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Anti-inflammatory effects of Allium Sativum (Garlic) in experimental rats

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Background and Objectives: Non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are known to cause adverse effects. On the other hand, garlic is believed to have hypolipidaemic, antibacterial, anti-rheumatic and anti-inflammatory properties. Hence present study was undertaken to know the Anti-inflammatory effect of allium sativum in Albino Rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 36 rats were randomized into two groups of 18 each to be utilized by acute (Carrageenin induced paw edema) and chronic (Cotton pellet induced granuloma) inflammatory models. Further within each group the animals were randomly allocated to the control, standard (Piroxicam) and test (Garlic) drug groups. The rats were fed respective drugs orally 1 hour prior to experimentation. Reduction in paw edema size was recorded at four hours and in dry granuloma weight on 8th day after sacrificing the animal. To compare the reductions among three groups, one-way ANOVA was performed. Results: The effect of the test drug in terms of percent inhibition was found to be about 50% in acute and 21% in chronic models. Also, the acute effect was similar to standard drug. Conclusion: In view of the side effects of NSAIDs and corticosteroids, it may be envisaged that garlic can be used as an adjuvant in the inflammatory disorders.
... However, the mechanism through which allicin and Allium extracts increased immunoglobulins is not well understood. Many studies noticed that garlic stimulates anti-inflammatory effects in vivo, whereas in vitro it stimulates pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1 or TNF [39,40] and induces a humoraland cellular-mediated immune response [22,41]. Studies with purified allicin also mentioned the same opposite effect on cancer cells, cultured WBCs, or fibroblasts [42,43], but all studies reported that this immunomodulatory effect lacked the explanation about the mechanism. ...
... These in vitro effects were not observed after a single allicin treatment, and this denotes a determinant role of GSH in allicin immunostimulatory effects by GSSA signaling. There are two possible pathways related to the increase of immunoglobulins: (i) cytokine pathway which has already been mentioned by some authors [22,39,44] and (ii) polysaccharide-like immunostimulation, according to Ferreira and coworkers [25], by scavenger receptors from macrophages and/or B cells, as nonspecific receptors related to immunoglobulin secretion [45]. Rahman [46] highlighted the result that garlic decreased the NF-κβ level, which is a central transcription factor and which has a central role in the expression of genes that control the immune response. ...
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The allicin pleiotropic effects, which include anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-tumoral, and antibacterial actions, were well demonstrated and correlated with various molecular pathways. The immunostimulatory mechanism of allicin has not been elucidated; however, there is a possible cytokine stimulation from immunoglobulin release caused by allicin. In this study, when Wistar female rats and CD19+ lymphocytes were treated with three different doses of allicin, immunoglobulins, glutathione, and oxidative stress markers were assayed. Molecular docking was performed between S-allylmercaptoglutathione (GSSA)—a circulating form of allicin in in vivo systems formed by the allicin interaction with glutathione (GSH)—and scavenger receptors class A and B from macrophages, as well as CD19+ B lymphocytes. Our data demonstrated a humoral immunostimulatory effect of allicin in rats and direct stimulation of B lymphocytes by S-allyl-mercapto-glutathione, both correlated with decreased catalase (CAT) activity. The molecular docking revealed that S-allyl-mercapto-glutathione interacting with Colec12, MARCO (class A), and SCARB1 (class B) scavenger receptors in in vitro tests demonstrates a direct stimulation of immunoglobulin secretion by GSSA in CD19+ B lymphocytes. These data collectively indicate that GSSA stimulates immunoglobulin secretion by binding on scavenger receptors class B type 1 (SCARB1) from CD19+ B lymphocytes.
... The antiinflammatory effect of garlic powder was comparable to that of piroxicam minus the adverse effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. 44 Histological examination in our study revealed evidence of neurodegenerative changes in the retinae of the HCD group compared to those of the control group. This result is in agreement with that of Ban et al., 45 who stated that increased levels of cholesterol or its metabolites may induce metabolic stress and lead to chronic lipotoxicity and neurodegenerative changes. ...
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The purpose of this work was to prove that oxidative stress is the main mechanism responsible for retinal neurodegenerative changes, subsequent apoptosis, and inflammatory cytokine release in rats fed with a high cholesterol diet (HCD) and determine the role of garlic in alleviating these changes. Forty rats were equally divided into four groups: control, garlic-treated (positive control), HCD, and HCD + garlic-treated (HCD + G). By the end of the experiment (24 weeks) blood samples were collected for assessment of serum lipid profile, oxidative stress parameters, and plasma levels of IL-6 and TNF-α. Both eyes of the rats were enucleated; one was used for light microscopic examination and the other for electron microscopic examination. There was a significant increase in the levels of serum lipids, oxidative stress parameters, IL-6 and TNF-α, and area of expression of caspase-3 in the HCD group compared to both the control and HCD + G groups. Histological examination revealed degenerative changes in all layers of the neural retina in the HCD group. Garlic administration resulted in a significant improvement in the biochemical, immunohistochemical, and histological characteristics of hypercholesterolemic rats. These findings support the hypotheses that garlic has strong antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, and anti-inflammatory properties. Garlic ameliorates the neurodegenerative changes in the neural retina of hypercholesteremic rats.
... Garlic was also recommended to be used as an adjuvant in various inflammatory disorders. A study with carrageenin induced paw-edema animal model has shown anti-inflammatory activity of garlic is as effective as piroxicam [84]. In another study, the ethyl linoleate in garlic reduced the production of nitric oxide [NO] and prostaglandin E-2 by down regulating the expression of inducible NO synthase [iNOS] and cyclooxygenase-2 [COX2] in lipopolysaccharide stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages [85]. ...
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Allium sativum, is a perennial flowering bulb which has been consumed worldwide as a functional food and known from thousands of years for its medicinal and culinary properties. Therapeutic potential of garlic is attributed to presence of its vital phytoconstituents. In present review, a complete therapeutic profile of drug is summarized by discussing its potential benefits highlighting the bioactive constituents. Phytoconstituents of crude drugs are used as antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, immunomodulatory, cardioprotective, anticancer, hepatoprotective, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, neuroprotective, etc. Thus, it could conclude that garlic is one of the superior natural sources of bioactive compounds and has promising applications in the development of functional foods and nutraceuticals to improve health, and to prevent chronic diseases in the human.
... Of note, Iran is one of the valuable resources of Allium including 121 wild Allium species [16]. In folk medicine, Allium was used to treat the rheumatic and inflammatory disorders [17,18], gout, arthritis, psoriasis, hemorrhoid, diarrhea, stomach pain [19] and gastrointestinal disorders [13,20]. ...
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Abstract Background: Allium species are magnificently nutritious and are commonly used as a part of the diet in Iran. They have health enhancing benefits including anticancer properties due to the presence of numerous bioactive compounds. Herein, we investigated in vitro and in vivo anticancer properties of Allium bakhtiaricum extracts. Methods: Anti-growth activity of different fractions was explored in vitro on different cancerous cells using MTT assay, Annexin V/PI and SA-β-gal staining, Western blotting, flowcytometric and immunofluorescence microscopic evaluations. In vivo antitumor activity was investigated in BALB/c mice bearing 4 T1 mammary carcinoma cells. Results: We demonstrated that chloroformic and ethyl acetate fractions exert cytotoxic activity toward MDA-MB- 231 cells, the most sensitive cell line, after 72 h of treatment with IC50 values of 0.005 and 0.006 mg/ml, respectively. Incubation of MDA-MB-231 cells with ¼ and ½ IC50-72h concentrations of each fraction resulted in a significant G2/M cell cycle arrest. ¼ IC50-72h concentration of the chloroform fraction led to the disruption of polymerization in mitotic microtubules. Exposure of human breast cancer cells to different concentrations of the extracts at different incubation times did not induce apoptosis, autophagy or senescence. Our in vivo study revealed that administration of the chloroform extract at a dose of 1 mg/kg/day strongly suppressed mammary tumor progression and decreased the number of proliferative cells in the lung tissues indicating its anti-metastatic effect. Conclusion: Our findings imply that the chloroform fraction of Allium bakhtiaricum possesses the suppressive action on breast cancer through mitotic cell cycle arrest suggesting a mechanism associated with disturbing microtubule polymerization.
... In line with this assumption, some studies have showed that the anti-inflammatory activity of pure compounds (such as amentoflavone, pseudohypericin, and hyperforin, isolated from extracts of Hypericum perforatum) is higher than that of the extracts [38]. In addition to plant extracts, essential oils [39,40], plant juices [41] and plant powders [42] are also widely used for medicinal purposes. ...
... In line with this assumption, some studies have showed that the anti-inflammatory activity of pure compounds (such as amentoflavone, pseudohypericin, and hyperforin, isolated from extracts of Hypericum perforatum) is higher than that of the extracts [38]. In addition to plant extracts, essential oils [39,40], plant juices [41] and plant powders [42] are also widely used for medicinal purposes. ...
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This article presents highlights of the published literature regarding the anti-inflammatory activities of natural products. Many review articles were published in this regard, however, most of them have presented this important issue from a regional, limited perspective. This paper summarizes the vast range of review and research articles that have reported on the anti-inflammatory effects of extracts and/or pure compounds derived from natural products. Moreover, this review pinpoints some interesting traditionally used medicinal plants that were not investigated yet.
... Validation of ethnomedicinal plant use with reported pharmacological propertiesOf the 93 plant species recorded in this study for medicinal use, pharmacological properties for 75 plant species have been documented(Georgewill and Georgewill 2009;Rachana et al. 2011;Lambole 2010;Jayanthi and Dhar 2011;Joseph and Justin 2010;Shang et al. 2010). Many of these medicinal plants are also used by other ethnic people of Tripura to cure similar kind of diseases(Majumdar and Datta 2007;Das et al. 2009;Sen et al. 2011). ...
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Northeastern India has high medicinal plant diversity due to variance in topography and physiognomy. We documented the uses of various medicinal plants by the Bengali people of West district and South district of Tripura state for their own health care as well as for domesticated animals. Based on semi structured interviews, group discussions and information from local informants, a total of 93 species of medicinal plants of 52 families and 83 genera were documented. These plants were used to treat more than 55 different human diseases and 6 diseases of livestock. Sixty-eight plant species were used singly and the rest were used in combination with other species for therapeutic formulations of various diseases. Leaves of plants were most often used for most of the ethnobotanical preparations. Maximum consensus value of 96% was recorded for Chromolaena odorata (L.) King & H. Rob., and the minimum was 15% for Bambusa balcooa Robx. Of the 93 plant species, 75 species showed pharmacological properties. Prospects for augmenting existing knowledge and enhancing the use of traditional medicinal plants are discussed.
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The Phytexponent is used to treat pain and inflammation in complementary and alternative medicine practices; however, empirical data supporting its pharmacological efficacy and safety is scanty, hence the present study. We used the carrageenan-induced paw oedema and the acetic acid-induced writhing techniques to determine the anti-inflammatory and analgesic efficacies, respectively , of the Phytexponent in Swiss albino mice models. The 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay technique was used to investigate the in vitro cytotoxic effects of the Phytexponent in the Vero E6 cell line. The Phytexponent exerted significant (P < .05) anti-inflammatory effects in the carrageenan-induced paw oedema mouse model in a dose-and time-dependent manner, with significantly higher efficacy at 250 mg/Kg BW, than indomethacin (4 mg/Kg BW), in the first, second, and third hour (P < .05). Besides, the Phytexponent significantly reduced the acetic acid-induced writhing frequency in mice (P < .05), in a dose-dependent manner, depicting its analgesic efficacy. Notably, the Phytexponent (at doses: 125 mg/Kg BW and 250 mg/Kg BW) exhibited significantly higher analgesic efficacy than the Indomethacin (P<.05). Moreover, the Phytexponent was not cytotoxic to Vero E6 cells (CC 50 >1000 µg/ml) compared to cyclophosphamide (CC 50 = 2.48 µg/ ml). Thus, the Phytexponent has significant in vivo anti-inflammatory and analgesic efficacy in mice models and is not cytotoxic to Vero E6 cell line, depicting its therapeutic potential upon further empirical investigation.
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Background: 20% to30 % elderly population suffers with Musculoskeletal disorders such as Multiple joint pains, Low back pain, Rheumatoid arthritis, Osteoarthritis. Multiple treatment modalities are in vogue to treat MSDs all over the world but neither provides adequate pain relief nor modifies the disease process. Hence majority of the tribal population prefer traditional healers for treating MSDs as they are safe, effective, inexpensive and easily available. Aim & Objectives: Quantitative analysis of Medicinal plants used by the traditional healers of Karanja block of Wardha district for treating musculoskeletal disorders. Material & Methods: The survey study was carried out through field visits. Questionnaire, personal interviews and discussions with the traditional healers were used for data collection. Specific pharmacological properties of herbal drugs used by the traditional healers to treat MSDs were authenticated by taxonomist and forest range officer and verified through Nighantus and Samhitas. Observations & results: Total 17 traditional healers were interviewed for data collection. Total 23 plant species belonging to 20 families were indentified and documented for the treatment of MSDs. Tribal utilized 9 varieties of plant parts from 4 types of habitat and treat the patients of MSDs with 5 types of medicinal preparations through external and internal applications.
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Background: Garlic shoot and leaves are discarded as a waste material. Garlic has many properties like anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, anti-oxidant, dyslipidemic, anti-cancer, anti-infective therefore in the present study Garlic shoot extract (GSE) preparation was evaluated for its analgesic efficacy by making use of different central and peripheral pain models. So this study was performed using experimental central and peripheral pain models in mice. Methods: The analgesic efficacy of GSE was assessed by employing different pain models such as i)Hot plate and tail flick tests for central analgesia ii) 4% sodium chloride induced writhing as peripheral analgesic model . The percentage inhibition of writhes and prolongation of reaction time were the parameters of evaluation. The results obtained were analysed by ANOVA and Student's unpaired and ldquo;t and rdquo;- test. Results: GSE treatment (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg) reduced writhing episodes significantly in 4%NaCl induced writhing in mice as compared to control indicating its analgesic effect. The highest percentage inhibition of pain was seen with 500mg/kg of GSE. GSE treatment, in Hot plate and Tail and ndash; flick methods significantly prolonged the reaction time at 90,120 minutes. Conclusions: Garlic shoot extract (GSE) was found to be effective in all three models of experimental pain. However it is less potent than standard analgesic drugs and could be employed safely in higher doses. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(6.000): 2393-2396]
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A resurgence of interest in garlic due to recent revelations of its beneficial effects in the treatment of various human and plant diseases and also due to validation of claims made in traditional systems of medicine has resulted a plethora of publications on different aspects of garlic in recent years. Chemical constituents of garlic and their variations on the methods of isolation have been discussed in the present review. Effect of garlic and its constituents against various human and plant pathogenic and saprophytic microorganisms has also been reviewed.
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S-allyl cysteine sulphoxide (SACS), a sulphur containing aminoacid of garlic is the precursor of allicin and garlic oil, and has been found to show significant radio protective effect in albino rats which were whole body irradiated with 400 rads of irradiation by Cobalt 60 source. It markedly reduced the radiation induced mortality and showed significant protection against the tissue damaging effects of irradiation in histopathological sections of liver and lung.
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Possible effects of garlic extract supplementation on blood oxidant/antioxidant status, blood lipid profile and coronary plaque formation process were investigated in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Thirty-one male rabbits of New Zealand strain were used. Twenty-two animals were given cholesterol for 4 months. Seven of them were sacrificed to investigate plaque formation and to measure blood parameters. Seven of the remaining 15 animals were fed on normal laboratory diet and others normal diet plus garlic extract for additional 3 months. Blood antioxidant and lipid parameters were measured and histological examination was made. Total, HDL and LDL cholesterol levels were found to be significantly higher in the Cholesterol Group relative to controls. In the histological investigation, a dense atherosclerotic plaque formation was observed in the aortas of this group. In the Normal Diet Group, total, HDL and LDL cholesterol levels were higher relative to the control group. No significant differences were observed between plaque surface areas of the Cholesterol and Normal Diet Groups. In the Extract Group however, there were differences with regard to all the analysis parameters. Total, HDL and LDL cholesterol levels were found to be decreased in this group. There was significant reduction in the plaque surface area in the aortas of this group. Blood antioxidant potential (AOP) was higher than the other groups but, malondialdehyde (MDA) level and, value of susceptibility to oxidation (SO) were lower in the Extract Group relative to the other groups. There were however no significant differences between MDA and SO values of the Control and Extract Groups. Our results demonstrate that cholesterol supplementation leads to dense plaque formation in the aortas of the rabbits. Garlic extract supplementation ameliorates blood lipid profile and, increases antioxidant potential. Extract treatment can significantly reduce plaque surface area in the aorta. Our results suggest that increased blood antioxidant potential due to extract supplementation might be one of the factors leading to this end.