Conference Paper

Multilevel Routing Protocol for Energy Optimization in Wireless Sensor Networks

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Abstract

The main purpose of the Wireless Sensor Network protocols is to enhance the network life time and balance the energy consumption in network. Sensor nodes send their data to the BS. So the nodes which are far away from the BS need more energy to send data. To overcome this problem we introduce a multilevel hierarchical protocol which enhances network lifetime and balance energy consumption. Initially, we introduce up to 5 levels in which whole network is divided into different levels based on the distance of node from the BS. We evaluate our protocol performance with LEACH and with 2, 3, 4, and 5 level schemes. We observe that our proposed technique outperforms LEACH protocol in lifetime of the network , energy consumption, throughput and delay of the packets. Simulation results prove increase network Life time and high throughput with minimum delay.

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The smart grid plays a vital role in decreasing electricity cost via Demand Side Management (DSM). Smart homes, being a part of the smart grid, contribute greatly for minimizing electricity consumption cost via scheduling home appliances. However, user waiting time increases due to the scheduling of home appliances. This scheduling problem is the motivation to find an optimal solution that could minimize the Peak to Average Ratio (PAR) and electricity cost with minimum user waiting time. There are many studies on Home Energy Management (HEM) for cost minimization and peak load reduction. However, none of the systems gave sufficient attention to tackle multiple parameters (i.e., electricity cost and peak load reduction) at the same time where user waiting time is considered to be minimum for residential consumers with multiple homes. Hence, in contribution 1, we propose an efficient HEM scheme using the well-known meta-heuristic Genetic Algorithm (GA), the recently developed Cuckoo Search Optimization Algorithm (CSOA) and the Crow Search Algorithm which can be used for electricity cost and peak load alleviation with minimum user waiting time. The integration of a smart electricity storage system is also taken into account for more efficient operation of the HEM System. Furthermore, we took the real-time electricity consumption pattern for every residence, i.e., every home has its own living pattern. The proposed scheme is instigated in a smart building which is comprised of thirty smart homes (apartments). Critical Peak Pricing (CPP) and Real-Time Pricing (RTP) signals are examined in terms of electricity cost assessment for both a single smart home and a smart building. In addition, feasible regions are presented for multiple and single smart homes, which show the relationship among the electricity cost, electricity consumption and user waiting time. Experimental results prove the effectiveness of our proposed scheme for multiple and single smart homes concerning electricity cost and PAR minimization. Moreover, there subsists a tradeoff between electricity cost and user waiting. With the emergence of automated environments, energy demand by consumers is increasing rapidly. More than 80% of total electricity is being consumed in the residential sector. This brings a challenging task of maintaining the balance between demand and generation of electric power. In order to meet such challenges, a traditional grid is renovated by integrating two-way communication between the consumer and generation unit. 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On the other hand, the PAR and electricity bill are reduced up to 47.27%, 22.91%, 22% and 13.04%, 12%, 11.11% using the CPP tariff. Microgrid is a community-based power generation and distribution system that interconnects smart homes with renewable energy sources. Microgrid generates power for electricity consumers and operates in both islanded and grid-connected modes more efficiently and economically. In contribution 3, we propose optimization schemes for reducing electricity cost and minimizing PAR with maximum UC in a smart home. We consider a grid-connected microgrid for electricity generation which consists of wind turbine and photovoltaic (PV) panel. First, the problem was mathematically formulated through Multiple Knapsack (MKP) then it is solved by existing heuristic techniques: GWO, binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO), GA and Wind Driven Optimization (WDO). 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The HEMC keeps updating the electricity proving utility with the load profile of the home. The smart meter is connected to power grid having an advanced metering infrastructure which is responsible for two way communication. Genetic teaching-learning based optimization, flower pollination teaching learning based optimization, flower pollination BAT and flower pollination genetic algorithm based energy consumption scheduling algorithms are proposed. These algorithms schedule the loads in order to shave the peak formation without compromising UC. The proposed algorithms achieve optimal energy consumption profile for the home appliances equipped with sensors to maximize the consumer benefits in a fair and efficient manner by exchanging control messages. Control messages contain energy consumption of consumer and RTP information. Simulation results show that proposed algorithms reduce the PAR by 34.56% and help the users to reduce their energy expenses by 42.41% without compromising the comfort. The daily discomfort is reduced by 28.18%.
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Hexagonally sectored routing protocol for wireless sensor networks
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Energyefficient communication protocol for wireless microsensor networks
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