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... The toxicity of cigarette smoke, both directly to smokers and indirectly through second-hand smoke has been well documented and there is increasing concern with thirdhand smoke, the residues left after smoke dissipates (Matt et al., 2011). A fourth component, cigarette butts, are also toxic (e.g., Booth et al., 2015;Lee and Lee, 2015;Slaughter et al., 2011) but this toxicity has received less study. Cigarette butts form a major litter type in urban areas (Bator et al., 2011;Moriwaki et al., 2009;Roder Green et al., 2014) and, because they can be moved by surface runoff into waterways, are also a litter problem along shorelines of lakes and oceans (Novotny et al., 2009;Register, 2000). ...
... Laboratory toxicity studies have demonstrated that cigarette butts, in the form of aqueous leachate, are toxic to aquatic organisms; including microorganisms (Vibrio fischeri; Micevska et al., 2006), zooplankton (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia; Micevska et al., 2006;Register, 2000;respectively), mosquito larvae (Aedes albopictus; Dieng et al., 2011), tidepool snails (three species; Booth et al., 2015), frogs (Xenopus laevis larvae; Parker and Rayburn, 2017) and fishes [freshwater flathead minnows, Pimephales promelas and marine topsmelt, Atherinops affinis (Slaughter et al., 2011), and embryos of the Japanese rice fish Oryzias latipes (Lee and Lee, 2015)]. Acute toxicity occurs at levels as low as one cigarette butt per liter of water. ...
... The difference in toxicity between our study and results from aquatic studies has several possible reasons, including variation among taxa, differences between aquatic and terrestrial toxicity tests, and possible chemical tolerance in soil-associated snails. Non-lethal evidence of toxicity by cigarette butt effluent has been reported (Booth et al., 2015;Lee and Lee, 2015;Slaughter et al., 2011;Suárez-Rodríguez and Macías Garcia, 2014), but neither snail lettuce consumption or growth was affected by cigarette butt effluent levels in our studies. Variability in lettuce consumption may have obscured any differences in feeding patterns and growth may have been measured over an insufficient time period to conclude that cigarette butt effluent has absolutely no effect on these endpoints. ...
Article
Cigarette butts are a common form of litter that is often deposited on soil, where toxins from butts may affect soil-dwelling organisms. We examined possible toxicity of cigarette butts to the woodland snail Anguispira alternata using a toxicity study with cigarette butt effluent and a lab-based habitat choice experiment in which snails could feed or rest on areas with different butt densities. No mortality occurred during the 32-day toxicity study, which used six effluent concentrations ranging from 0 to 4butts/l (0 to 0.92butts/kg of soil). Neither food consumption nor snail growth differed among the effluent concentrations. When provided a choice among four habitats with 0 to 4 cigarette butts, snails selected to preferentially rest in the 0-butt habitat and avoided the 4-butt habitat. This distribution pattern was strong during the first wk. but became weaker over time and largely disappeared by the end of the 3-wk experiment. Snails did not discriminate among butt densities when feeding. This is the first toxicity test using cigarette butts on soil-dwelling invertebrates. Declining aversion to cigarette butts over a 3-wk period may indicate declining toxicity of terrestrially deposited butts as they age, but further testing is needed.
... Distribution and diffusion of CBs and their associated toxic compounds in the aquatic environment could be a threat to various animal and plant species in aquatic habitats (Slaughter et al., 2011;Lee and Lee, 2015;Wright et al., 2015;Booth et al., 2015;Rawls et al., 2011). For instance, CBs might accidently be ingested by some marine species, such as fish, birds, and whales during feeding (Macedo et al., 2011;Santos et al., 2005). ...
... Besides physical injuries, the toxic tobacco chemicals could also be leached/desorbed out from deposited CBs and pose additional threats to wildlife health (Slaughter et al., 2011;Kurmus and Mohajerani, 2020a). Recent laboratory studies have demonstrated toxicity of CB leachate on aquatic organisms (Slaughter et al., 2011;Lee and Lee, 2015;Wright et al., 2015;Booth et al., 2015;Dieng et al., 2011;Gill et al., 2018;Hiki et al., 2017;Micevska et al., 2006;Montalvao et al., 2019;Parker and Rayburn, 2017;Register, 2000;Lawal and Ologundudu, 2013;Osuala et al., 2017;Montalvão et al., 2019;Caridi et al., 2020). However, results of these studies are inconsistent and no evaluation of general trends and effects of CBs leachate on aquatic organisms are yet exciting. ...
... Five studies (Slaughter et al., 2011;Lee and Lee, 2015;Booth et al., 2015;Lawal and Ologundudu, 2013;Osuala et al., 2017) were surveyed the effects of CBs types (Table 1). Based on the reported results by Booth et al. (2015), 100% of the analyzed tidepool snails from 3 species were died at 100% leachate's concentration after 8 days. ...
Article
Cigarette butts (CBs) are the most frequently littered pieces of environmental wastes which are released both directly and indirectly into the environment and finally may reach aquatic environments and contaminate aquatic biomes. However, to date, there is no comprehensive review on the extent and magnitude of the potential effects of CBs on aquatic organisms. Hence, a systematic review of published studies was conducted in this paper to survey the fate of CBs in the aquatic environments and also the impacts of exposure to CBs on survival, growth, and reproduction of aquatic organisms. The gathered data showed that the leachates of CBs in the aquatic environment could extremely be toxic for various organisms and increasing the exposure time, increases the mortality rate. In addition, smoked filtered CBs with tobacco remnants have higher mortality rate compared to unsmoked filtered butts (USFs) for Hymenochirus curtipes, Clarias gariepinus, tidepool snails, Atherinops affinis and Pimephales promelas. The fate of CBs in the aquatic environments is affected by various factors, and prior to sinking they are floated for a long time (long distance). Hence, CBs and their associated toxic chemicals might be ingested by diverse aquatic organisms. However, further studies are necessary to understand the exact toxicity of CBs on different freshwater and marine organisms and also their fate in the aquatic media. The results of this review showed the essentiality of regulations to prevent the release of chemical and toxic compounds into the aquatic environments.
... Therefore, one of the serious concerns about CBs is the possibility of damages to the environment and various organisms. Research has shown that the presence of CBs in the environment has adverse effects on species such as Vibrio fischeri, Atherinops affinis, and Xenopus laevis embryos (Micevska et al., 2006;Booth et al., 2015;Parker and Rayburn, 2017). It has also been shown that the presence of CBs as a threatening factor for plants can affect their natural growth (Montalvão et al., 2019b). ...
... In fact, CBs are hazardous waste containing a wide range of pollutants and toxins in addition to metals . In addition, the release of pollutants from CBs into the environment can damage organisms and contamination of vital resources such as water (Green et al., 2014;Booth et al., 2015;Parker and Rayburn, 2017). Amongst the pollutants, the high concentration of heavy metals has made CBs recognized as toxic waste; numerous studies have confirmed its toxic effects on the physiology and natural behaviors of various organisms. ...
... Amongst the pollutants, the high concentration of heavy metals has made CBs recognized as toxic waste; numerous studies have confirmed its toxic effects on the physiology and natural behaviors of various organisms. For instance, the results of the many studies focused on the toxic effects of CBs on the species such as frogs and snails indicated the changes in the growth mechanism and tissues of these organisms (Booth et al., 2015;Parker and Rayburn, 2017). In addition, the presence of CBs in the environment can even have adverse effects on the growth mechanism of plants; they are considered as an influential factor on plants (Montalvão et al., 2019b). ...
Article
Cigarette butts (CB) is considered as a common littered waste. This hazardous waste contains a variety of pollutants. This study was developed to estimate the release of some heavy metals from CBs to the environment in different climatic conditions in different scenarios. To this end, CBs samples obtained through artificial smoking from 10 high-consumption brands in the Iranian market and their samples in urban areas were taken and analyzed in terms of heavy metals pollution. The results showed that the average concentrations of Lead, Cadmium, Chromium, Zinc, Copper, Nickel in the studied CBs were 1.71, 0.36, 1.59, 24.61, 12.83, and 2.66 µg/g, respectively. The long persistency of CBs in the environment leads to increased release of all heavy metals to 9.7%. In addition, the rainfall can accelerate the leaching of heavy metals to 17.7% compared to the control scenario. The total mean concentrations of the studied metals in the CBs samples collected from the urban areas in rainy and non-rainy conditions were measured to be 32.67 - 51.81 μg/g, respectively. According to the data obtained for the amount of heavy metal emissions in four scenarios, 147.5 kg/year and 57.3 kg/year heavy metals are released to the environment in worst and best case scenario.
... 8,13 The toxicity of discarded CB leachate to aquatic organisms has received increased attention lately, with multiple studies demonstrating acute and chronic toxicity to organisms across trophic levels. 4,10,[14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26] Although studies targeting specific aquatic organisms help us understand the toxicity of CB in general, a limitation is that the specific chemical constituents associated with the observed ecotoxicity are not identified. Some of these studies allude to chemicals such as pesticides in the CB leachate as probable causes for the observed acute and chronic toxicity to aquatic organisms. ...
... 4,14,16,27 Additionally, sensitivity of species to CB leachate chemicals greatly vary. 4,17 Hence, analysis of ecotoxicity to multiple species through a probabilistic risk assessment paradigm using species sensitivity distributions (SSD) enable calculating the concentration at which a specified proportion of species may be affected. 28,29 Hazardous concentration (HC) values for chronic and acute toxicity derived from SSDs are used by European and US regulatory agencies (eg, European Union, US Environmental Protection Agency) for environmental protection, assessment and management of aquatic ecosystems. ...
... They focused on the CB in its entirety by measuring a toxicological endpoint for one or more species exposed to CB leachate solution. 4,14,[16][17][18]20,22,26 Whereas these studies demonstrate ecotoxicity of CB leachate broadly, they do not identify the specific toxic chemical components. ...
Article
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Objectives: Toxic pollutants leaching from littered cigarette butts (CB) raise environmental impact concerns. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is required to assess the environmental impacts of its tobacco regulatory actions per the US National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Methods: We determined the chemical constituents in CB leachate through analyses of 109 field-collected CB and literature compilation and characterized their ecotoxicity to aquatic organisms. Results: One-third of the 98 identified CB leachate chemicals were very toxic and 10% were toxic to aquatic organisms due to acute and chronic toxicity. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, metals, phthalates, nicotine and volatile organic compounds were the most hazardous CB leachate chemicals for aquatic organisms. Of the 98 CB leachate chemicals, 25 are included in FDA's list of harmful or potentially harmful constituents in tobacco products and tobacco smoke. Conclusions: Our study quantifies CB leachate constituents, characterizes their ecological hazard and identifies chemicals of concern. Thus, it aids in evaluating the environmental impacts of tobacco products per NEPA requirements. These results provide important information for strategies to prevent and reduce CB litter (eg, awareness programs, litter laws enforcement), thereby reducing environmental hazards from CB toxicants.
... To this end, tobacco product filters containing plastic were categorized as single-use plastic items in Europe (European Commission, 2019). Admittedly, there is markedly less awareness on the environmental impact of the toxic chemical components that may leach from cigarette butts and become bioavailable (Araújo and Costa, 2019;Booth et al., 2015;Lee and Lee, 2015;Micevska et al., 2006;Parker and Rayburn, 2017;Register, 2000;Slaughter et al., 2011). In this connection, cigarette butt leachates were found acutely toxic at concentrations ranging from 0.08 to 5 cigarette butt L −1 for different species such as water flea (Daphnia manga) (Register, 2000), marine bacteria (Vibrio fischeri) (Micevska et al., 2006), fish (Slaughter et al., 2011), snails (Booth et al., 2015) and fish and frog embryos (Lee and Lee, 2015;Parker and Rayburn, 2017). ...
... Admittedly, there is markedly less awareness on the environmental impact of the toxic chemical components that may leach from cigarette butts and become bioavailable (Araújo and Costa, 2019;Booth et al., 2015;Lee and Lee, 2015;Micevska et al., 2006;Parker and Rayburn, 2017;Register, 2000;Slaughter et al., 2011). In this connection, cigarette butt leachates were found acutely toxic at concentrations ranging from 0.08 to 5 cigarette butt L −1 for different species such as water flea (Daphnia manga) (Register, 2000), marine bacteria (Vibrio fischeri) (Micevska et al., 2006), fish (Slaughter et al., 2011), snails (Booth et al., 2015) and fish and frog embryos (Lee and Lee, 2015;Parker and Rayburn, 2017). Moreover, the cytotoxic, genotoxic, and mutagenic effects on Allium cepa roots (Montalvão et al., 2019) and the potential for neurotoxic damage caused to mice (Cardoso et al., 2018) were recently reported. ...
... Single batch leaching tests were performed here and it is acknowledged that the use of column percolation tests, which represent a better approximation to leaching process under natural conditions, may leach out a larger amount of metals (Desideri et al., 2019;Moerman and Potts, 2011). Although a tobacco product unit does not pose a serious threat to the environment, the cumulative effect of large quantities of discarded tobacco products in localized areas may amplify the problem (Booth et al., 2015). In the case of conventional cigarettes an additional concern exists: the ash produced during smoking retains a substantial amount of metals, and this type of post-consumption waste should be difficult to collect compared to smoked cigarette butts. ...
Article
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The leaching behavior of Al, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Ba, Hg and Pb in water from two types of heat-not-burn tobacco sticks is presented here, and compared to that from conventional cigarettes. The total concentration of each metal in solid tobacco products was initially determined. Concentrations in used and unused tobacco sticks were similar and generally, lower than those in unused conventional cigarettes. Studies on the contribution of paper, filter and tobacco revealed that tobacco was the major source of metal contamination. Smoking conventional cigarettes reduced the total metal concentrations since a substantial amount of metals was retained in the ash; a post-consumption waste that is difficult to collect. Batch leaching tests were performed to determine dissolved concentrations as a function of time. With the exceptions of As and (in most cases) Hg that were not detected, metals were released at varying rates. At 24 h of soaking the percentage of metals leached ranged from 0.2-43%. The contribution of paper, filter and tobacco to the dissolved concentrations at 24 h of leaching was investigated and in almost all cases tobacco was the major source of metal contamination. The dissolved concentrations from ash were low as metals were strongly bound. Varying the pH, ionic strength and humic acids content at environmentally relevant values did not affect leaching of metals at 24 h of soaking. The use of river water, rain water and seawater as leachants was also not found to alter dissolved concentrations at 24 h compared to ultrapure water. The results presented here suggest that the consequences of improper disposal of tobacco products in the environment are two-sided and that next to the generation of plastic litter, discarded tobacco products can also act as point sources of metal contamination. Public education campaigns focusing on the environmental impact and best disposal practices are urgently needed.
... In addition to ingestion, chemicals present in cigarettes can also be harmful to aquatic organisms (Wright et al., 2015;Booth et al., 2015;Slaughter et al., 2011;Lee and Lee, 2015;Micevska et al., 2006;Savino and Tanabe, 1989). ...
... Presently, there is a global mobilization against tobacco production, manufacturing and use to decrease health risks. However, according to Booth et al. (2015), the environmental concerns do not follow with the same strength and speed. ...
Article
Beach anthropogenic litter is a worldwide problem and has been discussed in the specialized literature for decades. Cigarette butts (CB) are the most frequent form of personal item found on beaches. Yearly, 6 trillion cigarettes are smoked worldwide, and 4.5 trillion cigarettes are littered in the environment. The objective of our review was to assess the relevant literature on the issue of CB in costal environments, including urban areas. We compile and discuss studies (1998–2018) of CB sources for coastal environments, composition/degradability, quantification on beaches, toxicity to aquatic organisms and existing strategies to abate the problem. The literature shows that despite the growing interest in marine litter, this specific issue remains little studied and information is limited in time and space. Studies have been undertaken on islands, continental coasts, estuaries and coastal cities. There area wide variety of approaches to classification; for example, CB are considered plastic in 19% of studies and placed in an isolated category in another 16%. It was possible to identify the main sources of CB in coastal environments and access to the marine biota. In conclusion, we list and discuss proposals for reducing smoking, littering and marine pollution as a contribution to reduce the problems caused by CB in coastal and marine environments. Capsule: Cigarette butts are a pervasive, toxic and recalcitrant type of marine litter that requires urgent attention from manufacturers, users, authorities and the public to prevent the ingestion of cigarette butts by biota and water pollution from its leachate.
... Thus, different studies using several animal models from marine environments have been developed in order to evaluate possible biological damages caused by cigarette butt leachates (CBL) in these models. Some studies have already shown high CB toxicity to marine fish species Atherinops affinis (Slaughter et al., 2011a(Slaughter et al., , 2011b; behavioural and genotoxic changes, as well as reduced growth in ragworm species Hediste diversicolor (Wright et al., 2015); high mortality rate and behavioural (sublethal) changes in tidepool snail species Austrocochlea porcata, Nerita atramentosa and Bembicium nanum (Booth et al., 2015); and increased mortality rates in amphipod species Grandidierella japonica (Hiki et al., 2017). ...
... Studies that use behavioural biomarkers as endpoint of CBL toxicity, either in aquatic (Booth et al., 2015) or terrestrial organisms (Cardoso et al., 2018), are even rarer. From the ecological viewpoint, as addressed by Gerhardt (2007), small changes in the behaviour of organisms may be enough to affect individuals' fitness, as well as to induce significant changes in the dynamics of their populations and to cause fluctuations in local/regional communities. ...
... Cigarette butts may result in health risk to humans and wildlife (Kadir and Sarani 2015). Cigarette butts have been consumed by small children , leach chemicals into water (Zhao et al. 2010a, Zhao et al. 2010b, Green et al. 2014, Kadir and Sarani 2015 and alter wildlife reproduction habits and mortality rates (Dieng et al. 2013, Suarez-Rodriguez et al. 2013, Waters 2013, Dieng et al. 2014, Booth et al. 2015, Wright et al. 2015. ...
Article
With five trillion generated per year, cigarette butts are some of the most common litter worldwide. However, despite the potential environmental and human health risks from cigarette butts, little effort has been made to understand airborne emissions from cigarette butts. This study examined the influence of temperature, relative humidity and water saturation on airborne chemical emissions from cigarette butts. Experiments were conducted to measure the emitted chemical masses from butts using headspace analysis after the butts were conditioned in a controlled chamber under four conditions (30 °C and 25% relative humidity (RH), 30 °C and 50% RH, 40 °C and 25% RH, 40 °C and 50% RH) and in an outdoor environment (two sets of experiments in both summer and winter). The measured target chemicals included furfural, styrene, ethylbenzene, 2-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one, limonene, naphthalene, triacetin, and nicotine. Results indicate that increased temperature increased the emission rates of all target chemicals from the butts conditioned in both chambers and outdoors. In addition, water has considerable influence on the emission rates from the butts. Seven of the eight chemicals were emitted faster from butts at 50% RH compared to 25% RH. During water saturation, chemicals with high water solubility and partition coefficient between water and air, e.g., triacetin and nicotine, mainly migrate into the surrounding environment via aqueous rather than airborne routes. This highlights the importance of rainfall events on airborne emission variability for triacetin and nicotine. Water saturation increased the decay rate (decreased the decay time) of emitted mass measured in headspace analysis for the two carbonyl chemicals: furfural and 2-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one, while it decreased the decay rate (increased the decay time) for the three hydrocarbons (styrene, limonene, and naphthalene).
... A study on the effect of cigarette butt toxicity on three species of snails showed that the death rate due to leaked chemicals from cigarette butts is different for different species. All species died after 8 days at a concentration of 5 cigarette butts per liter soaked for 2 h (Booth et al. 2015). ...
Article
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Filtered cigarette is the most common type of tobacco used and cigarette butt is the most important environmental consequence of smoking. This study aimed to investigate the cigarette butt management and identify future needs to improve the current situation. The results showed that cigarette butts are the most abundant and widespread hazardous waste in the world. The current form of cigarette butt management has inferior performance that faced waste management systems with serious challenges. The results showed that reducing the littering rate and recycling are known as basic strategies in the management of this hazardous waste. Future studies should focus on reducing cigarette butt pollution and the amount of pollutant leakage from them.
... This is in stark contrast to the findings in aquatic ecosystems that show high animal mortality due to cigarette butt amendment (Dieng et al., 2011(Dieng et al., , 2014Micevska et al., 2006). However, our conclusions are supported by the earlier results of Gill et al. (2018) on the very moderate ecotoxicological effects of CBs on terrestrial animals (2018) and the partial effects on semiaquatic animals (Booth et al., 2015). Nevertheless, the comparison and projections between different invertebrate taxa is especially difficult due to fundamental ecophysiological and functional differences. ...
Article
Cigarette butts (CBs) represent the most common, though poorly biodegradable, type of waste on Earth. Thrown on the soil surface, they can remain unchanged for years, poisoning surrounding ecosystems with toxins accumulated during the smoking process. However, there is practically no data on the effect of smoked CBs on soil biota or soil animals in particular, nor on the potential of edaphic fauna to facilitate their decomposition. One of the most promising agents among soil animals are earthworms, which are known to be beneficial in the processes of recalcitrant organic matter degradation and stimulation of microbial activity in detrital food webs. In a microcosm experiment with the sod podzolic soil, we aimed at testing the effect of the commonly cultured epigeic earthworm Eisenia fetida (Savigny 1826) on the biodegradation rate of CBs and the possible adverse effects of this waste on the species. The experiment had a full-factorial design with three categorical predictors: CB number (0, 1 and 3 per microcosm); smoking condition (smoked and unsmoked CBs) and two levels of earthworm amendment (0 and 4 per microcosm). During 70 days of the experiment, we did not observe any smoked CB-induced mortality of earthworms. The addition of E. fetida significantly increased the CB mass loss across all treatment combinations. Specifically, earthworms improved the decomposition rate from 30 to 36% (p < 0.05), on average. However, this improvement was mainly associated with CB paper wrapping consumption. The inhibition of CO2 emission in microcosms with CBs and earthworms suggested the direct consumption of this waste by E. fetida, rather than modulation of the degradation potential of a microbial community. E. fetida appears to thus be a moderately promising agent for CB biodegradation with the simultaneous reduction in carbon loss from soil through the microbial channel in the studied soil type. These results open perspectives for the further evaluation of the role of soil macroinvertebrates in recalcitrant organic waste management in general andCBs in particular.
... The few studies available reported that CB leachates were toxic to the marine bacterium Aliivibrio fischeri (formerly Vibrio fischeri) and the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia (Micevska et al., 2006), the marine fish Atherinops affinis (Slaughter et al., 2011), the polychaete worm Hediste diversicolor (Wright et al., 2015) and three intertidal snail species (Booth et al., 2015). It has been shown that CB were toxic to A. fischeri at 0.48 mg butts/L, and that smoked filters were more toxic than unsmoked filters (Micevska et al., 2006). ...
... Aside from their environmental persistence, CBs also pose a threat to biological organisms living in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Several authors reported that smoked CBs are toxic to polychaete (Wright et al., 2015), snails (Booth et al., 2015), mussel (Montalvão et al., 2019a), insects (Dieng et al., 2011), fishes (Slaughter et al. 2011), higher plants (Green et al., 2019), and also can interfere with bird behaviour (Su arez- Rodríguez et al., 2013). Recently, CBs were classified as hazardous according to the European regulation based on a battery of toxicity and ecotoxicity tests (Rebischung et al., 2018). ...
... This process revealed that nicotine poses an important risk to aquatic organisms. Booth et al. (2015) tested how common intertidal molluscs were affected by butt leachate. Slaughter et al. (2011) showed that percolates from CBs are toxic to a range of marine organisms. ...
Article
Trillions of cigarettes are smoked annually making cigarette butts one of the most common types of litter in the world. Due to the materials and toxic substances that they contain, this waste carries a very harmful risk for the environment and for living organisms (including humans). Only a few - barely sustainable - solutions have tried to tackle this waste and alternative solutions to landfilling and incineration are needed. Identifying the best methodological solutions and technologies for recycling this kind of waste in terms of results and applicability to real contexts would reduce the presence of dangerous materials in the environment and ecosystems and would promote the recovery of materials in line with the circular economy and sustainable development. The objective of this review was to collect and analyze the alternative solutions available in the literature for the recovery and recycling of the materials in cigarette butts, considering them as possible sources of secondary raw materials applicable to contexts of common interest. Several papers were selected and the results obtained by the authors are presented in terms of type of treatment process (physical, chemical or both), product derived (in solid, liquid or gaseous form) and its possible use in different sectors (e.g. construction, electronics, energy, chemistry and environmental protection). The main results, together with the advantages and disadvantages are highlighted and proposals for further research are outlined.
... Our results correspond with previous reports from other research groups, regarding the particularly harmful effects of SCBs on organisms. Booth et al. (2015) indicated a high lethal and sub-lethal response of intertidal snails due to contact with SCBs leachate. SCBs were also toxic to woodland snail Anguispira alternata however, this negative effect gradually disappeared (Gill et al., 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Tobacco smoking, especially conventional cigarettes, is widespread throughout the world. Simultaneously, there is a growing interest in new alternative products that allow delivering nicotine to the users' organisms, including electronic cigarettes and heat-not-burn tobacco products. However, there are few scientific reports regarding the effect of waste generated from the above-mentioned products on microorganisms. The aim of the manuscript was to investigate the influence of substances leached from conventional cigarette butts, butts from heat-not-burn tobacco products, cartridges and e-liquids for electronic cigarettes on microorganisms. The commercial multispecies MARA (microbial assay for risk assessment) test and non-selected microorganisms from the Brynica River (Poland), as well as an effluent from the wastewater treatment plant (Sosnowiec-Zagórze, Poland), were used in the ecotoxicity assessment of the investigated waste. The results of the experiments revealed that the waste from electronic cigarettes, i.e. cartridges and e-liquids, does not pose a considerable threat to the microbiocenosis. On the other hand, a particularly strong ecotoxic effect on the investigated microorganisms has been reported for leachate from smoked cigarette butts and butts from heat-not-burn tobacco products. Their high ecotoxicity combined with a high supply is worrying and it can require interventions to protect the aquatic environment. The retention of the waste can have an adverse effect on microorganisms in reservoirs surface waters or a sludge activity in wastewater treatment plants.
... Beach litter has also negative consequences on coastal biodiversity and ecosystem functioning [19][20][21]. Macro litter can injure the fauna by trapping terrestrial Gastropods and non-flying Coleoptera [22] or can alter the diet of several coastal species such as turtles, sea mammals, sea birds [20,23], filter feeders, invertebrates, and fishes [24,25]. The ingestion of plastic waste may kill individuals by suffocation [26][27][28], expose them to toxic substances contained or absorbed by the plastic [29,30], and promote malnutrition and/or starvation [31], since a stomach full of litter gives an animal a sense of satiety. ...
Article
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Beach litter threatens coastal dunes integrity across the world. European countries are committed to improving the environmental status of the marine and coastal environment by 2020, and to do this, they need to reduce the gap of knowledge about litter accumulation patterns in coastal environments. We analyzed the distribution pattern of waste, differentiated by material and origin, in the coastal dune vegetation mosaic along protected natural areas in the Adriatic seashore (central Italy). Litter data were collected following a random stratified procedure. We registered litter occurrence on 180 (2 × 2 m) sampling plots randomly distributed in the different habitats of European conservation concern mapped for the analyzed protected areas. Litter was classified by origin and material, and their abundance on different habitats was explored by multivariate ordination techniques and tested by nonparametric ANOVA followed by Mann-Whitney pairwise post-hoc tests. Most of the plots included at least one waste element being plastic. Plastic was the most abundant material, and fishing and touristic the most polluting activities. Waste distribution varies across coastal dune vegetation types and involves the back dune zone too. Our results stress the need for (a) specific cleaning tasks able to preserve the ecological value of coastal dune habitats and (b) actions aimed at preventing litter production and accumulation.
... In fact, recent literature evidenced the capability of cigarette filters to release in the environment absorbed chemicals such as nicotine [48] and metals [49]. Furthermore, some authors reported toxicity associated with cellulose acetate by cigarette filters on marine species [50,51]. Nevertheless, the toxicity of cigarette butts on the developmental stage of species needs further researches [52]. ...
Article
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This study evaluates the chemical composition of microplastic materials (MPs) and non-synthetic particles in different table salts of marine origin by the µFT-IR technique. This research focuses on the microparticles fraction within 10–150 µm of size. Eleven commercial trademarks coming from Italy (IT = 6) and Croatia (CRO = 5) were grouped in two different cost ranges, cheap (n = 5) and expensive (n = 6) and were analysed in replicates (n = 3). Levels and chemical composition of microparticles measured in commercial products were correlated on a statistical basis to some factors of variability of potential scientific interest (geographical origin of marine salt, cost of commercial products, etc.). Results of analyses performed on the tested size fraction of microparticles (10–150 µm) evidence that: (i) levels of MPs are within 0.17–0.32 items/g (IT) and 0.07–0.20 items/g (CRO); (ii) non-synthetic particles detected are mostly made by fibres made of cellulose acetate; (iii) Nations show a different chemical composition of MPs recovered in analysed trademarks (PET and PVC from Italy; PA, PP, and nylon from Croatia); (iv) the annual amount ingested by humans from marine salt consumption ranges between 131.4–372.3 items/y (CRO) and 306.6–580.35 items/y (IT) considering a dose of 5 g of salt per day; (v) statistics performed on factors of interest evidenced that the geographical origin of marine salt do not affect neither levels nor chemical composition of MPs in tested trademarks; while slight correlations are recorded with non-synthetic particles. Further studies are needed to better explore on statistical basis if both levels and chemical composition of MPs in table salts of marine origin can be used or not as good indicators of marine pollution.
... When these compounds are in the environment, they contaminate the soils, and can be carried by rainfall to aquatic environments, where they can be detected [1,13,[43][44][45][46][47]. There are some reports about the effects of these compounds on aquatic biota, mainly concentrated in invertebrates and few fish species [3,43,44,[48][49][50][51]. But even then, the risks posed by cigarette butts to the aquatic biota remain underestimated because both their qualitative and quantitative aspects are poorly known [7]. ...
Article
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Smoking is a social phenomenon of global scope. The impacts start from the cultivation of the plant to the disposal of cigarette butts in the most diverse places. These aspects go beyond economic and public health issues, also affecting natural environments and their biota in a serious and indistinct way. Of the six trillion cigarettes consumed globally each year, four and a half trillion are disposed somewhere in the environment. Cigarette butts are predominantly plastic, non-biodegradable waste, prevalent in coastal environments in various parts of the world, and with high potential for generating impacts on a wide range of socioeconomic and environmental aspects. Among the 5000 compounds found in a cigarette, those with higher toxic potential are mainly concentrated in the filter and in tobacco remnants, which are items found in discarded cigarette butts. After surveying published studies on this topic, the present study addressed the interaction between the impacts related to tobacco smoking, highlighting the problem as an important and emerging issue that demands joint efforts, and actions especially focused on the reduction of environmental impacts, an aspect that has not yet been assessed.
... Some cigarettes also contain adjuncts such as cloves or other spices but, most commonly 5-methyl-2-(propan-2-yl)cyclohexan-1-ol is added as flavouring and is available in menthol cigarettes. In aquatic habitats, there is evidence that these compounds can leach into waterways (e.g. Green et al., 2014) where they can cause harm to freshwater fauna, including Ceriodaphnia dubia (a water flea) (Micevska et al., 2006) and Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow)- (Slaughter et al., 2011), and marine organisms including bacteria (Micevska et al., 2006), Hediste diversicolor (polychaete); (Wright et al., 2015), several gastropods (Booth et al., 2015); and Atherinops affinis (marine topsmelt) (Slaughter et al., 2011). Interestingly, Slaughter et al. (2011) found that even unsmoked cigarette filters could be toxic to the marine and freshwater fish mentioned above. ...
Article
Cigarette filters (butts) are currently the most abundant form of anthropogenic litter on the planet, yet we know very little about their environmental impacts on terrestrial ecosystems, including plant germination and primary production. When discarded, filters contain a myriad of chemicals resulting from smoking tobacco and some still contain unsmoked remnants. A greenhouse experiment was used to assess the impacts of discarded filters of regular or menthol cigarette, either from unsmoked, smoked, or smoked cigarettes with remnant tobacco, on the growth and development of Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) and Trifolium repens (white clover). After 21 days, shoot length and germination success were significantly reduced by exposure to any type of cigarette filter for the grass and clover. Although total grass biomass was not measurably affected, the root biomass and root:shoot ratio were less in the clover when exposed to filters from smoked regular cigarettes and those with remnant tobacco. Cigarette filters caused an increase in chlorophyll-a in clover shoots and an increase in chlorophyll-b in grass shoots. Accordingly, whilst the chlorophyll a:b ratio was increased in the clover exposed to cigarette filters, it was decreased in grass. This study indicates the potential for littered cigarette filters to reduce growth and alter short-term primary productivity of terrestrial plants.
... However, the toxicological effects of LCB on invertebrates remain poorly known, despite the studies by Micevska et al. (2006) with Ceriodaphina cf. dúbia, by Register (2000) with Daphinia magna, by Wright et al. (2015) with Hidiste diversicolor, by Booth et al. (2015) with Austrocochlea porcata, Nerita atramentosa and Bembicium nanum; by Hiki et al. (2017) with Grandidierella japonica and by Gill et al. (2018) with Anguispira alternata. ...
... Their harming effects on human health are well described in the literature (Matt et al. 2011). Cigarette smoke carries several complex chemical components that are toxic to human health (Talhout et al. 2011); consequently, the discharge of smoked cigarette butts (SCBs) in the environment is also highly toxic (Booth et al. 2015). Overall, smoking has harming effects on the environment. ...
Article
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Smoked cigarette butt (SCB) discharged in the environment became an issue of unknown consequences for plants. Thus, we aim at assessing the impact of water containing SBC leachate on the meristem cells of Allium cepa roots. We defined the following experimental groups: negative control (water), positive control (cyclophosphamide); water with SCB leachate at environmental concentration (1.9 μg/L of nicotine) (EC1× group) and water with SCB leachate concentration 1000 times higher than EC1 (EC1000× group). Mitotic index, total number of abnormal cells, index of abnormal cells per mitotic/phase, relative growth index, and inhibition index were calculated after 48 exposure hours. Root meristems were used to prepare slides in order to investigate chromosomal and nuclear abnormalities. According to our data, plants exposed to SCB leachate presented low relative growth index, high inhibition index, large number of abnormal cells, and high abnormality frequency at metaphase/anaphase. The exposed A. cepa recorded a wide variety of abnormalities such as diagonal metaphase/anaphase, metaphase/anaphase presenting chromosome fragments, binucleated cells, displaced nucleus, chromosome bridges, micronuclei, necrotic cells, stick metaphase, chromosome adherence, notched nucleus, among other cell disturbances. The chemicals in the SBC leachate had aneugenic and clastogenic effect on the genetic material of the tested plants, either when they acted individually, synergistically, or additively. Thus, our study is a pioneer in reporting that the mere disposal of cigarette butts in the environment can have cytotoxic, genotoxic, and mutagenic effects on plants.
... Molluscs that dwell in aquatic environments may also be affected by CB leachate toxicity. Booth et al. (2015) evaluated the impacts of CB leachate on three different species of tide pool snails, i.e. snails that live near the shore and remain for a significant part of their life in tide pools. A CB leachate solution was produced by placing five CBs per litre of seawater, and letting it soak for 2 h. ...
Article
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Tobacco is a worldwide-consumed product, which in addition to causing public health-related issues is responsible for the most common form of litter in the world—smoked cigarette butts (CBs). A large attention has been drawn to this question, since this specific waste type tends to end up in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, posing serious threat to a range of life forms. Decomposition may take several years to occur because cellulose acetate is hardly accessible, before deacetylation, by bacteria and fungi. This review concerns the toxicity derived from smoked cigarette butts, as well as innovative ecological solutions for solving the CB litter problem. Toxicity studies have demonstrated the critical influence of chemicals present in smoked CBs to the environment as a whole, but also the physical contaminating potential considering micro- and nanoparticles derived from CB material. Nevertheless, several technological approaches were aimed at unveiling hidden value within used CBs, as well as propositions for incorporation of this residue in large volume production items or direct recycling. In summary, several methods are available to alleviate CB pollution, while appropriate and efficient collection logistics by consumers appears as the main bottleneck for an effective recycling. It is also clear that while considerable progress has been made recently in light of CB recycling solutions, there is still a vast research capacity in this regard.
... This substance is found mainly in the water compartment (93%, Canadian Environmental Modeling Center level III model) where, due to its chemical features, can be easily bioavailable to organisms and produce toxicity (Oropesa et al., 2017;Robles Molina et al., 2014;US EPA, 2009;Hansch et al., 1995). Moreover, previous studies have shown that chemicals in cigarette butt leachate can be acutely toxic to aquatic organisms including microorganisms (Vibrio fischeri; Micevska et al., 2006), zooplankton (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia; Micevska et al., 2006;Register, 2000;respectively), tidepool snails (three species: Austrocochlea porcata, Nerita atramentosa and Bembicium nanum; Booth et al., 2015), frogs (Xenopus laevis larvae; Parker and Rayburn, 2017), ragworm Hediste diversicolor (Wright et al., 2015), and amphipod species Grandidierella japonica (Hiki et al., 2018). Among fishes, we report the freshwater flathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, the marine topsmelt, Atherinops affinis (Slaughter et al., 2011), and embryos of the Japanese rice fish Oryzias latipes (Lee and Lee, 2015). ...
Article
Cigarette butts are the most common form of litter in the world and their environmental impact is related to both persistence and potential toxic effects for chemical composition. The objective of this study was to assess the acute toxicity (LC50-48 h) of human-smoked cigarette butts leachate on 3 cultured genera of benthic foraminifera: the calcareous perforate Rosalina globularis, the calcareous imperforate Quinqueloculina spp., and the agglutinated Textularia agglutinans. The specimens were exposed to 16, 8, 4, 2, and 1 cigarette butts/L concentrations that prove to be acutely toxic to all taxa. Starting from 4 cigarette butts/L, both calcareous genera showed shell decalcification, and death of almost all the individuals, except for the more resistant agglutinated species. These results suggest the potential harmfulness of cigarette butts leachate related to pH reduction and release of toxic substances, in particular nicotine, which leads to physiology alteration and in many cases cellular death.
... As an alternative, changes in biomass, as measured by chlorophyll a concentration, are monitored. This sublethal endpoint is consistent with sublethal effects of CBs on other organisms, for example, behaviors to reduce exposure: clamping the shell opening to the substrate by tidepool snails and avoidance by terrestrial snails (Booth et al. 2015;Gill et al. 2018; respectively) and cell nuclear abnormalities in house finches and onions (Suárez-Rodríguez and Marías Garcia 2014; Montalvão et al. 2019b;respectively). Sublethal measures of diatom health have also been developed-including chloroplast condition and changes in lipid bodies. ...
Article
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Cigarette butts are a prevalent form of litter containing numerous toxic chemicals. Because cigarette butts are frequently deposited on the ground and carried into water bodies, greater understanding of the toxic effects of cigarette butts in aquatic ecosystems is needed. We examined the toxicity of cigarette butts to algal growth and diatom health—especially pertinent because of the strong ecological role of these organisms. We modified the agar-based nutrient-diffusing substrate method by using cigarette butt leachate (at 10, 5, 2.5, and 1.25 butts/l concentrations), a whole cigarette butt, and a plain agar control. After incubating for 10 days in a small stream, the biofilms from the diffusing substrates were assessed for algal biomass and diatom health (chloroplast intactness and size of lipid bodies in two abundant species of Navicula). There were no significant differences among the cigarette butt treatments for algal biomass or diatom health; hence, evidence of toxic effects was not found. Other studies have demonstrated cigarette butt leachate toxicity to fish and aquatic invertebrates, but these studies were done in closed systems. In contrast, in open stream ecosystems, effluent may be quickly diluted and carried away by water flow, and the complex chemical environment of streams likely includes leachate from a variety of riparian leaves that fell into the stream (i.e., algae are naturally exposed to low concentrations of a wide variety of secondary chemicals). Our results do not preclude the finding of toxicity of cigarette butt effluent to algae, including diatoms, in standard toxicity tests.
... The main compounds include nicotine, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and metals (Buerge et al. 2008;Moriwaki et al. 2009;Valcarcel et al. 2011;Green et al. 2014;Dobaradaran et al. 2017). In the environment, these substances come into contact with the biota, which can be largely affected by the toxicity of the compounds (Savino and Tanabe 1989;Micevska et al. 2006;Rawls et al. 2011;Di Giacomo et al. 2015;Booth et al. 2015;Wright et al. 2015;Slaughter et al. 2011;Lee and Lee 2015), or by ingestion (Macedo et al. 2011). An interesting interaction between cigarette butt waste and wildlife is the incorporation of littered butts into the building of nests by passerine bird species, but the effect (if any) of this behavior remains unclear; probably nicotine may be acting as arthropod repellents (Suárez-Rodríguez et al. 2013;. ...
Article
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Cigarette butts (CBs) are non-biodegradable residues of synthetic origin, prevalent on beaches all over the world. The study evaluates discarded CBs on an intensely used urban beach, determining variations in physical and chemical characteristics. CBs collected were observed, classified, and visually separated according to a proposed scale of four levels of degradation to test the potential match between physical and chemical decay. CBs (un-smoked, smoked, and discarded) were used to determine the average length (cm) and mass (g) in order to observe changes in these parameters among the levels. Cigarette butts experience consecutive mass loss during environmental exposure. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images were obtained to assess physical changes in fibers due to smoking. FTIR-ATR was used to assess CBs new (un-smoked), smoked, and discarded samples in relation to cellulose acetate decay. The FTIR-ATR spectroscopy of the most visually degraded cigarette butts indicated modifications in the spectra when compared to un-smoked cigarettes.
... Cigarette butts are one of the leading causes of environmental pollution worldwide (Bonanomi et al. 2015;Rebischung et al. 2018;Micevska et al. 2006;Mansouri et al. 2020), with an estimated 5.6 trillion butts discarded annually (Smith and Novotny 2011;Booth et al. 2015;Torkashvand and Farzadkia 2019;Slaughter et al. 2011). The detrimental effects of smoking cigarettes on human health are well-documented (Bernhard et al. 2005;Lee 2018). ...
Article
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Cigarette butts contribute significantly to global pollution present on the planet. The filters found in cigarette butts contain a microplastic, cellulose acetate, as well as toxic metals and metalloids which are responsible for pollution in the environment. Although cigarette butt litter is prevalent in many soils, research on the effects of these cigarette butts is limited. In this study, we used Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA) to generate DNA fingerprints of bacterial communities in soil before and after the addition of cigarette butt leachate treatments. An ICP-MS analysis of the biodegradable and non-biodegradable cigarette butts revealed the presence of various elements: Al, As, B, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Sr, V, and Zn. The analysis also specified which metals were present at the highest concentrations in the biodegradable and non-biodegradable cigarette butts, and these were, respectively, Al (1,31 g/kg and 2,35 g/kg), Fe (2,03 g/kg and 1,11 g/kg), and Zn (3,18 mg/kg and 15,70 mg/kg). Our results show that biodegradable cigarette butts had a significant effect on bacterial community composition (beta diversity), unlike the non-biodegradable butts. This effect can be attributed to higher concentrations of certain metals and metalloids in the leachate of biodegradable cigarette butts compared to the non-biodegradable ones. Our findings suggest that biodegradable and non-biodegradable cigarette butts can significantly affect bacterial communities in soil as a result of the leaching of significant quantities of certain elements into the surrounding soils.
... CB contain toxic compounds accumulated during smoking including arsenic, benzene, hydrogen cyanide, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pyridine, and heavy metals [8][9][10][11][12]. Moreover, CB disposal systems (i.e., landfilling and incineration) are costly and release hazardous compounds to the environment [13,14]. ...
Article
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Two massive wastes are cigarette butts (CB) and stone wool (SW), both representing a threat to the environment. Although the cellulose acetate filters (CAF) in CB are long-term de-gradable, SW soilless substrates are not. Here, a soilless substrate for growing ornamental plants was manufactured with CAF and compared to commercial SW substrate. CB treatment consisted of a washing in boiling water with a dramatic reduction of pollutants in CAF. Then, cleaned filters were separated, dried, carded to fibers, and subsequently compacted into plugs. The trace pollutants in recycled CAF substrate did not negatively affect the germination of Spartium junceum L. and Lavandula angustifolia Miller seeds as well as the root development of Salvia officinalis L. and Salvia rosmarinus Schleid. stem cuttings. Plants grown in recycled CAF showed a differential species dependent change of pigments in comparison with those in SW, without compromising their photosynthesis performance. Overall, the results demonstrated that these plants can be well established and grow in recycled CAF, as comparable to SW substrate. This study highlights a novel and promising solution in CAF recycling by turning this litter into an efficient soilless substrate for growing ornamental plants, thus limiting the use of SW and indirectly decreasing its industrial waste flow.
... Cigarette butts are one of the leading causes of environmental pollution worldwide (Bonanomi et al. 2015;Rebischung et al. 2018;Micevska et al. 2006;Mansouri et al. 2020), with an estimated 5.6 trillion butts discarded annually (Smith and Novotny 2011;Booth et al. 2015;Torkashvand and Farzadkia 2019;Slaughter et al. 2011). The detrimental effects of smoking cigarettes on human health are well-documented (Bernhard et al. 2005;Lee 2018). ...
Article
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A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13657-4
... However, the authors pointed out that further studies are needed to assess the mechanism and intensity of CBs toxicity using different species. Indeed, studies investigating lethal and sublethal effects have revealed that CBs leachate is toxic to aquatic organisms, such as polychaetaes (Wright et al., 2015), mollusks (Booth et al., 2015;Montalvão et al., 2019), and fish (Lee and Lee, 2015;Osuala et al., 2017;Slaughter et al., 2011). Toxicity study with marine and freshwater fish have shown that the leachate from smoked cigarette filters with tobacco remains is more toxic than the leachate from smoked or unsmoked cigarette filters without tobacco (Slaughter et al., 2011). ...
Article
Cigarette butts (CBs) comprise one of the most relevant categories of marine litter worldwide. This study was structured as a case study simultaneously assessing (i) the occurrence of CBs in a highly urbanized coastal area, (ii) their partitioning in two environmental compartments (water column and sediments) by laboratory settling tests, and (iii) the toxicity produced by the CBs leachates (measured as copepod reproduction). Marine litter was sampled in beaches of the city of Santos (SW Brazil) and CBs were collected for analysis. The characterization showed that CBs were one of the most prevalent items (51.5% in summer and 34.4% in winter) and 22 cigarettes brands were identified at different stages of decomposition. Laboratory settling tests showed that CBs remain in the water column between 3 and 20 days, subsequently reaching the sediments. The toxicity results indicated that CBs the leachates extracted from a small amount of CBs was sufficient to affect copepod reproduction (0.1 and 0.01 CBs L À1). Furthermore, the approaches adopted by the present study can serve as a preliminary assessment to estimate local impacts resulting from inadequate disposal of cigarette butts in coastal areas around the world.
... Nonetheless, there is some potential for organometallic compounds (i.e., nickel tetra carbonyl) to volatilize (Torjussen et al., 2003). Moreover, heavy metals and chemicals in CBs could reach water bodies and pollute aquatic environments, posing potential toxicity for marine and/or limnic species (Lawal and Ologundudu, 2013a;Booth et al., 2015;Register, 2000). In one study, CBs leachates were found to be lethal to aquatic organisms at high concentrations, and low concentrations may affect embryonic development and cause behavioral effects (Lee and Lee, 2015). ...
Article
The commercially sold cigarettes contain more than 7000 chemicals., and their combustion produces potential toxicants in mainstream smoke (MS), sidestream smoke (SS), secondhand smoke (SHS), thirdhand smoke (THS), and discarded cigarette butts (CBs). We conducted a systematic review of published literature to compare the toxicants produced in each of these phases of tobacco combustion (MS, SS, and CBs). The initial search included 12,301 articles, but after screening and final restrictions considering the aims of this review, 159 published studies were selected for inclusion. Additionally, SHS and THS are briefly discussed here. Overall, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other aromatic hydrocarbons have been represented in more studies than other compounds. However, metals and nitrosamines were detected in higher concentrations than other components in SS. The concentrations of most PAHs and other aromatic hydrocarbons in MS and SS are higher compared to concentrations found in CBs. Also, the concentrations of all the studied carbonyl compounds, aldehydes and ketones in SS and MS were higher than in CBs. The mean levels of alcohols and phenols in SS were higher than those reported for both MS and CBs. Tobacco toxicants are inhaled by smokers and transmitted to the environment through SS, SHS, THS, and discarded CBs. However, further studies are necessary to assess adverse effects of toxicants found in CBs and THS not only on human health, but also on the environment and ecosystems. The results of this review provide updated information on the chemical contents of MS, SS, SHS, THS, and CBs. It adds to the growing understanding that smoking creates major health problems for smokers and passive smokers, but also that it generates environmental hazards with consequences to the ecosystems and human health through discarded CBs, SHS, and THS exposure.
... Although several studies have already demonstrated the harmfulness of compounds associated with CCBs to aquatic species [17,[26][27][28][29], the ecological risk of CB elutriates to coastal and marine environments is still poorly understood [29]. To the best of our knowledge, no comprehensive study has been conducted to evaluate their integrated effect on marine ecosystems. ...
Article
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Cigarette butts (CBs) are among the dominant constituents of marine and beach litter. Few studies have been conducted, and the environmental effects of CBs on marine species are still poorly understood. This study aims to evaluate the ecotoxicological effects on marine organisms of both classic and electronic CBs. Three representative species of different trophic levels in marine ecosystems (Aliivibrio fischeri, bacteria; Phaeodactylum tricornutum, algae, primary producers; Paracentrotus lividus, echinoderms, consumers) were tested. The effects of natural ageing of CBs due to exposure to atmospheric conditions (natural sunlight vs. simulated rain) and for different times (1 vs. 2 weeks) were evaluated. The results were weighted together to obtain a synthetic hazard level to the environment (Class of Hazard) from Sediqualsoft®. Classic CBs (CCBs) performed the worst and posed a mild to moderate risk compared to electronic CBs (absent Class of Hazard). Smoked classic CBs posed a higher environmental risk than unsmoked. The highest risk was produced by classic CBs after one week of exposure in dry weather. Echinoderms and the body size reduction in normo-formed (72 h) plutei were shown to be the more sensitive organism and endpoint, respectively. We recommend the use of Sediqualsoft® software for risk assessment studies of sediments contaminated with contaminants of various types, especially in conjunction with a weight of evidence approach (WOE).
... Few examples exist in the marine environment, due to limited studies. These studies include works on Aliivibrio fischeri, showing a general increase in toxicity (decreased EC50 values) (Micevska et al., 2006); gastropoda molluscs, Austrocochlea porcata, Nerita atramentosa, Bembicium nanum, that displayed different behaviours when exposed to different CB concentrations (10%, 25% and 100%), including escaping, search and antenna movements and death (Booth et al., 2015); Artemia sp. Nauplii that showed both morphological deformities, in terms of size and body shape, and mortality (LC50 48h 45.3%) (de Souza Abessa et al., 2021). ...
Article
Despite representing an extremely relevant portion (20–40%) of worldwide coastal litter, cigarette butts are still an underestimate environmental issue of limited scientific interest. Public authorities of different countries promote active removal of cigarette butts, but the issue remains problematic in terms of aesthetic, environmental and health-related impacts. There are few studies on the environmental side-effects of smoked cigarette butt litter despite being a worldwide issue. In this work, two ecotoxicological bioassay batteries were adopted to evaluate the environmental consequences of cigarette butt water-soluble ingredient release in both marine water and freshwater. Marine assays were generally more affected compared to freshwater. Interesting outcomes were observed with crustacean tests, showing a lower effect of smoked cigarette butt leachate when tested at maximum concentration. This finding were supported by heartbeat measures of Daphnia magna, which were accelerated at 100% of smoked cigarette butt leachate.
... Cigarette wastes constituted about 30% of the total litter (by count) on US shorelines, waterways and on land (Slaughter et al., 2011;Barnes, 2011). According to a report Previous studies have shown chemicals in CB leachate can be acutely toxic to aquatic organisms (Slaughter et al., 2011;Lee & Lee, 2015;Micevska et al., 2006;Savino & Tanabe, 1989;Rawls et al., 2011;Di Giacomo et al, 2015;Register, 2000;Lawal & Ologundudu, 2013), but very limited information is available for marine organisms (Micevska et al., 2006;Booth et al., 2015;Wright et al., 2015;Slaughter et al., 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
Cigarette butts (CBs) are composed by synthetic polymers and products from the combustion of tobacco. They are improperly discarded in large quantities in the environment, representing a major litter type impacting the coastal ecosystems. CBs contain a large number of hazardous chemical substances and represent potential threats to marine organisms. This investigation assessed the acute toxicity of CBs leachates on the microcrustacean Artemia sp., considering lethal effects and morphometric analysis. A leachate solution was obtained by the addition of 5 smoked CBs in 500 ml filtered seawater, and agitation for 3 days. Nauplii of Artemia sp. were obtained from cists and exposed to different concentrations of the leachate (100, 50, 25, 12.5 and 6.25 %). After 48 h, the mortalities were recorded and the survivors were analyzed for their size and presence of morphological deformities. The results showed significant differences from the concentration of 50 % (LOEC) and the lethal concentration to 50% organisms (LC50-48h) was 45.3 (39.3-52.1) %. No differences were observed regarding the body size, but morphological deformities were more frequent in the organisms exposed to the highest concentrations. The presence of CBs in the environment may threaten the marine species, because the leachate is toxic. RESUMO Bitucas de cigarro são compostas por polímeros sintéticos e produtos da combustão do tabaco, sendo descartadas inapropriadamente em enormes quantidades e representando um dos principais resíduos que impactam os ecossistemas costeiros. Por conterem inúmeras substâncias químicas, possuem potencial tóxico e portanto podem representar ameaças aos organismos marinhos. Este trabalho analisou a toxicidade aguda de lixiviado de bitucas de cigarro sobre o microcrustáceo Artemia sp., considerando os efeitos letais e análise da morfometria. Uma solução de lixiviado foi produzida pela adição de 5 bitucas fumadas em 500 ml de água do mar filtrada, mantida em agitação por 3 dias. Cistos foram eclodidos e os náuplios foram expostos a diferentes concentrações do lixiviado (100, 50, 25, 12.5, e 6.25 %). Após 48 horas, foram registradas as mortalidades e os organismos sobreviventes foram analisados quanto ao tamanho e presença de anomalias morfológicas. Os resultados demonstraram efeitos significativos a partir da concentração de 50% (CEO), e uma concentração letal a 50 % dos organismos (LC50-48h) de 45.3 (39.3-52.1) %. Em relação à morfometria, não houve diferenças significativas, contudo, observou-se alterações morfológicas, principalmente nos organismos expostos às maiores concentrações. Assim, a presença de bitucas no ambiente pode representar ameaças às espécies marinhas, pois o lixiviado produzido é tóxico para o microcrustáceo Artemia sp.
... Specifically, these discarded butts contain arsenic and heavy metals, nicotine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [2,7]. Although a single cigarette stub does not pose a significant threat to the environment, the cumulative effect of large quantities of butts discarded in a particular area may indeed pose a threat to local organisms when their harmful contents leach into the environment [8][9][10][11]12]. While it is true that the metal tolerance of some species (eg, bioaccumulators) can be enhanced by trace and heavy metal contamination in soil and water, other organisms can be adversely affected by such contamination [13][14][15]. ...
Article
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Cigarette butts are known to contain toxic metals which pose a potential threat to the environment and human health. The seriousness of this threat is largely determined by the leachability of these toxic metals when the butts are exposed to aqueous solutions in the environment. The aims of this study were to determine the presence and mobility of toxic and non-toxic elements found in discarded cigarette butts; to relate this mobility to two different contact situations with leaching liquids: tumbling and trampling (batch test) and percolation in a static position (column test); and finally, to verify possible variations in solubility by simulating different environmental systems. Five leachants with different pH values were used to simulate various environmental conditions The concentrations of the solubilized metals were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). CH 3 COOH pH 2.5 showed the greatest capacity to dissolve many elements. On the contrary, weakly acidic or alkaline environments did not favor the leachability of the elements. The best extraction capacity of the column with respect to the batch is statistically significant (p <0.05) for the elements Al, Fe, Ni and Zn, while the batch for P, Si, S. Pb, Cd, As were not detectable in cigarette butts, while Hg had an average concentration of 0.0502 μ g/g. However, Hg was < LOD in all different leachants.
Conference Paper
Pasaulyje kiekvienais metais surūkoma daugiau nei 5,5 trilijonai cigarečių, kurios tam tikru būdu yra šalinamos. Dėl rūkalių įpročio numesti nuorūką bet kur, šios atliekos yra vienos dažniausiai randamų atliekų aplinkoje visame pasaulyje. Šios atliekos yra ne tik vizuali tarša, bet ir daro rimtą žalą gamtinei aplinkai dėl cigarečių filtruose susikaupusių metalų. Tyrimų tikslas – nustatyti iš cigarečių ir kaitinamųjų lazdelių filtrų į aplinką galinčių patekti metalų kiekius. Tyrimo objektai – cigarečių filtrai, kaitinamųjų lazdelių filtrai, sunkieji metalai (Cu, Mn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Zn). Eksperimentiniai tyrimai atlikti VILNIUS TECH Aplinkos apsaugos ir vandens inžinerijos katedros laboratorijose, vadovaujantis LST EN 12457-4 standartu. Nustatyta, kad iš cigarečių filtrų daugiausia išsiplovė kadmio – 4,577±0,018 mg/kg, naudojant distiliuotą vandenį. Cinko, mangano ir chromo daugiausia išsiplovė iš cigarečių naudojant CaCl2 (pH = 6,1) tirpalą, atitinkamai 3,629±0,016 mg/kg, 2,328±0,005 mg/kg, 0,896±0,000 mg/kg. Vario ir švino daugiausia išsiplovė iš kaitinamųjų lazdelių atitinkamai 4,272±0,012 mg/kg naudojant distiliuotą vandenį ir 1,329±0,004 mg/kg naudojant CaCl2 tirpalą.
Chapter
It is as contentious a matter as dog poop on the sidewalk, but clearly more lethal. Trillions of cigarettes made each year means trillions of butts somewhere. Each is a miniature toxic bomb (if you don’t believe it, drop one into your aquarium at home, and see what happens). And counter to popular belief, they are made largely of plastic, not paper. Cigarette butts crown the “top 10” list of international beach cleanups each and every year by a very wide margin. People who leave butts on the beach should have their behinds butted. These folks also tend to leave behind the full range of smoking paraphernalia. “Empty” lighters are case in point. Make it a family contest. Who can find more of the most common items along your favorite stretch of beach: lighters, straws, bottle caps, bottles or maybe clothespins, shotgun shells, or other characteristic beach litter? Winner takes all (home!).
Article
Cigarette butts (CBs) contain a plethora of chemicals, including many that are toxic. Although numerous studies have demonstrated the toxicity of CBs to aquatic organisms, there is less evidence that terrestrial organisms are severely impacted. Because CBs are commonly discarded on the ground, ground-dwelling organisms such as land snails may be especially affected. Many land snails are generalist detritivores/herbivores and ingest a variety of plant secondary compounds as they feed. This evolutionary exposure may render CBs (made principally of cured tobacco leaves) less toxic to these land snails than CBs are to less exposed aquatic animals. We investigated this possibility of reduced effects using a new behavioural assay to test the choice of ‘flavoured’ vertical resting sites in the land snail Cornu aspersum, which commonly rests on upright surfaces. In four experiments, regions of container walls were coated with different concentrations of CB and cured tobacco effluents, and effluents from three tree species and cured tobacco. Snails avoided high CB and tobacco effluent concentrations, which is consistent with toxicity. However, snails preferentially rested on dilute concentrations of both CBs and tobacco. Preference among tree leaf effluents was less evident, with a trend towards snails preferring the more readily eaten maple than the less readily eaten oak. Selection of the preferred tobacco concentration did not differ from that of tree leaves, indicating that C. aspersum was not repelled by dilute tobacco effluent. These results indicate that compounds leaching from discarded CBs may have little effect on snails and perhaps other soil organisms under environmentally realistic conditions.
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Smoked cigarettes are the most prevalent form of litter worldwide, often finding their way into oceans and inland waterways. Cigarette smoke contains more than 4,000 individual chemicals, many of them carcinogenic or otherwise toxic. We examined the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity,aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), estrogen receptor (ER), and p53 response pathways of smoked cigarette leachate in vitro. Both seawater and freshwater leachates of smoked cigarettes were tested. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were negligible at 100 smoked cigarettes/L, while statistically significant AhR, ER, and p53 responses were observed in the extracts of both leachates, suggesting a potential risk to human health through exposure to cigarette litter in the environment. To identify responsible chemicals for the AhR response, an Effect Directed Analysis approach was coupled with nontargeted chemical analysis based on comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC/TOF-MS). Eleven compounds potentially responsible for the AhR response were identified. Among them, 2-methylindole was partially responsible for the AhR response.
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Cigarette butts (CBs) can travel via stormwater runoff so they are very common on the beach. While there is evidence they can leach toxic chemicals into water, there is not much information about their behavior in sediment. We buried CBs in aquaria containing marine sediment at a concentration of 0.025 CB/g, and sampled it after 0, 5, 10, 20, 45, and 60 days. The sediment was solvent-extracted and analyzed by GC/MS. The chromatograms were compared to those of CB extracts to look for compounds in common. Nicotine, β-nicotyrine, myosmine, cotinine, linear alkanes, and xylenol were detected in the sediment up to 60 days from exposure so the leachates could have long-term impact on benthic fauna. The tobacco alkaloids or its metabolites could be used as specific markers of cigarette litter in sediment monitoring. These outcomes support the need for stricter regulation on cigarette waste to prevent it from reaching aquatic environments.
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Cigarette butts, one of the most littered items globally, present a unique challenge to ecosystems due to their ubiquity, persistence, and potential for harm. Over 35 studies have examined the toxicity of cigarette butts in biota from aquatic and terrestrial habitats from microbes to mice, but many organisms and habitats have not been tested. Two-thirds of studies are on aquatic organisms, and lethal effects were common. Research on the impacts on terrestrial life is lagging behind. Cigarette butts can affect the growth, behaviour, and reproductive output of individual organisms in all three habitats, but research on wider effects on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning is lacking. Here, we summarise the ecotoxicological concerns and identify important knowledge gaps for future research.
Article
Most of cigarettes used in the world have filters. Following smoking, the cigarette butts (CBs) are often littered as wastes in the environment. CBs generally contain several toxic substances that are trapped in the cigarette filter. Filters are made of non-biodegradable materials and remain in the environment for a long time. Within this study, it is attempted to systematically review the articles on CBs and find out the answers to the problems associated with the factors including quantity, distribution, origin and toxicity of CBs in the environment. It is estimated that approximately 5.5 trillion cigarettes are being produced annually in the world and the CB wastes would reach 1.2 million tons and increase by 50% until 2025. CBs contain thousands of dangerous chemicals such as arsenic, benzene, hydrogen cyanide, PAHs, pyridine, heavy metals and so forth. It is also believed that eachCB can pollute 1000 liters of water. Given the inadequacy of mechanical equipment as well as the cost of collecting these wastes, there should be a special focus on these items as follows: producing cigarettes with degradable filters, reducing the rate of smoking in the world, reducing the toxic and chemical substances in the process of plant growth, processing and production of cigarettes, training people to discard CBs properly, putting legal and financial pressures on cigarettes production, and the last but not least, providing effective solutions for collecting CBs.
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Cigarette butts are considered the most common form of personal litter around the world. It is estimated that 5.5 trillion cigarettes are consumed globally each year and that 4.95 trillion are discarded in some natural or anthropic environment around the world. This study evaluated the pollution of urban beaches in the Brazilian Northeast by cigarette butts in relation to other types of litter. Samplings were conducted in a month of high season (January 2016), at eight heavily used beaches. In the place with the highest concentration of users in each beach, a 200 m transect (3 m width) was established parallel to the water on the most recent strandline. All items >1 cm were counted and classified into categories according to composition (plastic, cigarette butts, wood, glass, metal, paper and organic, such as food leftovers and coconuts) using a standard worksheet. Cigarette butts were considered as an isolated category of litter. A total of 10,880 items was registered. The most abundant items were plastics (44.96%) and cigarette butts (38.36%). Among plastics, the most abundant items were straws, metallic food packaging, sticks (lollipop and popsicle) and cups. Plastic fragments were also abundant in all beaches evaluated, corresponding to 14.5% of the total plastics.
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The pollution of microplastics and their potential environmental hazards have attracted considerable attention of the public. Cigarette butts, composed of cellulose acetate, are one of the most common plastic pollutants in the environment. Of all the litter that is discarded at will, cigarette butts are the most acceptable. Cigarette butts are dangerous pieces of plastic, but are usually not handled properly and consist of more than 15,000 detachable strands of plastic fiber. Discarded cigarette butts may be carried into rivers and lakes, and finally into the ocean. The plastic fibers will continuously release microplastic fibers into the environment. About 300,000 tons of potential microplastic fibers may enter the aquatic environment from this source per annum. Additionally, toxic substances, such as nicotine, carcinogenic tar, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, have strong toxic effect, which will cause serious damage to aquatic organisms. However, the mechanism and rate of microplastic fibers release from smoked cigarette butts and the joint toxicity of microplastic fibers and toxic pollutants to aquatic organisms are still in the initial stage. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the mechanism of cigarette butts releasing microplastic fibers, the potential impact on the environment and possible measures to reduce the impacts of cigarette butt litter. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the potential sources of smoked cigarette butts as environmental fiber microplastics and the potential ecological effects of the released microplastic fibers on the ecosystem. In addition, some ways which could help to tackle problem of smoked cigarette butts pollution have also been proposed.
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This study examined airborne emissions from cigarette butts for styrene, 2‐methyl‐2‐cyclopenten‐1‐one, naphthalene, triacetin and nicotine. Ten experiments were conducted by placing butts in a stainless‐steel chamber and measuring the chemical concentrations in chamber air. Emission rates were determined from the concentrations. Triacetin and nicotine concentrations were roughly 50 % of initial concentrations after 100 h, while concentrations of other chemicals decayed to less than 10 % of initial concentrations within 24 h. Initial emission rates per cigarette butt ranged from 200 ng h‐1 to 3500 ng h‐1. Triacetin and nicotine emission rates at 25 °C were 1.6 to 2.2 times higher than the rates at 20 °C, while the emission rates of other chemicals at 25 °C were 1.1 to 1.3 times higher than the rates at 20 °C only during the first sampling period. The chemical concentrations and emission rates at 30 °C were comparable or lower than the values at 25 °C, possibly due to different batches of cigarettes used. The 24 h emitted mass of nicotine from a cigarette butt at 25 °C could be up to 14 % of the literature reported nicotine masses emitted from a burning cigarette.
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The damage potential of cigarette butt and cigarette ash was determined and compared using genotoxicity and phytotoxicity assessments. The concentrations of five heavy metals, As, Cr, Cd, Pb, and Ni, were determined in both cigarette butt and ash leachates to find out if the results of heavy metals are in parallel with toxicity findings. Cigarette ashes and cigarette butts were soaked in distilled water for 7 days. Six leachate butt concentrations, including 200, 100, 50, 25, 12.5, and 6.25 piece/L, were examined. HUVEC cells (human umbilical vein endothelial cells) were exposed to these dilution series for genotoxicity, and Vicia faba seeds were exposed to the same dilution series for phytotoxicity assessments. Three parameters of genotoxicity, including tail length, %DNA in tail, and tail moment, were obtained by the comet assay method, and three parameters of phytotoxicity, including germination rate, root length, and water content percentage, were employed. The results showed that cigarette ash at the concentrations of 50, 25, 12.5, and 6.25 pc/L brings about DNA damage. Meanwhile, cigarette butt causes DNA damage at the concentrations of 100, 50, 25, and 12.5 pc/L. The highest concentrations (200 pc/L for cigarette butt and 200 and 100 pc/L for cigarette ash) were considered lethal for HUVEC cells. Besides, the levels of genotoxicity in the cigarette ash were twice as high as those in the cigarette butt. The Vicia faba phytotoxicity test demonstrated a germination rate restriction from 100 to 52 and 100 to 0% for cigarette butt and cigarette ash, respectively. It also caused a reduction in the length of roots from 35 to 7.85 and 3 mm for cigarette butt and cigarette ash, respectively. The moisture amounts of cigarette remnants had a decline from 93.14 to 44.61 and 36.72% for cigarette butt and cigarette ash, respectively. Concentrations of As, Cr, Cd, Pb, and Ni were 17.45, 2.5, 0.15, 6, and 0.62 ppb in the butt leachate and 7.21, 2.64, 0.29, 13.61, and 1.24 ppb in the ash leachate, respectively, indicating that heavy metals could explain the higher toxicity of cigarette ash. Based on the present study, cigarette ash imposes not only higher levels of genotoxicity and phytotoxicity but also more values of toxic heavy metals on our planet. Thus, cigarette ash plays a major role in environmental pollution, and the importance of cigarette ashes should receive attention even more than cigarette butts. This paper casts new light on the toxic impacts of cigarette ash.
Article
Smoked cigarette filters a.k.a. “butts”, composed of plastic (e.g. cellulose acetate) are one of the world’s most common litter items. In response to concerns about plastic pollution, biodegradable cellulose filters are being promoted as an environmentally safe alternative, however, once smoked, both contain toxins which can leach once discarded. The impacts of biodegradable butts as littered items on the receiving environment, in comparison with conventional butts has not yet been assessed. A freshwater mesocosm experiment was used to test the effects of leachate from smoked cellulose acetate versus smoked cellulose filters at a range of concentrations (0, 0.2, 1 and 5 butts L⁻¹) on the mortality and behaviour of four freshwater invertebrates (Dreissena polymorpha, Polycelis nigra, Planorbis planorbis and Bithynia tentaculata). Leachate derived from 5 butts L⁻¹ of either type of filter caused 60-100% mortality to all species within 5 days. Leachate derived from 1 butt L⁻¹ of either type resulted in adults being less active than those exposed to no or 0.2 butts L⁻¹ leachate. Cigarette butts, therefore, regardless of their perceived degradability can cause mortality and decreased activity of key freshwater invertebrates and should always be disposed of responsibly.
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We assessed the standing stock of litter in a coastal Balinese village in terrestrial habitats and on an adjacent beach. Densities ranged from 1633 items 1000 m⁻² at a local tourist attraction (waterfall) to 8389 items 1000 m⁻² on the beach. Plastic food packaging (17.2%) and cigarette butts (15.0%) were the most prevalent items: some sites also contained high densities of items that reflected local usage (e.g. fishing line, nets, ropes in the fishing preparation area). High-value plastic items (bottles and drink cups) were uncommon reflecting low usage rates within the village as well as local recycling efforts. There was a mismatch between the proportions of items in terrestrial habitats and beaches indicating differential transport processes (especially for cigarette butts and foamed plastics). These data provide a baseline against which to prioritise, and monitor the success of, future management intervention including the installation of small, plastic recycling machines (Shruders).
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Cigarette butt is known as hazardous waste with numerous toxic and carcinogenic pollutants which impose serious concern for both the environment and human. Heavy metals are recognized as the most common pollutant in the cigarette butts. The concentration of some heavy metals (cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead and zinc) in leachate obtained from the pilot landfill with commingled waste and freshly smoked cigarettes butts were analyzed. The results showed that the addition of 0.76% (in weight) freshly smoked cigarette butts in landfilled waste increased total heavy metal concentration by 4.8%, while addition of 1.3% (in weight) freshly smoked cigarette butts leads to increased 3.72% of total heavy metals concentrations. An increased 10.52% and 3.43% health risk values were found from the leachate of the landfill pilot, where 1% freshly smoked cigarette butt and a littered cigarette were added, respectively. Overall, it can be concluded that cigarette butt landfilling is not recommended for management of this type of waste and is necessary to be replaced with less hazardous ways such as recycling.
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Outdoor mesocosms with constantly flowing natural seawater were used to test the effects of littered cigarette butts on the filter feeder Mytilus edulis (blue mussel), the macroalga, Ulva lactuca (sea lettuce) and sediment microphytobenthos in a semi-natural marine setting. Either conventional, cellulose acetate, or biodegradable, cellulose, smoked cigarette butts were added at densities of 0.25 or 1 butt L-1. The clearance rates of mussels exposed to 1 butt L-1 of cellulose acetate butts were three times less than the controls. The growth of U. lactuca was not measurably affected by cigarette butts, however the sediment chlorophyll content was significantly less in mesocosms exposed to 0.25 and 1 butt L-1 of cellulose acetate butts. These effects occurred despite constant replacement of seawater indicating how hazardous conventional cigarette butts are to marine life. Biodegradable cellulose cigarette butts had minimal effects on the measured variables but should still not be discarded as litter.
This study reports attitudes, beliefs, and littering behaviors of 7532 college-aged cigarette smokers from across the United States. Four behavioral variables were measured: littering of last cigarette butt, number of butts littered in past 24 h, littering in past month, and ever having littered. Questions about beliefs centered on whether cigarette butts are biodegradable, if butts were harmful to the environment, and if butts are considered to be litter. One attitudinal question focused on whether seeing butts on the ground was bothersome. Littering was most likely among people who believed butts were biodegradable, believed they are not harmful to the environment, do not believe butts are litter, and among those with the attitude that littered butts are not bothersome. Logistic regression analyses found that the strongest influence on littering behavior was the attitude that seeing butts was bothersome. The second-strongest driver was the belief that butts are litter.
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Cigarette butts and other tobacco product wastes (TPW) are the most common items picked up in urban and beach cleanups worldwide. TPW contains all the toxins, nicotine, and carcinogens found in tobacco products, along with the plastic nonbiodegradable filter attached to almost all cigarettes sold in the United States and in most countries worldwide. Toxicity studies suggest that compounds leached from cigarette butts in salt and fresh water are toxic to aquatic micro-organisms and test fish. Toxic chemicals have also been identified in roadside TPW. With as much as two-thirds of all smoked cigarettes (numbering in the trillions globally) being discarded into the environment each year, it is critical to consider the potential toxicity and remediation of these waste products. This article reviews reports on the toxicity of TPW and recommends several policy approaches to mitigation of this ubiquitous environmental blight.
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The rivers and streams of the large urban centers in Southeast Brazil are increasingly being degraded, demanding expanded conservation efforts. This study was conducted in the Grande River, one of the main tributaries of the Billings Complex, a reservoir that is a strategic fresh water resource for the São Paulo metropolitan region. Water quality, habitat features and fish fauna were investigated at seven sites along the longitudinal gradient with the aim of identifying the distribution patterns and relative contributions of the environmental factors. The water samples and environmental characteristics were recorded, and fish were collected during the rainy (January to March) and dry seasons (July and August) of 2009. The water quality varied along the river, with higher values of conductivity, fecal coliforms and total phosphorus in the lower reach, indicating a strong influence of the urban area. Twenty-two fish species were recorded, two of which are considered endangered. A canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated marked differences in species composition between the river’s upper and lower reaches, which was mainly attributed to vegetation cover and the presence of different meso-habitats, such as riffles and pools. Trychomycterus spp. and Astyanax paranae were associated with the upper reaches, while Astyanax fasciatus and Astyanax bockmanni, Cyphocharax modestus, Hoplias malabaricus and Hypostomus ancistroides occurred in the lower reaches. Despite the disturbance in water quality and riparian vegetation in the lower river section, no detectable changes in community structure were observed. However, the presence of some tolerant species, such as Astyanax fasciatus, Hoplosternum littorale and Hypostomus ancistroides, may indicate that the community is experiencing initial stages of disturbance.
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Littered cigarette butts represent potential point sources for environmental contamination. In areas with substantial amounts of cigarette litter, environmental hazards may arise as chemical components are leached from the filters and smoked tobacco. The three main aims of this study were: (1) to quantify the amount of Al, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni, Sr, Ti and Zn leached from cigarette butts, (2) to determine the relationship between the pH of the aqueous soaking solution and metal concentration leached and (3) to determine the relationship between the period of soaking in aqueous solution and metal concentration leached. Smoked cigarette butts and unsmoked cigarettes were added to phials containing aqueous solutions of pH 4.00, 5.00 and 6.00 (± 0.05). The metal concentration of the resultant leachates was measured via inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) 1 day, 7 days and 34 days after sample addition. All metals were detected in leachates 1 day after sample addition (with the exception of Cd) and were released at varying rates. No clear relationship between pH within the range typical of precipitation and metal concentration leached was observed. Based on the gradual release of multiple metals over the full 34-day study period, cigarette litter was found to be a point source for metal contamination. The apparent rapid leaching of other metals may increase the risk of acute harm to local organisms.
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Cigarette butts are the most common form of litter, as an estimated 4.5 trillion cigarette butts are thrown away every year worldwide. Many chemical products are used during the course of growing tobacco and manufacturing cigarettes, the residues of which may be found in cigarettes prepared for consumption. Additionally, over 4000 chemicals may also be introduced to the environment via cigarette particulate matter (tar) and mainstream smoke. Using US Environmental Protection Agency standard acute fish bioassays, cigarette butt-derived leachate was analysed for aquatic toxicity. Survival was the single endpoint and data were analysed using Comprehensive Environmental Toxicity Information System to identify the LC50 of cigarette butt leachate to fish. The LC50 for leachate from smoked cigarette butts (smoked filter + tobacco) was approximately one cigarette butt/l for both the marine topsmelt (Atherinops affinis) and the freshwater fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Leachate from smoked cigarette filters (no tobacco), was less toxic, with LC50 values of 1.8 and 4.3 cigarette butts/l, respectively for both fish species. Unsmoked cigarette filters (no tobacco) were also found to be toxic, with LC50 values of 5.1 and 13.5 cigarette butts/l, respectively, for both fish species. Toxicity of cigarette butt leachate was found to increase from unsmoked cigarette filters (no tobacco) to smoked cigarette filters (no tobacco) to smoked cigarette butts (smoked filter + tobacco). This study represents the first in the literature to investigate and affirm the toxicity of cigarette butts to fish, and will assist in assessing the potential ecological risks of cigarette butts to the aquatic environment.
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Habitat-forming invasive species cause large, novel changes to the abiotic environment. These changes may elicit important behavioural responses in native fauna, yet little is known about mechanisms driving this behaviour and how such trait-mediated responses influence the fitness of native species. Low dissolved oxygen is a key abiotic change created by the habitat-forming invasive seaweed, Caulerpa taxifolia, which influences an important behavioural response (burrowing depth) in the native infaunal bivalve Anadara trapezia. In Caulerpa-colonised areas, Anadara often emerged completely from the sediment, and we experimentally demonstrate that water column hypoxia beneath the Caulerpa canopy is the mechanism instigating this "pop-up" behaviour. Importantly, pop-up in Caulerpa allowed similar survivorship to that in unvegetated sediment; however, when we prevented Anadara from popping-up, they suffered >50% mortality in just 1 month. Our findings not only highlight the substantial environmental alteration by Caulerpa, but also an important role for the behaviour of native species in mitigating the effects of habitat-forming invasive species.
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Despite well-documented negative impacts of invasive species on native biota, evidence for the facilitation of native organisms, particularly by habitat-forming invasive species, is increasing. However, most of these studies are conducted at the population or community level, and we know little about the individual fitness consequences of recruitment to habitat-forming invasive species and, consequently, whether recruitment to these habitats is adaptive. We determined the consequences of recruitment to the invasive green alga Caulerpa taxifolia on the native soft-sediment bivalve Anadara trapezia and nearby unvegetated sediment. Initially, we documented the growth and survivorship of A. trapezia following a natural recruitment event, to which recruitment to C. taxifolia was very high. After 12 months, few clams remained in either habitat, and those that remained showed little growth. Experimental manipulations of recruits demonstrated that all performance measures (survivorship, growth and condition) were significantly reduced in C. taxifolia sediments compared to unvegetated sediments. Exploration of potential mechanisms responsible for the reduced performance in C. taxifolia sediments showed that water flow and water column dissolved oxygen (DO) were significantly reduced under the canopy of C. taxifolia and that sediment anoxia was significantly higher and sediment sulphides greater in C. taxifolia sediments. However, phytoplankton abundance (an indicator of food supply) was significantly higher in C. taxifolia sediments than in unvegetated ones. Our results demonstrate that recruitment of native species to habitat-forming invasive species can reduce growth, condition and survivorship and that studies conducted at the community level may lead to erroneous conclusions about the impacts of invaders and should include studies on life-history traits, particularly juveniles.
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This study determined the condition and reproductive output of a common estuarine toadfish, Tetractenos glaber, in two metal contaminated and two reference estuaries near Sydney, Australia. Female toadfish from metal contaminated estuaries were smaller and younger than in reference estuaries; however, it could not be resolved whether these differences were due to direct effects of metal contamination or differences in nutritional value of prey. Lipid content in liver and gonad tissues was inversely related with levels of As, Pb, Cd and Co in sediment. In contrast, protein content in liver, gonad and muscle tissues was positively related to sediment levels of Ni and Co. Increased levels of Pb in gonads were associated with decreased oocyte diameter and density. This suggests a reduction in egg size and fecundity, which ultimately may lead to a decline in female reproductive output. Changes in fish health and reproduction caused by chemical pollutants may alter fish population and community structure.
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Cigarette butts are the most numerically frequent form of litter in the world. In Australia alone, 24-32 billion cigarette butts are littered annually. Despite this littering, few studies have been undertaken to explore the toxicity of cigarette butts in aquatic ecosystems. The acute toxicity of 19 filtered cigarette types to Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia (48-hr EC50 (immobilization)) and Vibrio fischeri (30-min EC50 (bioluminescence)) was determined using leachates from artificially smoked cigarette butts. There was a 2.9- and 8-fold difference in toxicity between the least and most toxic cigarette butts to C. cf. dubia and V. fischeri, respectively. Overall, C. cf. dubia was more inherently sensitive than V. fischeri by a factor of approximately 15.4, and the interspecies relationship between C. cf. dubia and V. fischeri was poor (R(2) = 0.07). This poor relationship indicates that toxicity data for cigarette butts for one species could not predict or model the toxicity of cigarette butts to the other species. However, the order of the toxicity of leachates can be predicted. It was determined that organic compounds caused the majority of toxicity in the cigarette butt leachates. Of the 14 organic compounds identified, nicotine and ethylphenol were suspected to be the main causative toxicants. There was a strong relationship between toxicity and tar content and between toxicity and nicotine content for two of the three brands of cigarettes (R(2 )> 0.70) for C. cf. dubia and one brand for V. fischeri. However, when the cigarettes were pooled, the relationship was weak (R(2) < 0.40) for both test species. Brand affected the toxicity to both species but more so for V. fischeri.
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Although invasive species are a major threat to survivorship of native species, we know little about their sublethal effects. In soft-sediment marine systems, mat-forming invasive species often have positive effects, facilitating recruitment and enhancing the diversity and abundance of native invertebrates. However, because mat-forming invasive species change the habitat in which they invade, and benthic invertebrates are sensitive to environmental disturbance, important sublethal effects on native species may exist. Using a model marine system we show that the widespread mat-forming invasive alga Caulerpa taxifolia (Vahl) C. Agardh has strong negative effects on the reproductive traits of a native bivalve Anadara trapezia (Deshayes, 1840) (e.g. timing of reproductive development and spawning, and follicle and gamete production) even though the invader has positive effects on recruitment. Moreover, gender specific responses occurred and indicated that females were more susceptible to invasion than males. Our results indicate that sublethal effects of an invasive species on reproductive traits will have severe consequences for fitness of the native species.
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Many urban European streams are recovering from industrial, mining and sewage pollution during the 20th century. However, associated recolonisation by clean water organisms can potentially result in exposure to legacy or novel toxic pollutants that persist in the environment. Between 2008 and 2010, we sampled eggs of a river passerine, the Eurasian dipper (Cinclus cinclus), from 33 rivers in South Wales and the English borders (UK) which varied in catchment land use from rural to highly urbanized. Dipper egg δ15N and δ13C were enriched from urban rivers while δ34S was strongly depleted effectively discriminating their urban or rural origins at thresholds of 10% urban land cover or 1000 people/km2. Concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were positively related to urban land cover and human population density while legacy organochlorine pesticides such as p,p'-DDE, lindane and hexachlorobenzene were found in higher concentrations at rural sites. Levels of PBDEs in urban dipper eggs (range 136-9299 ng/g lw) were among the highest ever reported in passerines, and some egg contaminants were at or approaching levels sufficient for adverse effects on avian development. With the exception of dieldrin, our data shows PCBs and other organochlorine pesticides have remained stable or increased in the past 20 years in dipper eggs despite discontinued use.
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In this memorial lecture, environmental pollution from radioactive materials, synthetic chemicals and from combustion of fossil fuels is discussed in the framework of a hierarchy of environmental issues. Included are nuclear war, population growth, and insufficient supplies of energy and other resources. The author cites progress in solving pollution problems and energy conservation, but maintains that we must consider aspects that are more fundamental than control over pollution, preservation of wildlife and the relatively few other facets of contemporary environmentalism; foremost is the need to control population growth.
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Summary • Understanding the impacts of invasive species on natural ecosystems is an important component of developing management strategies. Habitat-forming invasive plants and sessile invertebrates often support a high diversity and abundance of native fauna, suggesting some benefits of invasion. However, the fitness responses of these native fauna, and thus the net benefit from their association with habitat-forming invasive species, are not well understood. • We determined how fitness-related life-history traits, patterns of resource allocation among life-history traits, and survivorship of an abundant bivalve, Anadara trapezia, responded to invasion by the habitat-forming seaweed, Caulerpa taxifolia, by transplanting A. trapezia into invaded and uninvaded habitats over a 12-month period. • Although A. trapezia recruits into C. taxifolia in high numbers, adult growth, body condition, shell condition, female reproduction and survivorship were all significantly lower in C. taxifolia compared to unvegetated sediment. Notably, we observed high mortality in C. taxifolia after heavy rainfall events, highlighting a potential link between sublethal effects on condition, stochastic environmental perturbation and survivorship. • In addition to the overall reduction in fitness, there were changes in scaling relationships between reproduction and body size following invasion. Female A. trapezia in C. taxifolia habitat allocated proportionally more resources to reproduction (including reproductive tissue and number of eggs per follicle) than those in unvegetated sediment despite their poor condition. Maximizing reproduction following invasion may impose a further cost to already stressed A. trapezia and contribute to the higher mortality observed when living in C. taxifolia. • Synthesis and applications. The full impact of habitat-forming invasive species is complex and understanding it cannot be based solely on descriptions of native species diversity or abundance. Our study has identified how the presence of long-lived species within habitat-forming invasive species may simply indicate an extinction debt. A decline in the fitness of A. trapezia in C. taxifolia appears to increase its probability of mortality in the long-term. We recommend that management approaches for C. taxifolia and other habitat-forming invasive species combine an understanding of impacts on species diversity, abundance and the fitness of associated fauna to provide a more pluralistic understanding of their effects.
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Grazing by the snail Nerita atramentosa and the limpet Cellana tramoserica caused similarly great reductions in abundance of microalgae — measured by direct counts and by estimation of chlorophyll analyses. A smaller snail, Bembicium nanum, caused smaller reductions of microalgal resources, compared with ungrazed areas. These results were consistent with the competitive abilities of these three species. Chlorophyll concentrations in samples of grazed rocks were reliable estimates of the nature and abundance of food available to the grazers. Inter- and intra-specific competition amongst Nerita and Cellana were investigated at various densities in experimental cages. To examine the effects of different availability of food resources, the experiments were repeated at three heights on the shore (abundance of food decreases with height) and during autumn/winter and spring/summer periods of the year (less food is available during summer). Density-dependent mortality of Cellana was caused by the presence of other limpets, or of Nerita. Mortality was greatest at higher levels and during the spring/summer and was significantly, negatively correlated with mean chlorophyll concentration in the experimental cages. The only exception was that all limpets suddenly died in cages at the highest level during the summer period, which cannot be explained solely by competitive interactions. Nerita showed no density-dependent mortality during the short periods of these experiments. Tissue-weights of Nerita declined with increased density, but the effect of Cellana was not as great as the intraspecific effect of Nerita. Snails retained weight better at lower than at higher levels, and during the autumn/winter which is consistent with the availability of food. Tissue weights of both Nerita and Cellana were positively correlated with chlorophyll concentrations inside the cages in both seasons investigated. These experimental results demonstrate that intensity of competition will vary from place to place and time to time according to the densities and mixtures of the grazers, and according to the availability of microalgal food.
Article
The rates of growth of two common intertidal gastropods, Nerita atramentosa Reeve and Bembicium nanum (Lamarck), were measured during ≈ 3 months in cages at four heights on a shore at Cape Banks, New South Wales. Replicate cages at each level were used to keep snails at constant densities throughout the experiments. Amounts of food on the substratum in each cage were measured as the concentration of chlorophyll in samples of the rock, which is known to be a reliable estimator of number of algal cells present. Rates of feeding were measured as the number of radular scrapes per min in snails removed to the laboratory, and the sizes of radulae were measured at the end of the experiments.
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The transformation of the environment and of landscapes by human actions has become one of the most critical issues on any agenda for the 21st century. This book is a source of information to students in environmental studies, offering an expanded treatment of atmospheric effects - particularly acid deposition, ozone depletion, and the buildup of greenhouse gases - and of future scenarios relating to global warming trends. The author focuses on the critical man/land relationships that result in environmental change, hazards, or degradation, covering plants, animals, soil, waters, geomorphology, climate, and atmosphere.
Rapid assessment of endocrine disruption: vitellogenin (Vtg) expression in male estuarine toadfish (Tetratenos glaber Tetraodontiformes)
  • D J Booth
  • C D Skene
Booth, D.J., Skene, C.D., 2006. Rapid assessment of endocrine disruption: vitellogenin (Vtg) expression in male estuarine toadfish (Tetratenos glaber Tetraodontiformes). Australas. J. Ecotoxicol. 12, 3-8.