The Impact of Landscape Design on House Prices and Values in Residential Development in Urban Areas

Article (PDF Available) · December 2014with458 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/j.apcbee.2014.10.059
Abstract
Focusing on a world class living environment, a good quality residential area can be highlighted as an important issue in creating a sustainable living environment. However, limited green spaces within the proximity of residential properties are not supporting the landscape space and are not conducive to living space. The aim of the paper is to investigate the impact of landscape design on house prices and values in residential development particularly in urban areas. The paper employed quantitative approaches which include i) a questionnaire survey; and ii) an observation. This empirical study is based on the findings of case studies conducted in several residential areas in Klang Valley. The findings show that the residents have very clear ideas on how much green space is really important in residential areas in order to create a sustainable residential environment. Despite the absence of public actions in terms of providing information, encouraging participations in the survey and promoting awareness of those interviewed have shown considerable interest in promoting landscape design to be applied in residential development. The perceptions of the quality and quantity of landscape designs in residential areas especially in Klang Valley can be further researched for future study.
1 Figures
APCBEE Procedia 10 ( 2014 ) 316 320
2212-6708 © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).
Selection and peer review under responsibility of Asia-Pacifi c Chemical, Biological & Environmental Engineering Society
doi: 10.1016/j.apcbee.2014.10.059
ScienceDirect
Available online at www.sciencedirect.com
ICESD 2014: February 19-21, Singapore
The Impact of Landscape Design on House Prices and Values in
Residential Development in Urban Areas
Mohd Ramzi Mohd Hussain, Izawati Tukiman, Ismawi Hj. Zen and Fitrynadia
Mohd Shahli
Department of Landscape Architecture, Kulliyyah of Architecture and Environmental Design, International Islamic University Malaysia
(IIUM), 53100 Jln Gombak, Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA
Abstract
Focusing on a world class living environment, a good quality residential area can be highlighted as an important issue in
creating a sustainable living environment. However, limited green spaces within the proximity of residential properties are
not supporting the landscape space and are not conducive to living space. The aim of the paper is to investigate the impact
of landscape design on house prices and values in residential development particularly in urban areas. The paper
employed quantitative approaches which include i) a questionnaire survey; and ii) an observation. This empirical study is
based on the findings of case studies conducted in several residential areas in Klang Valley. The findings show that the
residents have very clear ideas on how much green space is really important in residential areas in order to create a
sustainable residential environment. Despite the absence of public actions in terms of providing information, encouraging
participations in the survey and promoting awareness of those interviewed have shown considerable interest in promoting
landscape design to be applied in residential development. The perceptions of the quality and quantity of landscape
designs in residential areas especially in Klang Valley can be further researched for future study.
© 2014 Published by Elsevier B.V. Selection and/or peer review under the responsibility of Asia-Pacific
Chemical, Biological & Environmental Engineering Society
Keywords: Sustainable living environment, landscape design, house prices and values, residential development, quality of landscape
design
1. Introduction
Corresponding author. Tel.: 006-03-61964000 ext 6286; fax: 006-03-61964864
E-mail address: ramzie97@hotmail.com.
© 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).
Selection and peer review under responsibility of Asia-Pacifi c Chemical, Biological & Environmental Engineering Society
317
Mohd Ramzi Mohd Hussain et al. / APCBEE Procedia 10 ( 2014 ) 316 – 320
Landscape, which includes topography, vegetation and associated plants and soil, water bodies, and their
spatial configuration, is one of the most visual needs of people [1]. They add that human-nature interactions
lead human beings to have contrasting preference on the surrounding landscape and environment because a
pleasing landscape can bring mental and physical benefits to people. The understanding and preference by
people on their surrounding landscape provide a challenge for policy-making and implementation in
residential property. Landscape design is an importance element to housing development since it can create
genius loci (sense of place) to the housing area. This will determine the level of comfort for the residents and
the residential areas. Good design should contribute positively to making places better for people.
2. Landscape Design as an Added Value for Residential Development
There are many factors of landscape design that can influence house value and price [2]. Luttik [3] states
that the largest increase in house prices due to environmental factors and analysis revealed the house price
varies by type of landscape that have in house. According to Kadish and Nutesil [4] the property high
structure vegetation has positive and significant coefficient to the sale price of the property of the house.
Besides that, house price and value are influenced by factor of natural sources that have in house such as open
spaces and water bodies. According to Wolf [5] yard, street trees, forest, open spaces and parks in
development growth area can add a value to the property. Niemiera [6] studies that a different type of plant
sizes; types and level of sophistication of landscape can add value to house property. In that study, design
sophistication was the factor that most added to a house’s value. Ng [7] adds that park and open space is one
of the most important of selling a point and it becomes a tool for the developer to attract prospect buyers.
Although there have been a few exceptions, houses with softscape elements are generally preferred
compared to houses without softscape elements. According to Henry [8] plants includes trees, grass and
others Softscape features may affect the price of the house. It's also supported by Niemiera [6] and Des
Rosiers et al., [9] states that a sophisticated landscape design includes varying sizes, types and color of plants
can become factors that most added to a house value and price. Niemera [6] adds that landscape design
sophistication can increase 42% value of the house rather than the size of the plant (36%) and diversity type
of plant material (22%). Thus, large softscape and hardscape expenditure on the residential development can
increase house value and will result in a higher selling price.
3. Methodology
This study employed quantitative approaches which include a questionnaire survey and observation. In
total, 1000 respondents were used as representatives for the whole population in Klang Valley. After
obtaining the target response rate, the collected data were further analyses using the Statistical Package for the
Social Science (SPSS) Version 20.0 software. The types of data used were nominal, ordinal and categorical.
These types of data and the objectives of the study determined the type of statistical analysis employed.
4. Analysis and Findings
4.1. Criteria of Landscape Design for Residential Areas
In order to identify the needs of the users in terms of landscape design, respondents were asked the type of
criteria considered to be significant for the landscape design in their residential areas. The tables present the
frequency distribution of respondents’ answers.
318 Mohd Ramzi Mohd Hussain et al. / APCBEE Procedia 10 ( 2014 ) 316 – 320
Table 1. Landscape design criteria included for residential areas
Landscape design criteria
0
1
2
3
4
5
M
a.
Comfort
1.0
1.4
3.1
9.3
32.4
52.8
4.33
b.
Feeling of safety and security
1.0
1.5
3.3
11.4
32.0
50.8
4.29
c.
Privacy
1.0
2.0
5.8
22.2
41.8
27.2
3.87
d.
Sense of belonging
1.0
1.8
4.6
17.6
43.0
32.0
4.00
e.
Space to socialize
1.1
1.9
4.2
20.3
50.7
21.8
3.87
f.
Courtyard
1.3
.8
3.8
20.5
50.7
22.9
3.92
g.
Recreation
1.5
.6
4.5
15.7
49.3
28.4
4.02
h.
Sport
1.1
1.7
6.9
16.6
46.7
27.0
3.91
i.
Cultural
1.5
1.8
7.8
25.5
44.8
18.6
3.72
j.
Community
1.3
1.5
5.1
22.2
46.5
23.4
3.86
k.
Therapeutic garden
1.5
2.9
9.9
28.8
41.0
15.9
3.58
l.
Herbs Garden
1.8
4.0
14.4
26.8
38.5
14.5
3.46
m.
Others
34.2
3.7
4.4
17.2
26.8
13.7
3.64
Total
3.88
As shown in Table 1, the highest criteria selected by respondents are comfortable (M = 4.33) and feeling of
safety (M = 4.29). The lowest criterion selected is the herb garden (M = 3.46). This result shows that the
aspect of safety and comfort are important to create a better living environment and the uses of landscape
design hopefully can provide a sense of security for users. Thus, based on the preferences on comfort and
safety, the implication of landscape design, such as fences and buffers, can create a sense of security and
safety for the residential environment. The safety and security can lead to the comfortable environment for the
user.
4.2. Preferences on Landscape Elements
In addition, the questions on the needs for landscape elements in the house compound were also asked to
the respondents. The landscape elements consist of fountains, gazebos, plants, benches, pergolas, trellis,
planter boxes, rock gardens, lawn areas and others. Table 2 shows that 69.9% (M = 3.88) of the respondents
agreed with the needs of plants, 67.7% of lawn gardens, 63.3% for benches, 49.3% for gazebos, 43.1% of
planter boxes, 42.8% for rock gardens, 40.3% for fountains, 39.1% for pergolas, 31.4% for trellis and 23.7 for
others. This shows that the needs of plants have become the highest priority for respondents for their house
compounds. The function of plants for residential areas can be identified for street plantings, buffers, shading
elements for pedestrians, creating aesthetic values that can create an identity for the residential areas and
forming a cooling environment for the surrounding neighborhood.
Table 2. Landscape elements in house compounds
Landscape elements in house compounds
0
1
2
3
4
5
M
SD
a.
Fountains
2.7
21.8
16.4
18.8
26.5
13.8
2.94
1.379
b.
Gazebos
2.9
16.4
12.1
19.3
33.2
16.1
3.21
1.328
c.
Plants
2.4
4.9
3.3
19.5
41.2
28.7
3.88
1.033
d.
Benches
2.5
7.3
6.6
20.3
44.5
18.8
3.62
1.098
e.
Pergolas
3.7
15.4
14.5
27.3
30.6
8.5
3.08
2.065
f.
Trellis
3.8
15.5
18.4
30.9
24.4
7.0
2.89
1.170
g.
Planter boxes
3.2
11.8
16.1
25.8
32.5
10.6
3.14
1.187
h.
Rock gardens
3.0
13.7
15.4
25.1
30.1
12.7
3.13
1.242
i.
Lawn a reas
3.3
5.4
5.6
18.0
41.4
26.3
3.80
1.074
j.
Others
55.4
3.8
3.0
14.1
16.4
7.3
3.46
1.106
Total
3.31
1.268
319
Mohd Ramzi Mohd Hussain et al. / APCBEE Procedia 10 ( 2014 ) 316 – 320
4.3. Landscape Design Influences the House Prices and Values
There are many factors to be considered in respondents’ decisions to buy or rent a house. The importance
of landscape design in influencing this decision is needed to be proven (Table 3).
Table 3. Results of owning a dream-house
Description
Frequency
Percentage %
a.
Landscape design influences the decision to
buy or rent a house
Missing
Yes
No
16
682
302
1.6
68.2
30.2
Total
1000
100.0
b.
Providing good landscape increases the
value of property
Missing
Yes
No
13
904
83
1.3
90.4
8.3
Total
1000
100.0
The results show that there are 68.2% of the respondents agreed that landscape design can influence their
decisions in buying or renting a house (Table 3). Meanwhile, a majority of the respondents agreed that
landscape design can increase the value of a property (90.4%). Thus, these results support that landscape
design is an important factor when making the decisions to buy or rent a house and it also increases the value
of a property. The used of various types of plants can help to solve residential problems and give an
opportunity in enhancing a quality of living for the residents (Fig.1).
Fig. 1. (a) Peltophorum pterocarpum (Yellow flame) is a big silara tree that can provide shade environment for the main avenue area; (b)
Mimusops elengi (Bunga Tanjung) can direct pedestrians’ movement; (c) Mangifera indica (Mango Tree) are planted at the front of
houses for its fruits.
Besides that, the function of landscape design such as street planting and railing act as a buffer zone and
safety barrier to segregate public and private spaces of residential areas. The importance of safety and security
become a priority for every residence in order to make their surrounding safe from any danger and harm. It
will help in increasing social values of the society.
5. Conclusion
It can be concluded that landscape design influence the house prices and values in residential development.
Most of the respondents support the importance of landscape design positively in their residential areas.
However, there are still many constraints and limitations in terms of planning and guidelines in order to utilize
this landscape design especially in house compounds. Equally, an approach to residential development which
works within the constraints and opportunities provided by the landscape will not only minimize adverse
effects but will also offer environmental, social and economic benefits. The housing built today will not only
320 Mohd Ramzi Mohd Hussain et al. / APCBEE Procedia 10 ( 2014 ) 316 – 320
help to shape the environment in the immediate future, but it will also be a legacy in determining the
environmental quality of many areas.
Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank to the International Islamic University Malaysia for supporting this
research under the Research Acculturation Grant Scheme (RAGS) and also to the National Real Estate
Research Coordinator (NAPREC), National Institute of Valuation (INSPEN), Valuation and Property
Services Department, Ministry of Finance Malaysia.
References
[1] Zheng, B., Zhang, Y., And Chen, J. (2011). Preference to home landscape: wildness or neatness? Landscape and Urban
Planning, 99: 1-8.
[2] Berger, C. (2007). Determining market value: Reconciling the three approaches to real estate valuation for Ad Valorem Taxes.
Journal of State Taxation, 25 (4): 31.
[3] Luttik, J. (2000). The Value of Trees, Water and Open Space As Reflected By House Prices in Netherlands. Landscape and
Urban Planning. 15: 161 -167.
[4] Kadish, K., and Nutesil, N. R. (2012). Valuing Vegetation in Urban Watershed. Landscape and Urban Planning, 104: 59 65.
[5] Wolf, K. L. (2007). City Trees and Property Values. Arborist News, 16 (4). p. 34-36.
[6] Niemiera, A.X. (2009). The Effect of Landscape Plants on Perceived Home Value. Virginia Cooperative Extension, 426-087: 1-
3.
[7] Ng, A. (2005). Gamuda offers a vast expanse of green home buyers. The Star.
[8] Henry, M. S. (1999). Landscape Quality and the Price of Single Family Houses: Further Evidence From Home Sales in
Greenville, South Carolina. Journal of Environmental Horticulture, 17(1): 25-30.
[9] Des Rosiers, F., Theriault, M., Kestens, Y., and Villeneuve, P. (2002). Landscaping and house values: an empirical investigation.
Journal of Real Estate Research, 27(4): 371-407.
    • The diverse products available on the market today make it possible to select from a wide variety of hardscape materials, many of which will enhance the overall sustainability of the landscape (Cook & VanDerZanden, 2011). Hardscape material should be selected by considering following criteria (Thompson & Sorvig, 2008): Finding local materials Using slightly processed materials Using materials that require minimum energy for their procurement Using recycled or reusable materials Avoiding petroleum-based materials Using durable materials in terms of structure and design Avoiding toxic materials during construction and production Using durable wood absorbing CO 2 Essential ecological, aesthetic and functional characteristics of plantation in residence gardens are creation of space effect and identity, climate control, background formation, enclosure, bordering, screening, accenting, directing and noise and erosion prevention (Dönmez, Özyavuz, & Gökyer, 2015; Hussain et al., 2014; Patil, 2013; Thompson & Sorvig, 2008). Plants contribute form, texture and color to the landscape as basic elements to express the principles of design (Shahli et al., 2014).
    Full-text · Chapter · Jan 2016
    • Both of hardscape and softscape are important to create balance in landscape designs. In the aspect of landscape design in influencing values of housing areas, study by Mohd Hussain et al. (2014b) indicates that people prefer to have basic softscape elements in their housing to express feeling and doing routine activities. The basic elements of landscape design that usually applied such as matured trees, flowers pot, shrubs and grass.
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Malaysia, the concern regarding the implementation of landscape design as one of the indicators for making a value to the house has never been more important. In terms of providing a significant value to the house is need to study. Subsequently, to enhance the quality of life and sustain a livable environment for future development seems crucial and related to the values of housing area. The impact on its values such as environmental value, social value and functional value toward a community becomes a priority. Therefore, this paper is aimed to identify the contribution of landscape design as an element in influencing the values of housing area in urban areas. The method specifically adopts triangulation methods of study consist of a collection of survey, interview and observation technique that conducted in selected housing area, in Klang Valley. The main findings show the involvement of landscape design in term of its planning, characteristic and elements can influence the value of house. It is hoped that this paper may provide significant information on the implication of landscape design towards influencing the values of the house and also attract prospect buyers in the future.
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Dec 2014
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hardscape elements; Softscape elements. In Malaysia, concern regarding the implementation of landscape design as one of the indicators for making a value to the house has never been important. Subsequently, enhancement of the quality of life and sustain a livable environment for future development seems crucial and related to the values of housing area. Therefore, this paper is aimed to identify the contribution of landscape design as an element in influencing the values of housing area in urban areas. The method specifically adopts questionnaires survey, interview and observation technique that conducted in the selected housing area in Klang Valley. The findings show the involvement of landscape design in term of its planning, characteristic and elements can influence the value of the house. It is hoped that this paper may provide significant information on the implication of landscape design towards influencing the values of the house and also attract prospect buyers in the future.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015