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Background Since 1940s, other than a few success stories, the outcomes of efforts of development and dissemination of improved cookstoves a have not been so fruitful. This paper presents a bottom-up approach that was successfully implemented to develop a fuel-efficient cookstove in a tribal village that has resulted in a substantial reduction in firewood consumption. Method The approach ensured people’s participation at multiple stages of the process that started from project selection by capturing people’s needs/desires and studying the existing cooking practice to understand its importance in the local context. The performance of the cookstoves was evaluated by modifying a standard Water Boiling Test to accommodate the existing cooking practice. The improvement of the cookstove was achieved by fabricating a simple twisted tape assembly that could be placed on it without changing the existing cookstove. Results The optimization of the twisted tape device was first carried out in the laboratory and then implemented in the field. The field-level tests resulted in reduction of firewood consumption by around 21% which is a substantial improvement for such a device. It was also found that the improvement reduced soot b accumulation by around 38% and time of cooking preparations by around 18.5%. Conclusion Overall, a bottom-up and participatory process that not only addressed people’s perceived needs but also ensured no changes in the existing cooking practice while providing an easy, low cost (around US$1.25) c , and locally manufacturable solution led to a highly successful improvement in the local cookstove that was accepted easily by the villagers.
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Honkalaskar et al. Energy, Sustainability and Society 2013, 3:16
http://www.energsustainsoc.com/content/3/1/16
ORIGINAL ARTICLE Open Access
Development of a fuel efficient cookstove
through a participatory bottom-up approach
Vijay H Honkalaskar1, Upendra V Bhandarkar2* and Milind Sohoni3
Abstract
Background: Since 1940s, other than a few success stories, the outcomes of efforts of development and
dissemination of improved cookstoves ahave not been so fruitful. This paper presents a bottom-up approach that
was successfully implemented to develop a fuel-efficient cookstove in a tribal village that has resulted in a substantial
reduction in firewood consumption.
Method: The approach ensured people’s participation at multiple stages of the process that started from project
selection by capturing people’s needs/desires and studying the existing cooking practice to understand its
importance in the local context. The performance of the cookstoves was evaluated by modifying a standard Water
Boiling Test to accommodate the existing cooking practice. The improvement of the cookstove was achieved by
fabricating a simple twisted tape assembly that could be placed on it without changing the existing cookstove.
Results: The optimization of the twisted tape device was first carried out in the laboratory and then implemented in
the field. The field-level tests resulted in reduction of firewood consumption by around 21% which is a substantial
improvement for such a device. It was also found that the improvement reduced soot baccumulation by around 38%
and time of cooking preparations by around 18.5%.
Conclusion: Overall, a bottom-up and participatory process that not only addressed people’s perceived needs but
also ensured no changes in the existing cooking practice while providing an easy, low cost (around US$1.25) c,and
locally manufacturable solution led to a highly successful improvement in the local cookstove that was accepted
easily by the villagers.
Keywords: Improved cookstove; Bottom-up approach; Twisted tapes; People’s participation
Background
The inception of a development discourse in the West
around the 1940s [1] has led to development of new
technologies to address the problems of the poor in
undeveloped and developing countries. Since then, the
development and dissemination of improved cookstoves
has been one of the key areas for development prac-
titioners in government, volunteer organizations, and
research laboratories [2,3]. Other than a few success sto-
ries, the outcomes of efforts of these practitioners have
not been so fruitful. This section summarizes impacts
*Correspondence: bhandarkar@iitb.ac.in
2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology
Bombay, Powai, Mumbai, 400076, India
Full list of author information is available at the end of the article
and challenges of different improved cookstove pro-
grams over the past 50 years. Sesan [4] broadly catego-
rized these programs in three phases. We have adopted
this categorization in the present context of technol-
ogy development. These three phases are enumerated
below.
Early programs (1950 to 1980)
Since the 1950s, the development and dissemination of
improved cookstoves in the developing countries [3] was,
to a large extent, due to initiatives from western coun-
tries. According to Crewe [5], fashionable aims such as
‘working with poor women’ , ‘raising the income of poor
artisans’ , and conserving environmental resources’ pro-
moted the involvement of international organizations in
the development of improved cookstoves. The main goal
of this phase for improved cookstoves was to increase
©2013 Honkalaskar et al.; licensee Springer. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons
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the thermal efficiency of the cooking process to reduce
the envisaged energy gap [5] between the supply and
demand of biomass fuel due to the thinning of the forests.
These early programs assumed that people would adopt
the improved stoves quickly and that an initial inter-
vention would lead to a self-sustaining program. It was
also assumed that there existed only a need to distribute
improved cookstoves, and since these were intrinsically
superior to the traditional cookstoves, a decrease in fuel
consumption by 75% or even more was imminent [6]. As
a consequence of these assumptions, the attempts in this
phase failed. The clearest of the lessons learned from early
experience is that the chances of success are enhanced
when people have an explicit need to save fuel, when the
new stoves are a significant improvement over the local
traditional stoves, and when stoves can be made read-
ily available by local industries or artisans at affordable
prices.
Context responsive phase (1980 to 1990)
Researchers started to understand that there is a weak
link between deforestation and traditional cookstoves
as people cut only small branches to fire their cook-
stoves [6]. The main objective of the cookstove pro-
grams was changed to improve the efficiency of the
cookstove to address the perceived needs of users to
reduce drudgery involved in the firewood fetching activ-
ity. Reduction in indoor air pollution was a secondary
objective. Researchers started to emphasize the involve-
ment of local people in the cookstove programs. Yet,
these programs faced significant problems in gaining the
acceptance of the rural poor [6]. There have been a few
partial success stories, mainly in urban areas where fuel
has to be bought, and hence, cookstove programs became
economical. These include ‘Jiko’ and ‘Upesi’ stoves in
Kenya [7], Chinese national stoves program [8], ‘Anagi’
stoves in Sri Lanka, and ‘Sara-ole’ stove in Karnataka,
India [9]. There were two nationwide programs imple-
mented by India and China that followed two different
dissemination routes. The Indian National Program on
Improved Cookstoves (NPIC) was started in 1983. More
than 2.8 million stoves were disseminated until the year
2002 when the government of India officially withdrew
funding support from the NPIC. The dissemination of
the improved cookstoves was supported by government
subsidies. Although it had a high dissemination number,
NPIC is not recognized as a successful program because
of a very low acceptance rate by users [10-12]. The Chi-
nese National Improved Stoves Programme (NISP), which
followed a market-based approach, disseminated 129 mil-
lion stoves from 1982 to 1992 covering 65% of the Chinese
rural population. Most of the cost of stove material and
construction labor was paid by the users. However, it
must be noted that during this period, NISP operated in
relatively middle income areas, and its benefit did not
reach the rural poor at that time [8]. The more self-
sustaining market-based approach adopted by NISP has
led the international government and non-government
agencies to follow a market-based approach in the third
phase [13].
Third phase (1990 onwards): market-based approaches
The focus of improved cookstove programs for this phase
has been to reduce indoor air pollution along with increas-
ing cookstove efficiency [4]. Indoor air pollution caused
by smoke from traditional cookstoves is responsible for
nearly 4.3% of the total global diseases and causes more
than 1.6 million deaths each year [14]. Drawing on the
experienceofthesecondphase,themarketapproach
was emphasized [13]. For example, in India, there was
an emergence of multiple stove designs and dissemina-
tion programs funded by private agencies. These involved
Shell foundation, Envirofit International, Prakti Design,
Selco India, B.P., and TIDE [15,16]. These have resulted
in limited penetration, owing to high initial cost and low
flexibility towards the use of local fuels [11,16]. Learning
from these recent initiatives and outcomes of NPIC, the
Indian government started the National Biomass Cook-
stove Initiative in 2009 [11,17], with the aim of providing
energy service comparable to clean sources such as LPG
while using the same solid biomass fuel with the combined
objectives of fuel efficiency, health protection, and cli-
mate impacts. To ensure good quality control and reliable
performance, this initiative lays an emphasis on central-
ized manufacturing facilities. There is narrower tolerance
to biomass size and moisture content. Thus, there is an
additional requirement of fuel processing at household
level.
The Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves was initiated
in year 2010 [17]. Coordinated through United Nations
Foundation, it has a goal of providing 100 million clean
cookstoves by year 2020 which would reduce the health
and other impacts of current cooking practices. In spite
of all these efforts, what still remains is to make biomass
stoves that are not only clean enough to have major health
benefits but also affordable by the poor population of the
world.
It can be noticed that most of the approaches adopted
for improved cookstoves have remained top down and
focused essentially on tangible technical objectives. Many
researchers such as Bailis et al. [13] and Barnes et al. [6]
acknowledge that although the market-based approach
can achieve a sustainable dissemination model, it may fil-
ter out the poorer section of rural community. Neverthe-
less, most of these reports do not analyze the development
and dissemination approach in the wider social, cultural,
ecological, and economical context in which rural people
construct their livelihoods.
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Learning from the improved cookstove programs
Goals and strategies to develop and disseminate improved
cookstoves have changed over the three phases. These
were based on the perceived needs/problems and per-
ceived socio-economic context of community members.
There have been a few success stories, where not only
have the perceived needs and priorities of the com-
munity matched with reality, but this identification has
been also followed by sustainable dissemination. Analysis
of experiences of a number of (seven) improved cook-
stove programs around the world revealed the following
facts:
(1) Community participation: It has been widely
appreciated that people’s participation is very crucial
for the success of any development project. After the
failure of the first round of improved cookstove
projects until 1980, development agencies sought to
adopt more participatory ways to develop and
disseminate the improved cookstoves [18]. It is
considered as vital for facilitating a detailed
understanding of user needs and paramount for the
success of any development program [19].
Involvement of the community takes care of local
manufacture, suitability of improved cookstoves to
the local cooking practices, and affordable cost [7,20].
However, even these participatory inputs from the
user did not always reflect in a favorable outcome for
many projects. The term ‘participation’ includes
notions of people’s empowerment, involvement, and
control over the development initiative [21-23].
Agencies involved in improved cookstove projects
usually have bureaucratic, power-conscious,
performance-driven, and goal-oriented structures. It
has been very difficult to appreciate people’s
empowerment and their control in the cookstove
development project. Participatory methods adopted
by these agencies have been criticized of preserving
the participation in terms of mere appearance and
actually adhering to a traditional top-down power
relation [24]. The Kenyan biomass project in rural
areas is an example of such failure of the
participatory methods adopted by the Kenyan
Ministry of Energy [18] along with donor agencies.
Although the improved stove, ‘Maendeleo’, was very
simple and made with locally available technology,
not more than 4% of rural households adopted it.
Energy saving was not the major concern of the rural
dwellers owing to the freely and abundantly available
firewood. However, the household income level of
the people was very low, and they tended to stick
with the traditional practice rather than buying a
comparatively expensive (although the stove price
was only around US$1.5) alternative. Thus, all the
remaining facts can be practically appreciated
through people’s participation by ensuring their
involvement and control in every step.
(2) User priorities of needs: People tend to adopt
interventions on the basis of what matters to them
rather than the objectives of the improved cookstove
program. The dominance of the interest of outsider
stakeholders is one of the reasons of the failures of
many improved cookstove programs [18,25].
Improved cookstove projects have been most
successful in areas where firewood fetching is an
arduous task or people have to spend a significant
amount of money on purchasing wood [6].
In both these cases, improved stoves fulfill users’
needs. Therefore, the goals of any cookstove
program have to be decided on the basis of
people’s priorities which essentially vary with
context.
(3) Study of existing practices: Cooking practice involves
fuel type, fuel size, input power level, number of pots
per cookstove, size of pots, time required to cook the
food, and ease and flexibility of operation of
cookstove. Cooking practices are deeply rooted in the
society for hundreds of years [10]. Therefore, an
improved cooking method that is different from
existing practices has less appeal wherever the people
using traditional cookstoves are bound to follow the
existing practices because of economic, social, and
religious constraints [26]. Therefore, it is imperative
to design a new technology that suits the existing
cooking practices and also seeks improvements in
the performance. One of the reasons behind multiple
failures faced by NPIC and a few market-based
companies was that the proposed practice of
improved stoves could not match the existing
cooking practices carried by the community [10].
Notable examples are dissemination of portable
stoves in Maharashtra [27] and Philips/BP-Oorja
stoves that accommodate only a specific range of fuel
type and size [16]. An improved cookstove should be
similar to the traditional one to perform the existing
cooking practices [7]. Understanding and
accommodation of the users’ practice to design an
improved cookstove are very important for effective
adoption and correct utilization of technology [28],
even at the expense of not achieving the best
efficiency
[19,29].
(4) Other uses: Improved cookstoves do not usually
cater to a few other uses and benefits that are
sometimes derived from cookstoves such as lighting,
space heating, reduction of insects and pests, and
drying of thatched roof [30]. The design of improved
cookstoves should take into account these
characteristics of existing cookstoves.
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(5) Bridging the gap between laboratory and field: One
of the most important reasons behind the failure of
improved cookstove programs is not meeting the
claim to save substantial amounts of fuel. In many
cases, improved cookstoves are more efficient than
the traditional ones under laboratory conditions, but
their performance in field conditions is debatable
because improved cookstove designs are found to be
incompatible with traditional ways of cooking
[30,31]. Oftentimes, the standard Water Boiling
Tests (WBTs) are not indicative of the performance
of cookstoves in rural communities [32]. This
inadequacy can be attributed to lack of stove testing
methods which take care of the existing cooking
practices [33]. Therefore there, is a need to formulate
a performance testing protocol by studying the
existing cooking practice to reduce the gap between
laboratory- and field-level outcomes.
(6) Commercialization and dissemination: In many
successful programs, the stove dissemination has
been an independent entrepreneurial activity.
Entrepreneurs generally need technical assistance in
designing the stoves and in marketing them to local
people [6,29]. A well-designed promotion strategy
involves informing the local people about the
benefits associated with the improved stoves through
a network of local volunteer organizations, television
advertisements, or demonstration sites [20]. It is
usually found that the local artisans or the trained
people seldom adhere to the prescribed dimensions
of an improved cookstove [9,16,20]. Thus, for local
manufacturing of an improved cookstove, its
operation should not be very sensitive to its
dimensions.
Overall, it is imperative to understand people’s needs
and the existing practice to develop an improved cook-
stove that would be socially and economically acceptable.
Improved cookstoves are most popular when they are eas-
ily and locally manufactured and have clear advantages in
manufacturing cost, fuel economy, matching of existing
cookstovepractices,easeofuse,anddurability.Dissem-
ination programs are most effective when they allow for
interaction and feedback between stove designers, pro-
ducers, and users.
Lessons of experiences of early cookstove programs
led us to devise a novel approach to address a problem
of drudgery involved in firewood fetching activity in a
tribal village Gawand wadi (population 293), 120 km from
Mumbai, located in Karjat Tribal Block of Raigadh District
in the state of Maharashtra in western India (19°04’54.10"
N, 73°27’19.34" E). This was achieved by interacting with
the villagers over a period of 3 years. The study offers
three novel contributions. First of all, it proposes an idea
of adapted Water Boiling Test for a given context to
measure the performance of a cookstove rather than the
usual practice of carrying out standard water boiling tests
[34-36]. Many researchers achieve an impressive perfor-
mance enhancement in improved cookstoves after follow-
ing a standard WBT in laboratory but fail to obtain the
same results on the field [30-33]. The present research
shows that the results of Kitchen Performance Tests,
which follows field-level practice, are close to the results
of the modified WBT carried out in the laboratory. The
second contribution is a bottom-up approach for cook-
stove improvement that takes into account the exist-
ing cooking practice and brings a progressive increment
in the cookstove performance. This approach increases
the chances for the adoption of the improvements
as compared to many improved cookstove programs
(as discussed in the previous subsections) that build
a new cookstove (without taking in to account the
existing cooking practice) and try to disseminate it in
a particular context. It was proven that the combus-
tion and heat transfer of a cookstove can be improved
by the introduction of an optimal combination of
twisted tapes (with a particular width, number, and
twist angle) in the hearth of the cookstove. It effectively
enhances heat transfer coefficient by imparting turbu-
lence to the air draft. At the same time, the turbulence
also improves combustion by enhancing mixing of air
and fuel.
Method
The present method adopts a bottom-up approach that
emphasizes on understanding the local context and build-
ing on it. Such an approach is credited with having a high
potential to result in socially and technologically appro-
priate solutions. Such solutions, in turn, have a greater
probability of widespread adoption and long-term sus-
tainability [18]. Towards this end, people’s participation,
not only in terms of involvement but also in terms of
their control in deciding and planning, was sought in
every field-level step that was adopted to develop the
fuel-efficient cookstove. These steps involved goal set-
ting, study of existing practice, field-level tests, and feed-
backs.Anemphasiswasplacedonthestudyofexisting
cooking practices after the appreciation of its impor-
tance in the present context. To ensure a high degree
of social adoption and so to bear minimal variation
from the existing cooking practice, it was decided to
make small changes in the existing cookstoves by adopt-
ing a few guidelines from existing improved cookstove
technologies.
Drawing from the abovementioned bottom-up approach,
a different methodology was adopted for successful
improvement of the traditional cookstove and its com-
mercialization in Gawand wadi. The steps involved in this
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methodology are described here in short. Each of these
steps is elaborated in later sections.
(1) Understanding of present context: This was
accomplished by studying, documenting, and
analyzing the village residents from the view point of
their assets, activities, energy resources, and
utilization of human work hours to carry out
different livelihood activities.
(2) Goal setting: The goal of this project was decided by
involving the villagers thoroughly. People’s
participation was ensured with the help of a set of
surveys/studies. These included the problem-ranking
exercise of the Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA)
activity [37], an energy-timeline survey of the
domestic activities (similar to the surveys carried by
Date [38] and Reddy [39]), and a health survey.
(3) Field-level investigation of existing practice: This was
carried by focused group discussions with women
and potters (who make the cookstoves),
measurements of existing cookstove dimensions, a
walk through the firewood fetching area, and
experiments to find the performance of traditional
cookstoves. A detailed documentation of the cooking
operation was carried out by selecting six households
in the village that represent the differences in family
size, number of women per unit family, and type of
cookstove. The details of the selection procedure are
discussed in the section, ‘Field-level experimentation’.
(4) Adapted water boiling tests: Accommodating the
context-specific practices, two types of WBT,
namely, single-pot and two-pot WBTs, were designed
to measure performance indices of the cookstove.
(5) Improvements in the traditional cookstove: To
ensure minimal variation from the traditional
practice (as explained in points 3 and 4 of the
Section, ‘Learning from the improved cookstove
programs’), the traditional cookstove itself was
sought to be modified by either optimizing the
existing design specifications and/or retrofitting a
new device (such as a chimney) in the existing
cookstove. The modification was first implemented
and tested in the laboratory.
(6) Field-level experimentation: The proposed
modification was tested in the field in the six selected
families by adopting the modified water boiling tests
and kitchen performance test. To mimic the existing
cookstove firing practice, the women from the
households themselves fired the cookstoves to carry
out field-level experiments.
(7) Local manufacturing and distribution: Local
artisans (blacksmiths) were involved in making
any device that needed to be added to the cookstove.
An arrangement was also worked out so that the
blacksmith would make and sell these products
along with his regular wares (axe, sickle, etc.).
Womens involvement in terms of documentation, sug-
gestions, and feedback at every stage of the process was
the crux of the project.
People’s participation
People in the village have contributed in the follow-
ing ways: (1) people participated in the identification
of the projects based upon their need and desires, (2)
women participated in the study of the existing cook-
ing practices, (3) women from six selected households
(see Table 1) have participated in conducting field-level
experiments, (4) women participated in the modification
of the standard water boiling test, and (5) women par-
ticipatedinimprovingthetwisted-tapedevicetomakeit
user friendly. These persons have consented to take part
of this study and the publication of the accompanying
images.
Owing to the lack of technical knowhow required to
participate in the process of analytical modeling and iden-
tification of the retrofitting (twisted-tapes inserts) for the
design improvement of the traditional cookstoves fol-
lowed by its laboratory level design optimization, it was
not possible to involve the people in these three activities.
The following section would introduce the context of
the study briefly.
Understanding of the present context
The major sources of livelihood for the villagers are a
single crop rain-fed agriculture (mainly paddy and ragi),
Table 1 Selected households to carry out field-level experimentation and survey cooking practices
Households Family size Number of women Number of women per unit family size Type of cookstove
Ambabai Kisan Gawanda 3 2 0.67 Three-pot stove
Tukibai Dhavlya Gawanda 4 1 0.25 Two-pot stove
Gulab Chander Bhagat 5 1 0.2 Three-pot stove
Hirabai Govinda Gawanda 7 4 0.57 Two-pot stove
Shevanta Dehu Bangare 9 4 0.45 Two-pot stove
Bhimabai Kalu Warghade 14 3 0.21 Three-pot stove
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collection and selling/consumption of forest produce
such as gum, fruits, vegetables, roots, and oil seeds,
and agriculture labor in neighboring irrigated area.
Occasionally, they also find wage labor work in road
construction and infrastructure projects in neighboring
areas. The nearest market place is located at a distance of
30 km.
Assets
The average family size is 5.63 with nearly 63% of house-
holds between 4 to 8. Percentages of men and women in
the population are nearly equal, and the adult population
(above 18 years of age) accounts for 71% of the total popu-
lation. The total village land is 950 ha. Most of the land is
sloping and forest land. Total cattle head is 212 with 4.07
cattle head per family, which is higher than the national
average of 1.73 [40]. The surrounding forest serves as a
source to collect wood fuel, wood, and other forest pro-
duce. It comprises both village-owned and government-
owned forest land. The main water sources are small
earthen dam (around 200 m from the village center,
67,000 m3capacity) near the village residential area and
three wells.
Activities
The villagers mainly depend on local ecological resources
for their livelihood, and therefore, their daily activities
vary seasonally. They produce most of the things for
their consumption. Their daily activities can be listed as
follows:
(1) Rain-fed agricultural activities: These involve
Rab
preparationd, ploughing, puddling, transplanting,
weeding, harvesting, threshing, and storage. The Rab
activity begins in March, ploughing begins in June
(following the first monsoon rain), other activities
follow in the order mentioned, and storage is in
October.
(2) Livestock raising: Animal raising is mainly done in
the monsoon. In other seasons, animals are set free.
(3) Domestic activities: These involve firewood
collection, water fetching, cooking, fish/crab
catching, plinth preparation, space heating e,cloth
washing, etc.
(4) Employment and trade: This involves forest
collection, wage labor, forest cutting, carpentry,
liquor making, sand collection, bamboo work,
moha
seeds collection, brick making, etc.
All these activities involve exchange of time and
material and energy resources, and some of them
involve exchange of money. The main sources of
energy are firewood, animal energy, human energy, cat-
tle dung, grass, kerosene, state-supplied grid electricity,
and food.
Time line and energy utilization survey
Different activities in the village are carried out in a var-
ied manner by each household. An activity-time duration
survey showed that the contribution of men, women,
and children for all activities (mentioned in the previ-
ous section) is 34.00%, 62.88%, and 2.94%, respectively.
The percentage distribution of human work hours for dif-
ferent activities is as follows: 29.60% (agriculture), 8.40%
(animal raising), 48.50% (domestic), and 13.40% (employ-
ment and trade). Domestic activities, which demand most
of the human work hours, are mainly carried out by
women. Firewood fetching activity demands 14% of the
total human work hours spent over all the livelihood activ-
ities carried out in the village for 1 year. Using the average
human energy demands for different livelihood activities
[38], the average per capita energy expenditure in each
of these activities is listed in Table 2. Firewood fetching
activity requires 9.67% of total human energy expenditure
per year.
Goal setting
The level of people’s participation [41,42] and hence the
effectiveness of any technololgy development and dissem-
ination process would increase if the technology interven-
tion addresses a problem that is of high priority to the
concerned people. Thus it is imperative to identify the pri-
ority that the villagers attach to the need to improve the
traditional cookstove.
Perceived priority of problems according to severity
A problem-ranking exercise of PRA was carried out
to capture the people’s perceptions so that the prob-
lems faced by the villagers could be ranked according
to their severity. This was achieved by first listing out
Table 2 Average human energy expenditure for different
livelihood activities per year
Number Activities Annual per
capita energy
expenditure
(Gcal/year)
Percentage of
energy
expenditure
1 Animal rearing 15.9 6.43
2 Agriculture 68.0 26.50
3 Water fetching 44.1 17.80
4 Firewood
fetching
42.9 9.67
5 Cooking 14.6 8.24
6 Cloth washing
and plinth
preparation
9.9 4.03
7 Fishing 3.1 1.25
8 Other activities 64.5 26.04
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the problems faced by the villagers followed by individ-
ual perceptions about their hierarchy. A total of 37 people
including, youth and adult men and women were inter-
viewed. The final hierarchy was found by assigning a
weight to each problem equal to the reciprocal of its rank
assigned by an individual followed by a weighted aver-
age. This study revealed that the firewood fetching activity
ranked first among the problems faced by the people. The
hierarchy of the problems is shown in Table 3. Presently,
both firewood and water fetching activities are carried out
by women by carrying loads (around 20 to 32 kg) on their
head. Both these activities involve walking on a sloping
terrain. These activities have considerable health-related
impacts.
Further, 40 women across various age groups were sur-
veyed to identify the health hazards associated with these
two laborious activities. The women could be distributed
into the following three approximate age groups: women
below 30 years (22), between 30 and 50 years (12), and
above 50 years (6). The survey revealed that most the
women face problems of backache, neckache, calf muscle
ache, and fatigue.
These observations combined with the results of the
energy and timeline survey and those from the problem-
ranking exercise of PRA were shared with the people in
a village-level meeting (December 2009). The villagers
came to a consensus that the firewood fetching and
water fetching activities were the ones involving the most
drudgery and should be tackled first.
The present study focuses on the improvement of the
efficiency of the traditional cookstove in order to address
the most pressing problem of drudgery associated with
the firewood fetching activity without undermining its
Table 3 Overall problem ranking
Problems faced Young
men
Adult
men
Adult
women
Young
women
Overall
Drudgery in firewood
fetching
23111
Unemployment 1 2 3 7 2
Drudgery in water
fetching
35223
Lack of health
care in village
91444
Low level of
education
46895
Liquor addiction 6 4 7 6 6
Lackoftoilets 107537
Lack of transportation
facilities
58658
Sporadic electricity
supply
810989
Snakes bites 7 9 10 10 10
effect on indoor air pollution. The problem associated
with drudgery in water fetching was tackled differently.
Cooking practice
Design of traditional cookstove
There are two types of traditional cookstoves, namely,
two-pot and three-pot cookstoves, as shown in Figure 1.
There is a common fire input port to feed firewood for
both of these stoves. There are 26 two-pot stoves and
28 three-pot stoves in the village. Three-pot stoves are
usually found in larger families. Women feel that two-
pot stoves are more efficient than three-pot stoves. In
the case of three-pot stoves, the third hole is used for a
short duration of cooking operation during the day. At
all other times, flames come out of this third hole, and
heat is lost. Yet, as there is an additional hearth, cooking
is faster on the three-pot stoves. The average dimensions
ofthecookstovesinthevillagearelistedinTable9in
Appendix 1.
Cookstove construction
Many households in Gawand wadi make their own cook-
stove. The remaining households get it manufactured by
a few people in the village by offering them a meal. Very
few households (presently two) buy cookstoves from pot-
ters in nearby villages. The manufacturing process of the
cookstoves is elaborated in Appendix 2.
Firewood
The socio-technical aspects of firewood (such as firewood
fetching and characterization of firewood) are discussed
below:
(1) Firewood fetching activity: Women fetch firewood
from the local forest. Every year, this activity starts
after paddy harvesting (November) and continues
until the end of the next summer. Figure 2 shows an
approximate area from which women fetch firewood
in Gawand wadi. The dotted line indicates a path
travelled by women during winter season to fetch
firewood. It is typically 4 to 5 km. The thick line
indicates the firewood fetching path during summer
season. It is typically 6 to 7 km. The time required to
fetch a firewood bundle varies from 3 to 4 h in winter
to 5 to 6 h in summer. Initially, tree branches, fallen
during monsoon storms, are collected. The area
traced per day to collect these branches increases
gradually, thereby increasing the daily time required
to fetch a firewood bundle. Eventually, when it is very
difficult to get fallen wood branches, small-diameter
(<5 cm) tree branches are cut. This branch cutting
operation demands more human energy than just
collection. The typical weight of a firewood bundle
carried by women varies from 20 to 32 kg depending
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Figure 1 Traditional cookstoves. (a) Two-pot stove and (b) three-pot stove. These stoves are built from clay by people or local potters.
upon the load carrying capacity of the woman and
the firewood requirement of the household. Figure 3
shows the undulated elevation profile of a path
travelled by women to carry firewood during winter.
Firewood fetching activity can be divided in to five
subtasks. These are to reach the forest area, to collect
firewood, to tie the bundle of wood with a thin stem
of a creeper or bark of a few tree species, to cut tree
branches if required, and to carry firewood home. A
typical time breakup required to carry these tasks is
shown in Table 4.
(2) Wood species which are used as firewood are
ain
(
Terminalia elliptica
),
dhamada
(
Angeissus latifolia
),
chera
(
Erinocarpus nimmonii
),
karvanda
(
Carissa
carandas
),
bondari
(
Lagerstroemia parviflora
),
nana
(
Lagerstroemia microcarpa
),
akashi
(
Salix
babylonica
),
kuda
(
Holarrhena pubescens
),
sag
(
Tectona grandis
), etc. Out of these,
dhamada
,
ain
,
and
nana
give a good flame. An approximate usage
pattern of different firewood species perceived by
villagers is shown in Table 5.
(3) Properties of firewood: Firewood species which are
mainly used for cooking were characterized by
finding seasonal moisture content, calorific value, and
proximate analysis as listed in Table 5. The calorific
value was measured using a bomb calorimeter. The
proximate analysis was carried using an electric
furnace. A dry wood sample (around 1 g)
Figure 2 Firewood collection area in Gawand wadi [43]. An approximate area from which women fetch firewood in Gawand wadi. It spans
around 10 km2. The dotted line indicates a path travelled by women during the winter season to fetch firewood. It is typically 4 to 5 km. The thick
line indicates the firewood fetching path during the summer season. It is typically 6 to 7 km.
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Figure 3 Firewood fetching path during the winter season in Gawand wadi [43]. Elevation of a firewood fetching path traced during winter as
shown by dotted line in Figure 5 . It shows that the path is quite undulated. The difference between the highest and the lowest location is around
50 m.
was heated in an electric furnace at 550°C for 7 min
and then at 750°C for an additional 2 min to find the
percentage of volatile matter in the wood species by
measuring the percentage reduction in the weight. It
was further heated at 750°C for 4 h to find the
percentage of carbon in the sample by calculating the
reduction in weight. Tabulated values of calorific
values and proximate analysis are averages of three
such experiments with less than 5% of variation.
Moisture content was measured by the following
method: A fixed quantity (100 ±20 g) of wood was
dried in an electric oven at 105°C for 24 h. The
fraction of moisture was calculated by subtracting
the fraction of dried wood mass. The moisture
content varies with season. During rainy season, the
moisture content for 3-cm diameter
ain
wood is
around 18% to 20%. It varies from 8% to 14% during
summer and winter seasons.
(4) Typical firewood dimensions: The firewood diameter
lies in the range of 1 to 5 cm. To obtain a good flame,
firewood of 1.5 to 4 cm diameter is used. For the
initial ignition of fire, wood sticks below 1.5-cm
diameter are used. Firewood of diameter larger than
5 cm is usually chopped. The length of firewood lies
in the range of 50 to 70 cm.
(5) Wood requirement per year: This varies with family
size. For an average family size of six, the wood
requirement per year is around 2,700 kg.
Table 4 Approximate time breakup for different tasks
performed in firewood fetching activity
Tasks Average time
required in
winter (h)
Average time
required in
summer (h)
To reach forest area 0.5 0.7
To collect wood sticks 2 4
To cut tree branches 0 3 (wood either
is collected
or cut)
To tie bundle with a climber 0.25 0.25
To carry firewood bundle home 0.75 1
Total 3.5 5 to 6
Cookstove-firing practice
This was studied by observation of actual cooking, a
questionnaire survey, measurement of coal formation and
temperature at different parts of the hearth zone, and
direct experience of cookstove firing. The following are
the observations:
(1) Kerosene is used for the initial ignition of firewood.
Comparatively dried and smaller diameter wood is
preferred for the initial burning. It usually takes 2 to
3 min to achieve a steady-state flame.
(2) Usually, two or three larger diameter wooden sticks
(4 to 6 cm) and a few smaller diameter sticks (2 to
4 cm) are fired simultaneously to attain the required
heating rate.
(3) In general, 50 to 70 cm long wood sticks are
preferred so that the fire can be adjusted easily by
slight movement of these sticks. Firewood is
arranged in such a manner that sufficient primary air
can pass through the fuel feed port.
(4) Ifnecessary,thewomenblowairbymouthto
maintain a good flame size.
(5) Red hot charcoal helps sustain the flame. It is
necessary to remove the excess charcoal if it is
accumulated in the hearth zone to make space for
the firewood.
(6) The woman who is cooking sits on one side of the
cookstove to avoid exposure to radiated heat from
the wood insertion hole.
Durability
On an average, a cookstove lasts for 2 to 3 years before its
disintegration. Usually, its fuel feeding hole disintegrates
first. It wears due to frequent friction between firewood
sticks and its edges. Pot rests also disintegrate as these
wear due to regular loading and unloading of pots.
Food preparations
There are three types of food preparations, namely, bak-
ing (bhakari or roasted bread), boiling (heating water, rice,
curry, and tea), and frying (vegetables dishes and fish/crab
curry). Table 6 lists the average food preparation time, the
pot size, and the duration of operation for a two-pot cook-
stove for a family of six. It shows that nearly 32% of the
operations are carried in the single-pot mode, and 68% in
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Table 5 Wood species wise usage percentage and calorific value
Wood species Perceived usage
in percentage
Calorific value (MJ/Kg) Percentage
of volatiles
Percentage
of carbon
Ain (Terminalia elliptica) 50 16.8 76.5 22.3
Dhamda (Angeissus latifolia) 20 17.9 72 26.5
Chera (Erinocarpus nimmonii) 10 17.9 - -
Kuda (Holarrhena pubescens) 10 17.3 - -
Sag (Tectona grandis), karvanda (Carissa carandas),
bondari (Lagerstroemia parviflora), akashi (Salix
babylonica), and others
10 sag (16.6), karvanda (16.6), bon-
dari (17.1), akashi (17.3)
--
the two-pot mode for a two-pot cookstove. Correspond-
ingly, for three-pot stoves, the percentage of operation in
the two-pot mode and the three-pot mode is 54 and 14,
respectively.
Input power of cookstove
The input power is the energy input to the cookstove per
unit time. It varies with recipes, cookstove dimensions,
family size, and cookstove firing practice. The capacity
of a cookstove increases with the size of cookstove or
the volume of hearth zone. Usually, tea brewing and rice
making requires lesser amount of input power. Other
practices such as water boiling require higher amount of
power input to the cookstove. If the number of women
in the family is low (one or two), they tend to reduce
the time required for cooking by firing the cookstove at
higher input power in order to spare more time for other
activities.
Power input to the cookstove is evaluated by two differ-
ent ways as follows:
(1) The ratio of hearth zone volume to input power of
cookstove follows a rough rule of thumb of 0.6 l/kW
[44]. Using an average hearth zone volume of 9.4 l
(for two-pot cookstove), the power input to the
cookstove is 15.6 kW if it is used in the two-pot
mode. For single-pot mode operation, the average
hearth zone volume is 6.5 l, and thus, the estimated
powerinputis10.8kW.
(2) Water boiling tests carried out on the selected
cookstoves yielded an average input power of around
14.6 kW for two-pot mode of operation and 8.46 kW
for single-pot mode of operation. This value is closer
to the input power (14 kW) measured by Geller [45]
in the village of Ungra near Bangalore.
Experimental procedure
Table 6 shows that around 40% of the daily firewood
is utilized in water boiling for bathing. It is the oper-
ation consuming the most amount of firewood. Other
activities including tea brewing and rice and curry mak-
ing are close to the water boiling operation, and these
activities cumulatively comprise more than 85% of the
cooking operations. Therefore, a WBT and a kitchen per-
formance test (KPT) [36,46,47] that involves a real time
evaluation of the daily cooking practice were used to the
water boiling test, a fixed amount of water is boiled on
Table 6 Average daily cookstove practice of an average family of size six
Cookstove
preparations
Per capita
per meal
requirement
Duration
(min)
Number of
daily
preparations
Total
preparation
time
(min)
Pot
diameter
(cm)
Pot
height
(cm)
Single-pot
mode (min)
Two-pot
mode (min)
Wood
consumption
(kg)
Water
boiling
for bathing
4.2 l 21±2 5 105 27.5 ±1.5 16 ±242632.9
Tea 76.3 g 10±1 3 30 14±17±110200.75
Rice 141 g 24±4 2 50 19±212±2481.3
Bhakri 162 g 24±10 Once in
3 days
826±25 8 0.2
Dala24 g 35±5 2 80 17±29±2701.7
Bhaji 12±3 2 24 26±2 5 24 0.62
Total 55 115 7.4
aHere, dal is referred to as tur dal (yellow pigeon pea) and kala ghevda (a Maharashtrian bean).
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a cookstove, and the efficiency is calculated by divid-
ing the total heat transferred to water by the total heat
input.
The components of the cookstove system are operator,
firewood, cookstove design, pot, and type and amount
of food to be cooked. Each component plays a role to
influence the performance of a cookstove. Therefore, the
water boiling test was modified to accommodate exist-
ing cooking practice defined by these components. The
modifications are listed below:
1. To mimic existing cookstove firing practice, it was
decided to let women fire the cookstove while
carrying WBTs on field (see Figure 4).
2. Time duration of WBT: Most of the cooking
preparations in the village last for a little less
than half an hour as documented in Figure 5.
Therefore, it was decided to carry WBT for
half an hour.
3. Fuel size: For field-level testing, wood of 2 to 5 cm
diameter and 50 to 70 cm length was used, the wood
species being mainly
ain
and
dhamda
. For laboratory
level testing, wood of 2.5 ±0.5 cm diameter and 25 ±
2 cm length was used.
4. Power input: 8.5 kW (1.81 kg firewood/h) in
single-pot mode and 14 kW (3.2 kg firewood/h) in
two-pot mode of operation.
5. Weight of water: 5.5 l (average water usage for the
cooking preparations).
6. Pot size: 26 to 31 cm (range of pot sizes used in the
village to boil the bathing water).
7. Timing to carry out tests: 11 am to 5 pm.
8. Starting condition: Hot start, owing to the hot start
condition for most of the cooking preparations. This
step was added after obtaining feedback from the
women.
Kitchen performance test
KPT measures the average rate of firewood consumption
by a stove in a normal household environment [36]. A
wood pile (mainly including the wood species ain and
dhamda) of 100 ±15 kg was stacked in a household, and
the rate of consumption of firewood per household was
found by dividing the total consumed weight of wood by
thenumberofdaysofitsconsumption.
Proposed improvement
Cookstove operation comprises three phenomena that
occur simultaneously, namely, (a) burning of fuel, (b) mass
transfer of air, volatile gases, and gaseous products of
combustion, and (c) heat transfer to pot and other parts
of the stove [48,49]. The overall thermal efficiency (ηt)
of the cookstove depends upon three intermediate effi-
ciencies, namely, combustion efficiency of fuel (ηc), heat
transfer efficiency to pot (ηh), and efficiency at which
pot transfers energy to food (ηp). The efficiency value ηp
depends upon pot size which is usually determined by
Figure 4 A woman firing cookstove in a two-pot water boiling test. Water boiling tests in the village were carried out with women, where a
woman who cooks food fired her cookstove to find out its performance.
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Figure 5 A twisted mild steel plate.
food type. The thermal efficiency can be improved by
either optimizing the design specifications (see Figure 12
in Appendix 1) or retrofitting a certain device (such
as a chimney) in the existing cookstove or both to
improve heat transfer efficiency and/or combustion
efficiency.
To study the cookstove operation for its design improve-
ment, a steady state analytical model was developed by
splitting the hearth into three zones to study char com-
bustion, volatile combustion, and heat transfer to the
pot bottom separately. A study of the variation of design
specifications on the thermal performance revealed that
the traditional cookstove specifications are close to their
optimal values. A Sankey diagram (see Figure 15 in
Appendix 3) of the cookstove operation revealed that
the major thrust areas to improve the thermal perfor-
mance are the heat transfer to the pot and combustion of
volatiles f.
It has been documented that the incorporation of
twisted tapes (TTs, see Figure 5) in the hearth gener-
ate swirl motion of the gases which improves the jet
impingement heat transfer [50,51] at the pot bottom.
It also improves combustion of volatiles by increas-
ing air-fuel mixing and the residence time of the reac-
tant gases [52,53]. Bhandari et al. [47] found that the
inclusion of twisted tapes improved the efficiency of
an experimental cookstove. It was decided that the
effect of the inclusion of twisted tapes to improve the
thermal performance of the traditional cookstove be
investigated.
Results and discussion
Effect of variation of number of twisted tapes on thermal
performance of cookstove
Manufacturing in the laboratory
The twisted tapes were manufactured by twisting a mild
steel plate heated to 300°C. The strip dimensions used
for laboratory tests were the following: for the width,
1.25, 2.54, and 3.38 cm; length, 6 cm; and thickness, 1.5
mm. The tapes were twisted by holding them in a fixture
together with a lathe machine. To ensure smooth twist,
the tapes were heated with a torch blower, and the twisting
procedure was implemented in four to five steps.
Retrofitting of twisted tapes
TTs were retrofitted in a cookstove by just inserting them
in two or more steel rods and keeping the rods on the
holes of the hearth to let the TTs hang in the hearth as
shown in Figure 6. Thus, the intervention does not change
the existing cookstove design. The new cookstove is sim-
ilar to the existing one and would address the concerns
raised in point numbers 3 and 4 of the Section “Learning
from the improved cookstove programs”.
Outcomes of laboratory tests
A two-pot cookstove, made by a local potter, was used
for the laboratory-level experimentation. Its specifications
are listed in Table 10 in Appendix 1. The two-pot water
Figure 6 Twisted tapes hanging in the hearth holes. This shows the way to hang the twisted tapes in the hearth holes by using steel rods. They
are placed in a way that they cover the cross-section of the hearth evenly.
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boiling tests were carried out by varying the number
of TTs in each hearth (experimental set-up is shown in
Figure 7). The water boiling tests were carried out in the
following order:
(1) Varying the number and width of the twisted tapes in
each hearth for the same twist angle (180°).
(2) Varying the twist angle (0°, 60°, 120°, 180°, and 240°)
for optimum width and number of twisted tapes
(2.54 cm and seven, respectively).
(3) Carrying a few additional WBTs with optimum
width and twist angle (2.54 cm and 180°, respectively)
to study the effect on exhaust gas composition and
soot. This helps in understanding the contributions
due to the twisted tape assembly.
It was observed that the thermal efficiency of the cook-
stove was optimum (improvement by 24.5%) for inclu-
sion of seven number of twisted tapes having a width of
2.54 cm and a twist of 180°. A few additional WBTs with
optimum width and twist angle showed that the proposed
retrofitting improves combustion of the volatile gases
(see Table 7). It was also observed that the amount of soot
accumulated over the outer surface of the pot decreases by
around 38% (see Table 7) by inclusion of these TT inserts.
A detailed analysis of the laboratory level WBTs is not
discussed in the present report and will be presented else-
where. It was decided that field-level tests by retrofitting
seven TTs of 2.54 cm width and 180° twist angle in each
hearth be carried out.
Field level experimentation
Field-level experiments were carried out at the six selected
households in the following order: single-pot water
boiling test, two-pot water boiling test, and kitchen per-
formance test. The method of selecting the households is
explained below.
Selection of the households
It was first noted that the cookstove size and firewood
requirement increase with family size (see Figures 13 and
14 in Appendix 1). If the number of women per unit family
size is higher, firewood fetching and cooking activities get
distributed among women, and it reflects in the human
work hour involvement and drudgery associated with it. If
the number of women per unit family size is lower, women
try to fire the cookstove with a higher input power in order
to accomplish the cooking task earlier. Figure 8 shows all
the existing combinations of the family size and number of
women per unit family size in the village. The data points
are then divided in four quadrants as shown. Depending
on the willingness of the family members to participate
in field-level experimentation and the type of cookstove
(two-pot or three-pot), four different households from
each quadrant were selected along with two households
from extreme ends (encircled in Figure 9 and listed in
Table 1). As there are nearly equal number of two-pot and
three-pot stoves in the village, it is ensured that three out
of the six selected households have three-pot stoves. The
dimensions of the cookstoves are listed in Table 11 in
Appendix 1.
Single-pot water boiling test
By introducing seven TTs, the thermal efficiency of the
cookstove increases by an average of 20.61 ±1.98%, and
the specific fuel consumption of cookstove is decreased by
14.5 ±1.32% (at the statistical significance level of 0.05 for
both the outcomes).
Figure 7 Experimental set-up to carry two-pot WBT in the laboratory. This shows the experimental set-up that was used to carry out the
laboratory WBTs. Four thermocouples were used to measure the temperature of water and flame for both the pots and hearths.
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Table 7 Soot accumulation and percentage composition of
the gases at the center of the stove top
O2(%) CO
CO2Soot (g)
Normal cookstove 10.5 0.087 2.84
Seven TTs 5.5 0.082 1.75
Eleven TTs 7.8 0.080 2.20
The listed values are averages of three WBTs.
Two-pot water boiling test
The thermal efficiency of the cookstove increases by an
average of 22.82 ±2.48%, and specific fuel consumption
of the cookstove decreases by 15 ±1.29% (at the sta-
tistical significance level of 0.05 for both the outcomes)
by retrofitting of TTs in existing cookstove (see Figure
10 and 11).
Kitchen performance test
The results of the KPT are shown in Table 8. Cor-
rections in wood consumption of the families due
to presence of guests were incorporated by consid-
ering an average firewood usage for food prepara-
tions as listed in Table 6. The results of KPT show
(see Table 8) a reduction of 21.3 ±1.89% (at the statis-
tical significance level of 0.05) in the average daily wood
consumption.
The results of the kitchen performance test show that
the percentage increase in the performance of cookstove
is lower than that indicated by WBTs. Once the cooking
preparations in the morning, noon, or evening are com-
pleted, the women leave accumulated coal inside the
hearth itself. It slowly burns and decreases in weight until
the next operation starts. Secondly, if the coal accumu-
lation prohibits insertion of firewood in the hearth zone,
the women take the coal out of the cookstove and throw
it away. Thus, all the coal that remains at the end of
cooking operations is not utilized. Hence, the percent-
age decrease in wood consumption is lower (by around
3%) than the percentage increase in the thermal effi-
ciency. Yet, as some amount of the remaining coal is
still utilized for further food preparation, the percentage
decrease in average wood consumption is higher in KPT
than the percentage decrease in specific fuel consumption
(by around 4%) in WBT.
As KPT gives actual improvements in the cook-
stove performance by enabling real-time monitoring of
the cooking performance, it is a more relevant test.
Furthermore, as water boiling is a major cookstove oper-
ation (see Table 6), the results shown by the water
boiling tests are closer to those shown by the kitchen
performance test.
Women’s feedback
The women in the six selected households gave the fol-
lowing feedbacks regarding the retrofitting of TTs in their
cookstoves:
(1) Improvement in the cookstove has reduced wood
consumption by roughly 25% (as per their estimate).
(2) Soot accumulation over the outer surface of pots has
reduced.
(3) Time required to prepare different food items has
reduced.
(4) Women found that sometimes the steel rod holding
the TT would fall inside the hearth zone due to
lateral force exerted by firewood on TTs. If this
problem is removed, it would be wonderful.
Figure 8 Family size versus number of women per unit family wise in Gawand wadi. The graph shows all possible combinations of family size
and women per unit family size. The sample space is divided in four quadrants for even selection of the households across such variations. Encircled
families were selected.
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Figure 9 TT pack. This shows a twisted tape pack that can be retrofitted in the traditional cookstove.
A new retrofitting was devised as a result, in which the
seven TTs are inserted in a welded triangular rod struc-
ture as shown in Figure 9. It does not fall in the hearth and
is very easy to place and remove from the stove. Women
liked this new design.
Commercialization through local artisans
Commercialization involves manufacturing and distribu-
tion of the technology. Bottom-up approach emphasizes
building on the local human skills and the local socio-
economic structure. The improvement is found to be
not very sensitive to the slight changes in the width and
twist angle of the twisted tape. Thus, local manufacturing
and dissemination of the TT packs was found to be an
impressive alternative. The success of the dissemination of
an improved cookstove program depends upon multiple
factors [54] that vary with context. Although many dis-
semination programs emphasized on training local people
Figure 10 Effect of retrofitting of TTs on thermal efficiency of traditional cookstoves in Gawand wadi. This shows the results of the two-pot
water boiling tests that were carried out in six selected households. Traditional cookstove and cookstove with inclusion of TTs were tested by
carrying out three tests for each kind of cookstove. It can be observed that the thermal efficiency of the cookstove increases by the inclusion of TTs
for every household.
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Figure 11 Effect of retrofitting of TTs on specific fuel consumption of traditional cookstoves in Gawand wadi. Figure shows results of the
two-pot water boiling tests that were carried out in six selected households. Traditional cookstove and cookstove with the inclusion of TTs were
tested by carrying out three tests for each kind of cookstove. It can be observed that the specific fuel consumption of the traditional cookstove
decreases by the inclusion of TTs for every household.
for manufacturing and marketing of improved cookstoves
[20,55], it was found that at many places, these enter-
prises get poor benefits, so they have little motivation to
start and sustain the business [9]. Therefore, if a local
artisan is trained to accommodate the manufacturing and
selling of improved cookstoves in his/her existing socio-
commercial business, there is a greater probability for its
sustenance. In the present context, manufacture and dis-
semination of the TT packs through the existing business
structure of the local blacksmiths is sought. Tradition-
ally, they make and repair sickles, axes, ploughs, and
Table 8 Results of kitchen performance test at two
households
Household Operation conditions Average
daily wood
requirement
(kg/day)
Ambabai Kisan Gawanda Normal cookstove 5.81
Cookstove with TTs 4.56
Tukibai Dhavlya Gawanda Normal cookstove 5.78
Cookstove with TTs 4.39
Gulab Chander Bhagat Normal cookstove 7.25
Cookstove with TTs 5.56
Hirabai Govinda Gawanda Normal cookstove 7.22
Cookstove with TTs 5.89
Shevanta Dehu Bangare Normal cookstove 9.08
Cookstove with TTs 7.43
Bhimabai Kalu Warghade Normal cookstove 9.39
Cookstove with TTs 7.38
other tools required for agricultural and domestic activ-
ities. Recently, many of them have diversified their skills
to lay tin roofs and build steel gates. Manufacturing of
TT pack involves cutting, drilling, heating, twisting, and
welding operations. Thus, the local blacksmiths who have
welding and drilling machines can manufacture the TT
pack. There is a traditional custom of buying and repair-
ing the iron/steel tools from local blacksmiths. Thus, the
manufacture and selling of the TT packs can be accom-
modated in the existing sustainable traditional business of
the blacksmiths.
A blacksmith’s work load is seasonal. He makes and
repairs ploughs and sickles during monsoon for agri-
cultural activities, while he makes axes and other tools
in the winter season. During summer, he is engaged in
house building activities that involve welding, tin/steel
cutting, and drilling operations. Usually, a blacksmith has
leisure time during monsoon season. Thus, the black-
smiths can allot more time to make TT packs during
monsoon.
A manufacturing process to build the TT packs has been
devised by interacting with two blacksmiths and one steel
fabricator g.
(1) A steel plate with thickness of 1.5 to 2 mm is cut to
get small plates of required TT size.
(2) The plates are placed in the blacksmith’s kiln to make
them red hot.
(3) The red hot plate is held in a vise and twisted by a
long lever with a groove to hold the plate. It is twisted
by 60° to 90° in one go. It is then again placed in the
kiln to heat. The whole process of twisting it to 180°
requires two to three steps. This is to ensure a
smooth curve for the twisted tape.
Honkalaskar et al. Energy, Sustainability and Society 2013, 3:16 Page 17 of 21
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Table 9 Specifications of the cookstoves in Gawand wadi (refer to Figure 12 for notations)
Type V(cm3)g(cm) h(cm) i(cm) m(cm) a(cm) b(cm) h(cm) l(cm) k(cm) o(cm)
Two-pot
cook stove
9624 ±
5240
13.77 ±
3.3
13.75 ±
3.3
0.00 18.58 ±
4.2
54.58 ±
13.5
26.88 ±
6.9
5.96 ±
1.5
13.67 ±
4.8
14.46 ±
6
5.82 ±
1.23
Three-pot
cookstove
13152 ±
7130
13.72 ±
3
13.8 ±3 10.98 ±
2.7
18.75 ±
5.1
57.11 ±
14.1
26.98 ±
5.7
6.18 ±
1.8
14.16 ±
5.4
15.08 ±
7.2
6.41 ±
1.98
(4) A hole is drilled in the TT to insert a steel rod (4 mm
diameter).
(5) Finally, a TT pack is made by welding the rods
together.
The present material cost is US$0.5 per TT pack. By
considering the manufacturing cost, transport cost to buy
steel plate and rods, and the profit of blacksmith (US$8
per day), the total cost comes to around US$1.25 per TT
pack. The technology is being disseminated with the help
of two local volunteer organizations, Disha Kendra and
Oak Vanaushadhi Kendra.
Dissemination of the innovation
As of now, 45 families from 11 different villages hhave
been using the TT packs in their cookstoves. Ten out of
these families have been using this device for more than
a year. Similar traditional cookstoves are found across
the coastal belt of Maharashtra. Thus, the same innova-
tion can be disseminated across the villages in this coastal
region. For the other parts of rural India, the stove designs
are much different, and there is a need to identify a
context-specific intervention, which may not necessarily
be a twisted tape.
Conclusion
The present study derives a novel bottom-up approach
to develop or improve a rural/community technology
by appreciation of wider aspects of the technology-
community linkage, namely, people’s priorities, people’s
desires behind improvement or development of tech-
nology, importance of studying and maintaining exist-
ing technology practises, availability of local resources to
manufacture and operate the technology, and its com-
mercial viability and sustainability. It enhances social
efficiency of adoption of the technology by people. Over-
all, the approach mingles three aspects linked with
rural/community technology.
(1) Social: This includes people’s participation to set the
goal behind the development of technology,
appreciation of the existing context in terms of
livelihood activities, local natural resources, and
human skills.
(2) Technical: This includes the formulation of a
procedure to measure the performance of the
technology according to existing context,
laboratory and field-level testing, feedback from
the people, and further improvements in the
technology.
(3) Commercial: Manufacturing and distribution
through locally sustainable structure.
Retrofitting of the TT pack in the existing cookstoves
in the village would save nearly 22% of human work
hours and human energy involved in the firewood fetch-
ing activity. For an average family of six, women make
97 to 122 trips per year to the local forest to fetch fire-
wood. These trips can be decreased by 21 to 27. By
considering an average duration of 4.5 h/trip, there can
be an annual saving of 95 to 122 women work hours.
The TT pack also decreases soot accumulation on the
outer surface of pot by around 38%. Based on the tem-
perature variation graph of the water boiling test in the
laboratory, the TT pack reduces the cooking time by
around 18.5%. For an average family of six, it saves 0.5 h
daily and 182 h annually required for cooking prepara-
tions. Although the laboratory experiments showed that
the optimal retrofitting of the twisted tapes improves
combustion and thereby reduces indoor air pollution, it
remains to measure the percentage reduction of health-
damaging emissions i.
Endnotes
aImproved cookstove is generally regarded as a relative
concept. Improved cookstoves may improve fuel
efficiency, reduce indoor air pollution that causes
Table 10 Specifications of cookstove used for laboratory testing (refer to Figure 12 for notations)
Hearth zone volume
(V,cm
3)
g(cm) h(cm) m(cm) a(cm) b(cm) h(cm) l(cm) k(cm) o(cm)
9,034 14.3 14.1 20.4 54 26.6 6.5 12.3 12 6.3
Honkalaskar et al. Energy, Sustainability and Society 2013, 3:16 Page 18 of 21
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Table 11 Specifications of the selected cookstoves for field level experimentation (refer to Figure 12 for notations)
Households Family size V(cm3)g(cm) h(cm) i(cm) m(cm) a(cm) b(cm) h(cm) l(cm) k(cm) o(cm)
Ambabai Kisan Gawanda 3 12,019 14 14 11 19 57 27 6 14 12 6
Tukabai Dhavlya Gawanda 4 7,060 13.5 12.5 16 55 25 5 12 12 6
Gulab Chander Bhagat 5 14,446 14 14 12.5 18 55 26 6 14.5 16.5 7
Hirabai Govinda Gawanda 7 10,257 14 14 20.5 58 25 7 13.5 15 5.5
Shevanta Dehu Bangare 9 11,589 15 14.5 17.5 58 29 6 15 17 7
Bhimabai Kalu Warghade 14 14,943 15 14.5 10 19 68 29 6 15 16 7
multiple health hazards, prevent fire hazards, reduce
cooking time, or reduce green house gas emissions
[56-58].
bIt is a particulate matter especially black carbon.
cItwasassumedthatUS$1isaround50IndianRupees.
dThis is a pre-monsoon activity in which grass, tree
branches, leaves, and cattle dung are burnt over around
one-fifth part of the farm to prepare the land for sowing
of paddy.
eSpace heating is required during winter season to
warm the house during night and early morning.
fThe details of the thermo-chemical model of the
traditional cookstove are not discussed in the present
report and will be presented elsewhere.
gMadhukar Chavan from Kashele, Anil Jadhav from
Kondivade, and Pankaj Gore from Vaingaon.
hThese villages are Gawand wadi, Tepachi wadi,
Waghai wadi, Kothimbe, Rajpe, Kalamb, Vare, Kondivade,
Tamhanath wadi, Khandpa, and Dhare wadi located in
Karjat block of Raigadh district of Maharashtra state.
iMajor health-damaging emissions involve particulate
matter, carbon monoxide, carcinogens such as
benzo[a]pyrene, formaldehyde, nitrogen dioxide, and
sulfur dioxide [59,60].
Appendices
Appendix 1
Specifications of the traditional cookstoves in Gawand wadi
The specifications of the two-pot and three-pot stoves are
shown in Tables 9, 10, and 11, and in Figures 12, 13 and 14.
The size of the cookstove usually increases with family
size as shown in Figures 13 and 14.
Appendix 2
Manufacturing process of the traditional cookstoves
For the present exercise, the manufacturing process of the
cookstoves was understood from two manufacturers in
the village and also from the two potters from two dif-
ferent villages in Karjat block (Gajanan Kumbhar from
village Sugve and Padma Kumbhar from village Shelu).
The materials for the construction of a two-pot cook-
stoveareapproximately30kgclay,2kgricehusk,2kg
ash, and 3 kg cattle dung. The soil found in the upper
layer of paddy field is usually used to build the cookstoves.
The process can be described in a step-wise fashion as
follows:
(1) Small stones and larger particles are separated from
the soil. This soil is then put in a wet bag for around
8 days.
(2) The soil is mixed with rice husk, ash, and cattle
dung, and pressed with legs for around 20 min to
make it a homogeneous mixture. It is believed that
these added ingredients to the soil act as binding
agents and increase the strength of the cookstove.
(3) The stove dimensions are drawn on the ground,
and the stove is built on it by placing small pieces
of mud one above the other. The potters also use
Figure 12 Traditional cookstove dimensions in Gawand wadi.
Figure shows a schematic including top view and front view of a
three-pot cookstove. The average specifications of all the two-pot
and three-pot cookstoves in the village are listed in Table 4.
Honkalaskar et al. Energy, Sustainability and Society 2013, 3:16 Page 19 of 21
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Figure 13 Variation of hearth volume of a two-pot stove (in Gawand wadi) with family size. Hearth volume of a cookstove is the total space
available in a cookstove to carry out firewood combustion. It involves the volume of the hearth holes below each pot and the remaining cookstove
volume inside the fuel input port. The present graph shows the variations of all two-pot cookstove volumes with respective family sizes.
Figure 14 Variation of hearth volume with family size of three-pot stove in Gawand wadi. The present graph shows the variations of all
three-pot cookstove volumes with respective family sizes.
Figure 15 Heat flow diagram of the traditional cookstove. The Sankey diagram for the operation of the traditional cookstove. It shows that the
key areas of improvement are increasing combustion efficiency and reduction of exit losses (or improvement of heat transfer to the pot bottom).
Honkalaskar et al. Energy, Sustainability and Society 2013, 3:16 Page 20 of 21
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wooden moulds to increase the rate of production
of cookstoves. The process takes around 1 h.
(4) Two days later, when the stove is partially dried, the
opening for firewood feeding is carved.
(5) Finally, the stove is allowed to dry for 8 days before it
can be used.
On an average, a potter builds two cookstoves per day. A
two-pot cookstove is sold at the rate of USA$3 per piece,
and a three-pot cookstove is sold at the rate of US$4 per
piece.
Appendix 3
Heat flow diagram of cookstove
Figure 15 shows the heat flow diagram of the traditional
cookstove that was used for the laboratory tests.
Abbreviations
WBT: Water boiling test; KPT: Kitchen performance test; TT: Twisted tape.
Competing interests
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Authors’ contributions
VHH contributed in capacity development, carrying out field-level
investigations, field tests, and report writing. He is thus the lead contributor to
the paper. UVB and MS have contributed in providing guidelines to devise the
methodology and providing inputs on the experiments and in the overall
sense to structure the report. All authors read and approved the final
manuscript.
Authors’ information
VHH is a PhD research scholar. UVB and MS are professors and the PhD
advisors of VHH. VHH completed a dual degree (BTech + Mtech) in the
Department of Mechanical Engineering at IIT Bombay in July 2007. Thereafter,
he worked with Suzlon Energy Limited for a period of 6 months before joining
CTARA for his doctoral research work. MS did his masters degree in the
University of Illinois in 1988 and his Btech and PhD from IIT Bombay in 1986
and 1993. He was appointed as assistant professor at IIT Bombay in 1994. Since
2005, he has focused on rural drinking water as an area of research. Presently,
he is a professor in the Department of Computer Science and Engineering at
IIT Bombay and the current head of the Centre for Technology Alternatives for
Rural Areas (CTARA). UVB obtained a bachelors in Mechanical Engineering
from IIT Bombay in 1995 and obtained his Masters and PhD degrees from the
University of Minnesota in 2000 and 2002, respectively. He was appointed as
an assistant professor at the Department of Mechanical Engineering at IIT
Bombay in 2004. Presently, he is an associate professor at IIT Bombay.
Acknowledgements
The authors are thankful to the people of the village Gawand wadi, especially to
the women, for their participation and support throughout the research work.
Author details
1CTARA, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, 400076, India.
2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology
Bombay, Powai, Mumbai, 400076, India. 3Department of Computer Science
and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, 400076,
India.
Received: 16 March 2013 Accepted: 25 July 2013
Published: 12 August 2013
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... Increasing pot diameter will increase thermal efficiency [14,19] however; it will lead to more resistance to airflow and hence, lower EAR that affects the combustion [14]. The region of investigation based upon a common range of pot diameters worldwide was 160-300 mm [14,[28][29][30]. ...
Article
A novel design of a hybrid draft biomass cook stove was proposed, constructed and tested for 54 combinations of five important parameters viz. Inlet area ratio, Fuel surface to volume ratio, Pot diameter, Secondary air flow rate, and Pot gap. The combined effects of these factors on the stove performance parameters such as overall efficiency (ηo), CO emissions and PM2.5 emissions were estimated. The data obtained by executing designed experiments (CCD) on the stove prototype was fitted to independent second-order models using RSM. The fitted models were further used to predict the stove performance for different combinations of the five factors. The analysis revealed that the prototype cannot achieve energy performance better than Tier 2 level and ηo greater than 30%. However, the hybrid draft enabled the prototype to achieve Tier 4 level performance in CO and PM2.5 emissions. Desirability function coupled with the fitted RSM models was used for robust parameter optimization of the stove performance to maximize efficiency, minimize emissions and propagation of error. The robust parameter optimization resulted in the best possible overall stove performance of ηo = 26.54%, CO/MJd = 2.249 g/MJ and PM/MJd = 34.67 mg/MJd obtained at the control factor levels of Ms = 1.74 g/s and Pg = 14 mm.
... The experiment suggests that a strong swirl of hot gases helps to increase efficiency considerably. Honkalaskar et al. [21] experimented with the twisted tapes of mild steel. ...
Research
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In developing countries, most of the population lives in rural areas. They mostly use coal or biomass for heating their homes and preparing food. This process would increase indoor air pollution, which is detrimental to the health of the family members who live in those houses. The experiment has been carried out to increase the performance of biomass cookstoves both in terms of efficiency and pollution by incorporating a swirl vane instrument made up of a galvanized iron sheet. The experiments have been conducted with a 3-stone open fire stove, an improved natural draught cookstove with and without attaching a swirl vane burner. Water boiling tests, emission tests, and particulate matter measurements have been done for the various parameters. It has been found that the swirl helps mix secondary air with the hot gases, resulting in an evenly distributed heat beneath the pot and cleaner Combustion of fuel. The efficiency of the improved biomass cookstove is enhanced by 4% with the help of a swirling flame, and the reduction in the usage of fuel, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, etc., is noted. It can be said that the mere incorporation of a swirling instrument into a biomass cookstove will help to reduce indoor air pollution and fuel usage, which improves the health of poor people.
... To reduce these negative effects, it is crucial to invest in more efficient and clean cooking technologies such as fuel-efficient cookstoves, since in Mozambique, for example, the current average efficiency of fuelwood use in three-stone-fires (TSF) is estimated to be around 10% [18], while the efficient cookstoves can reach efficiency levels of between 20 and 30% [19,20]. ...
Article
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Background Almost 80% of the population in sub-Saharan Africa relies on traditional biomass for cooking, which is typically associated with negative environmental, health, economic, and social impacts. Thus, many stakeholders, including development agencies and national governments in the Global South are promoting the use of the improved cookstove in order to save cooking time, save financial assets, maximize fuel efficiency, and reduce indoor air pollution. However, little attention is paid to the heating practices among households, which can determine food safety levels. Specifically, cooked food should be kept at temperatures above the danger zone (from 5 to 57 °C) prior to its consumption to prevent its contamination by bacteria and other unhealthy contaminants. In general, many studies address food preparation and storage separately, despite being complementary. In this study, we attempt to understand whether, the use of improved cookstove combined with heat retention box would result in improvements with regard to fuel and time saving, and adequate food storage temperatures. Furthermore, we examine the acceptability of food prepared with these two systems based on consumers’ preference analysis. Involving 122 participants, the study was conducted in Gurué district, central Mozambique. Results The use of improved cookstove resulted in energy savings of 9% and 17% for cooking maize porridge and beans curry, respectively. The overall time consumption for cooking decreased by 14% (beans curry) and 24% (maize porridge). The use of heat retention boxes shows a better heat retention ability as compared to the locally used heat retention systems (leftovers, banana leaves). Conclusions The study concludes that improved cookstove is a sustainable mean for saving cooking time and fuel. Heat retention box has a potential to maintain adequate food storage temperatures. Both improved cookstove and heat retention box present a superior performance compared to traditional technologies; thus, can easily be diffused for not affecting the quality of food.
... PLF was utilized directly as fuel using a wick stove to evaluate the combustion performances. The water-boiling test (WBT) method was adopted to calculate thermal efficiency (energy recovery for cooking) of the fuel-stove-pot combination [16]. The flame temperature of the PLF combustion was measured according to the probe thermometry method. ...
Article
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Polyethylene plastic waste was selected as pyrolysis feedstock. This plastic waste is not recycled mechanically and is abundantly available at the landfill. The plastic-type of low and high-density polyethylene (LDPE and HDPE) was converted into pyrolysis liquid fuel (PLF). This study aims to characterize the physicochemical properties of the PLF to attest to its potential use as a kerosene fuel for household purposes. The PLF was generated from the collecting of household plastic waste through pyrolysis. A design of the simple non-catalytic semi-batch reactor was applied to pyrolyze this plastics waste into PLF at about 360 °C and isothermal residence time up to about 1 hour. The high enough PLF yield of 50.3% (v/w) and 77.0% (v/w) was obtained from LDPE and HDPE plastics waste, respectively. The dominance of alkane (CH) and alkenes (C=C) functional groups of PLF and commercial kerosene fuel was analyzed by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectra. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) analysis indicates that most PLF substances in the form of tetradecane (C14H30), pentadecane (C15H32), hexadecane (C16H34), octadecene (C18H36), eicosane (C20H42) are similar to commercial kerosene substances. The combustion properties of this PLF are so similar to the standard values of the kerosene fuel. The combination of thermal efficiency, ηT using wick stove and PLF from LDPE and HDPE of 45.66% and 32.37%, respectively was obtained in this work.
... Yet attempts to address low cookstove adoption rates have often taken a technological approach to designing a stove that is more culturally, socially or practically appropriate (Kar & Zerriffi, 2018), in the hope that a cookstove that met users specific needs would facilitate stronger levels of adoption and sustained use. Understanding user preferences is very important when designing stoves that will entice people to choose them (Honkalaskar et al., 2013). However, choice is the operative word. ...
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Despite much research on the topic, persistent difficulties remain around the adoption of modern cookstoves. This study aims to increase understandings of the complex decision making processes behind stove and fuel choice and identify barriers and opportunities to facilitate transitions to improved cookstoves. Taking an inductive, explorative approach to gather rich detail, in-depth interviews were conducted with 75 urban and rural people in Kenya which were then analyzed using adaptive theory to determine key issues. The study found the better off urban respondents all engaged a cookstove stacking approach, but contrary to previous understandings, this was less about an unwillingness to give up a traditional stove than it was a result of only being able to afford modern fuels for some of their cooking needs. They would then ration out the use of a modern stove to the meals when the perceived benefits of the stove were most in need, such as speed during busy periods, and use the traditional stove to fill in the gaps more cheaply. People in the poorer, rural group were very optimistic about the process of moving to modern stoves and fuels but completely unable to afford them. These findings indicate that price rather than preference is the dominant factor to the purchase and continued use of modern cookstoves. The paper frames these results to reemphasize the need to address price barriers of modern cookstoves, through subsidization, to facilitate increased adoption rates among the poorest users.
Chapter
Biomass cookstove is widely used in remote and rural areas of most of the developing countries around the world for space heating and cooking applications since ancient times. The most popular traditional cookstoves such as three stone and U-shaped mud stoves are highly inefficient as they are able to transfer only 10–15% of the total energy available in the fuel to the cooking vessel. Besides, these inefficient cookstoves release the harmful pollutants into the environment which are hazardous for human health and also, aid the climate change. Furthermore, the pollutants that are being released from the cookstove during its operation strongly affect the health of cook and their family members specially, the children below the age of 5 years. Nowadays, a wide range of improved cookstoves are available in the market that are designed and developed by various scientific and non-scientific organizations around the globe and having efficiency in the range of 30–40% with limited emission of pollutants. Most of the studies presented so far and available in the literature are based on energy analysis only. Therefore, in this chapter, the exergetic evaluation of biomass cookstove has been presented for a few cookstove models developed by the group in the last few years. Furthermore, the exergy analysis of the different cookstove models developed by the group has been carried out to analyze the different losses that could not be assessed through energy analysis. The results of the present study revealed that the exergy analysis could work as a new scientific technique that may assist in the development and performance evaluation of the cookstoves. Therefore, the exergy analysis can be very helpful in the development of improved cookstoves leading to better design in terms of performance, economy and convenience in the long run.
Chapter
Women in rural areas, tribal women especially cook on inefficient and hazardous cookstoves built in their homes. An inefficient cookstove adds to drudgery of lives of women and affects them socially, physically, and economically. Inefficient cookstoves produce harmful emissions, including particulate matter, soot and unburnt hydrocarbons leading to household air pollution causing premature deaths of children. Current work is an extension of thermo-chemical modeling by Honkalaskar et al. for cookstove. 9.57% energy of total heat input is transferred to cookstove wall body in cooking process. Cookstove efficiency can be increased by trapping and channelizing this energy to cooking pot using insulation technique. Steady-state analytical insulation modeling considers the thermal insulation on both sides of cookstove wall along with emissivity of inner material. Effects of insulation are further analyzed in detail on thermal performance parameters (Input Power, Thermal efficiency, Heat transfer coefficient, CO/CO2 ratio, Excess air ratio, Wall temperature, Specific fuel consumption (SFC)), on normal cookstove, cookstove with grate and cookstove with twisted tape along with impact of continuously increasing insulation. Addition of insulation increases thermal efficiency of cookstove. For improving efficiency of cookstove, emissivity of inner insulating material should be minimum, insulation thickness of outer and inner material should be maximum and thermal conductivity of outer and inner material should be minimum. However, some thermal performance parameters impose limits on insulation thickness and thermal conductivity values. Thermal performance parameters show variation in behavior (have increasing, decreasing and optimum value nature) on changing insulation parameters.
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In recent years, the urgent necessity and tremendous opportunity to accelerate the transition to a low-carbon competitive economy has resulted in growth of long-term targets for renewable energy and energy efficiency, which are coming from policy bodies worldwide. The inherent distributed nature of renewable energies, together with the modularity of those technologies, brings opportunities for consumer empowerment in terms of participation. Nevertheless, there is still the need for increasing global awareness and enabling policies, to strengthen the citizen role in the energy system, facilitating their proactive participation as renewable energy purchasers, investors, and clean energy producers. Drawing from research interviews and the academic literature, this article conceptualizes the understanding of the need for improving public attitudes and explores the factors influencing the acceptance in terms of misconceptions, best communication practices, activities addressing public concerns, and potential actions to bolster public support towards renewable energy. Research interviews were conducted at a technical workshop on social acceptance of renewable energy, held in Abu Dhabi in October 2013, and the findings show that despite detecting an increasing trend towards greater and more active participation of citizens, many misconceptions together with insufficient and inefficient awareness and communication initiatives on renewable energies persist. The main conclusions can be used as a basis for formulating sustainable energy communication and awareness campaigns in order to enhance public acceptance and increase active participation in renewable energy technologies.
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Introduction Over a third of the world’s population relies on solid fuels as their primary energy source. These fuels have damaging effects on health, air quality and forest resources. Interventions to promote access to cleaner solid fuel cookstoves and clean fuels have existed for decades. However, the adoption by local communities has largely failed, which led to a waste of resources and suboptimal outcomes. Therefore, the objective of this umbrella review is to identify factors that determine implementation success for cleaner cooking interventions in low-resource settings and weigh their level of confidence in the evidence. Methods and analysis We identified systematic and narrative reviews examining factors that influence the acquisition, initial adoption or sustained use of cleaner solid fuel cookstoves and clean fuels at any scale by a literature search in PubMed, Embase, Global Health Database, Cochrane, PsycINFO, Emcare, Web of Science and CINAHL, without date or language restrictions. The search was conducted on 23 October 2017 and updated on 10 July 2019. Reviews based on qualitative, quantitative or mixed-methods studies were included and will be appraised using the Meta Quality Appraisal Tool combined with the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews. Data will be extracted and factors affecting implementation will be coded using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation-Confidence in the Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative Research tool will be used to determine the level of confidence in the coded factors. Two researchers will independently conduct these steps. Ethics and dissemination This umbrella review does not require the approval of an ethical review board. Study results will be published in an international peer-reviewed journal. The outcomes will be converted into two practical tools: one for cleaner solid fuel cookstoves and one for clean fuels. These tools can guide the development of evidence-based implementation strategies for cleaner cooking interventions in low-income and middle-income countries to improve implementation success. These tools should be pilot-tested and promoted among regional and global initiatives. PROSPERO registration number CRD42018088687.
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The article presents the research, development and dissemination activities on efficient wood-burning devices conducted at ASTRA, IISc, Bangalore. The fuel-efficient ASTRA stove, with a thermal efficiency of 44%, was developed and about 1.5 million stoves disseminated in Karnataka. The level of acceptance was around 60%. The technical performance of the stoves in the field as well as the research, development and dissemination challenges are presented. The analysis highlights the need for (i) more stove designs to cater to the diverse cooking practices in different regions; (ii) clean combustion with improved efficiency and no adverse impacts on global environment, and (iii) development of cost-effective and participatory dissemination modules based on pilot field experiments.
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We used SWOT-AHP (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats–analytical hierarchy process) technique to measure perceptions of four stakeholder groups: employees, local promoters, community leaders and end-users, about a nontraditional cookstove (NTCS) in Honduras. These stakeholder groups are part of an ongoing NTCS dissemination project led by Proyecto Mirador. We found that all stakeholder groups have a positive perception about the existing NTCS. Employees and local promoters stakeholder groups share similar perceptions. Smokeless cooking was selected as a prime strength, closely followed by reduction in forest logging and greenhouse gas emissions by all stakeholder groups. Availability of financial resources and responsible management were identified as crucial opportunities. Time spent in wood preparation and NTCS maintenance were identified as principal weaknesses. A long waiting time between a request and installation of NTCS and the risk of losing existing financial resources were acknowledged as major threats. Design improvements that can reduce maintenance and wood preparation time, a secure long-term source of funding through a market mechanism or direct/indirect government involvement, and early execution of pending orders will help in increasing adoption of NTCSs in rural Honduras.
Article
Improved stoves have been promoted in the global South by international organisations from the North since the 1970s for a variety of reasons including mitigation of health and environmental hazards related to the widespread use of solid biomass for cooking. However, uptake of these stoves by poor households in the South remains low, bearing negatively on efforts to alleviate energy poverty and achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). This thesis examines the framing and impact of participatory and market-based approaches to stove development and dissemination which have been widely promoted since the mid-1980s to address the failures of the predominantly expert-led, subsidy-based models favoured in the early years. Specifically, I investigate and compare two Northern-led stove projects, one established by Project Gaia in Nigeria, where stove development efforts targeted at addressing energy poverty have been limited, and the second by Practical Action in Kenya, where such efforts are more visible. Drawing on empirical data gathered from field observations, interviews and key documents, I argue that despite the rhetorical shift from expert-led to context-responsive approaches, engagement with local priorities is still limited, and the interests and priorities of Northern organisations continue to shape the stove development agenda. The research establishes that Project Gaia’s CleanCook project in Nigeria remains an expert-led intervention that fails to connect with the bottom of the socio-economic pyramid while seeking to create local market conditions for transferring stove technology. In Kenya, Practical Action has been more responsive to local realities in its efforts to engage marginalised women’s groups in participatory stove development; however, success is limited by the constraints of project funding and assumptions about homogeneity of the poor. Cultural preferences and socio-economic differences within Southern target populations challenge the Northern vision of improving stove dissemination through a combination of participatory methods and neoliberal market solutions.
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Community participation is regarded as an important tool for successful tourism development. Western scholars generally agree that active community participation in the decision making process will benefit local communities. However, in developing countries, such as participation is difficult to put into practice due to shortcomings in structural, cultural and operational limitations in the tourism development process. A study was carried out to assess the level of community participation in tourism development. Community capacity building for tourism development requires a range of community participation. The paper is based on the study of community capacity building in tourism development which was carried in Shiraz city, Iran. The study found that the level of community participation generally was low and each district of Shiraz has different level of community participation in tourism development.