can be regarded as very effective in helping lecturers to manage
their time better.
Melton et. al. (2009) studied effectiveness of blended learning undergraduate health course on student
satisfaction and student achievement. They applied quasi-experimental research design and measured students’
course grades, satisfaction and teacher evaluation. It is found that students in blended class were significantly more
4600 Bayram Güzer and Hamit Caner / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 116 ( 2014 ) 4596 – 4603
satisfied than students in traditional class (Melton et. al.,2009). Furthermore, there was not any significant difference
on students’ pre-test and post-test grades (Melton et. al., 2009).
Akyuz and Samsa (2009) were interested in the effectiveness of blended learning on critical thinking skills of
students. The study was carried out on 44 students studying in the department of computer and instructional
technology education of Ankara University. It was an experimental study which had pre and post test applications
(Akyuz and Samsa, 2009). They measured students’ critical thinking skills with Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking
Appraisal Test once prior to five weeks blended learning course and once after the blended learning course. Their
results indicated that there are no significant differences between pre-test and post-test scores. This result indicated
that effectiveness of blended learning on critical thinking skills has not been observed in this study (Akyuz and
Samsa, 2009).
A study by Deliağaoğlu and Yıldırım (2008) aimed to compare effectiveness of blended learning with traditional
learning. They used MOLTA model to design the course and conducted further evaluations on students’
achievement, knowledge retention, attitudes and course satisfaction on both traditional and blended learning
environments (Deliağaoğlu and Yıldırım, 2008). Their study showed that both groups had similar achievement
levels and knowledge retention.Furthermore, high level of positive attitudes and course satisfaction were reported by
both groups. In conclusion, their study indicated no significant difference but satisfaction from blended environment
was higher.
El-Deghaidy and Nouby (2008) applied blended e-learning cooperative approach (BeLCA) on pre-service
teachers achievement, attitudes and cooperativeness. They conducted quasi-experimental study on twenty-six
science pre-service teachers in an Egyptian university (El-Deghaidy and Nouby, 2008). Their findings indicated that
achievement of students in blended group is significantly higher than students in control group. Besides, they found
that students’ attitudes towards e-learning are significantly higher in blended group. In students’ attitudes towards
cooperativeness, no significant difference found between both groups (El-Deghaidy and Nouby, 2008). El-Deghaidy
and Nouby regarded blended learning as effective with respect to attitudes and achievement.
Woltering et. al. (2009) aimed to find out whether blended problem-based learning in medical education
increases students’ motivation and support learning process with respect to student cooperation. They used a survey
to compare traditional problem-based learning with blended problem-based learning. This survey consisted of eight
categories (Woltering et. al., 2009). Their findings showed that among these categories, there were significant
differences between groups in motivation, satisfaction and subjective learning gains (Woltering et. al., 2009). As a
result it was found that blended problem-based learning increased the student motivation, student satisfaction and
subjective learning outcomes (Woltering et. al., 2009).
In all the studies analyzed at popularity period of blended learning, scholars measured effectiveness of blended
learning on different variables such as satisfaction, motivation, achievement, attitude, cooperativeness, knowledge
retention, critical thinking skills and drop-out rate for at risk students. The general findings indicated that there is no
significant difference on achievements of students between blended learning and traditional learning but on the other
variables like satisfaction, motivation, drop-out rate for at-risk students, attitude and knowledge retention blended
learning is observed as superior (Deliağaoğlu and Yıldırım, 2008; El-Deghaidy and Nouby, 2009; Hughes, 2007;
Melton et. al., 2009; Woltering et. al., 2009). Furthermore, no significant effect has been observed on critical
thinking skills of students in a blended learning experiment (Akyüz and Samsa, 2009).
4. Present of the blended learning
As it was reflected in Table-1 above, present of the blended learning has been classified from articles published
between 2010 and 2012 which covers the recent three years. In this period totally seven most frequently cited
articles were reviewed in order to observe the recent trends in blended learning.
Miyazoe and Anderson (2010) studied effectiveness of forums, blogs and wikis in an English as foreign language
(EFL) blended learning course in a university in Tokyo, Japan. They applied the study in three blended classes and
got students’ perceptions through questionnaire, interview and written assignments (Miyazoe and Anderson, 2010).
Bayram Güzer and Hamit Caner / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 116 ( 2014 ) 4596 – 4603
In quantitative analysis it is found that wikis preferred as the favorite among forums and blogs by students. In
qualitative analysis it is found that students had positive feelings on blended learning such as novel, easy and fun as
most frequently occurring words in their perceptions and blended learning is regarded as supportive learning
environment for the course (Miyazoe and Anderson, 2010).
Donnely (2010) conducted a study on interaction in blended problem-based learning at a university environment.
She studied other side of the blended problem-based learning that is perceptions of academic staff. In this qualitative
study, experiences of 17 academic staff participants in a blended problem-based learning (PBL) module were asked
and their perceptions provided (Donnely, 2010). She advocated technology to support interactions. Furthermore, use
of harmonization in blended PBL will create perfect blend of online and face to face environments (Donnely, 2010).
López-Pérez et. al.(2011) reported 1431 students’ perceptions that participated in blended learning activities.
They indicated that students got positive perceptions on blended learning. It is also observed that blended learning
reduced drop-out rates and raised exam pass rates (López-Pérez et. al., 2011).
Yeh et. al. (2011) focused on knowledge management in a blended learning environment. Their aim was to
examine blended learning environments’ effects on pre-service teachers’ professional development in creativity
instruction. They used a special model for knowledge management. This model includes four modes in knowledge
management that are socialization, externalization, combination and internalization. The name of the model, SECI,
comes from the initials of these four modes. An experimental study was conducted with instruments on professional
knowledge and teaching efficacy (Yeh et. al., 2011). They measured students’ responses with repeated measure
analysis of variance and it was found that blended learning environment could improve participants’ professional
knowledge and personal teaching efficacy related to creativity instruction (Yeh et. al., 2011).
Yen and Lee (2011) blended mobile learning, web-based learning and classroom teaching in their study and
aimed to find out problem solving patterns and their impact on learning achievement. They used quasi-experimental
method and gathered information on self-assessment by students, weekly interviews, logs and achievement test (Yen
and Lee, 2011). Results indicated that gender is an important factor on enjoying using technological tools in learning
environments; classroom group discussions encourage students to interact more and achieve high learning outcomes
in the problem solving process; students should be encouraged and appropriate learning strategies should be used
according to students (Yen and Lee, 2011).
Jia et. al. (2012) conducted their study on 96 middle school students who are taking English course in China.
They used moodle as blended learning management system tool and conducted an experimental study (Jia et. al.,
2012). They measured students performance on six different tests throughout the semester and compared the results
on both control and experiment groups. The results indicated that blended learning with vocabulary assessment
system improved both the vocabulary acquisition and exam performance of students. However, only thirty percent
of the students wanted to use the system outside the class. The reason of that is predicted as students’ heavy
workload (Jia et. al., 2012).
Smyth et. al. (2012) conducted a qualitative study on first year postgraduate students in the School of Nursing
and Midwifery in Ireland. They aimed to discover benefits and challenges of blended learning (Smyth et. al., 2012).
It is indicated that blended learning’s accessibility and flexibility is preferred by students which help them on
studying and planning their own learning (Smyth et. al., 2012). Furthermore, participants got more response in
learning the content and believed that they learnt more on this method of studying (Smyth et. al., 2012). As a
challenge, participants reported that social interaction is better in traditional method, late feedbacks were annoyed
them and poor internet connection disallowed participants to use the blended learning system. Overall, participants
in this study indicated positive feelings on blended learning system (Smyth et. al., 2012).
In summary, present studies on blended learning is examined with respect to recent articles published within the
recent three years (2010 – 2012). It is observed that blended learning is getting increasing attention and studied in
different areas on different variables. One thing is common in all studies that it is preferred by the participants but it
should be studied carefully in order to benefit more from it.
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5. Future of the blended learning
In all studies reviewed in this paper, it is observed that “blended learning” is perceived as useful, enjoyable,
supportive, flexible and motivator for learners. However, these factors are not sufficient enough to create an
atmosphere for successful learning. In other words, in order to create a positive learning environment, teachers using
blended learning environments should encourage students for more participation in the environment and should find
ways of creating social interaction through more collaboration. Furthermore, blending of face to face and online
learning environments should be planned precisely in order to benefit more from this approach.
Besides this, it is also found that blended learning is studied on different variety of schools and participants from
postgraduate students to middle school students; from nursing to English courses and from training programs to high
level courses at military. Therefore, all these examples indicates that blended learning will got increasing attention
from different areas.
In near future, there should be more studies guiding teachers or administrators on how to create a successful
blend. Moreover, near future will be dominated by tablets, smart phones and touch screen devices that will be some
of the next interests to be studied in blended learning courses. As technological innovations spread, new types of
blends will occur and education will be blended with different technologies but the key question to be answered will
remain same “How should we organize such learning environments in order to support learning effectively?”. The
answer is we should study to integrate constructivist and collaborative models into blended learning environments
and aim to educate more creative and curious students who reads, writes and produces for the world.
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... The popularity of blended learning as a new approach to teaching and learning process is rapidly increasing. Blended learning scintillated to emerge as one of the most popular instructional strategy in the 21 st century (Cuzer & Caner, 2014). This is because in the contemporary society, with the explosion of knowledge and innovations in technology, students used to access information digitally. ...
... In contrast, there is every reason to believe that blended learning strategy does not always affect students' performance scores. This is because Cracraft (2014) found no statistically significant difference in students' achievement when taught using blended learning strategy and traditional teaching method. In another experimental study, Kazu and Demirkol (2014) investigated the effect of blended learning environment on high school students' academic achievement. ...
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This study investigated students’ perception on the use of mobile technology in blended learning among University students in Calabar Metropolis, Cross River State. Three hypotheses were stated to guide the study. The study adopted a survey design and the population comprised of all second-year students in the two institutions in Calabar metropolis. Purposive and simple random techniques were used to draw three hundred (300) respondents from the institutions. The instrument for data collection was Student’s perception on the use of mobile technology in blended learning questionnaire (SPUMTBLQ) which was validated. The reliability coefficient index of the instrument was 0.86, data were analyzed using ANOVA and Independent t-test. Findings revealed that students’ perception level of mobile technology learning is positive and high, gender has no significant influence on mobile technology in blended learning and Student’s institutional affiliation has no significant difference on blended learning. It is suggested that the use of mobile technology in blended learning should be encouraged at the University irrespective of the institutional affiliation for effective learning
... To do this, educational institutions should use the most recent practices and methods, such as blended learning (BL), which combines face-to-face and distance learning modes. The primary aim is to capitalize on the positive aspects of both learning delivery systems [1]. Regarding their educational benefits, such as stimulating students' curiosity, engagement, confidence, critical thinking, satisfaction, and learning outcomes, BL has expanded rapidly in higher education [2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]. ...
... In addition, some have characterized blended learning as the utilization of both face-to-face and computermediated training [54,55] Moreover, some view blended learning as a combination of online, offline, and face-to-face instruction [56]. Despite these various definitions, the core concept is to capitalize on the positive aspects of both learning delivery systems [1]. ...
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Abstract— In the physical education literature, E-learning in terms of online or blended learning has been lacking and facing several challenges which highlighted a need to conduct more research to investigate modern instruction in the context of physical education. This study is one of the few to determine the impact of Mobile Application-Assisted Instruction (MAAI) on intrinsic motivation and sports nutrition knowledge in a blended learning setting. The “KI-coach” app has been used as a state of an art mobile application based on artificial intelligence. This study adopted quasi experimental approach. Students were randomly assigned into a control group (n=25) that received the convolutional instruction method and an experimental group (n=25) that received MAAI. Study groups adopted a blended learning approach. Measures of intrinsic motivation and sports nutrition knowledge were administered to both groups before and after teaching the nutrition and physical performance course. The ANCOVA analysis revealed a statistically significant difference between the mean scores of the two groups on intrinsic motivation and sports nutrition knowledge. These findings indicated that using MAAI in blended learning promoted the development of intrinsic motivation and enhanced sports nutrition knowledge among physical education students. These findings encourage the decision-makers at the Ministry of higher education and physical education instructors to improve blended learning instruction and practice.
... It has been found that interactive language skills are greatly facilitated by integrating online and traditional methods of learning [18], [19]. COVID-19 has paved ways for blended learning specifically in medical field where different models of online learning were assessed and adopted according to the need of institution [20]- [22]. ...
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Information communication and technology has great impact on modern education architecture of 21st century. This research intends to analyze the effectiveness of blended learning considering its basic principles and factors. Also, this study is focused on determining core problems of blended learning thus highlighting its design approach. A descriptive and inferential statistical analysis has been conducted on the data that reveal that the majority of students prefer blended learning system regardless their major, gender and any other factors if they have good infrastructure and effective electronic platform. It is recommended that for effective implementation of blended system there should be opportunities of face to face as well as online synchronous, and non-synchronous communication between students and teachers.
... Educational institutions in developed countries are working quite massively on framing various models of e-learning and blended learning along with distance learning and conventional classroom learning models (American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2018). The recent three decades have seen a growth in innovative modes of teaching-learning including the blended model, and still further innovations are being added (Güzer & Caner, 2014). Education innovators unanimously agree on three basic components of the blended learning model: ...
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This paper investigates a unique mode of blended learning as a combination of flipped method, priorly available study material, online lectures and assessments and physical campus interaction between the instructor/moderator and the students. A mixed-method qualitative approach has been employed for data collection. The data have been collected from the university's administration, a few involved teachers and selected students. A few interactive sessions of the hybrid courses have also been observed. The relevant administrative authorities are aware of their vision and required efforts and procedures for making the blended model successful. The teachers' and students' aptitudes and classroom environment are found more formal while the lectures are recorded for later use in blended learning. The students, who are taking up courses through this blended model, view the blended model as a unique one, though initially, it takes them some time to get familiar with this innovative model of learning. The study concludes that the blended model can be effectively utilized for: the selected courses of humanities and social sciences; as an alternative and supplement in distance learning programmes, and; for the further education of professionals who want to continue their studies along with their employment responsibilities.
... Students could access learning beyond the traditional lecture halls and science labs (Mandelson, 2018). Since the early 2000s, technology has innovated massively which has seen remote and blended education options become increasingly popular (Güzer and Caner, 2014). The global pandemic caused massive chaos for mainstream education facilities. ...
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In March 2020, the rapid spread of Covid-19 forced educational facilities to predominantly move to remote delivery. Unfortunately, there is little evidence that visualises the struggles of teaching and learning Graphic Design from a digital perspective. This study aimed to investigate the benefits and limitations of remote operation at a Further Education (FE) College throughout the pandemic, considering the subject’s reliance on a practical classroom setting. The mixed method case study collected qualitative and quantitative data from 35 learners that were encouraged to disclose their lived experiences through an anonymous online questionnaire and focus group. Participants were given the opportunity to uncover their mental and physical emotions and experiences of the remote learning environment in comparison to that in a classroom. Thematic analysis revealed that online delivery severely devalued, demotivated and isolated students who were able to disclose their desire for personal interaction and physical instruction. This study has discovered that students now require more resources, time and support in order to thrive in the classroom environment as face-to-face learning resumes. Findings have highlighted that recorded delivery and digital resources proved to be advantageous and enrich student learning in innovative ways. Further research could explore what strategies and implementations are required after the months of Covid-19, to enhance students’ subject knowledge, advance their understanding and progress underdeveloped skills.
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The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of interactive blended learning instructional strategy on secondary school student's academic achievement in Physics in Awka metropolis. Quasi-experimental research design was adopted for the study. Two research questions and two research hypotheses guided this study. The target population of the study was 1711 SSII Physics students. Purposively sampling technique was used to select the two schools used the study. The sample size for the study was ninety one (91) students, comprising of fifty four (54) male and thirty seven (37) SSII physics student from two (2) intact classes in the two coeducational public secondary schools used for the study. The instrument used for data collection was the Physics Interactive Achievement Test (PIAT) and were subjected to face and content validity by sending the initial draft of the instrument to three (3) experts in Physics Education, Measurement and Evaluation .The reliability coefficients of .72 was obtained for PIAT using Kuder-Richardson (K-20).Treatment lasted for four weeks; PIAT was used for Pretest and Posttest. From the data collected the research questions were answered using mean and standard deviation while Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test the hypotheses formulated at .05 level of significance. The result of the analysis indicated that interactive blended learning instructional strategy is more effective in enhancing students' achievement in Physics than conventional teaching method. Also achievement of male students taught Physics with interactive blended learning instructional strategy is slightly higher than female students taught Physics with the same interactive blended learning instructional strategy. Based on the above findings recommendations and conclusions were made.
En la era de posconfinamiento algunas instituciones han optado por un formato de educación bimodal o combinado. En este artículo se hace una revisión de los resultados de investigaciones que analizan el impacto de implementaciones bimodales en comparación con prácticas presenciales. El impacto puede ser en cuanto a la eficacia de aprendizaje, a las percepciones de los/as estudiantes y/o a las percepciones de los/as docentes. Se analizaron los 300 artículos más relevantes, según Google Académico bajo la palabra clave “blended learning versus face to face”, de los cuales se seleccionaron 14 artículos en los que se comparaba de manera experimental las dos modalidades de enseñanza. Luego del análisis es posible decir que en estos artículos existe una mayoría que han reportado mejores resultados en implementaciones bimodales que en presenciales. En contrapartida, algunos artículos analizados no aprecian una diferencia significativa en la eficacia del aprendizaje entre ambos tipos de implementaciones. También se observa que algunos artículos muestran una percepción positiva de las propuestas bimodales en comparación con las presenciales por parte de los/as estudiantes. No obstante, existen otros estudios en los que los/as estudiantes tienen una percepción positiva de las propuestas presenciales en comparación con las bimodales.
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Este trabajo tiene como objetivo la evaluación de una propuesta docente que combina la clase invertida con el uso de aplicaciones en la asignatura Análisis del Entorno Económico, del grado de Relaciones Laborales y Recursos Humanos. La experiencia persigue mejorar los resultados académicos e incrementar la baja participación estudiantil. Así, se pretende comprobar el impacto de la propuesta sobre dichos aspectos. Para ello se analizan los resultados de la convocatoria ordinaria de febrero de 2020, comparándolos con los de los cursos precedentes y estudiando su relación con el seguimiento de la experiencia. Se dispone también de las respuestas de 135 estudiantes a determinadas preguntas de un cuestionario diseñado para conocer su opinión sobre diversos aspectos de la asignatura. Los resultados muestran una mejora significativa del rendimiento académico y cambios importantes en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje, puesto que los universitarios se vuelven más activos, cooperativos y autónomos; además, aumenta la asistencia a clase y la interacción entre alumnado y profesorado. Ello pone de manifiesto la conveniencia de extrapolar esta experiencia a otras materias.
This research is motivated by the importance of the modernization of the implementation of learning in the education system within the university. The existence of various limitations of human resources, study space, and time to face-to-face causes the learning process to experience various obstacles to achieve optimal results. Learning in the form of Hybrid learning is one of several alternative efforts to improve the quality and quantity of the lecture process. Through learning by using Hybrid learning, students and lecturers can interact in learning across distances, time and space. The objective of this research was to obtain an overview of the Hybrid learning model to improve digital literacy of students in the learning process. The data obtained from this study were the results of document analysis, observation, interviews, and questionnaires. The sources of this study were students of the English Language Study Program, Faculty of Teacher Training and Educational Sciences, Pakuan University who were registered as active students for the 2018/2019 school year. The stages of research were observation, instrument calibration, research, evaluation, data analysis, revision of research results, dissemination of results, and reporting. The result of the research showed that the students' digital literacy was improved through the process of hybrid learning.
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The aim of educational system which changes according to the enhancements in educational technology is to make students more active in the learning process, as well as make them as people who have skills such as critical thinking, problem solving etc. Critical thinking is a thinking skill which consists of mental processes of discernment, analysis and evaluation. Blended Learning is learning which combines online and face-to-face approaches. By means of online discussion forms, teachers can monitor the class discussions. These discussions help teachers identify topics that need clarification or that have captured the interest of students, and they can use the insights gained by them to structure class time. Also, if teacher use the Web discussion area to address some of the more straightforward student questions, they can make better use of class time. In this sense, the purpose of this study is to examine the effects of blended learning environment which supports the course management system on the critical thinking skills of students. The model of the study is pre-test, post-test single group model. There are 44 Students who attending the course of Design And Use Of Instructional Material in the Department of Computer and Instructional Technology Education of Ankara University in third grade who constitute the study group. In this study, Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal Test, which consists of 100 items, was used to collect data. This test is composed of a series of test exercises in which the application of the important abilities in the critical thinking is involved. This test includes five sub-tests which are listed as; Inference, Recognition of Assumption, Deduction, Interpretation, Evaluation of Arguments. The test was developed in 1964 by Googwin Watson ve Edward M. Glaser. The test was translated into Turkish by Assoc. Prof. Dr. Nükhet Çıkrıkçı – Demirtaşlı in 1996. Analysis results indicated that the range of internal consistency of the subscales are interval from .20 to .47 and the total correlation coefficient is .63. The course consists of 5 weeks throughout the semester. At the beginning of the semester, student’ WGCTA scores were obtained. In the environment of blended learning, the course is supported to chat rooms and forums. After 5 weeks, students were asked to do the test again and the critical skills of the students were examined. The data was analyzed through paired sample t-test to compare the results of pre-test post-test scores, as well as descriptive statistics. There was no significant difference between pre-tets and post-test results.
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The purpose of this research was to investigate how various distance-learning technologies affect student learning in a high-level course in the military. This training comprised three phases: asynchronous, synchronous, and residential in-struction. Initial site visits indicated that this course was extensively planned and supported. At the end of one training course experience, two focus groups of students, as well as three instructors and the course advisor, were interviewed about their on-line experiences. Each group mentioned distinct advantages and disadvantages of the different components of the course. For example, on-line learning appeared to allow for greater and timelier feedback, authentic and mean-ingful learning, problem-solving, communication, and convenience. At the same time, participants noted several problems including the lack of learning manage-ment system flexibility, technology downtime, and overwhelming tool choices and content to learn. They also felt that the time commitments of the program resulted in many students dropping out of the program. Ten key Web-based instruction considerations or issues mentioned across participants related to feedback; mean-ingfulness of content; content size; course development and organization; the role of the on-line instructor; structuring small groups; flexible and active learning; use of technology; assessment practices; and general skills such as on-line communica-tion, problem-solving, and teamwork. Participants offered many relevant recom-mendations for fine-tuning this program as well as building similar programs. Résumé L'objectif de cette étude était d'étudier comment diverses technologies d'apprentis-sage à distance influent sur l'apprentissage des étudiants dans un cours de haut niveau dans l'armée. Cette formation comprenait trois phases : asynchrone, syn-chrone et formation en présentiel. Des visites initiales de sites indiquaient que ce cours était très bien planifié et encadré. Au terme de l'expérience de suivre ce cours de formation, deux groupes de discussion composés d'étudiants ainsi que de trois formateurs et du conseiller pédagogique du cours ont été interviewés sur leur expérience en ligne. Chaque groupe a mentionné des avantages et des désavan-tages des différentes composantes du cours. Par exemple, l'apprentissage en ligne a semblé faciliter des rétroactions plus importantes et opportunes, un apprentis-sage authentique et signifiant, la résolution de problèmes, la communication et de la commodité. En même temps, les participants ont noté plusieurs problèmes incluant le manque de flexibilité du système de gestion de l'apprentissage, les pannes technologiques ainsi qu'un choix trop grand d'outils et des contenus trop lourds. Ils ont aussi exprimé l'opinion que les exigences élevées en temps que demandent le programme ont amené plusieurs étudiants à l'abandonner. Les diix considérations-clés de la formation en ligne mentionnés par les participants tou-chent la rétroaction, la cohérence du contenu, la taille du contenu, le développe-ment du cours et l'organisation, le rôle du formateur en ligne, l'organisation des petits groupes, l'apprentissage souple et dynamique, l'utilisation de la technologie, les pratiques d'évaluation et les habiletés générales telles que la communication en ligne, la résolution de problèmes et le travail en équipe. Les participants ont fait plusieurs recommandations pertinentes pour améliorer ce programme ainsi que pour construire des programmes similaires.
Introduction The first generation of e-learning or Web-based learning programs focused on presenting physical classroom-based instructional content over the Internet. Furthermore, first-generation e-learning (digitally delivered learning) programs tended to be a repetition or compilation of online versions of classroom-based courses. The experience gained from the first-generation of e-learning, often riddled with long sequences of 'page-turner' content and point-and-click quizzes, is giving rise to the realization that a single mode of instructional delivery may not provide sufficient choices, engagement, social contact, relevance, and context needed to facilitate successful learning and performance. In the second wave of e-learning, increasing numbers of learning designers are experimenting with blended learning models that combine various delivery modes. Anecdotal evidence indicates that blended learning not only offers more choices but also is more effective. November -December 2003 Issue of Educational Technology, Volume 43, Number 6, Pages 51-54. This article has two objectives: 1. To provide a comprehensive view of blended learning and discuss possible dimensions and ingredients (learning delivery methods) of blended learning programs. 2. To provide a model to create the appropriate blend by ensuring that each ingredient, individually and collectively, adds to a meaningful learning experience. Badrul Khan's blended e-learning framework, referred to here as Khan's Octagonal Framework (see Figure 1) enables one to select appropriate ingredients ( Khan's framework serves as a guide to plan, develop, deliver, manage, and evaluate blended learning programs. Organizations exploring strategies for effective learning and performance have to consider a variety of issues to ensure effective delivery of learning and thus a high return on investment. Figure 1. Khan's Octagonal Framework.
Abstract Chinese classrooms, whether on school grounds or online, have long suffered from a lack of interactivity. Many online classes simply provide recorded instructor lectures, which only reinforces the negative effects of passive nonparticipatory learning. At Shanghai Jiaotong University, researchers and developers actively seek technologic interventions that can greatly increase interactivity in large blended classes. They developed a cutting-edge mobile learning system that can deliver live broadcasts of real-time classroom teaching to students with mobile devices. Their system allows students to customise means of content-reception based on when and where they tune into the broadcast. The system also supports short text messaging and instant polls. Through these venues, students can ask questions and make suggestions in real time, and the instructor can address them immediately. This article describes this system in detail, and also reports results from a formal implementation of the system in a blended English classroom of 1000 students (with about 800 being online). As the data reveal, m-learning activities can much better engage students in the learning process. Students in this class changed from passive learners to truly engaged learners who are behaviourally, intellectually and emotionally involved in their learning tasks.
This paper represents a review of the second edition of Distance Education: A Systems View by Michael Moore and Greg Kearsley (Thomas/Wadsworth, 2005). This second edition reflects a view of current applications of distance education, based on the vantage of instructional systems design. The strengths of the book are reflected in the uniqueness of its consideration of online courses, in particular from the point of view of systematic development and management.
As employees become more globally and technically savvy, it is inevitable that e-learning finds its way into the practice of intercultural training. After a decade of providing customized face-to-face intercultural training, Cendant Mobility’s intercultural experts are responding to the changing profile of the global workforce. Together with their e-learning partner, Mentergy, they embarked upon a journey toward developing a blended learning solution that is designed to unlock the potential of e-learning, while maintaining their commitment to genuinely impactful skill-based intercultural training. The focus of this article is on challenges and lessons learned which include: maintaining cultural appropriateness; technological accessibility; training trainers for this new modality; and attaining user acceptance for a global rollout of a blended e-learning intercultural training program.
Blended learning is a concept that has emerged with the onset of e-learning, or learning that is delivered across the Internet. This type of learning combines more traditional methods of teaching – such as instructor-led classes held in a physical classroom – with Internet-delivered content that is learner-driven and self-paced. This article looks briefly at the benefits of instructor-led training and e-learning, and describes the key elements of a learning organisation. It goes on to explain how e-learning was effectively incorporated into a six-month leadership development programme at a global organisation of 3,000 employees to enhance the instructor-led content and overall programme results. Such results included an increased sense of teamwork and camaraderie, establishment of common concepts and language, and greater efficiency in “jump-starting” group learning.
This discussion of blended learning environments covers: (1) background; (2) why the term "blended" is used, and what can be blended; (3) goals of blended learning environments, including pedagogical richness, access to knowledge, social interaction, personal agency, cost effectiveness, and ease of revision; and (4) characteristics of five case studies. (MES)
Improving retention and identifying ‘at risk’ learners are high profile issues in higher education, and a proposed solution is to provide good learner support. Blending of online learning with classroom sessions offers the potential to use a virtual learning environment to deliver learning activities, and to support learners using a distance learning model. Online tracking can also help to target ‘at risk’ learners quickly. In an action research project to improve retention, a blended module with proactive tutor support was compared with a previous cohort of the module and with similar classroom-only modules where there was no focus on learner support. Learners were also interviewed and the tutor kept records of the learner contact time. The resulting improved coursework submission rate was attributed to learner motivation as a result of peer and tutor support. The total teaching time was no greater in this model, although the workload distribution changed, and the tutor needed to be highly skilled in e-learning.