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In today’s educational systems, students of all levels of education experience math anxiety. Furthermore, math anxiety is frequently linked to poor achievement in mathematics. The purpose of this study is to examine the causes of math anxiety and to explore strategies which pre-service teachers have identified to overcome math anxiety. The methodology included conducting surveys with 70 pre-service teachers in Canada and completing a critical analysis of the data to provide an overview of the causes of math anxiety. These data indicate that pre-service teachers have encountered math anxiety in many situations. These causes include: lack of self-confidence, fear of failure; teaching styles; ineffective learning practices, and non-engagement of students. Furthermore, these data indicate that facing math anxiety have empowered the participants to devise strategies which have enabled them to overcome math anxiety. The author suggests that an improved understanding of math anxiety hold implications for all students and educators of mathematics.

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... Girls exhibited a higher level of math anxiety than boys in some studies (Carey et al., 2017;Griggs, Rimm-Kaufman, Merritt & Patton, 2013;Hill et al., 2016;Szczygieł, 2019), but a lack of gender differences was observed in other studies (Gierl & Bisanz, 1995;Harari et al., 2013;Kucian et al., 2018;Ramirez et al., 2013;Young et al., 2012). Existing gender differences in the level of math anxiety are usually explained by the age of the children (Hembree, 1990), the type of math anxiety (Devine et al., 2012), teaching methods (Finlayson, 2014), and math stereotypes (Beilock, Gunderson, Ramirez & Levine, 2010). ...

... Moreover, math anxiety in boys correlates with math achievement more strongly in second grade than in first grade. Therefore, it is likely that teaching methods (Finlayson, 2014) or the complexity of mathematical tasks (Betz, 1978) are responsible for intensifying the level of math anxiety. As the level of difficulty of the mathematical tasks in first and second grade is similar, it would seem that other factors such as teaching methods are responsible for the increase in math anxiety and the deepening of the relationship between math anxiety and math achievement (Finlayson, 2014). ...

... Therefore, it is likely that teaching methods (Finlayson, 2014) or the complexity of mathematical tasks (Betz, 1978) are responsible for intensifying the level of math anxiety. As the level of difficulty of the mathematical tasks in first and second grade is similar, it would seem that other factors such as teaching methods are responsible for the increase in math anxiety and the deepening of the relationship between math anxiety and math achievement (Finlayson, 2014). ...

Math anxiety is considered a predictor of mathematical achievement, but little is known about its characteristics in young children. In a longitudinal study of first to second grade children, the relationships between gender, general and math anxiety, and math achievement were tested. First, the results indicate that girls in comparison to boys have a higher level of general anxiety and that gender gap in math anxiety is affected by various types of math anxiety. Girls exceed boys in testing and total scores of math anxiety, however, no gender differences in learning math anxiety and math achievement in the first and second years were observed. Secondly, the full mediation effect of general anxiety in the relationship between gender and math anxiety was observed in first-and second-graders. Finally, the relationship between math anxiety and mathematical achievement in first and second grade children was tested, and the results depend on grade, gender, type of math anxiety and the level of general anxiety.

... time-pressured tests, graded recitation, rote memorization, drills and chalk-board method are the major factors contributory to the anxiety of children (Thilmany, 2004;Scarpello, 2007;Tsui &Mazzocco, 2007;Popham, 2008;Finlayson, 2014). The classic model of Cemen(1987) explicated dispositional antecedents (for example: lack of confidence), environmental antecedents (for example: negative experiences in math), and situational antecedents (for example: classroom situations) as reasons for developing anxiety in math. ...

... For the participants, mathematics anxiety developed because of unconstructive teacher practices in traditional mathematics classrooms (Finlayson, 2014). The usual directive-authoritarian approach used by most teachers was also contributory. ...

... As stressed by Finlayson (2014), the teaching style of mathematics educators in traditional classrooms is a major cause of the anxiety of the students. When the main focus of the teacher is to complete all the required topics set by the curriculum rather than complete the learning of the students, then the mathematical skills acquired by the students become half-baked. ...

Mathematics anxiety impacts to the learner tremendously especially his scholastic performance, mastery of learning competencies and skills, and even the career choice. This study investigated the different factors causing mathematics anxiety in Calculus of senior high school students. The research design employed was mixed method. Qualitative techniques were used in determining the factors that caused the anxiety of the participants and descriptive design in determining the anxiety level of the students. The study was conducted in five (5) senior high schools offering Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Strand in a province in the Southern Luzon, Philippines. Sixty- nine(69) participants took the Mathematic Anxiety Inventory (MAI) developed by Plake and Parker. The results revealed that almost all of the participants have either high or moderate mathematics anxiety level. The paper concludes that the abstract mathematical concepts of Calculus, the teaching style and attitude of the teacher, and the poor comprehension and analytical skills of the students were the major factors that caused the mathematics anxiety of the participants.

... Mathematics anxiety refers to the feeling of discomfort that arises when faced with mathematics tasks that are seen as threatening to one's self-esteem, and affects over 90% of Americans in some way (Blazer, 2011;Trujillo & Hadfield, 1999). A 2014 study highlighted many of the common sources of mathematics anxiety in preservice elementary teachers, such as an emphasis on basic skills, strict adherence to the curriculum, an authoritarian teaching style, an emphasis on correct answers, individual work, and an emphasis on rule-bound procedures (Finlayson, 2014). The study involved interviewing 70 preservice teachers to better understand the sources of their own mathematics anxieties. ...

... This style of teaching also turns mathematics into a highrisk activity, one where it is imperative that students find the correct answer in a timely fashion (Geist, 2010). With such an emphasis placed on the correct answer, fear of failure in students can become a strong source of mathematics anxiety (Finlayson, 2014). Further, it is common for teachers to have a general approach to instruction, teaching as though all students have the same initial mathematics knowledge, abilities and learning styles (Boaler, 2002). ...

... For instance, teachers with high levels of mathematics anxiety are more inclined to resort to lecturing as a means of instruction, as opposed to implementing more collaborative, active learning experiences (Gresham, 2018). When these teachers spend the majority of the class time lecturing, they end up emphasizing basic skills instead of leading students to conceptual understandings (Finlayson, 2014). Past research has indicated that implementing a number of different learning experiences such as games, problem-solving activities, and group work and discussion can help to lessen mathematics anxiety in both teachers and students (Lake & Kelly, 2014). ...

This study compares levels of mathematics anxiety and teacher efficacy between inservice and preservice elementary teachers. Prior research has indicated that mathematics anxiety is a common trait among elementary teachers. Mathematics anxiety has also been found to have a negative impact on preservice elementary teachers’ efficacy towards teaching mathematics. To address this challenge, some states have begun hiring elementary mathematics coaches to support elementary teachers. Besides focusing on mathematics anxiety and teacher efficacy, this study also investigated the impacts of elementary mathematics coaches on inservice elementary teachers. A total of 174 inservice teachers and 51 preservice teachers completed a survey comprised of the Revised Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale and the Mathematics Teacher Efficacy Beliefs Instrument. Survey data were analyzed by using two-sample t-tests that revealed that preservice elementary teachers reported significantly higher levels of mathematics anxiety than inservice elementary teachers. Additionally, the analysis revealed that the inservice teachers reported significantly more efficacy towards teaching mathematics than the preservice teachers. This study also found that working with mathematics coaches had positive impacts on inservice teachers’ mathematics anxiety and mathematics teacher efficacy. Open-ended questions were analyzed by open coding techniques and revealed that teachers reported co-teaching, co-planning, curriculum and content support to be the most beneficial forms of interaction with the coaches. This study addresses a gap in the literature by comparing the levels of mathematics anxiety and teacher efficacy in inservice and preservice elementary teachers. Additionally, the results of this study expand our knowledge of the relationship between mathematics anxiety and mathematics teacher efficacy, as well as the impact of elementary math coaches. The findings have implications for the preparation of preservice elementary teachers and provide direction for further research on the impacts of elementary mathematics coaches.

... Math anxiety is caused by a combination of external and internal factors; however, we cannot change internal factors within the student, so as teachers it makes more sense to focus on what we can control (Chernoff & Stone, 2014). Studies show that math anxiety is caused primarily by the way the student learns math: the type of authority the teacher uses, an emphasis on right answers and fear of getting wrong answers, requirements that the student respond with an answer sooner than he or she might be ready, and exposure to the rest of the class and their potential condemnation of a student who responds poorly, in short the traditional way of teaching math (Chernoff & Stone, 2014, Finlayson, 2014. Traditional teaching emphasizes: "Basic skills Strict adherence to fixed curriculum Textbooks and workbooks Instructor gives/students receive Instructor assumes directive, authoritative role Assessment via testing/correct answers Knowledge is inert Students work individually." ...

... Traditional teaching emphasizes: "Basic skills Strict adherence to fixed curriculum Textbooks and workbooks Instructor gives/students receive Instructor assumes directive, authoritative role Assessment via testing/correct answers Knowledge is inert Students work individually." (Finlayson, 2014) Unfortunately, these methods can cause and increase math anxiety in the classroom (Finlayson, 2014). Math anxiety can also be transmitted and learned from others, usually from parent to child or teacher to student, but occasionally student-to-student. ...

... Traditional teaching emphasizes: "Basic skills Strict adherence to fixed curriculum Textbooks and workbooks Instructor gives/students receive Instructor assumes directive, authoritative role Assessment via testing/correct answers Knowledge is inert Students work individually." (Finlayson, 2014) Unfortunately, these methods can cause and increase math anxiety in the classroom (Finlayson, 2014). Math anxiety can also be transmitted and learned from others, usually from parent to child or teacher to student, but occasionally student-to-student. ...

... (p. 25) Finlayson (2014) believes that teacher behavior is a prime factor contributing to math anxiety. ...

... 26). Moreover, studies have shown that teachers with high levels of math anxiety tend to transfer this anxiety to their students (Finlayson, 2014;Vinson, 2001). Some researchers found that such teachers are viewed as unsympathetic (Cornell, 1999) and insensitive (Jackson & Leffingwell, 1999), and Brady and Bowd (2005) found that such teachers were viewed as hostile and uncaring by their students. ...

... Math anxiety is also negatively correlated with confidence to teach math (Brady & Bowd, 2005). A commonality among these studies is that the participants were all in a methodology class (e.g., Brown, Westenskow, & Moyer-Packenham, 2011;Finlayson, 2014;Gresham, 2007) and near the end of their preservice training (Brady & Bowd, 2005;Isiksal, Curran, Koc, & Askun, 2009). We are in agreement with Brown et al. (2011) andFinlayson (2014) who acknowledge a weak mathematical background as a factor contributing to math anxiety. ...

Integrative-STEM methodologies entail integrating multiple disciplines with active design-centric teaching and learning methods. If math anxiety is prevalent, for teachers or students, then both the level of integration and design thinking may be limited. This quantitative study of 160 preservice teachers investigated how math anxiety was impacted by (a) a required math content course, (b) instructor teaching style, and (c) academic and disciplinary major. Significance analyses included t-tests, nonparametric tests, and effect sizes. Two teaching styles were compared: a direct teaching style and a more active, problem-based teaching style. The problem-based teaching style was shown to have substantial beneficial impact on math anxiety.

... Math anxiety is caused by a combination of external and internal factors; however, we cannot change internal factors within the student, so as teachers it makes more sense to focus on what we can control (Chernoff & Stone, 2014). Studies show that math anxiety is caused primarily by the way the student learns math: the type of authority the teacher uses, an emphasis on right answers and fear of getting wrong answers, requirements that the student respond with an answer sooner than he or she might be ready, and exposure to the rest of the class and their potential condemnation of a student who responds poorly, in short the traditional way of teaching math (Chernoff & Stone, 2014, Finlayson, 2014. Traditional teaching emphasizes: ...

... • "Basic skills • Strict adherence to fixed curriculum • Textbooks and workbooks • Instructor gives/students receive • Instructor assumes directive, authoritative role • Assessment via testing/correct answers • Knowledge is inert • Students work individually." (Finlayson, 2014) Unfortunately, these methods can cause and increase math anxiety in the classroom (Finlayson, 2014). Math anxiety can also be transmitted and learned from others, usually from parent to child or teacher to student, but occasionally student to student. ...

... • "Basic skills • Strict adherence to fixed curriculum • Textbooks and workbooks • Instructor gives/students receive • Instructor assumes directive, authoritative role • Assessment via testing/correct answers • Knowledge is inert • Students work individually." (Finlayson, 2014) Unfortunately, these methods can cause and increase math anxiety in the classroom (Finlayson, 2014). Math anxiety can also be transmitted and learned from others, usually from parent to child or teacher to student, but occasionally student to student. ...

Mathematics teachers need to take on the role of counselors in addressing the math anxious in today's math classrooms. This paper looks at the impact math anxiety has on the future of young adults in our high-tech society. Teachers and professional school counselors are encouraged to work together to prevent and reduce math anxiety. It is important that all students feel confident in their ability to do mathematics in an age that relies so heavily on problem solving, technology, science, and mathematics. It really is a school's obligation to see that their students value and feel confident in their ability to do math, because ultimately a child's life: all decisions they will make and careers choices may be determined based on their disposition toward mathematics. This paper raises some interesting questions and provides some strategies (See Appendix A) for teachers and counselors for addressing the issue of math anxiety while discussing the importance of developing mathematically confident young people for a high-tech world of STEM.

... Math anxiety is caused by a combination of external and internal factors; however, we cannot change internal factors within the student, so as teachers it makes more sense to focus on what we can control (Chernoff & Stone, 2014). Studies show that math anxiety is caused primarily by the way the student learns math: the type of authority the teacher uses, an emphasis on right answers and fear of getting wrong answers, requirements that the student respond with an answer sooner than he or she might be ready, and exposure to the rest of the class and their potential condemnation of a student who responds poorly, in short the traditional way of teaching math (Chernoff & Stone, 2014, Finlayson, 2014. Traditional teaching emphasizes: ...

... • "Basic skills • Strict adherence to fixed curriculum • Textbooks and workbooks • Instructor gives/students receive • Instructor assumes directive, authoritative role • Assessment via testing/correct answers • Knowledge is inert • Students work individually." (Finlayson, 2014) Unfortunately, these methods can cause and increase math anxiety in the classroom (Finlayson, 2014). Math anxiety can also be transmitted and learned from others, usually from parent to child or teacher to student, but occasionally student to student. ...

... Ashcraft (2002) in his research explained that the teachers' teaching styles are predicted to be one of the factors that cause the MA. This opinion is reinforced by the research by Finlayson (2014) which explains that the causes of MA in pre-service mathematics teachers are a feeling of lack of confidence and fear of failure, rigid teaching style, ineffective learning practices, and lack of students' involvement in learning. Other things like fear in answering the right questions and math tests are also causes of MA experienced by some students (Harper & Daane, 1998). ...

... In contrast to the results of this study, other studies show that it should be at the medium level (Bekdemir, 2010;Bursal & Paznokas, 2006;Rayner, Pitsolantis, & Osana, 2009) and low (Çatlioglu et al., 2009;Hurst & Cooke, 2014). The high and low of MA can be caused by various things including pressure to answer the right questions, difficulty in understanding the mathematical terms, pressure due to the duration of the test (Harper & Daane, 1998), and the level of confidence (Finlayson, 2014;Harper & Daane, 1998). ). ...

... ). Other studies state that MA is affected by ineffective learning practices on campus (Finlayson, 2014); past experiences of always fail in mathematics (Bekdemir, 2010;Hembree, 1990;Stoehr, 2017;Wilson, 2018); and perceptions of mathematics (Gautreau et al., 2016). However, in this study, there are still no explanations for the factors that influenced the high MA. ...

The aims of this study are to (1) determine the level of mathematics anxiety (MA) of pre-service elementary school teachers, (2) compare the MA among pre-service elementary school teachers in terms of gender, and (3) compare the MA among pre-service elementary school teachers in terms of the semester. This research employed a quantitative approach with comparative research design. In addition, the samples were 498 pre-service elementary school teachers. The instrument used is the Revised-Mathematics Anxiety Survey (R-MANX) developed by Bursal and Paznokas (2006). R-MANX consists of 30 statement of a 5-point Likert scale. The data analysis was processed using one-way ANOVA assisted by SPSS version 23. The findings reveal that the MA of pre-service elementary school teachers is high. Further, it is revealed that there is no significant MA difference between male and female pre-service elementary school teachers. Also, there is no significance of MA difference among pre-service elementary school teachers who are in 2nd semester, 4th semester, and 6th semester. Therefore, the results of this research imply that MA can affect pedagogical competence of a teacher and it could have an impact on the way the teacher manages the class.

... Such anxiety is not limited to school students: Johnston-Wilder et al. (2014) found that, amongst apprentices in the UK, MA scores indicated 30% would be visibly anxious during their mathematics studies and another 18% would experience significant impact on their work. Finlayson (2014) found that, amongst elementary school teacher trainees, " ...

... In this paper, MA is seen as arising from emotional harm, actual or vicarious, associated with mathematics. Causes of MA include isolation, humiliation and being ignored (Cousins et al., 2019;Finlayson, 2014). The higher prevalence of MA in females (OECD, 2013) may be because they tend to have higher empathy (Mestre et al., 2009), and so be more sensitive to stories of others or acquire MA from older generations, be it teachers (Beilock et al., 2010) or carers (Maloney et al., 2015). ...

... However, despite the implication that teaching mathematics without addressing anxiety is relatively unproductive, the practice continues. The challenge is to create a wider awareness and understanding of MA amongst practitioners (Finlayson, 2014) and to develop effective strategies to address it (Dowker et al., 2016). The three tools are found to be accessible to use in the classroom (Johnston-Wilder & Moreton, 2018). ...

... Such stimuli include unsuitable mathematics curricula, the culture of having to do mathematical tasks speedily (Chinn, 2009) or the judgmental nature of mathematics with its firm sets of rules (Chinn, 2012). Situational influences involve poor teaching methods focusing on memorisation, rather than conceptual understanding (Buckley et al. 2016;Green 1984;Rayner et al. 2009), allocating similar work to everybody, following textbook examples rigidly, accepting just one correct solution to mathematics problems, and disinterested instruction (Gresham, 2007) leading to disengagement of students (Finlayson, 2014). Public exposure, unfriendly deadlines, imposed authority (Asikhia & Mohangi 2015;Chowdhury 2014), difficult mathematics content, unrealistic expectations and gender bias (Çatlioğlu et al., 2009) may also cause MA. ...

... Asikhia and Mohangi (2015) add a mismatch in learning styles, lack of perseverance, an absence of apparent meaningfulness of mathematics, shyness and a perception that mathematics is a male discipline, as contributors to MA. Certain environment related influences may also cause MA, including absence of parental support, dreadful mathematics experiences (Buckley et al., 2016), teachers who are not proficient in mathematics, antagonistic teachers, and teachers who themselves suffer from MA (Harari et al., 2013). Finlayson (2014) adds that teachers focusing on results rather on conceptual understanding may also cause MA. Internalization of continuous discouragement from recurring failure to accomplish challenging mathematics activities result in MA (Harari et al., 2013). ...

... Internalization of continuous discouragement from recurring failure to accomplish challenging mathematics activities result in MA (Harari et al., 2013). So it becomes clear that MA does not stem from mathematics itself, but from how it is offered (Finlayson, 2014). Chang and Beilock (2016) found that female teachers who perpetuate gender stereotypes in doing mathematics, may transfer their MA to girls, which decreases the girls' performance in mathematics. ...

Many preservice mathematics teachers (PMTs) suffering from mathematics anxiety (MA) transfer this to their future learners, which could lead to poor performance in mathematics. This exploratory study aimed to identify the relationship between the elements of MA and the gender of secondary school PMTs. A quantitative survey was administered to 125 full-time undergraduate students enrolled for a two-year long mathematics methodology course in a BEd degree. The results revealed that female PMTs experience significantly less MA than their male counterparts in terms of the emotional and attitudinal elements of MA. However, there is no significant difference between genders regarding the cognitive element of MA. This study is not only highlighting gender differences associated with MA, but identifies specific elements of MA that contribute to these differences, which could assist teacher educators in their ways of supporting PMTs in dealing with MA.

... Our course needed to address mathematical anxiety, especially when 71 % of the attending students were majoring in fields with the highest reported anxiety levels. Finlayson (2014) lists traditional educational delivery methods as the culprit for creating mathematical anxiety in the classroom. Exemplified by students receiving information passively, the teacher exercising power of authority, students working individually, and emphasis given to memorization and rote recitation rather than active concept learning, among other causes. ...

... A constructivist teaching approach in the classroom has been reported to reduce mathematical anxiety (Finlayson 2014;Hughes 2016;NSES 1998). Posamentier et al. (2010) consider that when learning "emphasis must be placed Fig. 3 Globular cluster Messier 5. ...

... The nature of astrophotography requires the employment of emerging technologies such as digital cameras, computerized telescopes, and data processing software; data reduction in astronomy permits students to follow multiple paths to obtain a good result; the subjective nature of image processing allows instructors to place additional emphasis on the process, not the method; the need of practical sessions to acquire photographs enhances the use of the material seen in the classroom. All aforementioned teaching tools, together with getting students to work in groups, follow a constructivist approach which has been proven to lower mathematical anxiety in the classroom (Finlayson 2014;Hughes 2016;NSES 1998;Posamentier et al. 2010). Therefore, we consider astrophotography to be a good tool to provide a positive scientific experience to undergraduate students majoring in social sciences, business, humanities, and the arts. ...

Background: We report the results of an undergraduate course in astrophotography designed to engage non-STEM majors in the natural sciences to train future amateur astronomers and citizen scientists. Over 200,000 students enroll in introductory astronomy elective classes every year in the US alone, which will possibly be their only encounter with a natural science. The course relies on constructivist educational methods to teach data reduction and image processing methods while addressing mathematical anxiety. The goal of the course is to offer a positive experience in the natural sciences which has been linked to the education of potential citizen scientists and amateur astronomers, groups which historically have analyzed a great amount of data and have provided numerous discoveries.
Results: Studentsenrolledinthecoursereportedahigherunderstandingofdatareduction,imageprocessing, telescope and camera use. Most students were eager to take up astrophotography as a hobby, opening the path to become future citizen scientists and amateur astronomers. We found that the methods required to practice astrophotography create a natural constructivist teaching environment.
Conclusions: Thecoursecanbereproducedelsewheretoteachnon-sciencemajorstudentstechniquesindata reduction and image processing as positive experiences to introduce them to STEM fields in the future.

... Matematik kaygısına yönelik alan literatürü incelendiğinde matematik kaygısının çok kapsamlı olarak çalışıldığı görülmektedir. Matematik kaygısının doğası, bileşenleri, nedenleri (Ashcraft & Ridley, 2005;Finlayson, 2014;Hembree, 1990;Ho et al., 2000), matematik kaygısının tespitine yönelik ölçek çalışmaları (Akçakın, Cebesoy, & İnel, 2015;Bindak, 2005;Mutlu & Söylemez, 2017), matematik kaygısının matematik başarısına etkileri (Dede & Dursun, 2008;Yenilmez & Özbey, 2006), bireysel ve sosyal faktörlerle ilişkileri (Ashcraft, 2002;Ashcraft & Krause, 2007;Ashcraft & Ridley, 2005;Tatar, Zengin, & Kagizmanli, 2015), matematik kaygısının önlenmesine ve giderilmesine dair teknik ve stratejiler (Alkan, 2013;Fotoples, 2000;Morris, 1981;Widmer & Chavez, 1986) üzerine birçok çalışma yapılmıştır. ...

... There were conducted several studies about different aspects of math anxiety. Such as; nature, component, reasons of math anxiety (Ashcraft & Ridley, 2005;Finlayson, 2014;Hembree, 1990;Ho et al., 2000), developing scales to determine level of math anxiety (Akçakın, Cebesoy & İnel, 2015;Bindak, 2005;Mutlu & Söylemez, 2017), the effect of math anxiety on math achievement (Dede & Dursun, 2008;Yenilmez & Özbey, 2006), relation of math anxiety with individual and social factors ( Ashcraft, 2002;Ashcraft & Krause, 2007;Ashcraft & Ridley, 2005;Tatar, Zengin & Kağızmanlı, 2015), technics and strategies to remove, avoid math anxiety (Alkan, 2013;Fotoples, 2000;Morris, 1981;Widmer & Chavez 1986). In general; secondary school students, high school students, teachers, prospective teachers and adults generate the participants of the studies mentioned above. ...

Bu çalışma, ilkokul 3. ve 4. sınıf öğrencilerinin matematik kaygısı ile matematik başarısı arasındaki ilişkiyi incelemeyi amaçlamaktadır. Çalışmanın katılımcılarının 288’i 3. sınıf, 186’sı 4. sınıf olmak üzere toplamda 474 öğrenciden oluşmaktadır. Çalışmada veri toplamak üzere ilkokul 3. ve 4. sınıflar için Mutlu ve Söylemez (2017) tarafından geliştirilmiş olan 13 maddelik bir kaygı ölçeği ile 3. sınıflar için 16 maddeden oluşan, 4. Sınıflar için ise 24 maddeden oluşan Fidan (2013) tarafından geliştirilen matematik başarı testleri kullanılmıştır. Verilerin analizinde Pearson Momentler Çarpımı Korelasyonu, doğrusal regresyon, t-testi ve iki adımlı kümeleme analizi yapılmıştır. Öğrencilerin matematik kaygısı ve matematik başarısı puanları arasında ilişki düzeyi -.547 olarak bulunmuştur. Ayrıca matematik kaygısının matematik başarısına ilişkin toplam varyansın %35’ini açıkladığı tespit edilmiştir. Bununla beraber matematik kaygısı ve matematik başarısı ilişkisini incelemek üzere iki adımlı kümeleme analizi yapılmıştır. Katılımcıların matematik kaygı ve matematik başarı puanları üzerinde yapılan kümeleleme analizi ile gruplar belirlenmiş, grupların matematik başarıları ve matematik kaygıları arasında anlamlı farklılıklar olduğu tespit edilmiştir.

... Fourthly, active engagement with mathematics in the classroom increases mathematical anxiety in some students and so we need to look at how we structure classroom activities. Again, this suggests the use of mastery goals, the encouragement of ‗risk taking' in the classroom together with the perception of the classroom as a safe environment in which it is ok to make mistakes ( Finlayson, 2014), and of knowing the students and their capabilities and anxieties early in the academic year so that appropriate starting points for topics can be decided ( Metje, Frank, & Croft, 2007) and anxiety issues addressed. In fact it is suggested that until a student with mathematical anxiety has confronted this anxiety it is not easy for that International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies ISSN 2409-1294 (Print), December 2016, Vol.3, No.2 person to overcome the fear ( Furner & Gonzalez-DeHass, 2011). ...

... Fourthly, active engagement with mathematics in the classroom increases mathematical anxiety in some students and so we need to look at how we structure classroom activities. Again, this suggests the use of mastery goals, the encouragement of ‗risk taking' in the classroom together with the perception of the classroom as a safe environment in which it is ok to make mistakes ( Finlayson, 2014), and of knowing the students and their capabilities and anxieties early in the academic year so that appropriate starting points for topics can be decided ( Metje, Frank, & Croft, 2007) and anxiety issues addressed. In fact it is suggested that until a student with mathematical anxiety has confronted this anxiety it is not easy for that person to overcome the fear ( Furner & Gonzalez-DeHass, 2011). ...

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present a theoretical survey of resolving conflict among academics in the Nigerian public universities. The paper tends to adopt the theoretical research methodology, which permits the use of secondary data obtained from the literature reviewed. Though researchers have focused on different aspect of conflict in Nigerian organizations including the universities, there appears to be very little in the area of the quality of communication in handling the range of internal and external conflicts in these institutions. However, there is the fear that without this critical connection, intervention efforts will yield very minimal results. It is in line with this perspective that this paper is presented. This paper adopted recommended standpoint strategic communication, which is a key ingredient for resolving conflict. It also made a case for a robust training for all stakeholders in the education industry in this critical area of strategic communication. It is evident that full benefit of collective bargaining will be fully realized, which tends to support the provision of the transformation agenda of the present Nigerian administration.
Keywords: Conflict, University, Strategic Communication, Management

... The physical symptoms can be seen as those symptoms which an individual portrays when affected by mathematics anxiety, such as a nervous stomach, nail biting, difficulty breathing, and sweating. Meanwhile, emotional symptoms are the most dominant Garba et al. / Peer Intensify and Minimize Math'sAnxiety 2 / 12 symptoms of mathematics anxiety; these have to do with inner feelings, such as a lack of confidence, feelings of helplessness, confusion, and exhaustion (Finlayson, 2014); often, a student may just want to leave the lesson and go home due to being stressed about the subject (Finlayson, 2014). Finally, the cognitive symptoms of mathematics anxiety are attributed to mental ability and a predisposition to mathematics, such as the inability to concentrate, negative self-talk, and excessive worrying (Taylor, 2017). ...

... The physical symptoms can be seen as those symptoms which an individual portrays when affected by mathematics anxiety, such as a nervous stomach, nail biting, difficulty breathing, and sweating. Meanwhile, emotional symptoms are the most dominant Garba et al. / Peer Intensify and Minimize Math'sAnxiety 2 / 12 symptoms of mathematics anxiety; these have to do with inner feelings, such as a lack of confidence, feelings of helplessness, confusion, and exhaustion (Finlayson, 2014); often, a student may just want to leave the lesson and go home due to being stressed about the subject (Finlayson, 2014). Finally, the cognitive symptoms of mathematics anxiety are attributed to mental ability and a predisposition to mathematics, such as the inability to concentrate, negative self-talk, and excessive worrying (Taylor, 2017). ...

... It is possible to identify a range of influences that affect how people feel about learning mathematics; however there is a consistency in those who suggest that the teacher is the key influencing factor (Bekdemir, 2010;Finlayson, 2014;Hodgen & Askew, 2006). Further exploration of this area suggests that the teacher has the power to create either a positive or negative view of mathematics through either encouragement or humiliation (Bibby, 1999(Bibby, , 2002 and that the influence of the mathematics teacher can affect learners' levels of anxiety about the subject (Ward- Penny, 2009;Ashcraft and Moore, 2009). ...

... The aim of the research was to identify strategies that may support adults learning mathematics on an undergraduate education degree. The results of the post teaching questionnaires and focus group discussions has supported this process, in particular in identifying three top influences related to learning mathematics and a consistency with others exploring this area: firstly the teacher and teaching, similar to the findings of Hodgen and Askew (2006) and Finlayson (2014); secondly, the role of personal perceptions, as identified by Dweck (2007) and Tall (2013); and finally the role of discussion (Vygotsky, 1978;Wittgenstein, 1978). However, as matters related to the teacher and teaching were identified as having the highest positive influence on how students felt about learning mathematics, this forms the main focus of this discussion. ...

In this paper I discuss the phenomena of group flow and its relationship with the mathematics classroom. Flow is a linguistic term describing an intrinsically rewarding state of mind; being ‘in the zone’, and totally absorbed in a situation to the exclusion of all else. The term was initially articulated by the Hungarian psychologist Mihály Csíkszentmihályi in the seminal work ‘Beyond Boredom and Anxiety’. This article considers a group of 40 students over 6 lessons and by means of question responses and video analysis the approach to mathematics group work is studied through the lens of group flow. I will argue that during the mathematics lessons studied the group manifest a shared peak experience and that the shared experience of group flow provides a ‘joyful’ element to the mathematics classroom.

... Teachers' delivery technique may have an effect on students' mathematics anxiety. Mathematics has been based on a traditional delivery technique in many classrooms, with a focus on development of skills (Finlayson, 2014). Math classes using traditional curriculum which concentrates on basic skills, teacher lecture, seatwork, and whole class instruction are more likely to have students with math anxiety than math classes that utilize non-traditional curriculum which focuses on real-life applications and group work (Ruff & Boes, 2014). ...

... Addressing anxiety and self-esteem of children, and improving their confidence and related attitudes to math are crucial. Especially important is making math relevant to real-life contexts, and linking to students' interests (Finlayson, 2014). ...

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of activity based learning on sixth grade students’ mathematics achievement in comparison to traditional learning, and determine their attitudes towards activities. Experimental research design with pretest-posttest control group was applied in the study. The participants, which included 78 sixth grade students, were previously divided into two groups by random assignment. One group received traditional learning and the other group received activity based learning. The study was carried out for four weeks on the mathematics subject of “integers”. For collecting data the mathematics success test and the Likert type attitudes towards mathematics activities scale were used as pretest and posttest. As a result, the academic achievement for both groups were positive increased. On the other hand, while the attitudes towards activities of students’ in the experiment group decreased significantly, they increased in the control group.

... This corroborates existing self-efficacy research with K12 student populations that has shown when students doubt their mathematical competence they may be more likely to experience math anxiety. Current research with pre-service teachers has also shown lack of self-confidence in math to be a cause of math anxiety (Finlayson, 2014). However, it was unexpected that the results of this study indicated that self-efficacy does not moderate the relationship between achievement goals and math anxiety, so the relationship between achievement goals and math anxiety is consistent across levels of selfefficacy. ...

... This can be done by looking to the qualities of learning tasks, authority, evaluation, and climate of the classroom (Ames, 1992;Stipek, 1998). These suggestions in terms of task, authority, and evaluation parallel recommendations outside of the achievement goal literature that also strive to reduce pre-service teacher anxiety by making math relevant, utilizing diverse types of assessment, and highlighting that mistakes are an opportunity to improve (Finlayson, 2014). ...

Math anxiety remains a critical issue affecting student performance and confidence across grade levels, including pre-service elementary teacher education. Given the potential impact teachers' math anxiety might have on their learning as well as that of their future students, one unique purpose of this research is to investigate how achievement goals relate to math anxiety among 182 pre-service teachers enrolled in undergraduate elementary education math methods courses. While low self-efficacy is a significant predictor of math anxiety, our results indicate that taking into account pre-service teachers' achievement goals increases our ability to predict math anxiety over that afforded by their level of self-efficacy alone. In particular, students adopting either mastery-avoidance or performance-avoidance goals while learning mathematics, may be particularly susceptible to math anxiety. Further, self-efficacy does not moderate the relationship between achievement goals and math anxiety, so the relationship between achievement goals and math anxiety is consistent across levels of self-efficacy.

... Иако су емоције врло присутне у животу детета и саставни део сваке ситуације учења (Ivić, 1981;Schutz et al., 2006), још увек се мало зна о значају емоција у образовном контексту (Hascher, 2010;Schutz & Pekrun, 2006), изузимајући анксиозност (испитну и математичку), која је темељно испитивана (Finlayson, 2014;Pekrun et al., 2002;Radišić et al., 2015;Zeidner, 2007). У последњих 15 година све је већи број истраживања која се баве емоцијама у образовању, између осталог, као последица сазнања да емоције имају значајну улогу у процесу наставе и учења и да су значајан предиктор ученичког постигнућа и доброг стања у школи (Ahmed et al., 2013;Pekrun et al., 2002;Schutz & Pekrun, 2006). ...

... Међутим, ако је њихов интензитет прејак, имаће негативне ефекте на учење, ометајући пажњу, концентрацију и запамћивање. С друге стране, негативне емоције имају негативан утицај на учење: одвлаче пажњу ученика, отежавају присећање, снижавају мотивацију, подстичу одустајање од решавања проблема и учења, воде негативним ставовима према учењу и школи, па и ка раном напуштању школовања (Boekaerts, 2006;Finlayson, 2014;Hamre & Pianta, 2005;Krstić, еt al., 2016;Radišić et al., 2015;Simić & Krstić, 2014). Истраживања показују да су позитивне и негативне емоције ученика повезане са другачијим стратегијама обраде података, решавања проблема и метакогнитивним стратегијама и да могу имати различит ефекат на учење, зависно од важности садржаја за ученика, тежине задатка, климе у одељењу итд. ...

School learning takes place in an environment which is, among other factors, defined by the quality of the socio-emotional interactions and relationships between teachers and students. In recent years, an increasing number of studies and papers have drawn attention to the importance and role of the socio-emotional relationship between teachers and students in the process of teaching and learning. This paper analyzes the socio-emotional interaction of teachers and students, the role of emotions in the process of teaching and learning, and attachment to a teacher as a specific quality of the emotional relationship between students and teachers. The paper presents the findings of numerous studies which indicate that various aspects of the socio-emotional relationship are important for learning, for students' intrinsic motivation, their academic achievement, self-efficacy, self-perception, social relationships with their peers and teachers, school adjustment, engagement and eagerness to learn, and emotional and behavioral problems. The quality of their relationship with students also affects the enthusiasm of teachers, their job satisfaction, stress levels and well-being. The paper points out that a teacher can be a secure base for students at school, providing them with the security and support they need for free research and learning in the school environment. The final section of the paper offers general guidelines for improving teaching practice based on what is known about the importance of a positive socio-emotional relationship between teachers and students.

... Generally, the instruments described above have been used for data collection (alongside some interviews, classroom observations and teacher questionnaires (Callan, 2014), (Zimmerman & Martinez-Pons, 1986)), but these self-report instruments were by far the most common method. In using these instruments to (Karimi & Venkatesan, 2009), (Jain & Dowson, 2009), (Gan et al., 2015), (Shores & Shannon, 2007), (Yuan, 2014), (Wu et al., 2013), (Hart & Logan, 2015), (Baloğlu & Balgalmiş, 2010), (Taylor & Fraser, 2003), (Mutodi & Ngirande, 2014), (Goetz et al., 2013), (Finlayson, 2014)). However, due to the nature of the questionnaires, a test for linear correlation may not be entirely appropriate in all cases. ...

... In addition to extending the research into other stages of learning, as a number of studies have been conducted on the effect of mathematics anxiety on pre-service school teachers, primarily at primary school level (such as (Finlayson, 2014), (Hoffman, 2010)) more research could be conducted on pre-service teachers use of SRL strategies also. ...

MA Mathematics Education thesis on the Effect of Mathematics Anxiety on Self-Regulated Learning Strategies

... Anxiety towards mathematics can develop because of negative classroom experiences, poor mathematics performance, negative teacher behaviours, environmental pressure and/or parental influences (Yaratan and Kasapoglu 2012). Research into mathematics anxiety among preservice teachers, including Finlayson (2014), Jackson and Leffingwell (1999) and Haciomeroglu (2013), generally has revealed that large majorities of these teachers have experienced such anxiety through certain stages in their personal lives. Causes for this type of anxiety are a lack of self-confidence, a fear of failure, teaching styles, ineffective learning practices and non-engagement of students. ...

Past research has revealed that, relative to primary-school students, high-school students have less-positive attitudes to mathematics and perceive their classroom environments and teacher–student relationships less favourably. This study involved the transition experience of 541 students in 47 classes in 15 primary (year 7) and secondary (year 8) government and Catholic schools in metropolitan and regional South Australia. Scales were adapted from three established instruments, namely, the What Is Happening In this Class?, Test of Mathematics Related Attitudes and Revised Mathematics Anxiety Ratings Scale, to identify changes across the transition from primary to secondary school in terms of the classroom learning environment and students’ attitude/anxiety towards mathematics. Relative to year 7 students, year 8 students reported less Involvement, less positive Attitude to Mathematical Inquiry, less Enjoyment of Mathematics and greater Mathematics Anxiety. Differences between students in Years 7 and 8 were very similar for male and female students, although the magnitude of sex differences in attitudes was slightly different in Years 7 and 8.

... Math anxiety is caused by a combination of external and internal factors; however, we cannot change internal factors within the student, so as teachers it makes more sense to focus on what we can control (Chernoff & Stone, 2014). Studies show that math anxiety is caused primarily by the way the student learns math: the type of authority the teacher uses, an emphasis on right answers and fear of getting wrong answers, requirements that the student respond with an answer sooner than he or she might be ready, and exposure to the rest of the class and their potential condemnation of a student who responds poorly, in short the traditional way of teaching math (Chernoff & Stone, 2014, Finlayson, 2014. Whether students are math anxious or gifted both groups can benefit from bibliotherapy. ...

... There are many studies that have explored this concept of mathematics anxiety, with many reporting similar findings. When Finlayson (2014) attempted to gauge the experiences of mathematics anxiety amongst 70 Canadian preservice teachers, the causes of this type of anxiety were a lack of self-confidence, a fear or failure, teaching styles, ineffective learning practices and non-engagement of students. ...

This study involving 541 South Australian mathematics students utilised scales adapted from the What Is Happening In this Class? Test of Mathematics Related Attitudes and Revised Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale to identify changes across the transition from primary to secondary school in terms of the classroom learning environment and students’ attitude and anxiety towards mathematics. Secondary students perceived less involvement, less-positive attitudes to mathematical inquiry, less enjoyment of mathematics and greater mathematics anxiety.

... Math anxiety is caused by a combination of external and internal factors; however, we cannot change internal factors within the student, so as teachers it makes more sense to focus on what we can control (Chernoff & Stone, 2014). Studies show that math anxiety is caused primarily by the way the student learns math: the type of authority the teacher uses, an emphasis on right answers and fear of getting wrong answers, requirements that the student respond with an answer sooner than he or she might be ready, and exposure to the rest of the class and their potential condemnation of a student who responds poorly, in short the traditional way of teaching math (Chernoff & Stone, 2014, Finlayson, 2014. Whether students are math anxious or gifted both groups can benefit from bibliotherapy. ...

Today, being confident and having a sound understanding of mathematics is critical in an age of STEM.Teachers must play in important role in seeing that all students display their confidence in their ability to domathematics. This paper explains the process of using bibliotherapy when teaching mathematics to addressboth the math anxious or the math gifted student to build more math confidence in a STEM world. Oftengifted students of mathematics can be made to feel bad by their peers just because they know mathematicsand things come easy to them. Today there are many students in school that have math anxiety. Children'sand adolescent literature has been recognized now as a means to teaching mathematics to students throughthe use of stories to make the mathematics concepts relevant and meaningful. Literature can also be usedas a form of therapy, bibliotherapy, to reach students who may be frustrated with children picking on themfor knowing a lot of mathematics or who are math anxious. Story and picture books such as Counting onFrank, Math Curse and A Gebra Named Al are now available to use in the classroom as forms of bibliotherapyin helping students come to terms with issues that haunt them as it relates to mathematics. Children's bookscan be beneficial to address the math anxious and even the gifted. In this paper the author proposes usingreading and discussion (bibliotherapy) to help all students become confident in mathematics in the STEMworld we live in.

... Mathematics anxiety establishes itself because of prior negative classroom experiences, poor mathematics performance, negative teacher behaviours, environmental pressure and/or parental influences (Yaratan & Kasapoglu, 2012). Research conducted into mathematics anxiety among preservice teachers by Finlayson (2014), Jackson and Leffingwell (1999) and Haciomeroglu (2013) generally has revealed that the majority of teachers have experienced mathematics anxiety during certain stages of their personal lives. Among the suggested causes for this type of anxiety are a fear of failure, teaching styles, lack of self-confidence, non-engagement of students and ineffective learning practices. ...

Gender variant, trans and intersex students continue to be victimised in a number of schools as a result of transphobia, school bullying and harassment. Despite efforts in numerous educational institutions to promote inclusive pedagogy and respect for diversity, safety issues remain particularly pertinent to them. One of the important ways school safety is harnessed is through appropriate policy development and implementation. This chapter examines a policy for schools in Malta, which aims to foster inclusion and safety among all students, in particular students considered diversely gendered. The national policy Trans, Gender Variant and Intersex Students in Schools advocates social awareness and addresses students’ everyday lived experiences occurring within peer interactions, learning situations and school cultures. The chapter locates the discussion on the usefulness of the policy within a new materialist framework, that draws on the method of diffractive reading. The materialist potential of the policy is discussed in the context of school curricula that 'diffract' with wider social issues. This discussion is intended to better understand teaching and learning school environments that strive to promote belonging, community, justice, equity, respect, inclusion and equality.

... Affected students report intense feelings of tension, fear, apprehension, or, as Tobias [6] describes 'sudden death' , when they are exposed to mathematical stimuli such as a lecturer working through a mathematics problem or when they attempt to solve a mathematics problem by themselves [7,8]. Students who experience mathematics anxiety often lack self-belief and confidence in their ability to do mathematics [9][10][11] and present low levels of general self-efficacy [12]. Lacking in mathematical confidence and/or suffering from high levels of mathematical anxiety can lead to students avoiding mathematics by taking fewer mathematics focused subjects, taking only low-level classes, or causing students to disengage from their entire learning process [6][7][8]13]. ...

Contemporary science educators must equip their students with the knowledge and practical know-how to connect multiple disciplines like mathematics, computing and the natural sciences to gain a richer and deeper understanding of a scientific problem. However, many biology and earth science students are prejudiced against mathematics due to negative emotions like high mathematical anxiety and low mathematical confidence. Here, we present a theoretical framework that investigates linkages between student engagement, mathematical anxiety, mathematical confidence, student achievement and subject mastery. We implement this framework in a large, first-year interdisciplinary science subject and monitor its impact over several years from 2010 to 2015. The implementation of the framework coincided with an easing of anxiety and enhanced confidence, as well as higher student satisfaction, retention and achievement. The framework offers interdisciplinary science educators greater flexibility and confidence in their approach to designing and delivering subjects that rely on mathematical concepts and practices.

... B. Malinsky, Ross, Pannells & McJunkin, 2006;Porsch et al., 2015). Erklärungsansatz kann sein, dass mathematikängstliche Studierende im Sinne des Deficits Models vermutlich häufiger negative Erinnerungen über ihren eigenen Mathematikunterricht besitzen (Finlayson, 2014), seltener Erfolg in Mathematik erlebt haben bzw. geringere mathematische Kompetenzen besitzen (Ma, 1999). ...

Im Beitrag werden Ergebnisse einer Befragung von 284 Studierenden für das Lehramt an Grundschulen in Berlin vorgestellt. Anlass der Studie ist die seit 2014 gültige Änderung der Lehramtsausbildung, die festlegt, dass alle zukünftigen Primarstufenlehrkräfte in Deutsch und Mathematik sowie einem weiteren Fach ausgebildet werden. Zahlreiche Studien konnten jedoch zeigen, dass die Bearbeitung von Mathematikaufgaben sowohl bei Schülerinnen bzw. Schülern als auch bei Lehramtsstudierenden Angst auslösen kann. Arbeiten zur Studien- und Kurswahl verweisen ferner auf die Bedeutung des Fachinteresses für den Studienerfolg. Mit diesem Hintergrund wird der Frage nachgegangen, ob sich Unterschiede im Enthusiasmus für das Unterrichten von Mathematik und der Ausprägung von Mathematikangst bei Studierenden für die Tätigkeit an Grundschulen nach Kursniveau im Abitur und Schwerpunktfach im Studium zeigen. Zudem werden die Gründe klassifiziert und beschrieben, die die Studierenden zur Frage der Ablehnung von Mathematik als Schwerpunktfach im Studium angegeben haben. Die Ergebnisse werden in Bezug auf mögliche Konsequenzen für die Lehrerausbildung und zukünftige Forschungsarbeiten diskutiert.

... This type of teaching does not allow student to develop deeper understanding of mathematical content and negatively impact on student views about mathematics and creates mathematics anxiety. Finlayson (2014) in the study of "Addressing math anxiety in the classroom" states that use of traditional method in teaching mathematics causes mathematics anxiety. As traditional teaching is teacher-centered, teacher has autonomy over classroom instruction while student are just like blank slate they are required to listen to teacher and obey instruction of teacher without questioning. ...

... Mathematics anxiety establishes itself because of prior negative classroom experiences, poor mathematics performance, negative teacher behaviours, environmental pressure and/or parental influences (Yaratan & Kasapoglu, 2012). Research conducted into mathematics anxiety among preservice teachers by Finlayson (2014), Jackson and Leffingwell (1999) and Haciomeroglu (2013) generally has revealed that the majority of teachers have experienced mathematics anxiety during certain stages of their personal lives. Among the suggested causes for this type of anxiety are a fear of failure, teaching styles, lack of self-confidence, non-engagement of students and ineffective learning practices. ...

... Mathematics anxiety establishes itself because of prior negative classroom experiences, poor mathematics performance, negative teacher behaviours, environmental pressure and/or parental influences (Yaratan & Kasapoglu, 2012). Research conducted into mathematics anxiety among preservice teachers by Finlayson (2014), Jackson and Leffingwell (1999) and Haciomeroglu (2013) generally has revealed that the majority of teachers have experienced mathematics anxiety during certain stages of their personal lives. Among the suggested causes for this type of anxiety are a fear of failure, teaching styles, lack of self-confidence, non-engagement of students and ineffective learning practices. ...

Gender variant, trans and intersex students continue to be victimised in a number of schools as a result of transphobia, school bullying and harassment. Despite efforts in numerous educational institutions to promote inclusive pedagogy and respect for diversity, safety issues remain particularly pertinent to them. One of the important ways school safety is harnessed is through appropriate policy development and implementation. This chapter examines a policy for schools in Malta, which aims to foster inclusion and safety among all students, in particular students considered diversely gendered. The national policy Trans, Gender Variant and Intersex Students in Schools advocates social awareness and addresses students’ everyday lived experiences occurring within peer interactions, learning situations and school cultures. The chapter locates the discussion on the usefulness of the policy within a new materialist framework, that draws on the method of diffractive reading. The materialist potential of the policy is discussed in the context of school curricula that 'diffract' with wider social issues. This discussion is intended to better understand teaching and learning school environments that strive to promote belonging, community, justice, equity, respect, inclusion and equality.

... The results of some studies indicated that there was a strong relation between teachers' mathematics anxiety and mathematics teaching anxiety (Bursal & Paznokas, 2006;Gresham, 2008;Swars et al., 2006). Furthermore, it was found that teachers' negative feelings and attitudes in teaching mathematics can create anxiety and increase the level of anxiety of students in mathematics (Alkan, 2009(Alkan, , 2011Baloğlu, 1999;Beilock & Willingham, 2014;Finlayson, 2014;Furner & Berman, 2003;Sparks, 2011;Uusumaki & Nason, 2004;Vinson, 2001). Mathematics teaching anxiety can be define as teachers' feeling negative reaction to mathematics, feeling under pressure to teach mathematics and being frustrated with the lack of progress in mathematics. ...

This
study aimed to develop mathematics teaching anxiety scale for prospective
primary school teachers. It was designed based on survey method and conducted
with four sampling group consisting of 956 prospective primary school teachers
at Education Faculties in Turkey. First sampling group was consisted of 404
prospective primary school teachers and 96 out of it were involved in the
application of open-ended questions and 308 were involved in exploratory factor
analysis. 305 prospective primary school teachers in the second sampling group
participated in the confirmatory factor analysis, 108 prospective teachers in
the third group were involved in criterion validity and 139 prospective
teachers in the fourth one participated in the test-retest reliability
analysis. As a result of the principal component analysis of the Mathematics
Teaching Anxiety Scale (MTAS), it was found that the scale indicating single factor structure and consisting of 31
items (47.43% of the total variance). After suggested modifications, the scale
MTAS was constructed with 19 items. 12 items were removed from the scale and
the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was carried out with 19 items. According
to CFA results (0≤X2 / df = 1.483≤2, RMSEA = 0.040, RMR = 0.050, AGFI = 0.908,
TLI = 0.972, CFI = 0.976, IFI = 0.976, GFI = 0.928, NFI = 0.930 and RFI =
0.919), it was confirmed that the scale structure was consisting of 19 items
and one dimension. Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the final form of
Mathematics Teaching Anxiety Scale was calculated as 0.93.

... Teachers' MA is associated with inappropriate and inadequate teaching methods (Finlayson 2014). Many students describe their mathematics teachers as unsupportive, impatient, unskilled and anxious. ...

This study explores effects of teaching experience and specialized mathematics education on mathematics anxiety and mathematics teaching anxiety. Fifty-nine female pre-service and in-service mathematics primary school teachers with varied specialized mathematics education and teaching experience responded to a questionnaire measuring mathematics anxiety and mathematics teaching anxiety. The results illustrate that specialized mathematics education affects in-service primary school teachers’ mathematics anxiety, and that teaching experience is associated with mathematics teaching anxiety. Moreover, mathematics anxiety of some in-service primary teachers without specialization does not fade with time. The discussion highlights the importance of identifying mathematics anxiety in primary school teachers with no specialized mathematics education, aiming to lower it. The small sample and participants’ background limit the power of the findings. This study recommends conducting further studies according to the suggested mathematics anxiety cognitive-behavioral model; addressing cultural differences, teachers with and without specialized mathematics education, and comparing middle and secondary teachers.

... If mathematics anxiety regularly impedes a person's ability to do mathematics, it rises to a level we refer to as math trauma. People suffering from severe mathematics anxiety may exhibit physical symptoms such as raised heart rates, sweaty palms, and impaired ability to think (Finlayson, 2014). Beilock and colleagues (2010) found that when people attempt to do mathematics while enduring performance-related anxiety, their working memory is impaired. ...

Women account for 90% of US elementary teachers (Beilock, Gunderson, Ramirez & Levine, 2010), and many experience mathematics anxiety (Stoehr, 2017). Teachers can transmit this fear to students (Anderson, Boaler & Dieckmann, 2018). Mathematics teacher educators support teacher candidates in: assessing and overcoming fear of mathematics, reframing the teaching and learning of mathematics, and reframing what counts as mathematics. In its worst forms, mathematics anxiety rises to a level we refer to as math trauma-a state of debilitation when faced with doing mathematics. We have developed tools to determine: • How do teachers view mathematics? • How can we measure teachers' relationships with mathematics? • How do these factors change over time? In our case study, we report on changes for one prospective elementary teacher during two consecutive undergraduate mathematics courses. Marcy (pseudonym) began with a strong fear and dislike of mathematics, but eventually reported making peace with the subject. Many participants (N = 66) experienced similar trajectories, sharing that they needed a new relationship with mathematics to teach effectively. They were further motivated by new and positive experiences focused on collectively making sense of mathematics. Our qualitative case study, also in this special issue (Ruef, Runninghawk Johnson, Jacob, Jansen & Beavert 2020), shares Marcy's trajectory and evidence of the factors that motivated and informed the transformation in her relationship with mathematics. Our data include participants' drawings of "math" personified.

... The final parental expectation we identify related to essential supports is the expectation that teachers should be sufficiently prepared to meet the demands of mathematics curriculum (expectation 2.4). A large body of research has shown that a significant number of elementary school teachers suffer from mathematics anxiety (e.g., Bates et al., 2013;Bekdemir, 2010;Finlayson, 2014) and may not feel confident or well-prepared to teach mathematics. ...

... At long last, this negative connection was most grounded among considers that utilized a custom test and studies that evaluated critical thinking abilities. Finlayson (2014) reported that math's anxiety is usually linked with the kind of teaching styles experienced in the classroom, which often focus on memorization and rote recitation. Their early math's teaching may have been from teachers who were anxious themselves, and thus overcompensated by emphasizing a black-and-white, right-or-wrong approach. ...

... It seems as if that they prefer as well as are compelled towards direct instructional based teaching pedagogy because of the result orientated mindset of parents, school administration and for the sake of own reputation as well. Instead of giving free space for students to think, discuss and understand the various mathematical concepts, they are directly introduced to the final outcomes of the whole phenomena with the rigid procedural steps (Finlayson, 2014). ...

As a teacher, I have been facing several problems in teaching and learning
mathematics. My students showed their disinterest and dissatisfaction towards the
abstractness of the mathematics subject time and again. They were studying this
subject in school level just it was included as one of the compulsory subjects. They
were tired of doing rote memorization and rigorous practices of various mathematical
concepts. Though the use of mathematics in day to day life was explained and even
the concepts were presented, still students found themselves detached from it and
were not feeling free to express their opinion about the subject matter.
In this dreadful situation, I tried to extract out the possible problems that my
students were facing in their learning process and the possible way out through which
my students might start to show their active engagement in mathematics learning. Due
to this reason, I conducted this research project. I carried out my research based on
two theoretical referents, namely constructivism and cooperative learning theory. And
I adopted interpretive paradigm. For classroom implementation, I made a complete
package plan for 12 days using inquiry based approach. I developed my plans
including the mathematical contents such as similarity of triangles, congruency of
triangles and transformation. After that I applied in grade eight of an institutional
school where I work through action research method. While implementing the plan
among students in their natural setting, I observed them and their responses and kept
records precisely. Later on through interpretation of the collected different forms of
information I created different themes. And finally, I concluded my findings as how
introduction of this new approach in my class changed my students’ perceptions
towards learning mathematics and obviously at the same time how my own
perspective changed towards mathematics teaching and towards students.
Inquiry based learning approach provided a new learning approach to my
students. They started to interact and share their learning with each other. By
observing the pattern and results obtained from their activities, they extracted out the
conclusion. Besides, they started to discover different hidden mathematical facts by
themselves. In this way, IBP became an effective approach in teaching learning which
helped my students to be active in learning and de/construct knowledge. Essentially
through this inquiry based approach my students developed the various transversal
skills such as critical and innovative thinking, inter-personal skills, intra-personal
skills, global citizenship and others.

... This is because mathematics is very much needed and useful in everyday life, for science, commerce and industry, and because mathematics provides a power, a communication tool that is short and unambiguous and serves as a tool to describe and predict in a way of critical thinking [7]; [8]; [9]. In fact, mathematics is a subject that is considered difficult by students at every level of education [10]; [11]; [12]; [13]. The cause of these difficulties can be sourced from outside the student and from within the student [14]; [15]; [16]. ...

... Matematik kaygısıyla bireylerin, matematiğe karşı olumsuz tutum sergiledikleri (Baloğlu, 2001;Ashcraf: 2002;Bekdemir, Işık ve Çıkılı, 2004;Kargar, Tarmizi ve Bayat, 2010), matematikte kendilerine olan güvenlerinin azaldığı (Clute, 1984;Bekdemir, Işık ve Çıkılı, 2004;Bursal ve Paznokas, 2006;Finlayson, 2014), matematiğin onlara göre bir ders olmadığını düşünerek matematikten kaçınma eğilimi içerisine girdikleri (Tobias, 1978;Hembree, 1990;Ashcraft, 2002;Nolting, 2002;Ashcraft ve Ridly, 2005;Arem, 2010), sınıfta konuşmaktan ve soru sormaktan korktukları (Nolting, 2002), matematik ile ilgili seçmeli dersleri almak istemedikleri (Hembree, 1990;Ashcraft, 2002;Ashcraft & Moore, 2009) ve matematik içeren üniversite bölümlerini ve meslekleri tercih etmedikleri (Ashcraft, 2002;Ashcraft ve Ridly, 2005;Scarpello, 2007;Ashcraft ve Moore, 2009;Jameson, 2014)belirtilmektedir.Dahası matematik kaygısı bireylerin matematik başarılarını olumsuz etkilemektedir (Betz, 1978;Clute, 1984;Foong, 1987;Ho ve diğerleri, 2000;Ader, 2004;Ma ve Xu, 2004;Al-Mutawah, 2015). Ve hatta matematik kaygısının bireylerin meslek hayatında veya günlük hayattında da bazı etkilere sahip olduğu ifade edilmektedir (Park, Ramirez ve Beilock, 2014: 103;Beilock ve Maloney, 2015: 5;Suárez-Pellicioni, Núñez-Peña ve Colomé, 2016: 5). ...

Bu araştırma, ilkokul öğrenci velilerinin matematik kaygı düzeylerinin çeşitli değişkenlere göre anlamlı düzeyde farklılaşıp farklılaşmadığını belirlemek amacıyla yapılmıştır. Bu amaçla araştırmacı tarafından geliştirilen “Velilere Yönelik Matematik Kaygı Ölçeği”nin geçerli ve güvenir bir ölçme aracı olup olmadığı test edilmiş ve ilkokul öğrenci velilerinin matematik kaygı düzeyleri çeşitli değişkenlere göre incelenmiştir. Nicel araştırma paradigmasının esas alındığı bu araştırma tarama modelinde dizayn edilmiştir. Araştırma 2017-2018 eğitim-öğretim yılı güz döneminde Orta Kızılırmak Bölümü’nde yer alan bir ilin merkezindeki ilkokullarda çocuğu öğrenim gören random ve gönüllülük esasına göre seçilen velilerin katılımıyla gerçekleşmiştir. Araştırmada veriler araştırmacı tarafından geliştirilen “Velilere Yönelik Matematik Kaygı Ölçeği” ve “Kişisel Bilgi Formu” aracılığıyla toplanmıştır. Verilerin analizinde istatistiki tekniklere başvurulmuştur. Araştırma bulgularına göre "Velilere Yönelik Matematik Kaygı Ölçeği"nin geçerli ve güvenilir bir ölçme aracı olduğu; velilerin matematik kaygı düzeylerinin cinsiyete, mezuniyet durumuna, çocuk sayısına, toplam aylık gelire, bir işte çalışma durumuna ve öğrencilikteki matematik başarı durumuna göre anlamlı bir şekilde farklılaştığı tespit edilmiştir.

... There are many reasons for the cause of the math anxiety. These include lack of the appropriate mathematical background of the students, study habits of memorizing formulas, problems and applications that are not related to real life, challenging and time limited exams, lack of concrete materials, difficulty of some subjects in mathemat-ics, type of personality, negative approach on mathematics, lack of confidence, the approaches, feelings, and thoughts of teachers and parents on mathematics (Ashcraft & Ridley, 2005;Finlayson, 2014;Hoffman, 2010;Maloney, Ansari & Fugelsang, 2011;Rubinsten & Tannock, 2010). ...

The aim of this study was to determine the dimensions of the relationship between math anxiety and mathematics achievement of the third grade students with and without mathematics learning difficulties. Data were collected from 288 elementary school students using math anxi-ety scale and math achievement test tools. The mathematics achievement test scores reveal that the students were classified into four groups: math learning difficulties (0-10%), low achievers (11-25%), normal achievers (26-95%), and high achievers (96-100%). The findings reveal that there was a strong correlation (r=-.597) between the math anxiety and math achievement of the participants, while there was no significant difference between the mean scores of the mathematics anxiety of the lower two groups as it was between the two upper groups. This indicates that the math anxiety level of the students with math learning difficulties does not differ from the low achievers. However, the results depict a significant difference between the mean scores of the math anxiety of the low achievers and the normal achievers.

... Fünf der 30 Studien verwendeten ausschließlich qualitative Instrumente. Datengrundlage stellen in diesen Arbeiten schriftliche Texte dar, die durch Reflexionsfragen vorstrukturiert worden sind (Brown, Westens- kow & Moyer-Packenham, 2011Finlayson, 2014), es wurde mit Hilfe der Critical Incident Technique gearbeitet (Wilson, 2016) oder es wurden Einzelinterviews durchgeführt (Uusimaki & Nason, 2004). ...

Erschienen in: mathematica didactica
This article gives an overview of instruments und designs applied in studies published in English and German (N = 30) since 1998 measuring mathematics anxiety among pre-service teachers. Additionally, findings from intervention studies (N = 14) will be presented that aimed at the reduction of math anxiety. The review shows that math anxiety among pre-service teachers has been assessed predominantly by inventories presenting mathematics-related situations. In addition to the prevalence of math anxiety, findings refer to the correlation of math anxiety with math proficiency/qualification in math, competence beliefs, prior experience in school, math-related attitudes/beliefs, and anxiety to teach mathematics. Further results are given for differences of gender, subject choice, and years of study in the teacher education program. Courses in mathematics didactics were the most common form of intervention that proved effective in reducing math anxiety.

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of two different 8-week balance intervention programs (i.e., a traditional instructional model (TIM) and a game based approach (GBA)) on catching and aiming skills in primary education students. Catching and aiming skills were assessed in 380 students (6-12 years) before and after the 8-week balance intervention programs. Students were divided into two groups according to the methodological approach used for the BIPs, namely, TIM (n = 125), and GBA (n = 131). Additionally, there was a control group (CG, n = 124). Students were also divided in 6 groups according to their course (i.e., G1-G6). Catching test results improved after both interventions, TIM (p < 0.01, ES = 0.5, moderate) and GBA (p < 0.01, ES = 0.4, small), while aiming test results improved just with the GBA (p < 0.01, ES = 0.2, small). By course, for improving catching TIM was the most effective in G2-G4 (p < 0.01, ES = 0.7 to 1.7, moderate to large) and GBA in G5-G6 (p < 0.01, ES = 0.9 to 1.0, moderate). For improving aiming TIM was not effective, and GBA just in G2 and G4 (p < 0.05 to 0.01, ES = 0.8 to 1.2, moderate to large). These results lead us to think that for the improvement of catching TIM is the most effective in G2-G4 (7-9 years), while from G5 (10-12 years) GBA was the most effective. Nonetheless, aiming was not really improved with the BIPs, so more specific aiming programs are needed to improve aiming skills in primary education students.

... Hardly does a universal recipe exist to prevent or fight mathematics anxiety. Experts in the field recommend that special strategies to support the learners should be devised [12][13]. To get a better idea of our learning environment, we carried out a small survey. ...

Our research includes undergraduate students who major in primary school education. Their academic background is prevailingly in the humanities. This poses specific demands on their mathematics instruction at university. To attract them to their mathematics course and raise its effectiveness, we use a series of activities. Writing assignments intrigue the students, shape their personal mathematical experience, and connect literature with mathematics. Special attention is paid to problem solving in which the mathematical concepts studied are applied. The plots and characters from popular children stories, novels, or movies diversify mathematical problems and make them more likable to the students. This results in significant reduction of mathematics anxiety in the classroom and the students advance uninhibited and motivated. Thus using humanities-oriented accents in representing mathematical ideas successfully complements the teaching of mathematics to prospective primary school teachers. It is also a model to be followed in further teaching practices.

Concern about attitudes to mathematics and mathematics education is not unique to England. Studies across the world, including the USA, Canada and Australia, indicate similar concerns. This research aimed to identify the factors that impacted on the formation of teachers’ attitudes to mathematics in primary schools in England and to discover how these have been shaped and/or changed during an in-service professional development programme, The Mathematics Specialist Teacher Programme (MaST). We thus take a unique position in attempting to develop a possible model for reducing teacher mathematics anxiety, and its consequences in classrooms. Findings were analysed using key typologies of professional learning and and revealreveal that teachers who undertook the programme made strong, explicit links between previous experiences of being taught mathematics, their own feelings of mathematics confidence and competence, and levels of mathematics anxiety. High-level collaboration with colleagues and expert facilitators were evident as significant factors in overcoming this anxiety.

In this study, Seminars were envisaged on the importance of stem education at secondary schools. Basicly these seminars were about to introduce STEM education to the teachers. Pre-test and post-tests were applied in the study. By this way, it was aimed to measure the effectiveness of the seminars on especially maths and technology related courses of teachers. Three scales are used to test the effectiveness of the seminars. As for the results it was found that teachers were positively effected by the mathematical self literacy but had no difference in their mathematical thinking ability and in terms of their technological use.

Motivation and math anxiety are crucial in performance and satisfaction, and augmented reality (AR) may be a useful tool in enhancing these factors because it provides users with interesting visual experiences. Since related empirical research is limited in investigating the effects of using free mobile AR apps integrating Keller’s ARCS (attention-relevance-confidence-satisfaction) motivation model on learning motivation, anxiety, and outcomes between students with different levels of anxiety in primary math education, this study investigated whether mobile AR differently affected learning, motivation, and math anxiety between students with high and low anxiety. The results showed that the AR group performed better than the non-AR group, and high-anxiety learners in the AR group outperformed in algebra and geometry. The AR group had higher motivation based on Keller’s ARCS model. The high-anxiety learners had higher confidence and satisfaction and lower anxiety when learning using mobile AR. The AR users were satisfied with ease of use, usefulness, playfulness, and benefit from exploration and hands-on experiences. Moreover, high-anxiety users in the AR group had higher perceptions of exploration, hands-on experiences, and playfulness. This study includes the participants’ experience in adopting mobile AR for their learning and discusses its constraints.

Inservice teachers, participants in a prior study on mathematics anxiety, were revisited to determine whether their levels of mathematics anxiety still existed and/or continued to change after 5 years teaching experience. A 98-item Likert-type survey, informal discussions, informal interviews, and questionnaire-guided narrative interviews were conducted. Date revealed that all inservice teachers still experienced some degree of mathematics anxiety (p < .001). Results have implications for teacher education programs concerning the continued professional support of teachers, measurement of mathematics anxiety levels among pre- and inservice teachers, and the determination of specific contexts in which mathematics anxiety can be interpreted and reduced.

Mathematics anxiety could affect the development of pre-service mathematics teachers to teach mathematics effectively and eventually influence mathematics performance of learners. The paper addresses opinions of pre-service teachers' about mathematics anxiety and the reducing of it. The study adopted an exploratory qualitative research approach using an open-ended questionnaire. The sample consisted of 133 fourth-year FET and senior phase pre-service mathematics teachers from a university in South Africa. The results indicate that mathematics anxiety could be reduced by 1) sufficient preparation, practice and intervention programs; 2) utilising cultural artifacts, such as indigenous games, clothing and artworks, and 3) using cooperative teaching str ategies. The paper contributes by foregrounding suggestions to reduce mathematics anxiety and add to research in the field of ethno-mathematics.

Mathematical understanding goes beyond grasping numerical values and problem solving. By incorporating visual representation, students can be able to grasp how math can be understood in terms of geometry, which is essentially a visual device. It is important that students be able to incorporate visual representations alongside numerical values to gain meaning from their own knowledge. However, it is also vital that students understand mathematical terminology, via a dialogical-rhetorical pedagogy that now comes under the rubric of "Math Talk," which in turn is part of a system of teaching known as knowledge building, both of which aim to recapture, in a new way, the Socratic method of dialogical interaction. This chapter explores how knowledge building, as a methodology, can assist in furthering student understanding and how math talk leads to a deeper understanding of mathematical principles.

Math anxiety: The numbers are mounting. The Guardian, 30 April Math facing an American phobia

- K Brian

Brian, K. (2012). Math anxiety: The numbers are mounting. The Guardian, 30 April. Retrieved from http://
www.theguardian.com/education/2012/apr/30/maths-anxiety-school-support
Burns, M. (1998). Math facing an American phobia. Sausalito, CA: Math Solutions Publications.

Classroom discussions: Using math talk to help students learn

- S H Chapin
- C O'connor
- N C Anderson

Chapin, S. H., O'Connor, C., & Anderson, N. C. (2003). Classroom discussions: Using math talk to help
students learn. Sausalito, CA: Math Solutions Publications.

Constructivist Teaching Methods Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki Experience and education

- Constructivist

Constructivist. (2013). Constructivist Teaching Methods. Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
Constructivist_teaching_methods
Dewey, J. (1938). Experience and education. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Teaching secondary mathematics: Teaching and enrichment units

- A Posamentier
- B Smith
- J Stepelman

Posamentier, A., Smith, B., & Stepelman, J. (2010). Teaching secondary mathematics: Teaching and enrichment units (8th ed.). Toronto: Pearson Education.

Helping students get past math anxiety. Techniques: Connecting Education & Careers

- G Scarpello

Scarpello, G. (2007). Helping students get past math anxiety. Techniques: Connecting Education & Careers,
82(6), 34-35.

Assessment alternatives in mathematics: An overview of assessment techniques that promote learning

- J K Stenmark

Stenmark, J. K. (1989). Assessment alternatives in mathematics: An overview of assessment techniques that
promote learning. Berkeley: EQUALS, University of California.

Beating math anxiety

- J Thilmany

Thilmany, J. (2004). Beating math anxiety. Mechanical Engineering, 126(12), 18-24.

Constructivism as a paradigm for teaching and learning. Retrieved from: http:// www.thirteen.org Overcoming math anxiety

- Ed Thirteen
- Online

Thirteen Ed Online (2004). Constructivism as a paradigm for teaching and learning. Retrieved from: http://
www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/constructivism/index.html
Tobias, S. (2013). Overcoming math anxiety. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.

Overcoming math anxiety Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki Effects of math anxiety and perfectionism on timed versus untimed math testing in mathematically gifted sixth graders

- Thirteen Ed Online Tobias

Thirteen Ed Online (2004). Constructivism as a paradigm for teaching and learning. Retrieved from: http://
www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/constructivism/index.html
Tobias, S. (2013). Overcoming math anxiety. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.
Traditional Delivery Method. (2013). Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constructivist_teaching_methods
Tsui, J. M., & Mazzocco, M. M. M. (2007). Effects of math anxiety and perfectionism on timed versus
untimed math testing in mathematically gifted sixth graders. Reoper Review, 29(2), 132-139.

Math anxiety: The numbers are mounting. The Guardian Retrieved from http:// www.theguardian.com Math facing an American phobia

- K Brian

Brian, K. (2012). Math anxiety: The numbers are mounting. The Guardian, 30 April. Retrieved from http://
www.theguardian.com/education/2012/apr/30/maths-anxiety-school-support
Burns, M. (1998). Math facing an American phobia. Sausalito, CA: Math Solutions Publications.

Math anxiety: The numbers are mounting. The Guardian

- K Brian

Brian, K. (2012). Math anxiety: The numbers are mounting. The Guardian, 30 April. Retrieved from http://
www.theguardian.com/education/2012/apr/30/maths-anxiety-school-support

Math facing an American phobia

- M Burns

Burns, M. (1998). Math facing an American phobia. Sausalito, CA: Math Solutions Publications.

Ask about accountability: Timed tests for tykes

- J Piaget
- B Inhelder

Piaget, J., & Inhelder, B. (1969). The psychology of the child. New York: Basic Books, Inc.
Popham, W. J. (2008). Ask about accountability: Timed tests for tykes. Educational Leadership, 65(8), 86-87.

Highly math-anxious individuals are characterized by a strong tendency to avoid math, which ultimately undercuts their math competence and forecloses important career paths. But timed, on-line tests reveal math-anxiety effects on whole-number arithmetic problems (e.g., 46 + 27), whereas achievement tests show no competence differences. Math anxiety disrupts cognitive processing by compromising ongoing activity in working memory. Although the causes of math anxiety are undetermined, some teaching styles are implicated as risk factors. We need research on the origins of math anxiety and on its “signature” in brain activity, to examine both its emotional and its cognitive components.

Math anxiety can begin as early as the fourth grade and peaks in middle school and high school. It can be caused by past classroom experiences, parental influences, and remembering poor past math performance. Math anxiety can cause students to avoid challenging math courses and may limit their career choices. It is important for teachers, parents and students to be aware of the effects of math anxiety so that if a student is affected, the student can receive the support necessary to lessen or eliminate it. In this article, the author discusses ways to help students get past math anxiety.

This study was designed to examine the effects of math anxiety and perfectionism on math performance, under timed testing conditions, among mathematically gifted sixth graders. We found that participants had worse math performance during timed versus untimed testing, but this difference was statistically significant only when the timed condition preceded the untimed condition. We also found that children with higher levels of either math anxiety or perfectionism had a smaller performance discrepancy during timed versus untimed testing, relative to children with lower levels of math anxiety or perfectionism. There were no statistically significant gender differences in overall test performance, nor in levels of math anxiety or perfectionism; however, the difference between performance on timed and untimed math testing was statistically significant for girls, but not for boys. Implications for educators are discussed.

This study investigated the relationship between mathematics anxiety, fluency, and error rates in basic mathematical operations among college students. College students were assigned to one of two groups (high anxiety or low anxiety) based on results from the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Anxiety Scale (FSMAS). Both groups were then presented with timed tests in basic mathematical operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and linear equations). Results suggested that the higher mathematics anxiety group had significantly lower fluency levels across all mathematical operations tests. However, there were no significant differences in error rates between the two groups across any of the probes suggesting that mathematics anxiety is more related to higher levels of learning than to the initial acquisition stage of learning. Discussion focuses on a) stages of learning and their potential relationship to mathematics anxiety, b) the relationship between mathematics anxiety and mathematics performance, and c) directions for future research.

The mathematical subject knowledge of primary teacher trainees in England and Wales now has to be audited in line with government requirements for initial teacher training. This article examines how this knowledge has been conceptualised and presents the results of research in two institutions into the audited subject knowledge of primary teacher trainees and its relationship with classroom teaching. The research identified weaknesses in understanding, particularly in the syntactic elements of mathematics, and a link between insecure subject knowledge and poor planning and teaching. The dilemmas and policy issues which this focus on subject knowledge presents are discussed.

The analytical stance taken by equity researchers in education, the methodologies employed, and the interpretations that are drawn from data, all have an enormous impact upon the knowledge that is produced about sources of inequality. In the 1970's and 1980's, a great deal of interest was given to the issue of women's and girls' underachievement in mathematics. This prompted numerous different research projects that investigated the extent and nature of the differences between girls' and boys' achievement and offered reasons why such disparities occurred. This work contributed towards a discourse on gender and mathematics that flowed through the media channels and into schools, homes and the workplace. In this article I will consider some of the scholarship on gender and mathematics, critically examining the findings that were produced and the influence they had. In the process, I will propose a fundamental tension in research on equity, as scholars walk a fine and precarious line between lack of concern on the one hand, and essentialism on the other. I will argue in this article that negotiating that tension may be the most critical role for equity researchers as we move into the future. Abstract

Explores the phenomenon of math anxiety in a group of elementary school students by observing and conducting a survey to identify where students fit into the continuum of mathematics confidence. Discusses strategies to reduce math anxiety. (ASK)

Reports normative, reliability, and validity data for the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (MARS), a measure of mathematics anxiety for use in treatment and research. Normative data were collected on a sample of 397 undergraduates. The instrument has high test-retest and internal consistency reliability. Evidence for validity comes from 3 studies in which MARS scores showed expected decreases following behavior therapy for mathematics anxiety, and a separate validity study in which MARS scores were found to correlate negatively with scores on a mathematics test. Possible uses of the instrument in treatment and research are discussed. (17 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Experience and Educationis the best concise statement on education ever published by John Dewey, the man acknowledged to be the pre-eminent educational theorist of the twentieth century. Written more than two decades after Democracy and Education(Dewey's most comprehensive statement of his position in educational philosophy), this book demonstrates how Dewey reformulated his ideas as a result of his intervening experience with the progressive schools and in the light of the criticisms his theories had received. Analysing both "traditional" and "progressive" education, Dr. Dewey here insists that neither the old nor the new education is adequate and that each is miseducative because neither of them applies the principles of a carefully developed philosophy of experience. Many pages of this volume illustrate Dr. Dewey's ideas for a philosophy of experience and its relation to education. He particularly urges that all teachers and educators looking for a new movement in education should think in terms of the deeped and larger issues of education rather than in terms of some divisive "ism" about education, even such an "ism" as "progressivism." His philosophy, here expressed in its most essential, most readable form, predicates an American educational system that respects all sources of experience, on that offers a true learning situation that is both historical and social, both orderly and dynamic.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the mathematics anxiety treatment messages in a computer-based environment on ninth-grade students' mathematics anxiety and mathematics learning. The study also examined whether the impact of the treatment messages would be differentiated by learner's gender and by learner's prior mathematics anxiety levels (High vs. Medium vs. Low). Participants were 161 ninth-grade students, who took a required introductory algebra class in a public high school neighboring Utah State University. The learning environment was integrated with a pedagogical agent (animated human-like character) as a tutor. This study employed a pretest and posttest experimental design. Participants' mathematics anxiety was measured at the beginning and at the end of the intervention; participants' mathematics learning was measured before and after each lesson (four lessons in total). The participants were randomly assigned to work with either an agent presenting mathematics anxiety treatment messages (TR) or an agent without presenting the treatment messages (NoTR). Because of student attrition, only 128 students were included for data analysis. The results suggested that mathematics anxiety treatment messages provided by a pedagogical agent had no impact on student mathematics anxiety and mathematics learning. Second, there were no main or interaction effects of the treatment messages and learners' gender on mathematics anxiety and mathematics learning. Third, there were significant interaction effects between treatment messages and learner's prior mathematics anxiety levels only on current mathematics anxiety (p < .05). High-anxious students in the TR condition decreased their anxiety more than those in the NoTR condition. Medium-anxious students in the TR condition increased their anxiety whereas those in the NoTR condition decreased their anxiety. Low-anxious students in the TR condition did not change their anxiety whereas those in the NoTR condition increased their anxiety.

Obra sobre las características y métodos de la investigación cualitativa, desde la planeación del proyecto hasta la interpretación del material. Incluye un panorama sobre los desarrollos recientes en la materia.

Anxiety-related responding and skill deficits historically are associated with performance-based problems such as mathematics anxiety, yet the relative contribution of these variables to substandard performance remains poorly understood. Utilizing a 7% carbon dioxide (CO2) gas to induce anxiety, the present study examined the impact of anxious responding on two performance tasks, mental arithmetic and lexical decision. Independent variables included math anxiety group, gender, and gas condition. Dependent variables included task performance and physiological and self-report indices of anxiety. A total of 64 university undergraduate students participated. Physiological and verbal-report measures of anxiety supported the utility of 7% carbon dioxide-enriched air as an anxiety-inducing stimulus. Behavioral disruption on performance tasks, however, did not differ as a function of carbon dioxide inhalation. Performance did differ as a function of math anxiety. High math anxious individuals generally exhibited higher error rates on mathematical tasks, particularly on tasks designed to measure advanced math skill and those requiring working memory resources. These findings are discussed with reference to processing efficiency theory, discordance among anxiety response systems, and the intricacies associated with skill measurement.