Effects of Olive Harvesting Methods on Oil Quality

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Olives are traditionally hand harvested, a process that is not only tedious and laborious, but represents the major proportion of the costs of production. As it is known, harvesting method has important effect on the quality of olive especially produced for table consumption.

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... Upon applying the new approaches, some authors targeted their impact on olive oil quality while comparing the two methods. In Turkey, Saglam et al.'s [88] purpose was to test the influence of the old and the new methods (by machine to collect on a platform) on the content of acidity (%) and PV ( meqO 2 ∕Kg) , as a conclusion since there were no big differences (e.g., oils obtained from olives ("Gemlik" variety) harvested by hands and by machine respectively showed values of 1.87 and 2.06% of acidity and 5.7 and 6.4% of PV), the authors suggested using the platform namely in small businesses as an alternative harvesting method. Along with, Boskou [23] claimed the harvesting practices and olive processing affect the individual sterols composition. ...
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Olive oil (Olea europaea L.) is widespread due to its bioactive composition, sensorial characteristics, health benefits, and protection against certain diseases. Most of papers reported so far aimed to highlight its content as well as the quality of this edible oil in many different countries. In the present work, we targeted to review the sets of factors that could influence olive oil quality (whether it is virgin olive oils, or extra-virgin olive oils produced in different areas of origin, from several genetic backgrounds, plus the olives and olive oil processing from the fruits harvesting to olive oil bottling and storage, i.e., from farmers to consumers). In addition to all the internal and external variables, the last sub-paragraph was devoted to cooking effects. Notably, olive oil quality differed depending on many factors, thus, to obtain excellent quality, producers should be alerted to the attributes of their orchards (location; latitude and altitude, pedoclimate conditions) to adapt to the appropriate growing practices, like irrigation, fertilization, and pruning. The harvest time/ripening degree, which is related to the cultivated variety and the origin areas climate, as well as the extraction methods, bottling and storage conditions (container’s type and storage time) were also considered.
... During the olives harvesting process, instead, the critical aspects that affect the EVOO quality are the time period in which the olives are harvested and how long the harvested olives are stored since the transformation process starts. Moreover, the harvesting method, i.e., if they are harvested by hand or by using specific machines, sensibly affects the acidity of olives and consequently the final EVOO quality [14]. In the harvesting process data are grouped and included in a olives harvesting profile by farmers. ...
... The chemical hazards are increasing due to pesticides residues and the effects of improper harvesting methods. For instance‚ any breakage and damage of fruit causes the increase in free fatty acids and peroxides levels (Saglam, Tuna, & Gecgel, 2014)‚ leading thus to a degradation in the quality of extracted olive oil in a later processing stage. ...
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Olive oil has proven nutritional value and can command a high market price for farmers and processors. It promises significant income generating potential as well as social empowerment. To meet consumers' expectations for quality, safety and authenticity‚ olive oil products should be grown, harvested and processed according to internationally recognized food safety management standards. Instead of retrospectively inspecting and testing the end-product‚ a preventative approach that anticipates potential biological, chemical and physical hazards at all stages of the value chain should be incorporated to preserve the quality and ensure the safety of olive oil and olive fruits. In this research paper‚ we overlay a HACCP food safety management system on the olive oil value chain in Tunisia. Given the importance of Tunisia in the international market of olive oil‚ we discuss HACCP in context of the country specificities and we analyze the possibilities and challenges of implementing HACCP in the Tunisian olive oil industry. HACCP promises several advantages including the preservation of product quality and safety for human consumption. Moreover, HACCP can aid Tunisian export sales‚ improve customers satisfaction and enhance Tunisian branding and marketing. However‚ this food safety management system requires the commitment of significant resources and the engagement of all stakeholders in the plan.
The COVID‐19 pandemic has aggravated existing problems associated with the high consumption of plastic products and their incorrect disposal, resulting in an increase in social, economic, and environmental problems. Thus, new combinations of biodegradable materials for food packaging have become the target of frequent research. The present study aimed to produce and evaluate active biodegradable films based on red bean flour and açaí seed extract and also to evaluate the quality of extra virgin olive oil stored in packaging produced for a period of 16 days at 60°C. Films of red bean flour (Phaseolus vulgaris) with 0.5% and 10% açaí seed extract were developed. The addition of the extract to the films increased their tensile strength by 100%, reduced their solubility and transparency, and increased their relative crystallinity. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity presented by the films increased in line with the concentration of extract added. The extra virgin olive oil was packaged in materials produced from bean flour films with 10% extract and maintained its quality parameters within the limits established by legislation. These results suggest the discovery of a biodegradable and antioxidant packaging that can be used to pack olive oil and other fatty food products. Biodegradable packaging for olive oil.
This study aimed to evaluate the thermal stability of avocado oil (Breda variety) compared to olive and rice bran oils. The oils were heated to a temperature of 180 °C for 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, and 6.0 h in a digester block. The evaluations performed were: acidity, indices of peroxides, iodine, p-anisidine, refraction, electrical conductivity, specific extinction coefficients, phenolic compounds, chlorophylls, carotenoids, and antioxidant activity of the samples. Changes in the evaluated parameters were found as a function of the heating time. In general, olive oil was found to be more stable, followed by avocado oil. However, the avocado oil showed good maintenance of characteristics when subjected to heating. This work has shown that avocado oil is very similar to olive oil and that both show considerable stability after heating at the usual temperature of the frying process.
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The characterization of the physical-chemical properties and thermal behavior from oilseed fruits for the biofuels production, has gained interesting in the scientific community and general society, even for partial replacement to fossil fuels and possible reduction of air pollutants, which cause several problems to human health, animals and plants. These oilseed fruits rich in lipids, triglycerides, fatty acids, carotenoids, among other greasy compounds can be transformed into solid, liquid and gaseous products by different thermochemical conversion processes (conventional combustion, pyrolysis, oxy-fuel combustion, gasification and transesterification). This review paper investigates to the different oleaginous feedstock commonly found in the forests and plantations of the Brazilian regions, for example, olive stones, palm fruits, babassu coconut, macauba fruits, tucumã seeds and soybeans, as well as the respective residues generated for the biofuels production and manufacturing processes. Main opportunities and challenges verified for the use of biofuels produced from these oilseed fruits lie in the fact that internal combustion engines using fossil fuels do not need to undergo modifications and mechanical adaptations for their operation conditions, and there are not corrosion risks and/or deterioration of the metallic parts. Biofuels inherently produce less greenhouse gases or this pollution is considered neutral. Finally, innumerous reserves and World and Brazilian native forests present infinity of different oleaginous species that still need be studied, since have great potential to be used as biofuels, being renewable energy sources and sustainably eco-friendly.
The rate of development of mechanical harvesting for olives has been continuous and progressive since the 1960s. The following three main approaches have been developed since that time: fruit removal from the tree; collection, cleaning, and transport of fallen fruits; and integration of all of these harvest operations into a single operation using continuous harvesters. The tendency to increase the plant density above 250 trees/ha drove the search for alternative mechanical harvest systems. Several systems have been developed in the past 15 years, and some of them are based on the association of trunk shakers and contact head machines with slanted canvas catch frames working in tandem. The final objective of all harvesting is to produce high-quality marketable olive oil, whether hand or mechanically harvested. As a result, preharvest, harvest, and postharvest practices have been evaluated for their ability to affect olive oil quality.
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This paper focuses on comparing the main chemical characteristics of 16 fresh commercial samples of extra virgin olive oil obtained from four harvest years (1999–2002) and derived from both stoned and whole fruits. The qualitative and quantitative contents of minor polar compounds (MPCs) together with other reference analytical parameters (acidity, peroxides, UV absorption values and Rancimat test) were evaluated. An investigation of the MPCs and oil composition obtained from only stoned olives was also carried out. The acidity values of the oils from stoned fruits were always similar to or lower than those of the corresponding oils from whole fruits. For almost all the samples from stoned olives a better resistance to oxidation was revealed in comparison with the corresponding traditional oils. Five pairs obtained from the 2000 and 2001 harvests showed higher concentrations of both MPCs and hydroxytyrosol derivatives in the oils from stoned fruits, in agreement with their higher Rancimat values. Overall, our findings with regard to acidity values, % hydrolysis, the Rancimat test and the qualitative and quantitative distribution of MPCs suggest a higher antioxidant capacity of the oils from stoned olives. Copyright © 2004 Society of Chemical Industry
De-stoned olives (Gentile di Chieti, Caroleo and Coratina varieties) were processed in comparison with non-stoned olives (traditional extraction). Since the de-stoned oily pastes are not easy to process, a depolymerising pectocellulolytic enzyme preparation (in combination or not with draining micronised food talc) was added to them. These processing aids significantly improved the lower oil yields given by the new extraction system. Destoning increased the hourly plant processing potential of approximately 20%. In addition, it allowed to obtain separated by-products (better recyclable in chemical or feedstuff industries) and to produce highly nutraceutical oils, characterised by higher contents of hydrophilic biophenols, tocopherols and volatiles. On the contrary, the de-stoned oils had lower concentrations of pigments (both carotenoids and chlorophylls). They were chiefly valuable for the marked and harmonic aroma, the green fruitiness notes and the potentially higher preservability (shelf-life) and resistance to autoxidation. This could lead to economically prefer the new extraction system to the classical industrial processing cycles.
An experimental investigation was carried out to evaluate the quality of virgin olive oils obtained when a de-stoner were used for the olive paste preparation in comparison to the use of a traditional stone mill. In order to improve the slightly differences of oil yields due to the use of the de-stoner also a heat exchanger has been introduced in the processing line. The experimental data showed that resistance to the oxidation, total phenols and pleasant volatile compounds were higher in the de-stoned olive oils than in the oils obtained from the whole paste. Resistance to oxidation was assessed by Rancimat method and showed a positive correlation with the amount of total phenols.
BACKGROUND: Olive trees are generally grown under rain-fed conditions. Since yield response to application of water in the growing season may be considerable, irrigation is increasingly introduced to existing, mature orchards. An additional feature of modernization of olive cultivation is mechanical harvesting. To investigate the effect of irrigation level on the quality of virgin olive oil (VOO) produced from cv. Souri, six regimes, ranging from deficit to excess, were applied to trees in a mature, traditional orchard as it was converted to irrigation. Furthermore, in order to investigate the effect of damage incurred during harvest, oil quality of hand-picked fruit was compared to that of mechanically harvested olives. RESULTS: Data were collected from two consecutive growing seasons. Increased irrigation quantity increased the free acidity level of the oil and decreased the total phenol content of VOO, while the peroxide level of the oil was not affected. Oil of hand-picked fruits had lower free acidity, higher polyphenol content and slightly lower peroxide level compared to the oil of mechanically harvested olives. CONCLUSION: Fruits from irrigated trees demonstrated an apparent sensitivity to mechanical wounding that subsequently led to increased free acidity, increased peroxide level and decreased total phenol content in oil. Management of irrigated orchards including method and timing of harvest and oil extraction techniques should consider these results in order to optimize production of high-quality oil. Copyright
An automated parallel flow injection (PA-FI) spectrophotometric method for the determination of peroxide value (PV, meq O2 kg−1 oil) in olive oil is described. A home-made PA-FI analyser incorporating 10 incubation coils and using flow reversals achieves a sampling rate of 83 samples h−1 while each sample is incubated for 5 min. Detection is achieved by monitoring iodine liberated from NaI by lipid peroxides at 360 nm. The new PA-FI method allows olive oil analysis without pretreatment or dilution and minimizes solvent consumption (2.0 ml of acetic acid and 3.4 ml of n-propanol per analysis). Precision was found to be better than 2.0% relative standard deviation (n=10). The linear range was 2.5–80 PV, rendering the method useful for the analysis of edible olive oils. Results obtained by the proposed method compare well (0–5.6% relative difference, mean 1.0%) with those obtained by an official method that is time-consuming and uses large amounts of organic solvents. The PA-FI analyser developed allows automation of methods that require long incubation times without loss of sampling rate. Up to 60 samples h−1 can be analysed when 10 min incubation time is required. The detector is inserted in the flow path before the incubation coils and incubated samples are aspirated back to the detector by flow reversal. This overcomes construction difficulties and allows the measurement of the sample blank value.
Acid value (AV) is an important parameter to illustrate the quality as well as degree of refining of peanut oil. A rapid near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) method was applied to determine AV in peanut oils. A partial least squares (PLS) regression model with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.9725 and a square error of cross-validation (SECV) of 0.308 was obtained. The prediction set gave a coefficient of determination (r2) and standard error of prediction (SEP) of 0.9379 and 0.333. Regarding qualitative evaluation, the classification of qualified peanut oil (with an acid value of less than or equal to 3 mg/g) and unqualified peanut oils (with an acid value of more than 3 mg/g) was conducted by using discriminant partial least squares analysis (DPLS). The results showed that DPLS technique was an effective method of classification model building, with a high correct percent of 96.55%.
We investigated the influence of technology, storage and exposure on quality parameters, minor components, oxidative stability and antioxidant activity in two extra virgin olive oils of Bosana cv, obtained from whole (WO) and de-stoned fruits (DO), processed with a two-phase decanter. DO oils showed great stability and, consequently, had a longer shelf-life than WO oils. During storage, the former maintained lower values of free acidity, higher values of chlorophylls, carotenoids and α-tocopherol, longer oxidative stability and higher antioxidant activity than the latter. Peroxide indices were not significantly different between the two oils, while spectrophotometric indices, during storage, increased more in DO oils than in WO oils. The total phenol content behaviour patterns during storage were very similar in both oil samples, with a higher value in WO oils. Exposure to light significantly decreased the chlorophylls, carotenoid, phenol, α-tocopherol and stability values, as expected, but antioxidant activity was not influenced by exposure conditions.
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